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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Simultaneous versus staged liver resection of synchronous liver metastasis from colorectal cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To compare the short- and long-term outcomes of patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases receiving either simultaneous or staged hepatectomy.
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[Immunosuppressive effects of fetal bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on in vitro proliferation of adult peripheral lymphocyte and expression of immune-related factors].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To investigate the potential immunomodulatory properties of fetal bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (FBM- MSCs).
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Immunomodulatory Activity in Vitro and in Vivo of Verbascose from Mung Beans (Phaseolus aureus).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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In the present study, the immunostimulatory activity of verbascose from mung beans (Phaseolus aureus) was evaluated by using in vitro cell models and in vivo animal models. The results of in vitro experiments showed that verbascose could enhance the ability of devouring neutral red of peritoneal macrophages and promote the release of nitric oxide and immune reactive molecules such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, interferon (IFN)-?, and IFN-?. Treatment with verbascose at a dose of 200 ?g/mL exhibited the best effects. For assay in vivo, administration of verbascose at a medium dose of 90 mg/kg body weight could significantly increase the index of spleen, activity of lysozyme in spleen and serum, hemolysin level in serum, and swelling rate of earlap in the delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) of immunosuppressed mice. All of the results suggested that verbascose had potent immunostimulatory activity and could be explored as a potential natural immunomodulatory agent in functional foods.
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[Genome sequencing and the molecular evolutionary analysis of a SFTSV isolated from Zhejiang province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To sequence the whole genome and to analyze the molecular and evolutionary of Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) isolated from Zhejiang province.
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Effects of Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me on pancreatic ?-amylase activity in vitro.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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In order to investigate the inhibitory effects and possible mechanisms of Oolong tea polyphenols, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3?Me) on pancreatic ?-amylase, the inhibition, enzyme kinetics, ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of ?-amylase were investigated. The results showed that Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me all exhibited inhibitory effects against ?-amylase, and their half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were 0.375, 0.350, and 0.572 mg/mL, respectively. The results of Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot indicated that the inhibitory types of Oolong tea polyphenols and EGCG were competitive, whereas EGCG3?Me was in a noncompetitive pattern. Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me all induced red-shift of UV absorbance and quenching of fluorescence of ?-amylase, suggesting possible changes in the conformation of ?-amylase. The differences of inhibitory effects and inhibition types for EGCG and EGCG3?Me might be due to their structural difference (the hydroxyl group at C-3 in D ring of EGCG substituted by methoxy group, forming EGCG3?Me).
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SAG/RBX2 is a novel substrate of NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and mediates NEDD4-1 induced chemosensitization.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), also known as RBX2, ROC2, or RNF7, is a RING component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, which regulates cellular functions through ubiquitylation and degradation of many protein substrates. Although our previous studies showed that SAG is transcriptionally induced by redox, mitogen and hypoxia via AP-1 and HIF-1, it is completely unknown whether and how SAG is ubiquitylated and degraded. Here we report that NEDD4-1, a HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, binds via its HECT domain directly with SAG's C-terminal RING domain and ubiquitylates SAG for proteasome-mediated degradation. Consistently, SAG protein half-life is shortened or extended by NEDD4-1 overexpression or silencing, respectively. We also found that SAG bridges NEDD4-1 via its C-terminus and CUL-5 via its N-terminus to form a NEDD4-1/SAG/CUL-5 tri-complex. Biologically, NEDD4-1 overexpression sensitizes cancer cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis by reducing SAG levels through targeted degradation. Thus, SAG is added to a growing list of NEDD4-1 substrates and mediates its biological function.
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PET Imaging of Neovascularization with (68)Ga-3PRGD2 for Assessing Tumor Early Response to Endostar Antiangiogenic Therapy.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Antiangiogenic therapy is an effective strategy to inhibit tumor growth. Endostar, as an approved antiangiogenesis agent, inhibits the newborn vascular endothelial cells, causing the decrease of integrin ?v?3 expression. Radiolabeled 3PRGD2, a novel PEGlayted RGD dimer probe (PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2) showed highly specific targeting capability to integrin ?v?3, which could be used for monitoring the efficacy of Endostar antiangiogenic therapy. In this study, (68)Ga-3PRGD2 PET imaging was performed in Endostar treated/untreated Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) mice on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-treatment for monitoring the tumor response to Endostar treatment, with the (18)F-FDG imaging as control. As a result, (68)Ga-3PRGD2 PET reflected the tumor response to Endostar antiangiogenic therapy much earlier (day 3 post-treatment vs day 14 post-treatment) and more accurately than that of (18)F-FDG metabolic imaging, which provides new opportunities to develop individualized therapeutic approaches, establish optimized dosages and dose intervals for effective treatment that improve the survival rate of patients.
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Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.
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Ribosomal protein S27-like is a physiological regulator of p53 that suppresses genomic instability and tumorigenesis.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Cell-based studies showed that several Mdm2-binding ribosomal proteins, upon overexpression, stabilize and activate p53. In contrast, here we show in a mouse knockout study that Mdm2-binding ribosomal protein S27-like (Rps27l), upon disruption, activates p53. Germline inactivation of Rps27l triggers ribosomal stress to stabilize Mdm2, which degrades Mdm4 to reduce Mdm2-Mdm4 E3 ligase towards p53, leading to p53-dependent apoptotic depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and postnatal death, which is rescued by Trp53 deletion. Paradoxically, while increased p53 is expected to inhibit tumorigenesis, Rps27l?/?;Trp53?/? mice develop lymphomas at higher incidence with p53 loss-of-heterozygosity and severe genome aneuploidy, suggesting that Rps27l disruption impose a selection pressure against p53. Thus, Rps27l has dual functions in p53 regulation: under Trp53?/? background, Rps27l disruption triggers ribosomal stress to induce p53 and apoptosis, whereas under Trp53?/? background, Rps27l disruption triggers genomic instability and Trp53 deletion to promote tumorigenesis. Our study provides a new paradigm of p53 regulation.
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Prognostic value of red blood cell distribution width for patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Multiple studies have investigated the prognostic role of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) for patients with heart failure (HF), but the results have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to estimate the impact of RDW on the prognosis of HF by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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High temperature superconducting FeSe films on SrTiO3 substrates.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Interface enhanced superconductivity at two dimensional limit has become one of most intriguing research directions in condensed matter physics. Here, we report the superconducting properties of ultra-thin FeSe films with the thickness of one unit cell (1-UC) grown on conductive and insulating SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. For the 1-UC FeSe on conductive STO substrate (Nb-STO), the magnetization versus temperature (M-T) measurement shows a drop crossover around 85 K. For the FeSe films on insulating STO substrate, systematic transport measurements were carried out and the sheet resistance of FeSe films exhibits Arrhenius TAFF behavior with a crossover from a single-vortex pinning region to a collective creep region. More intriguing, sign reversal of Hall resistance with temperature is observed, demonstrating a crossover from hole conduction to electron conduction above TC in 1-UC FeSe films.
