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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Composite 5A zeolite with ultrathin porous TiO2 coating for selective gas adsorption.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A composite zeolite adsorbent was prepared by conformally depositing an ultrathin porous TiO2 coating on the external surface of the 5A zeolite by molecular layer deposition (MLD) and subsequent calcination. The composite adsorbent showed significantly improved ideal adsorption selectivity for CO2-CH4, CO2-N2 and propylene-propane.
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Osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity of porous hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by liquid precursor plasma spraying: in vivo biological response study.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The beneficial effect of a porous structure on the biological functions of calcium phosphate bulk ceramic or scaffold has been well documented. Nevertheless, the effect of a porous structure on the in vivo performance of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings has been rarely reported, partly due to the difficulty in synthesizing porous HA coatings suitable for commercial applications. In this study, we have carried out a systematic in vivo study of porous HA-coated Ti implants (with and without surface modification) prepared by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process, in terms of its osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. The results suggest the clear advantage of the porous structure over the dense structure, despite the pore structure (about 48% porosity and less than 100??m average pore size) being far from the ideal pore structure reported for bulk ceramic. The porous HA-coated implant significantly promotes early bone ingrowth at the pre-generated defective region, and early fixation at the bone-implant interface, especially at early implantation time (one month), showing about 120% and 40% increases respectively over those of the dense HA-coated implants prepared by the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying process. Moreover, the porous structure can be readily used to incorporate collagen/rh-BMP2, which demonstrates clear ectopic bone formation. Overall, the results suggest the augmentation of bone ingrowth is significant for HA coatings with a porous structure, which is critical for the early fixation and long-term stability of medical implants.
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Clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C patients related to baseline liver fibrosis stage - a hospital based linkage study.
Intern Med J
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Rates of long term clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C in patients with none, mild or severe liver fibrosis are required to determine benefits of anti-viral therapies. This study evaluated long term outcomes for chronic hepatitis C stratified by all Metavir fibrosis stages.
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Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies by qRT-PCR in the blister beetle Mylabris cichorii.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males.
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[Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency had a strong ability of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation. It could synergistically improve yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency by enhancing the ability of nitrogen uptake and dry matter formation before jointing stage in barley.
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Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T Reveals a Distinct Phylogenetic Clade in the Genus Streptococcus.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy.
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A novel aggregation-induced emission based fluorescent probe for an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay and inhibitor screening.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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A 'turn-on' fluorescent probe based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been developed. It exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for monitoring angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity both in solutions and in living cells as well as for screening ACE inhibitors in vitro.
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TLR8 signaling enhances tumor immunity by preventing tumor-induced T-cell senescence.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests the immunosuppressive microenvironments created by malignant tumors represent a major obstacle for effective anti-tumor immunity. A better understanding of the suppressive mechanisms mediated by tumor microenvironments and the development of strategies to reverse the immune suppression are major challenges for the success of tumor immunotherapy. Here, we report that human tumor cells can induce senescence in naïve/effector T cells, exhibiting potent suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. We further show that tumor-derived endogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is responsible for the induction of T-cell senescence. Importantly, activation of TLR8 signaling in tumor cells can block the induction and reverse the suppression of senescent naïve and tumor-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor immunity. These studies identify a novel mechanism of human tumor-mediated immune suppression and provide a new strategy to reverse tumor immunosuppressive effects for tumor immunotherapy.
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Associations of prediabetes with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: A meta-analysis.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Background. Reports on the association of prediabetes with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality are inconsistent. Objective. To evaluate the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in association with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods. Prospective cohort studies with data on prediabetes and mortality were included. The relative risks (RRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results. Twenty-six studies were included. The risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were increased in participants with prediabetes defined as IFG of 110-125 mg/dL (IFG 110) (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.20; and RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.35, respectively), IGT (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.42; RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36, respectively), or combined IFG 110 and/or IGT (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11-1.32; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36, respectively), but not when IFG was defined as 100-125 mg/dL (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.92-1.26; and RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94-1.42, respectively). Conclusions. Prediabetes, defined as IFG 110, IGT, or combined IFG 110 and/or IGT, was associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
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Combination of HBO and Memantine in Focal Cerebral Ischemia: Is There a Synergistic Effect?
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and memantine, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, are both promising treatment strategies for improving stroke prognosis. However, HBO's narrow therapeutic time window (<6 h post-stroke) and the adverse effect of high-dose MEM administration limits the use of these therapeutic interventions. In this study, we investigated whether or not MEM could prolong the narrow therapeutic window of HBO treatment. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 120 min. MCAO produced neurobehavioral deficits, increased infarction volume, increased Evans blue (EB) content and levels of pro-inflammatory factors, as well as depleted glutathione (GSH), and reduced catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the ischemic ipsilateral hemisphere. The combination of 5 mg/kg MEM treatment 15 min after the onset of ischemic event and HBO therapy 12 h post-reperfusion significantly restored neurologic scores, EB concentration and IL-10 levels, as well as significantly decreased infarct volume and increased antioxidant activity. These results imply that the combination of MEM and HBO therapy not only prolongs the therapeutic window of HBO treatment, but also lowers the dosage requirement of MEM. The mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of the combined treatment may lie in alleviated blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, inhibited inflammatory response, and up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activity.
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Knockdown of NOB1 expression inhibits the malignant transformation of human prostate cancer cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Nin one binding-1 protein (NOB1) is a kind of zinc protein involved in ribosome biogenesis and controlled proteolysis. To explore the function of NOB1 in human prostate malignancy, we analyzed the expression of NOB1 in prostate cancer and found that NOB1 was elevated in prostate cancer tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of NOB1 by lentivirus-shRNA inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation ability of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that silencing of NOB1 caused G0/G1 phase arrest and a slight decrease in S phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore, knockdown of NOB1 significantly suppressed the mobility of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggested that NOB1 might be involved in tumorigenecity of prostate cancer, and could be a potential molecular target for prostate cancer gene therapy.
