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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nanoparticles: are rare-Earth nanoparticles suitable for in vivo applications? (Adv. Mater. 40/2014).
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Rare earth (RE) nanoparticles attract considerable attention in biomedical applications due to their unique optical and magnetic properties associated with f-electrons. On page 6922, M. Y. Gao and co-workers summarize the recent achievements in controlled synthesis of magnetic and luminescent RE nanoparticles, surface modification, and toxicity studies of RE nanomaterials, and highlight state-of-the-art in vivo applications of RE nanoparticles.
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Exogenous thymine DNA glycosylase regulates epigenetic modifications and meiotic cell cycle progression of mouse oocytes.
Mol. Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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In mammalian cells, 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) can be transformed into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by the methylcytosine dioxygenase TET proteins (TET1, TET2 and TET3). Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), a downstream enzyme of TET proteins, not only functions in base excision repair, but also acts as a key enzyme that participates in active DNA demethylation. Here we microinjected exogenous TDG-mCherry mRNAs into germinal vesicle (GV) stage mouse oocytes, and found that initially TDG-mCherry localized in the nucleus. Just before GV breakdown (GVBD), TDG-mCherry was released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. In contrast with TDG, another active DNA demethylation-associated enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) became localized in the cytoplasm of GV oocytes, but entered the nucleus of oocytes just before GVBD. However, both TDG and AID could enter the G0 stage nuclei of cumulus cells injected into the ooplasm. To analyze the effects of TDG on oocyte maturation, we over-expressed TDG-mCherry in GV oocytes, and found that the rates of both GVBD and polar body extrusion rate were significantly decreased. When the TDG over-expressed oocytes were blocked at the GV stage, the oocyte chromatin became decondensed, and the histone 3 trimethyl lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and H3K9me2 levels were decreased. We also found that TDG could reduce the 5-meC level of oocyte genomic DNA. All these results indicate that aberrant TDG expression causes epigenetic modifications and meiotic cell cycle arrest of mouse oocytes.
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Perihematomal perfusion typing and spot sign of acute intracerebral hemorrhage with multimode computed tomography: a preliminary study.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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OBJECTIVE To explore the perihematomal perfusion typing and spot sign on computed tomography angiography (CTA) source images in order to assist in individualizing therapeutic decisions for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage by possibly forecasting perihematomal ischemia and hematoma enlargement. METHODS We examined 58 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage by computed tomography perfusion and CTA within 6 hours after symptom onset. Hematoma volumes were determined from non-contrast CT images and compared between first and second CT images. The perfusion of hematoma region and perihematoma region was evaluated for presence or absence of the perihematomal penumbra. Three kinds of perihematoma perfusion typing were defined according to the perfusion of hematoma region and perihematoma region. CTA source images was reviewed to make sure presence or absence of the spot sign. RESULTS Finally, 53 patients (34 males, 19 females) were enrolled in our study according to exclusion criteria. Finally, 21 patients were classified into the normal group, 23 patients were classified into the mild group, and 9 patients were classified into the severe group. There were significant differences in hematoma size between the presence and absence of the perihematomal penumbra group (P<0.05). Thirteen (24.5%) patients presented with spot sign. Hematoma expansion occurred in 15 (28.3%) patients on follow-up. In which 12 patients were with spot sign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for expansion were 80.0%, 97.4%, 92.3%, and 92.5%, respectively.
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Evaluation of CYP2C9 Activity in Rats: Use of Tolbutamide Alone and in Combined with Bupropion.
Iran J Pharm Res
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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A "cocktail"of several probe drugs is often used to evaluate metabolic activity of multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes in one session. Some interactions among probe drugs can appear and may impact the rate of biotransformation of other ones. Our presented work was aimed on the influence of bupropion on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of tolbutamide. The biotransformation rates of tolbutamide administered either separately or in combined with bupropion were compared in this study. The results revealed that bupropion had no significant effect on tolbutamide hydroxylation. Thus, due to stability in cytochrome P450 enzyme metabolic activity in the case of combining of two model probe drugs the procedure can show to no extent differential results comparing to the single-marker use.
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[Efficiency and outcome of Boari bladder flap plasty surgery for the treatment of middle and lower ureteral carcinoma].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To study the effect and outcome of Boari bladder flap plasty surgery for the treatment of kidney-sparing strategy for patients with middle and lower ureteral carcinoma.