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Crossover from 3D to 2D quantum transport in Bi2Se3/In2Se3 superlattices.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The topological insulator/normal insulator (TI/NI) superlattices (SLs) with multiple Dirac channels are predicted to offer great opportunity to design novel materials and investigate new quantum phenomena. Here, we report first transport studies on the SLs composed of TI Bi2Se3 layers sandwiched by NI In2Se3 layers artificially grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transport properties of two kinds of SL samples show convincing evidence that the transport dimensionality changes from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) when decreasing the thickness of building block Bi2Se3 layers, corresponding to the crossover from coherent TI transport to separated TI channels. Our findings provide the possibility to realizing "3D surface states" in TI/NI SLs.
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[Study on the solid sorbent tube for capturing mercury in the workplace air and determination by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A new KMnO4-MnO2 solid multisorbent tube for capturing mercury in workplace air was developed. Experimental conditions for solid multisorbent tube, efficiency of sampling, desorption efficiency and stability were studied. Mercury and its compounds in air were captured by solid KMnO4-MnO2 sorbent filled tube and desorbed with 0. 90 mol L-1 sulfuric acid solution. Mercury and its compounds were quantitatively analyzed according to the method of GBZ/T 160. 14-2004 cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The linear range of the proposed method was 0. 000 2-0. 015 0 mg L-1 with r=0. 999 1, the average efficiency of sampling was 99. 9%-100. 0% in the concentration range of 0. 001-2. 820 mg m-3 , and the breakthrough capacity was more than 505.4 microg for 300 mg KMnO4-MnO2 solid multisorbent, the average recovery rate was 96. 4% approximately103. 8%, the intra-day and inter-day precision was 3. 0% approximately 3. 3% and 3. 5% approximately 5. 2% respectively, the limit of detection was 0. 0013 mg m-3 (7. 5 L of air ) and 0. 000 6 mg m-3 (96 L of air), after sampling, and the solid multisorbent tube could be kept at least 30 d at room temperature without significant loss. The present method was simple and suitable for capturing mercury and its compounds in the workplace air and ambient air. The solid multisorbent tube was useful for personal sampling and time weighted average sampling.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of intracranial hemangiopericytoma and correlation with pathological findings.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The present study aimed to evaluate the radiological and pathological features of intracranial hemangiopericytoma, and improve the understanding of this tumor. A retrospective analysis of radiological and pathological features of five cases of intracranial hemangiopericytoma was conducted between 2006 and 2012 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. A total of five cases (three males and two females; aged 37-60 years) were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesions were lobulated with iso-intensity T1-weighted image signals and slightly long T2-weighted image signals. Cystic degeneration, necrosis and flow void were observed. The case with the lesion located under the tentorium cerebelli exhibited compression of the fourth ventricle with lateral ventricle dilatation hydrocephalus. In all cases, the solid section of the lesion was markedly enhanced following injection of the contrast agent, and intratumoral vessels were observed. No case exhibited the dural tail sign. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive expression of cluster of differentiation 34(CD34), vimentin and CD99, and negative expression of epithelial membrane antigen, S100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining revealed that <5% of cells expressed Ki-67 in two cases and 5-10% of cells expressed Ki-67 in three cases. In conclusion, intracranial hemangiopericytoma exhibits certain distinctive characteristics in radiological examination, allowing for improved diagnosis. However, pathological examination is required for confirmation.
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Primary neuronal-astrocytic co-culture platform for neurotoxicity assessment of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Plastics such as polyvinyl chlorides (PVC) are widely used in many indoor constructed environments; however, their unbound chemicals, such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP), can leach into the surrounding environment. This study focused on DEHP's effect on the central nervous system by determining the precise DEHP content in mice brain tissue after exposure to the chemical, to evaluate the specific exposure range. Primary neuronal-astrocyte co-culture systems were used as in vitro models for chemical hazard identification of DEHP. Oxidative stress was hypothesized as a probable mechanism involved, and therefore the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration was determined as a biomarker of oxidative stress. In addition, NeuriteTracer, a neurite tracing plugin with ImageJ, was used to develop an assay for neurotoxicity to provide quantitative measurements of neurological parameters, such as neuronal number, neuron count and neurite length, all of which could indicate neurotoxic effects. The results showed that with 1 nmol/L DEHP exposure, there was a significant increase in ROS concentrations, indicating that the neuronal-astrocyte cultures were injured due to exposure to DEHP. In response, astrocyte proliferation (gliosis) was initiated, serving as a mechanism to maintain a homeostatic environment for neurons and protect neurons from toxic chemicals. There is a need to assess the cumulative effects of DEHP in animals to evaluate the possible uptake and effects on the human neuronal system from exposure to DEHP in the indoor environment.
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Antibodies against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in healthy persons, China, 2013.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding suggests that most natural infections with SFTSV are mild or subclinical.
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Design and implementation of magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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This article describes a novel magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation. This direction reference was employed by utilizing a specific magnet configuration between a pair of external permanent magnets and a magnetic shell coated on the external capsule endoscope surface. A pair of customized Cartesian robots, each with only 4 degrees of freedom, was built to hold the external permanent magnets as their end-effectors. These robots, together with their external permanent magnets, were placed on two opposite sides of a "patient bed." Because of the optimized configuration based on magnetic analysis between the external permanent magnets and the magnetic shell, a simplified control strategy was proposed, and only two parameters, yaw step angle and moving step, were necessary for the employed robotic system. Step-by-step experiments demonstrated that the proposed system is capable of magnetically maneuvering the capsule endoscope while providing direction reference for image navigation.
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Stem cell therapy for glaucoma: Science or snake oil?
Surv Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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In recent years there has been substantial progress in developing stem cell treatments for glaucoma. As a downstream approach that targets the underlying susceptibility of retinal ganglion and trabecular meshwork cells, stem cell therapy has the potential to both replace lost, and protect damaged, cells by secreting neurotrophic factors. A variety of sources, including embryonic cells, adult cells derived from the central nervous system, and induced pluripotent stem cells show promise as therapeutic approaches. Even though safety concerns and ethical controversies have limited clinical implementation, some institutions have already commercialized stem cell therapy and are using direct-to-consumer advertising to attract patients with glaucoma. We review the progress of stem cell therapy and its current commercial availability.
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0106?Reduction of occupational accidents: Evidence based prevention and the Prevention Index (PI-TOP).
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Prevention Index (PI-TOP) is a practical measurement tool which is currently used to monitor injury prevention activities at workplaces. This 12-item scoring system has 3 subscales rating technical, organisational and personnel-related internal safety conditions of a company. The reliability and validity of this instrument were evaluated in a cross-sectional survey in the German metal industry during the time between December 2011 and May 2012.
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Privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients' health information and doctors' diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions.
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Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method.