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[Transabdominal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy of modified Pfannenstiel incision].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with the modified Pfannenstiel incision.
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Sulfur copolymer nanowires with enhanced visible-light photoresponse.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Sulfur copolymer nanowires have been reported for the first time as highly stable visible-light-active photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting depending on their size and sulfur content. The as-prepared sulfur copolymer nanowires can serve as a sulfur source and templates to create metal sulfide/copolymer heterocatalysts.
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Abundance and diversity of soil petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in oil exploring areas.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the commonly detected petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soils in oil exploring areas. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes are useful biomarks for estimation of the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites. However, the links between environmental factors and the distribution of alkane and PAH metabolic genes still remain largely unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and diversities of soil n-alkane and PAH-degrading bacterial communities targeting both alkB and nah genes in two oil exploring areas at different geographic regions. A large variation in the abundances and diversities of alkB and nah genes occurred in the studied soil samples. Various environmental variables regulated the spatial distribution of soil alkane and PAH metabolic genes, dependent on geographic location. The soil alkane-degrading bacterial communities in oil exploring areas mainly consisted of Pedobacter, Mycobacterium, and unknown alkB-harboring microorganisms. Moreover, the novel PAH-degraders predominated in nah gene clone libraries from soils of the two oil exploring areas. This work could provide some new insights towards the distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and their biodegradation potential in soil ecosystems.
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Epigenetic reprogramming in breast cancer: from new targets to new therapies.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. Recently, interest has grown in the role of epigenetics in breast cancer development and progression. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and abnormal expression of non-coding RNAs emerged as novel biomarkers in breast cancer diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. This review focuses on the most recent mechanistic findings underlying epigenetic changes in breast cancer development and their role as predictors of breast cancer risk. The rapid progress in our understanding of epigenetic findings in breast cancer has opened new avenues for potential therapeutic approaches via identification of epigenetic targets. We highlight the development of novel epigenetically targeted drugs, relevant clinical trials in breast cancer patients, and recent approaches combining epigenetic agents with chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy that may incrementally improve long-term outcomes in appropriately selected breast cancer patients. Biomarkers of response are needed, however, to identify patient subsets that are most likely to benefit from epigenetic treatment strategies.
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Association of CDKN2BAS polymorphism rs4977574 with coronary heart disease: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The goal of our study was to explore the significant association between a non-protein coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4977574 of CDKN2BAS gene and coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 590 CHD cases and 482 non-CHD controls were involved in the present association study. A strong association of rs4977574 with CHD was observed in females (genotype: p=0.002; allele: p=0.002, odd ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidential interval (CI)=1.18-2.08). Moreover, rs4977574 was more likely to be a risk variant of CHD under the recessive model in females (?2=10.29, p=0.003, OR=2.14, 95% CI=1.31-2.77). A breakdown analysis by age had shown that there was an 87% increased risk of CHD for females younger than 65 years (genotype: ?2=14.64, degrees of freedom (df)=2, p=0.0002; allele: ?2=11.31, df=1, p=0.0008, OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.30-2.70). Similar observation was also found in males younger than 65 years (genotype: ?2=8.63, df=2, p=0.04; allele: ?2=7.55, df=1, p=0.006, OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.11-1.90). p values were adjusted by age, sex, smoking, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Meta-analysis of 23 studies among 36,452 cases and 39,781 controls showed a strong association between rs4977574 and the risk of CHD (p<0.0001, OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.22-1.31).
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[Differential proteomics research on exosomes derived from tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells and normal mucosa cells].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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This study aimed to explore further the mechanisms of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) cell recurrence, metastasis, and diffusion, as well as to establish the experimental basis for the molecular biology research on TSSC. We intend to complete our objective through differential proteomics and preliminary analysis protein expression of exosomes derived from TSCC and normal mucosa cells.
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Regulation of estrogen receptor signaling in breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer therapy.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERs) are critical regulators of breast epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Compromised signaling vis-à-vis the estrogen receptor is believed to be a major contributing factor in the malignancy of breast cells. Targeting the ER signaling pathway has been a focal point in the development of breast cancer therapy. Although approximately 75 % of breast cancer patients are classified as luminal type (ER(+)), which predicts for response to endocrine-based therapy; however, innate or acquired resistance to endocrine-based drugs remains a serious challenge. The complexity of regulation for estrogen signaling coupled with the crosstalk of other oncogenic signaling pathways is a reason for endocrine therapy resistance. Alternative strategies that target novel molecular mechanisms are necessary to overcome this current and urgent gap in therapy. A thorough analysis of estrogen-signaling regulation is critical. In this review article, we will summarize current insights into the regulation of estrogen signaling as related to breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer therapy.
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Tuning the underwater oleophobicity of graphene oxide coatings via UV irradiation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was utilized to gradually modify the chemistry and structure of graphene oxide (GO) flakes, as confirmed by XPS and AFM. Ultrathin GO coatings/membranes, made of UV-irradiated flakes, showed tunable underwater oleophobicity. UV-treated, superoleophobic GO membranes exhibited excellent antifouling capability for oil/water separation.
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[Citrus boron nutrient level and its impact factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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To investigate the level of boron nutrient in citrus and its impact factors, a total of 954 citrus leaf samples and 302 soil samples were collected from representative orchards in the 12 main citrus production counties in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing to determine the boron content in citrus leaves, as well as the relationships between leaf boron content with soil available boron content, soil pH value, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree. Results indicated that the leaf samples from 41.6% orchards (< 35 mg x kg(-1)) and the soil samples from 89.4% orchards (< 0.5 mg x kg(-1)) were boron insufficient. The correlation of leaf boron content and soil available boron content was not significant. The soil pH, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree did affect the leaf boron content. The leaves from the orchards with soil pH of 4.5-6.4 demonstrated significantly higher boron contents than with the soil pH of 6.5-8.5. The leaf boron contents in the different cultivars was ranged as Satsuma mandarin > pomelo > valencia orange > sweet orange > tangor > navel orange. The citrus on trifoliate orange and sour pomelo rootstocks had significantly higher leaf boron contents than on Carrizo citrange and red tangerine rootstocks. Compared with the adult citrus trees (above 8 year-old), 6.6% more of leaf samples of younger trees (3 to 8 year-old) contained boron contents in the optimum range (35-100 mg x kg(-1)).