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Attachment Rate of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve to Buccal Plate During Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy Influences Self-Reported Sensory Impairment.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate a modified buccal osteotomy technique and whether the integrity of the lingual part of the lower border influences the attachment of the neurovascular bundle to the proximal segment of the mandible during a sagittal split osteotomy without increasing the number of bad splits. The presence of self-reported sensibility disturbance in the lower lip at the last follow-up visit was assessed. This study included 220 and 133 patients with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy undergoing the classical and the new modified buccal osteotomy techniques, respectively. In the new technique, the lower border is divided into a lingual fragment that remains incorporated in the tooth-bearing fragment and a buccal fragment that comes with the proximal fragment (buccal plate). In the classical technique, the inferior alveolar nerve was attached to the proximal segment of the mandible in more than one third of operation sites (36.36% on the right and 40.91% on the left) compared with less than one fourth of the operation sites using the new technique (9.73% on the right and 23.01% on the left). The overall figure of self-reported changed sensibility was 09.40% (12/128) in the new technique compared to 15.12% in the classical technique. We present a suitable improvement to the classical buccal osteotomy technique that allows less manipulation and injury of the inferior alveolar nerve with consequent reduction in self-reported postoperative changes in lower lip sensation.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
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Impact of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on microbial communities in chinese water-boiled salted duck.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The objective of this study was to determine the impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on microbial communities in Chinese water-boiled salted duck (CWBSD) and the synergistic effect of HHP and mild heat treatment. In this work, the bacterial diversity was evaluated by using both a culture-dependent method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The total aerobic bacterial counts in pressure-treated samples were significantly lower than those in controls, which indicated that HHP could extend the shelf life of CWBSD. Weissella hellenica and Enterobacteriaceae, the predominant bacteria found in CWBSD, were not detected after HHP treatment. On the other hand, Staphylococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. became the predominant bacteria in HHP-treated samples. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was greater at 400 MPa than at 200 MPa combined with mild heat at 40°C. This study investigated the diversity of bacteria in HHP-treated CWBSD, and the information derived from this research may help to understand the bacterial ecology and develop effective HHP treatments to extend the shelf life of CWBSD.
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[Metabonomic study on the anti-liver injury effect of Si-Ni-San on rats by using UPLC-MS/MS].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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A UPLC-MS/MS method based on metabonomic skills was developed to study the serum metabolic changes of rats after acute liver injury induced by CCl4 and to evaluate the action mechanism of Si-Ni-San. The integrated data were exported for principal components analysis (PCA) by using SIMCA-P software, in order to find the potential biomarkers. It showed that clear separation of healthy control group, model group, silymarin group, Si-Ni-San group was achieved by using the PCA method. Nine significantly changed metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of acute liver injury. Compared with the health control group, the model group rats showed higher levels of phenylalanine, tryptophan and GCDCA together with lower levels of LPC 16 : 0, LPC 18 : 0, LPC 18 : 1, LPC 16 : 1, LPC 20 : 4 and LPC 22 : 6. These changes of serum metabolites suggested that the disorders of amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidative damage were related to acute liver injury induced by CCl4. Si-Ni-San might have the anti-liver injury effect on all these four metabolic pathways.
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Red blood cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio are positively correlated with disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are increased in various inflammation related diseases, but their clinical significance in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of RDW and NLR in pSS patients.
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Lower homologues of ahpatinin, aspartic protease inhibitors, from a marine Streptomyces sp.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Two linear peptides, ahpatinin Ac (1) and ahpatinin Pr (2), were isolated together with the known ahpatinin (i)Bu, pepstatin Ac, pepstatin Pr, and pepsinostreptin from a Streptomyces sp. derived from a deep-sea sediment. The structure of ahpatinin Pr (2) was assigned by interpretation of NMR data and HPLC analysis of the hydrolysate after converting to the DNP-L-Val derivative. During the LCMS analysis of the acid hydrolysate, products arising from the retro-aldol cleavage of the statine and Ahppa units in 2 were observed and could facilitate the determination of the absolute configuration of the statine class of nonproteinogenic amino acids. Both ahpatinin Ac (1) and ahpatinin Pr (2) potently inhibited pepsin and moderately inhibited cathepsin B.
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Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery by Collagen-Binding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in an Intracerebral Hemorrhage Model.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts therapeutic effects following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, it is difficult to maintain sufficient concentrations in the hemorrhage hemisphere. We demonstrated previously that BDNF fused to a collagen-binding domain (CBD) could bind to collagen in the ventricular ependyma and stimulate cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ). In this study, we verified the therapeutic effects of CBD-BDNF in the rat ICH model induced by bacterial collagenase by injecting CBD-BDNF into the lateral ventricle of ICH rats. The results demonstrated that CBD-BDNF was retained at high levels in the hemorrhage hemisphere, where it promoted neural regeneration and angiogenesis, reduced tissue loss, and improved functional recovery.
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The A395T Mutation in ERG11 Gene Confers Fluconazole Resistance in Candida tropicalis Causing Candidemia.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis is still unclear. Recently, we isolated a fluconazole-resistant strain of C. tropicalis from the blood specimen of a patient with candidemia in China. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate was determined by using CLSI M27-A3 and E-test methods. The sequence of ERG11 gene was then analyzed, and the three-dimensional model of Erg11p encoded by ERG11 gene was also investigated. The sequencing of ERG11 gene revealed the mutation of A395T in this fluconazole-resistant isolate of C. tropicalis, resulting in the Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional model comparison of Erg11ps showed high similarity between fluconazole-susceptible isolates of C. tropicalis and Candida albicans. The comparison of the three-dimensional models of Erg11ps demonstrated that the position of the Y132F substitution in this isolate of C. tropicalis is identical to the isolate of C. albicans with fluconazole resistance resulting from Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Hence, we ascertain that the Y132F substitution of Erg11p caused by A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers the fluconazole resistance in C. tropicalis.
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Bottom-up low molecular weight heparin analysis using liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry for extensive characterization.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are heterogeneous, polydisperse, and highly negatively charged mixtures of glycosaminoglycan chains prescribed as anticoagulants. The detailed characterization of LMWH is important for the drug quality assurance and for new drug research and development. In this study, online hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) was applied to analyze the oligosaccharide fragments of LMWHs generated by heparin lyase II digestion. More than 40 oligosaccharide fragments of LMWH were quantified and used to compare LMWHs prepared by three different manufacturers. The quantified fragment structures included unsaturated disaccharides/oligosaccharides arising from the prominent repeating units of these LMWHs, 3-O-sulfo containing tetrasaccharides arising from their antithrombin III binding sites, 1,6-anhydro ring-containing oligosaccharides formed during their manufacture, saturated uronic acid oligosaccharides coming from some chain nonreducing ends, and oxidized linkage region oligosaccharides coming from some chain reducing ends. This bottom-up approach provides rich detailed structural analysis and quantitative information with high accuracy and reproducibility. When combined with the top-down approach, HILIC LC-FTMS based analysis should be suitable for the advanced quality control and quality assurance in LMWH production.
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[Predictors and outcomes of recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To explore the outcomes of different recurrence patterns and recurrence-related factors after hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM).