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Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay.
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Risk factors for hepatitis B and C infection among blood donors in five Chinese blood centers.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Few studies were conducted on hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively) risk factors among Chinese blood donors in recent years since voluntary donors replaced commercial donors.
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Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Lichtheimia ramosa (syn. Lichtheimia hongkongensis).
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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We report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Lichtheimia ramosa (syn. Lichtheimia hongkongensis), the first complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the genus Lichtheimia. This 31.8-kb mitochondrial genome encodes 11 subunits of respiratory chain complexes, 3 ATP synthase subunits, 25 tRNAs, and small and large rRNAs, with the gene order atp9-cox2-atp6-cox3-cox1-nad2-nad3-cob-nad1-nad6-nad5-nad4l-nad4-atp8.
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Hydrogen-rich saline improves survival and neurological outcome after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death worldwide. Three-fourths of cardiac arrest patients die before hospital discharge or experience significant neurological damage. Hydrogen-rich saline, a portable, easily administered, and safe means of delivering hydrogen gas, can exert organ-protective effects through regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. We designed this study to investigate whether hydrogen-rich saline treatment could improve survival and neurological outcome after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the mechanism responsible for this effect.
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Global gene expression profiling identifies ALDH2, CCNE1 and SMAD3 as potential prognostic markers in upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Current knowledge about the molecular properties and prognostic markers of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is sparse and often based on bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC), which is thought to share common risk factors with UTUC. However, studies have suggested that differences exist regarding tumor behavior and molecular biology of these cancers, comprehensive investigations are needed to guide the clinical management of UTUC. In recent years, massively parallel sequencing has allowed insights into the biology of many cancers, and molecular prognostic markers based on this approach are rapidly emerging. The goal of this study was to characterize the gene expression patterns of UTUC using massively parallel sequencing, and identify potential molecular markers for prognosis in patients with UTUC.
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Chickens host diverse picornaviruses originated from potential interspecies transmission with recombination.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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While chickens are an important reservoir for emerging pathogens such as avian influenza viruses, little is known about the diversity of picornaviruses in poultry. We discovered a previously unknown diversity of picornaviruses in chickens in Hong Kong. Picornaviruses were detected in 87 cloacal and 7 tracheal samples from 93 of 900 chickens by reverse transcription-PCR, with their partial 3D(pol) gene sequences forming five distinct clades (I to V) among known picornaviruses. Analysis of eight genomes from different clades revealed seven different picornaviruses, including six novel picornavirus species (ChPV1 from clade I, ChPV2 and ChPV3 from clade II, ChPV4 and ChPV5 from clade III, ChGV1 from clade IV) and one existing species (Avian encephalomyelitis virus from clade V). The six novel chicken picornavirus genomes exhibited distinct phylogenetic positions and genome features different from related picornaviruses, supporting their classification as separate species. Moreover, ChPV1 may potentially belong to a novel genus, with low sequence homologies to related picornaviruses, especially in the P1 and P2 regions, including the predicted L and 2A proteins. Nevertheless, these novel picornaviruses were most closely related to picornaviruses of other avian species (ChPV1 related to Passerivirus A, ChPV2 and ChPV3 to Avisivirus A and Duck hepatitis A virus, ChPV4 and ChPV5 to Melegrivirus A, ChGV1 to Gallivirus A). Furthermore, ChPV5 represented a potential recombinant picornavirus, with its P2 and P3 regions possibly originating from Melegrivirus A. Chickens are an important reservoir for diverse picornaviruses that may cross avian species barriers through mutation or recombination.
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[Effect of ectomycorrhizae on heavy metals sequestration by thermostable protein in rhizosphere of Pinus tabulaeformis under Cu and Cd stress].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Copper and cadmium in soil is a severe soil pollution problem in China. It is effective to remediate the soil by sequestrating Cu and Cd with tolerant plant and microorganism. Ectomycorrhizae could exude a large number of organic matter to reduce the biological effectiveness of heavy metals. Therefore, under Cu or Cd stress, thermostable protein in rhizosphere exuded by roots of pine seedling (Pinus tabulaeformis) associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Xerocomus chrysenteron) can have the potential of sequestration for heavy metals. The results illustrated that the association didn't impact on exudation of thermostable protein but treated with different concentrations of Cu, the total thermostable protein (TTP) and easily extracted thermostable protein (EETP) in mycorrhizal rhizosphere increased by 2.64 to 11.79 times compared with non-mycorrhizal one. While treated with Cd, it was 1.49 to 7.56 times. Further analysis of metal content in rhizosphere showed that association significantly increased the Cu sequestration in mycorrhizal rhizosphere where relative content of Cu was 1.81 to 2.75 times higher than those in non-mycorrhizal rhizosphere while most of Cu was sequestrated by thermostable protein, 4.19 to 43.00 times higher in protein than in root cell. Meanwhile results of Cd treatments showed a similar trend with Cu treatments. That indicated that under excessive heavy metals stress, ectomycorrhizal association facilitated the exudation of thermostable protein so as to extend the capacity of sequestration for excessive heavy metals and mitigate the phytotoxicity from heavy metals polluted soil.
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[The molecular mechanism between interstitial fluid pressure and malignant phenotype of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To explore the effects of stress imposed on adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), therefore to clarify the molecular basis and mechanism of ACC's malignant phenotype under the elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure.