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Vector competence of the tick Ixodes sinensis (Acari: Ixodidae) for Rickettsia monacensis.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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BackgroundCases of Mediterranean Spotted Fever like rickettsioses, caused by Rickettsia monacensis, have become more common in the last 10 years. In China, natural infection of R. monacensis in various tick species has been confirmed but the vector(s) of R. monacensis have not been recorded.MethodsThe prevalence of R. monacensis in >1500 Ixodidae ticks from central and southern China was determined using centrifugation-shell vial culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. The predominant species, Ixodes sinensis, harbored a natural infection of R. monacensis and was assumed to be a vector candidate of R. monacensis. Experimental transmissions were initialized by infecting Rickettsia-free tick colonies with R. monacensis using capillary tube feeding (CTF) or immersion techniques. Transstadial and transovarial transmissions, and transmission from ticks to mice, were conducted under laboratory conditions.Results R. monacensis was isolated and identified from hemolymph of Ixodes sinensis using molecular techniques. Transovarial transmission of R. monacensis from infected ¿I. sinensis to offspring was documented and infected offspring successfully passed Rickettsia to mice. Transstadial transmission rates were 58% in larva to nymph and 56% in nymph to adult stages. Infected nymphs and adults were also able to infect mice.Conclusions I. sinensis is a competence vector for R. monacensis as demonstrated by natural infection and transmission studies.
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PARK7 protein translocating into spermatozoa mitochondria in Chinese asthenozoospermia.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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PARK7 (DJ1) is a multifunctional oxidative stress response protein that protects cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial damage. PARK7 defects are known to cause various physiological dysfunctions, including infertility. Asthenozoospermia (AS), i.e. low-motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate, is a common cause of human male infertility. In this study, we found that downregulation of PARK7 resulted in increased levels of lipid peroxide and ROS, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced mitochondrial complex I enzyme activity in the spermatozoa from AS patients. Furthermore, it was observed that PARK7 was translocated into the mitochondria of damaged spermatozoa in AS. Finally, we examined the oxidative state of PARK7 and the results demonstrated the enhancement of oxidation, expressed by increased sulfonic acid residues, the highest form of oxidation, as the sperm motility decreased. Taken together, these results revealed that PARK7 deficiency may increase the oxidative stress damage to spermatozoa. Our present findings open new avenues of therapeutic intervention targeting PARK7 for the treatment of AS.
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Coronin3 regulates gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by interacting with Arp2.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Coronin3 expression is increased in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and can promote GC invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying Coronin3 function in GC remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the interacting molecules essential for the tumor-promoting effects of Coronin3 in GC. Using mass spectrometric analysis, functional studies, and immunohistochemistry, we found that Arp2 interacted with Coronin3, and ectopic expression of Arp2 promoted GC cell migration and invasion, while Arp2 knockdown suppressed whole-cell motility and attenuated the Coronin3-mediated upregulation of cell migration and invasion. In addition, both proteins correlated with the metastatic status of GC patients. Furthermore, survival analyses demonstrated that both Coronin3 and Arp2 correlated with overall GC patient survival, and the combination of Coronin3 and Arp2 most accurately predicted GC patient prognosis. Combined, these data demonstrate that Coronin3 can regulate GC invasion and metastasis through Arp2, and the combination of Coronin3 and Arp2 provides a potential marker for predicting GC prognosis.
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Safe surgical access to the mandibular nerve at the infratemporal fossae.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Some anatomic patterns formed by the anterior border of the ascending ramus relative to the mandibular canal can cause nerve complications during surgery. We determined the frequency of obstructive anatomy in patients undergoing jaw surgery, and we described a perioperative method for a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy that ensured inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) protection. The anatomy of the anterior border of the ascending ramus of the mandible was examined on axial and cross-sectional cone beam computed tomographic images of 114 consecutive patients undergoing bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. The thickness of the anterior border of the ascending ramus determined whether the mandibular foramen could be visualized (pattern A) or was obscured (pattern B). Patients with pattern B anatomy received a perioperative procedure. Direct visualization of the mandibular foramen was achieved in 100% of patients with pattern A anatomy. We examined 228 anterior borders of the ascending ramus of the mandible relative to the mandibular foramen in 114 patients. Pattern A was observed in 146 cases (64%); pattern B, in 82 (36%) cases. The use of the nerve hook resulted in no injuries to the IAN in all cases. The described procedure ensured direct visualization of the IAN, which prevented inadvertent damage to the IAN during instrumentation and surgical procedures at the mandibular foramen.
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MicroRNA-222 promotes the proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the role of small non-coding RNA-222 (microRNA-222; miR-222) in the development of cervical cancer (CC).
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Overactivated neddylation pathway as a therapeutic target in lung cancer.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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A number of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors are known to be neddylated, but whether the neddylation pathway is entirely activated in human cancer remains unexplored.
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Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of one-dimensional and two-dimensional traffic flows: Comparison of two look-ahead rules.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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We employ an efficient list-based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method to study traffic flow models on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) lattices based on the exclusion principle and Arrhenius microscopic dynamics. This model implements stochastic rules for cars' movements based on the configuration of the traffic ahead of each car. In particular, we compare two different look-ahead rules: one is based on the distance from the car under consideration to the car in front of it, and the other one is based on the density of cars ahead. The 1D numerical results of these two rules suggest different coarse-grained macroscopic limits in the form of integro-differential Burgers equations. The 2D results of both rules exhibit a sharp phase transition from freely flowing to fully jammed, as a function of the initial density of cars. However, the look-ahead rule based on the density of the traffic produces more realistic results. The KMC simulations reported in this paper are compared with those from other well-known traffic flow models and the corresponding empirical results from real traffic.
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Ran GTPase protein promotes metastasis and invasion in pancreatic cancer by deregulating the expression of AR and CXCR4.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Ran, a member of the RasGTPase family, has been showed to function in diverse cellular processes of cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Ran on the cell motility in pancreatic cancer cells and explored the possible mechanism of Ran's function in the metastasis of pancreatic cancer. We demonstrated that the expression of Ran was remarkably higher in lymph lode metastases than in primary pancreatic cancer tissues. In the functional studies, stable knockdown of Ran by shRNA could efficiently inhibit the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. By PCR array, we analyzed the differences in the expression levels of metastasis-associated genes before and after the downregulation of Ran, and it was showed that the regulation of pancreatic cancer metastasis by Ran was partially mediated by AR and CXCR4. We further confirmed that AR and CXCR4 were significantly decreased following knockdown of Ran. These data indicated that Ran could regulate the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells through AR and CXCR4.
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Focus on vulnerable populations and promoting equity in health service utilization--an analysis of visitor characteristics and service utilization of the Chinese community health service.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Community health service in China is designed to provide a convenient and affordable primary health service for the city residents, and to promote health equity. Based on data from a large national study of 35 cities across China, we examined the characteristics of the patients and the utilization of community health institutions (CHIs), and assessed the role of community health service in promoting equity in health service utilization for community residents.
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Robotic Implantation of Biodegradable Regenerative Urinary Conduit: Experimental Study.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To determine the feasibility and develop a robotic technique for intracorporeal implantation of a biodegradable tubular scaffold seeded with adipose-sourced smooth muscle cells (Neo-Urinary-Conduit) that, when implanted as a conduit for urinary diversion, facilitates regeneration of native-like neourinary tissue. Materials and Methods: Robotic NUC implantation was performed in two fresh male cadavers. The greater omentum was widely detached from the greater curvature of the stomach, in preparation for final wrapping of the conduit. Bilateral ureters were mobilized for implantation. The NUC, with two precreated ureteral openings, was inserted into the abdomen. Bilateral, stented uretero-NUC anastomoses were created. The NUC was circumferentially wrapped with the predissected omentum, exteriorized through the abdominal wall, and maturated. Results: Both procedures were successfully completed intracorporeally. Operative time for NUC implantation was 90 and 100 minutes, respectively. Examination of gross anatomy showed no injury to other organs. There was no omental kinking, rotation, eversion, or stripping from the NUC. Bilateral stents were confirmed to be in situ with the proximal coil in the kidney. Uretero-NUC anastomoses and omentum were tension free. The entire NUC, including its distal edge and posterior aspect, was circumferentially wrapped 360 degrees. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility and developed a robotic technique for intracorporeal implantation of a biodegradable regenerative urinary conduit. This study serves as the foundation for the robotic surgical technique before the clinical application.