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Cytoplasmic viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase disrupts the intracellular splicing machinery by entering the nucleus and interfering with Prp8.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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The primary role of cytoplasmic viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is viral genome replication in the cellular cytoplasm. However, picornaviral RdRp denoted 3D polymerase (3D(pol)) also enters the host nucleus, where its function remains unclear. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism of viral attack in which 3D(pol) enters the nucleus through the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and targets the pre-mRNA processing factor 8 (Prp8) to block pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA synthesis. The fingers domain of 3D(pol) associates with the C-terminal region of Prp8, which contains the Jab1/MPN domain, and interferes in the second catalytic step, resulting in the accumulation of the lariat form of the splicing intermediate. Endogenous pre-mRNAs trapped by the Prp8-3D(pol) complex in enterovirus-infected cells were identified and classed into groups associated with cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Our results suggest that picornaviral RdRp disrupts pre-mRNA splicing processes, that differs from viral protease shutting off cellular transcription and translation which contributes to the pathogenesis of viral infection.
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[Research advance in autistic traits in non-affected population of autism spectrum disorder].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Autistic traits including social reciprocal deficits, communication deficits and stereotyped behaviors, are manifested not only in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, but also in general population. In recent years, there has much research related to autistic traits. This article summarizes research advance of autistic traits in ASD relations and general population.
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Distribution of naphthalene dioxygenase genes in crude oil-contaminated soils.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the major pollutants in soils in oil exploring areas. Biodegradation is the major process for natural elimination of PAHs from contaminated soils. Functional genes can be used as biomarkers to assess the biodegradation potential of indigenous microbial populations. However, little is known about the distribution of PAH-degrading genes in the environment. The links between environmental parameters and the distribution of PAH metabolic genes remain essentially unclear. The present study investigated the abundance and diversity of naphthalene dioxygenase genes in the oil-contaminated soils in the Shengli Oil Field (China). Spatial variations in the density and diversity of naphthalene dioxygenase genes occurred in this area. Four different sequence genotypes were observed in the contaminated soils, with the predominance of novel PAH-degrading genes. Pearson's correlation analysis illustrated that gene abundance had positive correlations with the levels of total organic carbon and aromatic hydrocarbons, while gene diversity showed a negative correlation with the level of polar aromatics. This work could provide some new insights toward the distribution of PAH metabolic genes and PAH biodegradation potential in oil-contaminated ecosystems.
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Inhibition of histone demethylase, LSD2 (KDM1B), attenuates DNA methylation and increases sensitivity to DNMT inhibitor-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunction of histone lysine demethylase is associated with abnormal chromatin remodeling and gene silencing, contributing to breast tumorigenesis. In silico analysis shows that the newly identified histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 2 is highly expressed in breast cancer, especially in invasive tumors. However, it is currently unknown how LSD2 regulates chromatin remodeling and gene expression regulation in breast cancer. Using short hairpin RNA, we stably knocked down LSD2 (LSD2-KD) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. LSD2-KD led to accumulation of H3K4me1/2 without changing methylation levels of other key histone lysine residues, suggesting that LSD2 acts as a bona fide H3K4 demethylase in breast cancer cells. LSD2-KD resulted in decreased colony formation and attenuated global DNA methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, treatment with the DNMT inhibitor, 5-aza-deoxycytidine (DAC), synergistically increased mRNA expression of aberrantly silenced genes important in breast cancer development, including PR, RAR?, ER?, SFRP1, SFRP2, and E-cadherin in LSD2-KD cells. Furthermore, LSD2-KD cells are more susceptible to cell death than scramble controls, and combined treatment with tranylcypromine, an LSD2 inhibitor, and DAC resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. DNMT inhibition by DAC in LSD2-KD cells led to internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, enhanced PARP cleavage and increased sub-G1 apoptotic cell population. These results demonstrate an important role for LSD2 in regulation of DNA methylation and gene silencing in breast cancer, and suggest that inhibition of LSD2 in combination with DNA methyltransferase inhibition represents a novel approach for epigenetic therapy of breast cancer.
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Conformity to the Opinions of Other People Lasts for No More Than 3 Days.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance.
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Cardiac arrest: a case-based review.
World J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Coffee is commonly consumed among young people in China. However, consumers are rarely aware of physically adverse effects as a result of excessive consumption of caffeine.
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Prediabetes and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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The results from prospective cohort studies of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and risk of cancer are controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of cancer in association with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.
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BnEPFL6, an EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) secreted peptide gene, is required for filament elongation in Brassica napus.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Inflorescence architecture, pedicel length and stomata patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana are specified by inter-tissue communication mediated by ERECTA and its signaling ligands in the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family of secreted cysteine-rich peptides. Here, we identified and characterized BnEPFL6 from Brassica napus. Heterologous expression of this gene under the double enhanced CaMV promoter (D35S) in Arabidopsis resulted in shortened stamen filaments, filaments degradation, and reduced filament cell size that displayed down-regulated expression of AHK2, in which phenotypic variation of ahk2-1 mutant presented highly consistent with that of BnEPFL6 transgenic lines. Especially, the expression level of BnEPFL6 in the shortened filaments of four B. napus male sterile lines (98A, 86A, SA, and Z11A) was similar to that of BnEPFL6 in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The activity of pBnEPFL6.2::GUS was intensive in the filaments of transgenic lines. These observations reveal that BnEPFL6 plays an important role in filament elongation and may also affect organ morphology and floral organ specification via a BnEPFL6-mediated cascade.