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Young Leaf Chlorosis 2 encodes the stroma-localized heme oxygenase 2 which is required for normal tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in rice.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Rice heme oxygenase 2 (OsHO2) mutants are chlorophyll deficient with distinct tetrapyrrole metabolite and transcript profiles, suggesting a potential regulatory role of the stromal-localized OsHO2 in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. In plants, heme oxygenases (HOs) are classified into the subfamilies HO1 and HO2. HO1 are highly conserved plastid enzymes required for synthesizing the chromophore in phytochromes which mediate a number of light-regulated responses. However, the physiological and biochemical functions of HO2, which are distantly related to HO1, are not well understood, especially in crop plants. From a population of (60)Co?-irradiated rice mutants, we identified the ylc2 (young leaf chlorosis 2) mutant which displays a chlorosis phenotype in seedlings with substantially reduced chlorophyll content. Normal leaf pigmentation is gradually restored in older plants while newly emerged leaves remain yellow. Transmission electron microscopy further revealed defective chloroplast structures in the ylc2 seedlings. Map-based cloning located the OsYLC2 gene on chromosome 3 and it encodes the OsHO2 protein. The gene identification was confirmed by complementation and T-DNA mutant analyses. Subcellular localization and chloroplast fractionation experiments indicated that OsHO2 resides in the stroma. However, recombinant enzyme assay demonstrated that OsHO2 is not a functional HO enzyme. Analysis of tetrapyrrole metabolites revealed the reduced levels of most chlorophyll and phytochromobilin precursors in the ylc2 mutant. On the other hand, elevated accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid and Mg-protoporphyrin IX was observed. These unique metabolite changes are accompanied by consistent changes in the expression levels of the corresponding tetrapyrrole biosynthesis genes. Taken together, our work suggests that OsHO2 has a potential regulatory role for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in rice.
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Distribution of Intravascular and Extravascular Extracellular Volume Fractions by Total Area under Curve for Neovascularization Assessment by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
J Med Signals Sens
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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In this paper, we propose and investigate distribution of intravascular and extravascular extracellular volume fractions (DIEEF) as a noninvasive biomarker for neovascularization assessment by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). A generalized two-compartment exchange model (G2CXM) that uniformly includes the Patlak model, Tofts model, extended Tofts model, and recent two-compartment exchange model as special instances is first presented. Based on the total area under curve of the G2CXM a method of DIEEF estimation without knowing the artery input function is proposed. The mean square error of DIEEF estimate in the presence of noise and with incomplete DCE-MRI data is analyzed. Simulation results demonstrate that DIEEF estimate is accurate when signal to noise ratio is only 5 dB in both cases of tracer infusion and bolus injection, and slightly favors the bolus injection. Tested on a model of atherosclerotic rabbits, the DIEEF of aorta plaques is positively correlated with the histological neovessel count with correlation coefficient of 0.940 and P = 0.017, and outperforms six semiquantitative parameters in the literature. DIEEF might be useful as a biomarker for noninvasive neovascularization assessment by DCE-MRI.
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Differential gene expression in proximal and distal nerve segments of rats with sciatic nerve injury during Wallerian degeneration.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Although gene expression responses in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve after peripheral nerve injury are known, differences in gene expression between the proximal and distal segments remain unclear. In the present study in rats, we used microarrays to analyze changes in gene expression, biological processes and signaling pathways in the proximal and distal segments of sciatic nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration. More than 6,000 genes were differentially expressed and 20 types of expression tendencies were identified, mainly between proximal and distal segments at 7-14 days after injury. The differentially expressed genes were those involved in cell differentiation, cytokinesis, neuron differentiation, nerve development and axon regeneration. Furthermore, 11 biological processes were represented, related to responses to stimuli, cell apoptosis, inflammatory response, immune response, signal transduction, protein kinase activity, and cell proliferation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, microarray data were verified for four genes: aquaporin-4, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, matrix metalloproteinase-12 and periaxin. Our study identifies differential gene expression in the proximal and distal segments of a nerve during Wallerian degeneration, analyzes dynamic biological changes of these genes, and provides a useful platform for the detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration.
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Trace levels of mitomycin C disrupt genomic integrity and lead to DNA damage response defect in long-term-cultured human embryonic stem cells.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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How to maintain the genetic integrity of cultured human embryonic stem (hES) cells is raising crucial concerns for future clinical use in regenerative medicine. Mitomycin C(MMC), a DNA damage agent, is widely used for preparation of feeder cells in many laboratories. However, to what extent MMC affects the karyotypic stability of hES cells is not clear. Here, we measured residual MMC using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry following each step of feeder preparation and found that 2.26 ± 0.77 and 3.50 ± 0.92 ng/ml remained in mouse feeder cells and human feeder cells, respectively. In addition, different amounts of MMC caused different chromosomal aberrations in hES cells. In particular, one abnormality, dup(1)(p32p36), was the same identical to one we previously reported in another hES cell line. Using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 arrays, the copy number variation changes of the hES cells maintained on MMC-inactivated feeders (MMC-feeder) were significantly more than those cultured on ?-inactivated feeder (IR-feeder) cells. Furthermore, DNA damage response (DDR) genes were down-regulated during long-term culture in the MMC-containing system, leading to DDR defect and shortened telomeres of hES cells, a sign of genomic instability. Therefore, MMC-feeder and MMC-induced genomic variation present an important safety problem that would limit such hES from being applied for future clinic use and drug screening.
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Isolation and characterization of H7N9 avian influenza A virus from humans with respiratory diseases in Zhejiang, China.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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In 2013, the novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus was reported in China. Through enhanced surveillance, infection by the H7N9 virus in humans was first identified in Zhejiang Province. Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the infection. Embryonated chicken eggs were used for virus isolation from pharyngeal swabs taken from infected human patients. The H7N9 isolates were first identified by the hemagglutination test and electron microscopy, then used for whole genome sequencing. Bioinformatics software was used to construct the phylogenetic tree and for computing the mean rate of evolution of the HA gene in H7Nx and NA in HxN9. Two novel H7N9 avian influenza A viruses (A/Zhejiang/1/2013 and A/Zhejiang/2/2013) were isolated from the positive infection cases. Substitutions were found in both Zhejiang isolates and were identified as human-type viruses. All phylogenetic results indicated that the novel reassortant in H7N9 originated in viruses that infected birds. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome revealed the mean rate of evolution of the HA gene in H7NX to be 5.74E-3 (95% Highest posterior density: 3.8218E-3 to 7.7873E-3) while the NA gene showed 2.243E-3 (4.378E-4 to 3.79E-3) substitutions per nucleotide site per year. The novel reassortant H7N9 virus was confirmed by molecular methods to have originated in poultry, with the mutations occurring during the spread of the H7N9 virus infection. Live poultry markets played an important role in whole H7N9 circulation.