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Demographic and clinical differences between early- and late-onset major depressions in thirteen psychiatric institutions in China.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Little is known about the demographic and clinical differences between early- and late-onset depressions (EOD and LOD, respectively) in Chinese patients. This study examined the demographic and clinical profile of EOD (<=25 years) compared to LOD (>25 years) in China.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Schisandra and Paeonia extracts in the treatment of asthma.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Paeonia and Schisandra extracts in asthmatic rats. An ethanol extraction method was used to prepare the Schisandra and Paeonia extracts, and the levels of hydroxyl radical, total antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were detected. The rats were divided into three groups: Treatment (group A), model (group B) and control (group C). The treatment group received traditional Chinese antiasthmatic medicine (mixed extract, 2 ml/day) for 10 days. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected in the serum, while interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-13 and IL-22 levels were analyzed in the serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue homogenates of the three groups. In addition, pathological changes of the tracheal tissues were observed via biopsies and the NF-?B p65 level was measured in the lung tissue using immunohistochemistry. Total antioxidant activity, hydroxyl radical levels and total phenolic content in the mixed herbal extracts were higher than those in the single herbal extracts. At day 5 following the treatment, the number of eosinophils was significantly reduced in the tracheal tissues. At day 10 following the treatment, the mucosa was significantly repaired. In vivo antioxidant levels revealed that the serum and erythrocyte SOD activity and GSH-Px were higher in group A as compared with group B, while the level of MDA in group A was lower than that in group B (P<0.05). The levels of serum and erythrocyte SOD activity and GSH-Px in group B were lower than those in group C, while the level of MDA in group B was higher than that in group C (P<0.05). IL-4, IL-6 and IL-13 levels in the serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue in group A were not significantly different from those in group B (P>0.05). However, IFN-? levels in group A significantly increased as compared with the level in group B, while IL-22 levels decreased significantly in group A as compared with group B (P<0.05). IL-4, IL-6, IL-13 and IL-22 levels in the lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum in group B were significantly higher than those in group C. In addition, the IFN-? level decreased significantly in group B as compared with the level in group C (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the protein expression of NF-?B p65 in group A was significantly lower compared with group B (P<0.05). Therefore, Paeonia and Schisandra extracts may be used to treat asthma through their in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
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The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus.
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Differences between non-suicidal self injury and suicide attempt in Chinese adolescents.
Asian J Psychiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Self-harm behaviors are predominant health risks among adolescents. This study aimed to elucidate the lifetime prevalence and differences in social psychological factors between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) among Chinese adolescents.
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Quantitative determination of unbound levofloxacin by simultaneous microdialysis in rat pancreas after intravenous and oral doses.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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We compared the pharmacokinetic profile of unbound levofloxacin in rat pancreas after an oral dose with that after an intravenous dose to determine if oral administration of levofloxacin could potentially be used.
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Bone marrow endothelium-targeted therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Effective treatment of cancer metastasis to the bone relies on bone marrow drug accumulation. The surface proteins in the bone marrow vascular endothelium provide docking sites for targeted drug delivery. We have developed a thioaptamer that specifically binds to E-selectin that is overexpressed in the vasculature of tumor and inflammatory tissues. In this study, we tested targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNA loaded in the E-selectin thioaptamer-conjugated multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) drug carrier to bone marrow for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. We evaluated tumor type- and tumor growth stage-dependent targeting in mice bearing metastatic breast cancer in the bone, and carried out studies to identify factors that determine targeting efficiency. In a subsequent study, we delivered siRNA to knock down expression of the human STAT3 gene in murine xenograft models of human MDA-MB-231 breast tumor, and assessed therapeutic efficacy. Our studies revealed that the CD31(+)E-selectin(+) population accounted for 20.8%, 26.4% and 29.9% of total endothelial cells respectively inside the femur of mice bearing early, middle and late stage metastatic MDA-MB-231 tumors. In comparison, the double positive cells remained at a basal level in mice with early stage MCF-7 tumors, and jumped to 23.9% and 28.2% when tumor growth progressed to middle and late stages. Accumulation of ESTA-MSV inside the bone marrow correlated with the E-selectin expression pattern. There was up to 5-fold enrichment of the targeted MSV in the bone marrow of mice bearing early or late stage MDA-MB-231 tumors and of mice with late stage, but not early stage, MCF-7 tumors. Targeted delivery of STAT3 siRNA in ESTA-MSV resulted in knockdown of STAT3 expression in 48.7% of cancer cells inside the bone marrow. Weekly systemic administration of ESTA-MSV/STAT3 siRNA significantly extended survival of mice with MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis. In conclusion, targeting the overexpressed E-selectin provides an effective approach for tissue-specific drug delivery to the bone marrow. Tumor growth in the bone can be effectively inhibited by blockage of the STAT3 signaling.
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Effects of Alismatis rhizome on rat cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Alismatis rhizome (RA) (Water Plantain Family, also called "Zexie" in Chinese), one of the commonly used components of traditional Chinese medicines, is derived from the dried rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep. (Alismataceae).
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Meta-analysis of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) rs2228671 polymorphism and coronary heart disease.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) can regulate cholesterol metabolism by removing the excess low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood. Since cholesterol metabolism is often disrupted in coronary heart disease (CHD), LDLR as a candidate gene of CHD has been intensively studied. The goal of our study is to evaluate the overall contribution of LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism to the risk of CHD by combining the genotyping data from multiple case-control studies. Our meta-analysis is involved with 8 case-control studies among 7588 cases and 9711 controls to test the association between LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism and CHD. In addition, we performed a case-control study of LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism with the risk of CHD in Chinese population. Our meta-analysis showed that rs2228671-T allele was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CHD (P = 0.0005, odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI)?= 0.75-0.92). However, rs2228671-T allele frequency was rare (1%) and was not associated with CHD in Han Chinese (P = 0.49), suggesting an ethnic difference of LDLR rs2228671 polymorphism. Meta-analysis has established rs2228671 as a protective factor of CHD in Europeans. The lack of association in Chinese reflects an ethnic difference of this genetic variant between Chinese and European populations.
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Evaluation of arthrocentesis with hyaluronic acid injection plus oral glucosamine hydrochloride for temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis in oral-health-related quality of life.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To evaluate the changes in oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) who underwent five weekly hyaluronic acid injections together with oral glucosamine hydrochloride for three months.
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A meta-analysis of parental smoking and the risk of childhood brain tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies regarding the association between parental smoking and the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBT) have reported inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize evidence on this association and to quantify the potential dose-response relationship.