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Phytotoxic cis-clerodane diterpenoids from the Chinese liverwort Scapania stephanii.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Five cis-clerodane diterpenoids, stephanialides A-E, along with seven known cis-clerodanes, scaparvins A-C, parvitexins B and C, 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-parvitexin A, and scapanialide B, were isolated from the Chinese liverwort Scapania stephanii. Their structures were established unequivocally on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of stephanialide A was determined by analysis of CD data using the octant rule. Phytotoxic activity evaluation showed that this type of diterpenoids can significantly inhibit root elongation of the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, Lepidium sativum and Brassica pekinensis.
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Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an incurable metabolic disease constituting a major threat to human health. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in the treatment of DM. The development of an efficient IPC induction system is a crucial step for the clinical application of IPCs for DM. Laminin 411 is a key component of the basement membrane and is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation; however, little is known about a role of laminin 411 in the regulation of IPC differentiation from human MSCs.
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Target network differences between western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients in treating cardiovascular disease.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients.
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Crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization of bulk states in ultrathin Bi?Se? films.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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We report transport studies on the 5 nm thick Bi?Se? topological insulator films which are grown via molecular beam epitaxy technique. The angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data show that the Fermi level of the system lies in the bulk conduction band above the Dirac point, suggesting important contribution of bulk states to the transport results. In particular, the crossover from weak antilocalization to weak localization in the bulk states is observed in the parallel magnetic field measurements up to 50 Tesla. The measured magneto-resistance exhibits interesting anisotropy with respect to the orientation of parallel magnetic field B// and the current I, signifying intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the Bi?Se? films. Our work directly shows the crossover of quantum interference effect in the bulk states from weak antilocalization to weak localization. It presents an important step toward a better understanding of the existing three-dimensional topological insulators and the potential applications of nano-scale topological insulator devices.
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Injectable in situ forming hybrid iron oxide-hyaluronic acid hydrogel for magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery.
Macromol Biosci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The development of multimodal in situ cross-linkable hyaluronic acid nanogels hybridized with iron oxide nanoparticles is reported. Utilizing a chemoselective hydrazone coupling reaction, the nanogels are converted to a macroscopic hybrid hydrogel without any additional reagent. Hydrophobic cargos remain encapsulated in the hydrophobic domains of the hybrid hydrogel without leakage. However, hydrogel degradation with hyaluronidase liberates iron oxide nanoparticles. This allows the utilization of imaging agents as tracers of the hydrogel degradation. UV-vis spectrometry and MRI studies reveal that the degradability of the hydrogels correlates with their structure. The hydrogels presented here are very promising theranostic tools for hyaluronidase-mediated delivery of hydrophobic drugs, as well as imaging of hydrogel degradation and tracking of degradation products in vivo.
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Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for 19F magnetic resonance imaging.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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We report on a 19F labeled injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel that can be monitored by both 1H and 19F MR imaging. The HA based hydrogel formed via carbazone reaction can be obtained within a minute by simple mixing of HA-carbazate and HA-aldehyde derivatized polymers. 19F contrast agent was linked to with carbazate and thiol dually functionalized HA via orthogonal Michael addition reaction which afforded cross-linkable and 19F labeled HA. The 19F labeling of HA polymer did not affect the mechanical properties of the formed hydrogel. As a result, the shape of a hydrogel sample could be imaged very well by both 1H MRI and high resolution 19F MRI. This hydrogel has high potential in clinical applications since it is injectable, biocompatible, and can be tracked in a minimally invasive manner. The present approach can be applied in preparation of injectable 19F labeled hydrogel biomaterials from other natural biomacromolecules.
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Two-cloud-servers-assisted secure outsourcing multiparty computation.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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We focus on how to securely outsource computation task to the cloud and propose a secure outsourcing multiparty computation protocol on lattice-based encrypted data in two-cloud-servers scenario. Our main idea is to transform the outsourced data respectively encrypted by different users' public keys to the ones that are encrypted by the same two private keys of the two assisted servers so that it is feasible to operate on the transformed ciphertexts to compute an encrypted result following the function to be computed. In order to keep the privacy of the result, the two servers cooperatively produce a custom-made result for each user that is authorized to get the result so that all authorized users can recover the desired result while other unauthorized ones including the two servers cannot. Compared with previous research, our protocol is completely noninteractive between any users, and both of the computation and the communication complexities of each user in our solution are independent of the computing function.
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APC(Cdc20) suppresses apoptosis through targeting Bim for ubiquitination and destruction.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Anaphase-promoting complex Cdc20 (APC(Cdc20)) plays pivotal roles in governing mitotic progression. By suppressing APC(Cdc20), antimitotic agents activate the spindle-assembly checkpoint and induce apoptosis after prolonged treatment, whereas depleting endogenous Cdc20 suppresses tumorigenesis in part by triggering mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying apoptosis induced by Cdc20 abrogation remains poorly understood. Here, we report the BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bim as an APC(Cdc20) target, such that depletion of Cdc20 sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli. Strikingly, Cdc20 and multiple APC-core components were identified in a small interfering RNA screen that, upon knockdown, sensitizes otherwise resistant cancer cells to chemoradiation in a Bim-dependent manner. Consistently, human adult T cell leukemia cells that acquire elevated APC(Cdc20) activity via expressing the Tax viral oncoprotein exhibit reduced Bim levels and resistance to anticancer agents. These results reveal an important role for APC(Cdc20) in governing apoptosis, strengthening the rationale for developing specific Cdc20 inhibitors as effective anticancer agents.
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Overexpression of HSBP1 is associated with resistance to radiotherapy in oral squamous epithelial carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1) has been recognized to regulate early embryonic development. However, HSBP1 expression and function in oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) have not been studied. We found that HSBP1 expression was elevated in OSCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissue. Although increased HSBP1 expression was not associated with clinical stage of the disease, it significantly related to outcome after radiotherapy (P < 0.01). Overexpression of HSBP1 enhanced sensitivity of OSCC cells in radiation. Moreover, HSBP1 elevated expression of stem cell markers such as CD44, CD133, ALDH and SOX2, and subsequently enhanced mammosphere formation ability, indicating it drives stem cell-like status in OSCC cells. Furthermore, in mice xenograft tumor model, HSBP1 increased sensitivity of OSCC to radiotherapy. Above all, HSBP1 is a potential marker for prognosis of OSCC after radiotherapy.
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Characterization of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in rural regions of zhejiang, china.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infections have recently been found in rural regions of Zhejiang. A severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) surveillance and sero-epidemiological investigation was conducted in the districts with outbreaks. During the study period of 2011-2014, a total of 51 SFTSV infection cases were identified and the case fatality rate was 12% (6/51). Ninety two percent of the patients (47/51) were over 50 years of age, and 63% (32/51) of laboratory confirmed cases occurred from May to July. Nine percent (11/120) of the serum samples from local healthy people without symptoms were found to be positive for antibodies to the SFTS virus. SFTSV strains were isolated by culture using Vero, and the whole genomic sequences of two SFTSV strains (01 and Zhao) were sequenced and submitted to the GenBank. Homology analysis showed that the similarity of the target nucleocapsid gene from the SFTSV strains from different geographic areas was 94.2-100%. From the constructed phylogenetic tree, it was found that all the SFTSV strains diverged into two main clusters. Only the SFTSV strains from the Zhejiang (Daishan) region of China and the Yamaguchi, Miyazakj regions of Japan, were clustered into lineage II, consistent with both of these regions being isolated areas with similar geographic features. Two out of eight predicted linear B cell epitopes from the nucleocapsid protein showed mutations between the SFTSV strains of different clusters, but did not contribute to the binding ability of the specific SFTSV antibodies. This study confirmed that SFTSV has been circulating naturally and can cause a seasonal prevalence in Daishan, China. The results also suggest that the molecular characteristics of SFTSV are associated with the geographic region and all SFTSV strains can be divided into two genotypes.
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CBX8, a novel DNA repair protein, promotes tumorigenesis in human esophageal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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DNA damage response and repair are carried out by certain proteins following damage by environmental clastogens, such as ionizing radiation and reactive oxygen species. It has been reported that many carcinomas that are characterized by resistance to chemotherapy and poor outcomes show dysfunction of these proteins. Chromobox homologue 8 (CBX8), a member of the polycomb group of proteins, has been identified as a factor that protects tumor cells from the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, we found that CBX8 was up-regulated in esophageal carcinoma tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.01) and correlated with TNM stage in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Depletion of CBX8 decreased cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and increased the phosphorylation levels of p21, Wee1, and CHK1, which result in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition and cell-cycle delay. CBX8 depletion also led to accumulation of spontaneous DNA damage and raised the sensitivity of tumor cells to IR or H2O2. We also found that the total level of CBX8 in the cells was increased after treating tumor cells with clastogens. In addition, our data showed that decreased CBX8 expression was accompanied by the reduction of EZH2 and EED, which have been reported to participate in DNA damage repair. Collectively, CBX8 might emerge as an oncogene for promoting the proliferation of tumor cells and raising the resistance of neoplasms to chemotherapy.
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Application of (68)Ga-PRGD2 PET/CT for ?v?3-integrin imaging of myocardial infarction and stroke.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ischemic vascular diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, have been found to be associated with elevated expression of ?v?3-integrin, which provides a promising target for semi-quantitative monitoring of the disease. For the first time, we employed (68)Ga-S-2-(isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 ((68)Ga-PRGD2) to evaluate the ?v?3-integrin-related repair in post-MI and post-stroke patients via positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).
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Accuracy of Dental Implant Placement Using CBCT-Derived Mucosa-Supported Stereolithographic Template.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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The aim of the present in vivo study was to evaluate whether a difference exists between the maxilla and the mandible regarding the precision of implant placement utilizing a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-derived mucosa-supported stereolithographic (SLA) template.
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Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation from human blastocysts to embryonic stem cells.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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High telomerase activity is a characteristic of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), however the regulation and maintenance of correct telomere length in hESCs is unclear. In this study we investigated telomere elongation in hESCs in vitro and found that telomeres lengthened from derivation in blastocysts through early expansion, but telomere length stabilized at later passages. We report that the core unit of telomerase, hTERT, was highly expressed in hESCs in blastocysts and throughout long-term culture; furthermore, this was regulated in a Wnt-?-catenin signaling dependent manner. Our observations that the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway was suppressed in hESCs and that hTERT knockdown partially inhibited telomere elongation, demonstrated that high telomerase activity was required for telomere elongation. We observed that chromatin modification through trimethylation of H3K9 and H4K20 at telomeric regions decreased during early culture. This was concurrent with telomere elongation, suggesting that epigenetic regulation of telomeric chromatin may influence telomerase function. By measuring telomere length in 96 hESC lines, we were able to establish that telomere length remained relatively stable at 12.02±1.01 kb during later passages (15-95). In contrast, hESCs with genomic instability and hESC-derived teratomas displayed variations in telomere length. In summary, we propose that correct, stable telomere length may serve as a potential biomarker for genetically stable hESCs.
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Accuracy of upper jaw positioning with intermediate splint fabrication after virtual planning in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The purpose of the study is to present and discuss a workflow regarding computer-assisted surgical planning for bimaxillary surgery and intermediate splint fabrication. This study describes a protocol starting from wax bite registration to fabrication of the necessary intermediate splint. The procedure is a proof of concept to replace not only the model surgery but also facebow registration and transfer from facebow to articulator. Three different modalities were utilized to obtain this goal: cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), optical dental scanning, and 3-dimensional printing. A universal registration block was designed to register the optical scan of the wax bite to the CBCT data set. Integration of the wax bite avoided problems related to artifacts caused by dental fillings in the occlusal plane of the CBCT scan. Fifteen patients underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. The printed intermediate splint was used during the operation for each patient. A postoperative CBCT scan was taken and registered to the preoperative CBCT scan. The difference between the planned and the actual bony surgical movement at the edge of the upper central incisor was 0.50 ± 0.22 mm in sagittal, 0.57 ± 0.35 mm in vertical, and 0.38 ± 0.35 mm in horizontal direction (midlines). There was no significant difference between the planned and the actual surgical movement in 3 dimensions: sagittal (P = 0.10), vertical (P = 0.69), and horizontal (P = 0.83). In conclusion, under clinical circumstances, the accuracy of the designed intermediate splint satisfied the requirements for bimaxillary surgery.
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A theranostic agent to enhance osteogenic and magnetic resonance imaging properties of calcium phosphate cements.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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With biomimetic biomaterials, like calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), non-invasive assessment of tissue regeneration is challenging. This study describes a theranostic agent (TA) to simultaneously enhance both imaging and osteogenic properties of such a bone substitute material. For this purpose, mesoporous silica beads were produced containing an iron oxide core to enhance bone magnetic resonance (MR) contrast. The same beads were functionalized with silane linkers to immobilize the osteoinductive protein BMP-2, and finally received a calcium phosphate coating, before being embedded in the CPC. Both in vitro and in vivo tests were performed. In vitro testing showed that the TA beads did not interfere with essential material properties like cement setting. Furthermore, bioactive BMP-2 could be efficiently released from the carrier-beads. In vivo testing in a femoral condyle defect rat model showed long-term MR contrast enhancement, as well as improved osteogenic capacity. Moreover, the TA was released during CPC degradation and was not incorporated into the newly formed bone. In conclusion, the described TA was shown to be suitable for longitudinal material degradation and bone healing studies.