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Microarray expression analysis of the main inflorescence in Brassica napus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effect of the number of pods on the main inflorescence (NPMI) on seed yield in Brassica napus plants grown at high density is a topic of great economic and scientific interest. Here, we sought to identify patterns of gene expression that determine the NPMI during inflorescence differentiation. We monitored gene expression profiles in the main inflorescence of two B. napus F6 RIL pools, each composed of nine lines with a low or high NPMI, and their parental lines, Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11) and 73290, using a Brassica 90K elements oligonucleotide array. We identified 4,805 genes that were differentially expressed (?1.5 fold-change) between the low- and high-NPMI samples. Of these, 82.8% had been annotated and 17.2% shared no significant homology with any known genes. About 31 enriched GO clusters were identified amongst the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including those involved in hormone responses, development regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription regulation. Furthermore, 92.8% of the DEGs mapped to chromosomes that originated from B. rapa and B. oleracea, and 1.6% of the DEGs co-localized with two QTL intervals (PMI10 and PMI11) known to be associated with the NPMI. Overexpression of BnTPI, which co-localized with PMI10, in Arabidopsis suggested that this gene increases the NPMI. This study provides insight into the molecular factors underlying inflorescence architecture, NPMI determination and, consequently, seed yield in B. napus.
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The feedback-related negativity reflects "more or less" prediction error in appetitive and aversive conditions.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Humans make predictions and use feedback to update their subsequent predictions. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) has been found to be sensitive to negative feedback as well as negative prediction error, such that the FRN is larger for outcomes that are worse than expected. The present study examined prediction errors in both appetitive and aversive conditions. We found that the FRN was more negative for reward omission vs. wins and for loss omission vs. losses, suggesting that the FRN might classify outcomes in a "more-or-less than expected" fashion rather than in the "better-or-worse than expected" dimension. Our findings challenge the previous notion that the FRN only encodes negative feedback and "worse than expected" negative prediction error.
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[Bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI): an approach for assessing river ecosystem health in Dianchi watershed].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely applied to the health assessment of river ecosystems. However, the currently available IBI methods are lack of decomposer-based assessment. Based on the T-RFLP result of bacterioplankton, we developed the bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI) after the screening of major environmental factors and candidate metrics to assess the health of the inflow rivers in Dianchi Watershed. The evaluation result indicated that the eco-health conditions of 11 reference sites were either level I (8 sites) or level II (3 sites), while the 27 damaged sites were level I (4 sites), level II (14 sites), level III (7 sites), and level IV (2 sites), and there was no level V site. Compared with the other IBI methods and the integrated pollution index, BP-IBI showed better effect in reflecting the influence of the key environmental factors, the land use types and the upstream water types in river ecosystems. Therefore, BP-IBI is a good method to characterize the health status of river ecosystems.
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Hypermethylation of EDNRB promoter contributes to the risk of colorectal cancer.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common digestive malignancies in the world. EDNRB is a new candidate tumor suppressor gene which is often down-regulated or even silenced by promoter hypermethylation in various human cancers. However, the function of EDNRB gene in CRC remains unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and DNA methylation of EDNRB in CRC tissues.
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Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Gene Promoter Mutations Help Discern the Origin of Urogenital Tumors: A Genomic and Molecular Study.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Activation of telomerase can be observed in almost all human tumor histotypes and detection of the urinary telomerase activities is useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer. In this study, we screened, by Sanger sequencing, 302 patients with various urogenital cancers for somatic mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene and determined the clinical relevance of TERT promoter mutations in urogenital cancer. In vitro assays were also performed to evaluate the functional influence of the discovered mutations. We found that the frequencies of somatic mutations in the TERT promoter varied substantially between different types of urogenital tumors (range: 0-63.7%), with urothelial carcinomas showing the highest mutation frequency and prostate cancer showing no mutation. The mutations upregulated the expression of TERT and enhanced the invasiveness of the tumor cells. The mutations were more prevalent in older patients with invasive diseases and advanced tumor stages, and were associated with significantly shorter survival time. Moreover, we also observed a significant co-occurrence of mutations between the TERT promoter and the tumor protein 51/retinoblastoma1 (TP53/RB1) signaling pathway. Hence, TERT promoter mutations may serve as important markers for the differential diagnosis and surveillance of urogenital tumors.
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Efficacy and safety of bupivacaine versus lidocaine in dental treatments: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Int Dent J
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of bupivacaine compared with lidocaine in local anaesthesia in dental treatment. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomised controlled trials comparing bupivacaine with lidocaine in terms of efficacy and safety. Sixteen studies were included, of which nine had low, six had moderate and one had high risk of bias. In comparison with 2% lidocaine plus 1:100,000 adrenaline, 0.5% bupivacaine plus 1:200,000 adrenaline showed a higher success rate in inflamed pulp (P = 0.03) but a lower success rate in vital pulp (P < 0.00001), a lower percentage of patients using postoperative analgesics (P < 0.00001), a longer onset times of pulpal anaesthesia and a longer duration of pulpal anaesthesia (P < 0.00001). In comparison with 2% lidocaine plus 1:80,000 adrenaline, 0.75% bupivacaine plus 1:200,000 adrenaline had same level of success rate (P = 0.29), and was better in postoperative pain control (P = 0.001) while 0.75% levobupivacaine had same level of postoperative pain control (P = 0.16); 0.5% levobupivacaine had higher success rate (P = 0.04) and was better in postoperative pain control (P = 0.001) than 2% lidocaine. There was no statistically significance in adverse events between two groups. Given the efficacy and safety, the bupivacaine group is better than the lidocaine group in dental operations that take a relatively long time, especially in endodontic treatments or where there is a need for postoperative pain management.
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Ultrathin, molecular-sieving graphene oxide membranes for selective hydrogen separation.
Science
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Ultrathin, molecular-sieving membranes have great potential to realize high-flux, high-selectivity mixture separation at low energy cost. Current microporous membranes [pore size < 1 nanometer (nm)], however, are usually relatively thick. With the use of current membrane materials and techniques, it is difficult to prepare microporous membranes thinner than 20 nm without introducing extra defects. Here, we report ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) membranes, with thickness approaching 1.8 nm, prepared by a facile filtration process. These membranes showed mixture separation selectivities as high as 3400 and 900 for H2/CO2 and H2/N2 mixtures, respectively, through selective structural defects on GO.
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Influence of bedsharing activity on breastfeeding duration among US mothers.
JAMA Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Some professional associations advocate bedsharing to facilitate breastfeeding, while others recommend against it to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome and suffocation deaths. A better understanding of the quantitative influence of bedsharing on breastfeeding duration is needed to guide policy.
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Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist, attenuates airway inflammation by inhibiting the proliferation of effector T cells in a murine model of neutrophilic asthma.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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An imbalanced Th17-mediated immune response contributes substantially to neutrophilic asthma. Studies have also demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) plays a critical role in inflammatory disease. However, the effect of PPAR? on airway inflammation in neutrophilic asthma remains unclear. In the current study, we evaluated the potential therapeutic role of rosiglitazone (RSG) in a new mouse model of asthma characterised by increased neutrophils rather than eosinophils. A co-culture system of DCs with CD4+ naïve T cells was established to evaluate the effects of RSG on T cell differentiation. After challenge with OVA, mice developed the typical pathophysiological features of asthma, including an increased number of neutrophils in the BALF and the up-regulation of IL-17. The numbers of Th17 cells and Th2 cells were also greatly elevated in the lungs. The administration of rosiglitazone reduced the pathophysiological features of asthma and decreased the up-regulated inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Furthermore, the cell viability in the co-culture system was markedly reduced by RSG. T-bet, Gata-3 and ROR?t mRNA were down-regulated by RSG. These findings suggest that PPAR? is critical for airway inflammation during neutrophilic asthma, possibly due to its effect on Th cell proliferation and differentiation. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of rosiglitazone in neutrophilic asthma is partially due to the role of the PPAR? pathway in regulating T cell proliferation and differentiation.
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Specific recruitment of ?? regulatory T cells in human breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Understanding the role of different subtypes of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment is essential for improving cancer treatment. Enriched ??1 T-cell populations in TILs suppress T-cell responses and dendritic cell maturation in breast cancer, where their presence is correlated negatively with clinical outcomes. However, mechanism(s) that explain the increase in this class of regulatory T cells (?? Treg) in patients with breast cancer have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we show that IP-10 secreted by breast cancer cells attracted ?? Tregs. Using neutralizing antibodies against chemokines secreted by breast cancer cells, we found that IP-10 was the only functional chemokine that causes ?? Tregs to migrate toward breast cancer cells. In a humanized NOD-scid IL-2R?(null) (NSG) mouse model, human breast cancer cells attracted ?? Tregs as revealed by a live cell imaging system. IP-10 neutralization in vivo inhibited migration and trafficking of ?? Tregs into breast tumor sites, enhancing tumor immunity mediated by tumor-specific T cells. Together, our studies show how ?? Tregs accumulate in breast tumors, providing a rationale for their immunologic targeting to relieve immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment.
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[Technical improvement of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site nephrectomy].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To summarize the technical modification and experiences of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site nephrectomy (LESS-N) by homemade device.
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[Expression of circulating microRNAs in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To search for differentially expressed microRNAs in circulation and to explore their potential application as non-invasive biomarkers for bladder urothelial carcinoma.
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Core foundations of abstract geometry.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Human adults from diverse cultures share intuitions about the points, lines, and figures of Euclidean geometry. Do children develop these intuitions by drawing on phylogenetically ancient and developmentally precocious geometric representations that guide their navigation and their analysis of object shape? In what way might these early-arising representations support later-developing Euclidean intuitions? To approach these questions, we investigated the relations among young childrens use of geometry in tasks assessing: navigation; visual form analysis; and the interpretation of symbolic, purely geometric maps. Childrens navigation depended on the distance and directional relations of the surface layout and predicted their use of a symbolic map with targets designated by surface distances. In contrast, childrens analysis of visual forms depended on the size-invariant shape relations of objects and predicted their use of the same map but with targets designated by corner angles. Even though the two map tasks used identical instructions and map displays, childrens performance on these tasks showed no evidence of integrated representations of distance and angle. Instead, young children flexibly recruited geometric representations of either navigable layouts or objects to interpret the same spatial symbols. These findings reveal a link between the early-arising geometric representations that humans share with diverse animals and the flexible geometric intuitions that give rise to human knowledge at its highest reaches. Although young children do not appear to integrate core geometric representations, childrens use of the abstract geometry in spatial symbols such as maps may provide the earliest clues to the later construction of Euclidean geometry.
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Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence and molecular study among blood donors in China.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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The risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection from blood transfusion has aroused increasing concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential risk of HEV infection through blood transfusion in China.
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Tyrosine residues play an important role in heme detoxification by serum albumin.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Serum albumin binds avidly to heme to form heme-serum albumin complex, also called methemalbumin, and this binding is thought to protect against the potentially toxic effects of heme. However, the mechanism of detoxification has not been fully elucidated.
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Marginal living donor in kidney transplantation: experience in a Chinese single center.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Living donor kidney transplantation is becoming popular in China, whereas, in clinical situations, some kidney donors may be sub-optimal, namely marginal living donor. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of marginal living donor kidney transplantation in a Chinese single center.
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The Wilms tumor gene, Wt1, is critical for mouse spermatogenesis via regulation of sertoli cell polarity and is associated with non-obstructive azoospermia in humans.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Azoospermia is one of the major reproductive disorders which cause male infertility in humans; however, the etiology of this disease is largely unknown. In the present study, six missense mutations of WT1 gene were detected in 529 human patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), indicating a strong association between WT1 mutation and NOA. The Wilms tumor gene, Wt1, is specifically expressed in Sertoli cells (SCs) which support spermatogenesis. To examine the functions of this gene in spermatogenesis, Wt1 was deleted in adult testis using Wt1(flox) and Cre-ER(TM) mice strains. We found that inactivation of Wt1 resulted in massive germ cell death and only SCs were present in most of the seminiferous tubules which was very similar to NOA in humans. In investigating the potential mechanism for this, histological studies revealed that the blood-testis barrier (BTB) was disrupted in Wt1 deficient testes. In vitro studies demonstrated that Wt1 was essential for cell polarity maintenance in SCs. Further studies found that the expression of cell polarity associated genes (Par6b and E-cadherin) and Wnt signaling genes (Wnt4, Wnt11) were downregulated in Wt1 deficient SCs, and that the expression of Par6b and E-cadherin was regulated by Wnt4. Our findings suggest that Wt1 is important in spermatogenesis by regulating the polarity of SCs via Wnt signaling pathway and that WT1 mutation is one of the genetic causes of NOA in humans.