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The accuracy of glial fibrillary acidic protein in acute stroke differential diagnosis: A meta-analysis.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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We performed a systematic review of English-language studies published during the past three decades to investigate the diagnostic performance of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for the differential diagnosis of acute stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and cerebral ischemia (CI). QUADAS tools were used to evaluate the quality of the study. Performance characteristics (diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy) were pooled and examined using fixed-effects models. Four studies met the inclusion criteria, and included 109 patients with ICH and 381 patients with CI. The summary estimates for GFAP in the ICH diagnoses had a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.71-0.88), a specificity of 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.94-0.98), and a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119.55 (95% confidence interval: 51.75-276.19). The area under curve (AUC) and Q value for the sROC curves were 0.97 and 0.92, respectively. Therefore, GFAP showed high diagnostic accuracy for acute stroke differential diagnosis.
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Increased expression of Siglec-1 on peripheral blood monocytes and its role in mononuclear cell reactivity to autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Objectives. Elevated expression of Siglec-1 on circulating monocytes has been reported in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its expression and role in RA has not been elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Siglec-1 in peripheral blood and to explore its role in mononuclear cell reactivity to autoantigen in RA.Methods. Siglec-1 protein and mRNA levels in 42 RA patients, 39 OA patients, 28 SLE patients and 42 normal controls were determined by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. In addition, 10 patients with active RA received DMARDs for 12 weeks and the frequencies of Siglec-1-positive cells and the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) were assessed before and after therapy. Furthermore, TNF-?, IFN-? and type II collagen were used to up-regulate Siglec-1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from different groups were stimulated with mitogens or antigens and cell proliferation and cytokine production were determined.Results. The protein and mRNA levels of Siglec-1 on PBMCs and monocytes in RA patients were significantly higher than those in OA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the expression of Siglec-1 protein on PBMCs was positively correlated with DAS28, ESR, high-sensitivity CRP and IgM-RF, but not with anti-CCP antibody. Interestingly, Siglec-1 expression was decreased in parallel with the decrease in the DAS28 after 12 weeks of anti-rheumatic treatment. Furthermore, TNF-?, IFN-? and type II collagen can up-regulate Siglec-1 in PBMCs. Elevated PBMC proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production to collagen stimulation in RA patients decreased when Siglec-1 was inhibited by anti-Siglec-1 antibodies.Conclusion. Elevated Siglec-1 expression in PBMCs and monocytes can potentially serve as a biomarker for monitoring disease activity in RA. Siglec-1 may also play a proinflammatory role in stimulating lymphocyte proliferation and activation in RA.
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[Surgical outcomes of second liver resections for recurrent hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To compare the clinical efficacies and safety of primary versus second liver resection for recurrent colorectal metastases to liver.
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Effects of current crowding on light extraction efficiency of conventional GaN-based light-emitting diodes.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Current crowding effects (CCEs) on light extraction efficiency (LEE) of conventional GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are analyzed through Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulation. The non-uniform radiative power distribution of the active layer of the Monte Carlo model is obtained based on the current spreading theory and rate equation. The simulation results illustrate that CCE around n-pad (n-CCE) has little effect on LEE, while CCE around p-pad (p-CCE) results in a notable LEE droop due to the significant absorption of photons emitted under p-pad. LEE droop is alleviated by a SiO? current blocking layer (CBL) and reflective p-pad. Compared to the conventional LEDs without CBL, the simulated LEE of LEDs with CBL at 20 A/cm² and 70 A/cm² is enhanced by 7.7% and 19.0%, respectively. It is further enhanced by 7.6% and 11.4% after employing a reflective p-pad due to decreased absorption. These enhancements are in accordance with the experimental results. Output power of LEDs with CBL is enhanced by 8.7% and 18.2% at 20 A/cm² and 70 A/cm², respectively. And the reflective p-pad results in a further enhancement of 8.9% and 12.7%.
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In search of nucleus pulposus-specific molecular markers.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Intervertebral disc degeneration usually starts from the inner nucleus pulposus (NP). The majority of previous NP-related studies assessed the outcome by the expression of chondrogenic markers since NP cells are chondrocyte like. However, NP cells are unique from chondrocytes and such assessments may be inappropriate. Very recently, several investigators published their findings about the transcriptional differences between NP cells and other related cell types on a genomic scale. In this review we discuss these recent findings and summarize the molecules that may be utilized as NP-specific markers to distinguish normal NP cells from several cell types and as markers that indicate its degeneration. We will revisit markers that distinguish NP cells from the outer surrounding annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and articular chondrocytes so as to facilitate authentic NP cell engineering from stem cells. Our review indicated that N-cadherin and keratin 19 have the potential to serve as common NP markers, as they distinguish healthy NP cells from AF cells, articular cartilage cells and degenerated NP cells.
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Exposure-response analysis and risk assessment for lung cancer in relationship to silica exposure: a 44-year cohort study of 34,018 workers.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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Crystalline silica has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France); however, few previous studies have provided quantitative data on silica exposure, silicosis, and/or smoking. We investigated a cohort in China (in 1960-2003) of 34,018 workers without exposure to carcinogenic confounders. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated by linking a job-exposure matrix to work history. Cox proportional hazards model was used to conduct exposure-response analysis and risk assessment. During a mean 34.5-year follow-up, 546 lung cancer deaths were identified. Categorical analyses by quartiles of cumulative silica exposure (using a 25-year lag) yielded hazard ratios of 1.26, 1.54, 1.68, and 1.70, respectively, compared with the unexposed group. Monotonic exposure-response trends were observed among nonsilicotics (P for trend < 0.001). Analyses using splines showed similar trends. The joint effect of silica and smoking was more than additive and close to multiplicative. For workers exposed from ages 20 to 65 years at 0.1 mg/m(3) of silica exposure, the estimated excess lifetime risk (through age 75 years) was 0.51%. These findings confirm silica as a human carcinogen and suggest that current exposure limits in many countries might be insufficient to protect workers from lung cancer. They also indicate that smoking cessation could help reduce lung cancer risk for silica-exposed individuals.
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Characterization, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides from Ilex latifolia Thunb.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Crude polysaccharides from the leaves of Ilex latifolia Thunb (ILPS) was fractionated by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography, affording four fractions of ILPS-1, ILPS-2, ILPS-3 and ILPS-4 in the recovery rates of 32.3, 20.6, 18.4 and 10.8%, respectively, based on the amount of crude ILPS used. The four fractions were mainly composed of arabinose and galactose in monosaccharide composition. Compared with ILPS-1 and ILPS-2, ILPS-3 and ILPS-4 had relative higher contents of sulfuric radical and uronic acid. The antioxidant activities in vitro of ILPS decreased in the order of crude ILPS>ILPS-4>ILPS-3>EPS-2>ILPS-1. Furthermore, the administration of crude ILPS significantly prevented the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, reduced the formation of malondialdehyde and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury mice. The results suggested that ILPS should be a potent natural polymer with antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities.
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Ran GTPase protein promotes human pancreatic cancer proliferation by deregulating the expression of Survivin and cell cycle proteins.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Ran, a member of the Ras GTPase family, has important roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Herein, we detected Ran expression in pancreatic cancer and explored its potential role on tumour progression. Overexpressed Ran in pancreatic cancer tissues was found highly correlated with the histological grade. Downregulation of Ran led to significant suppression of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase and induction of apoptosis. In vivo studies also validated that result. Further studies revealed that those effects were at least partly mediated by the downregulation of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, phospho-Rb and Survivin proteins and up regulation of cleaved Caspase-3.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.