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Positive association between lymphotoxin-alpha variation rs909253 and cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 36 case-control studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) polymorphism rs909253 has been reported to be a risk factor for cancers, but some results are inconsistent. To establish a more conclusive association, we performed a meta-analysis of this variant with cancers. A systematic search was performed for informative case-control studies of rs909253 with cancers among literature databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Chinese Periodical Database. After a comprehensive filtration procedure, 36 publications involved with 35,677 participants were selected for the current meta-analysis. Stratified factors, such as cancer type, populations, and source of control, were used for a better interpretation of this variant. Minimal heterogeneity was shown in the current meta-analysis (I (2)?=?0.0 %, P?=?0.48). Our results show a significant association of rs909253 and cancer risk (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.12, P (z)?
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Effects of aescin on cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Aescin, the main active component found in extracts of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seed a traditional medicinal herb, is a mixture of triterpene saponins. It has been shown to be effective in inflammatory, chronic venous and edematous treatment conditions in vitro and in vivo, and is broadly used to treat chronic venous insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to find out whether aescin influences the effect on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4) by using cocktail probe drugs in vivo; the influence on the levels of CYP mRNA was also studied.
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XRCC1 Arg399Gln variation and leukemia susceptibility: evidence from 2,647 cases and 5,518 controls.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Previous reports implicate XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism as a possible risk factor for several cancers. Increasing studies have been conducted on the association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms with susceptibility to leukemia. However, conflicting results have been generated. The goal of the present study was to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. Meta-analyses assessing the association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln variation with leukemia were conducted, and subgroup analyses on ethnicity and clinical types were further performed. Eligible studies were identified for the period up to February 2013. Consequently, 16 publications including 17 case-control studies with 2,647 cases and 5,518 controls were selected for analysis. The overall data indicated a significant association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism with leukemia risk (Gln/Gln versus Arg/Arg: OR?=?1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.08-1.74; dominant model: OR?=?1.23, 95%CI?=?1.03-1.46; recessive model: OR?=?1.23, 95%CI?=?1.06-1.44). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, Gln allele may increase leukemia susceptibility among Asians (Gln/Gln versus Arg/Arg: OR?=?1.82, 95%CI?=?1.19-2.78; dominant model: OR?=?1.53, 95%CI?=?1.00-2.33; recessive model: OR?=?1.51, 95%CI?=?1.11-2.06), but not Caucasians or mixed ethnicities. In the subgroup analysis by clinical types, increased risk was observed in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) subgroup (Gln/Gln versus Arg/Arg: OR?=?1.45, 95%CI?=?1.09-1.93; recessive model: OR?=?1.30, 95%CI?=?1.00-1.69), but not in acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or chronic myeloid leukemia subgroups, respectively. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism might be a low-penetrant risk factor for leukemia, particularly among Asians. Homozygous Gln/Gln alleles might have a correlation with increased ALL susceptibility.
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Suicide risk in major affective disorder: Results from a national survey in China.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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This study investigated suicide risk and its correlates among major affective disorder patients in China and examined possible risk factors for future suicide among individuals with major affective disorder to inform appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.
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Multilayered molecular profiling supported the monoclonal origin of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Primary renal cell carcinomas (pRCCs) have a high degree of intratumoral heterogeneity and are composed of multiple distinct subclones. However, it remains largely unknown that whether metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCCs) also have startling intratumoral heterogeneity or whether development of mRCCs is due to early dissemination or late diagnosis. To decipher the evolution of mRCC, we analyzed the multilayered molecular profiles of pRCC, local invasion of the vena cava (IVC), and distant metastasis to the brain (MB) from the same patient using whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing, DNA methylome profiling, and transcriptome sequencing. We found that mRCC had a lower degree of heterogeneity than pRCC and was likely to result from recent clonal expansion of a rare, advantageous subclone. Consequently, some key pathways that are targeted by clinically available drugs showed distinct expression patterns between pRCC and mRCC. From the genetic distances between different tumor subclones, we estimated that the progeny subclone giving rise to distant metastasis took over half a decade to acquire the full potential of metastasis since the birth of the subclone that evolved into IVC. Our evidence supported that mRCC was monoclonal and distant metastasis occurred late during renal cancer progression. Thus, there was a broad window for early detection of circulating tumor cells and future targeted treatments for patients with mRCCs should rely on the molecular profiles of metastases.
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Inhibition of MAPK-mediated ACE expression by compound C66 prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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A range of in vitro, experimental and clinical intervention studies have implicated an important role for hyperglycaemia-induced activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Blockade of RAS by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is an effective strategy in treating diabetic kidney diseases. However, few studies demonstrate the mechanism by which hyperglycaemia up-regulates the expression of ACE gene. Our previous studies have identified a novel curcumin analogue, (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene)cyclohexanone (C66), which could inhibit the high glucose (HG)-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in mouse macrophages. In this study, we found that the renal protection of C66 in diabetic mice was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inactivation and ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) down-regulation. Generally, MAPKs have been considered as a downstream signalling of Ang II and a mediator for Ang II-induced pathophysiological actions. However, using C66 and specific inhibitors as small molecule probes, in vitro experiments demonstrate that the MAPK signalling pathway regulates ACE expression under HG stimulation, which contributes to renal Ang II activation and the development of DN. This study indicates that C66 is a potential candidate of DN therapeutic agents, and more importantly, that reduction in ACE expression by MAPKs inhibition seems to be an alternative strategy for the treatment of DN.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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