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Probing the spatial organization of bacteriochlorophyll C by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Green sulfur bacteria, which live in extremely low-light environments, use chlorosomes to harvest light. A chlorosome is the most efficient, and arguably the simplest, light-harvesting antenna complex, which contains hundreds of thousands of densely packed bacteriochlorophylls (BChls). To harvest light efficiently, BChls in a chlorosome form supramolecular aggregates; thus, it is of great interest to determine the organization of the BChls in a chlorosome. In this study, we conducted a (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Mg K-edge X-ray absorption analysis of chlorosomes from wild-type Chlorobaculum tepidum. The X-ray absorption results indicated that the coordination number of the Mg in the chlorosome must be >4, providing evidence that electrostatic interactions formed between the Mg of a BChl and the carbonyl group or the hydroxyl group of the neighboring BChl molecule. According to the intermolecular distance constraints obtained on the basis of (13)C homonuclear dipolar correlation spectroscopy, we determined that the molecular assembly of BChls is dimer-based and that the hydrogen bonds among the BChls are less extensive than commonly presumed because of the twist in the orientation of the BChl dimers. This paper also reports the first (13)C homonuclear correlation spectrum acquired for carotenoids and lipids-which are minor, but crucial, components of chlorosomes-extracted from wild-type Cba. tepidum.
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Late-onset Quetiapine-related Tardive Dyskinesia Side Effects in a Patient with Psychotic Depression.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The atypical antipsychotics were believed to induce less extrapyramidal syndrome, including tardive dyskinesia (TD). Since the introduction of the quetiapine, it is also reported with less TD side effects. It even can relieve the symptoms of severe TD and reduce the risk of TD. The quetiapine's low affinity and fast dissociation from postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors should give the least risk of producing the symptoms of TD. The quetiapine even can reduce the TD side effects related to clozapine, which has the lowest risk for TD. However, since the first case report of TD side effects related to quetiapine published on 1999, the safety of quetiapine in TD aspect has been questioned. Therefore, we want to share this case report, which was written to describe the severe late-onset TD side effects after long-term use of quetiapine in a patient with psychotic depression. The patient had no significant findings after concurrent comprehensive neurological examinations, magnetic resonance imaging of brain and electroencephalogram since the onset of TD.
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A novel resorbable strontium-containing ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate bone substitute: a preparation and preliminary study.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Distraction osteogenesis after aggrieved bone segment resections is promising in the treatment of bone tumors and osteomyelitis. However, there is ambiguity with regard to the optimal choice of bone substitute, with biodegradability and excellent bone repair performance constituting key requirements. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel resorbable strontium-containing ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (Sr-CaS) bone substitute to provide an alternative option for surgeons that better meets these requirements. The Sr-CaS was prepared using co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods and analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) scanning and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) patterns. Cytotoxicity by tetrazolium bromide (MTT), sub-acute toxicity and hemolysis tests were performed to assess the initial biocompatibility of the new bone substitute. Radiographic analysis, micro-CT measurements and histological observation were used to evaluate the bone repair ability in rat tibia bone defects. The XRD and FTIR patterns of Sr-CaS were both very similar to CaS and the product had comparable characteristics similar to ?-CaS as demonstrated by TG-DSC. Cytotoxicity of the substitute was class 1 (no cytotoxicity) and hemolysis was 4.3% (no hemolysis). Sub-acute toxicity was not seen after a 14 day evaluation. The substitute was radio-opaque. The empty group exhibited the lowest levels of both bone mineral densities (BMD) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) of the defects when compared to all other groups. The two Sr-CaS groups resulted in significantly greater BMDs and BV/TV of the defect compared to the CaS only group. However, there was no significant difference between the 5% and 10% Sr-CaS groups. The Sr-CaS was resorbable with satisfactory biocompatibility. The doped strontium ions enhanced the bone repair performance of CaS in a rat model and the new substitute demonstrated promising results for clinical use.
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Comparative analysis and molecular characterization of a gene BANF1 encoded a DNA-binding protein during mitosis from the Giant Panda and Black Bear.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Barrier to autointegration factor 1 (BANF1) is a DNA-binding protein found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that functions to establish nuclear architecture during mitosis. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of BANF1 were cloned from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus mupinensis) using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. The cDNA of the BANF1 cloned from Giant Panda and Black Bear is 297 bp in size, containing an open reading frame of 270 bp encoding 89 amino acids. The length of the genomic sequence from Giant Panda is 521 bp, from Black Bear is 536 bp, which were found both to possess 2 exons. Alignment analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence are highly conserved to some mammalian species studied. Topology prediction showed there is one Protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one Casein kinase II phosphorylation site, one Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, one N-myristoylation site, and one Amidation site in the BANF1 protein of the Giant Panda, and there is one Protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, one N-myristoylation site, and one Amidation site in the BANF1 protein of the Black Bear. The BANF1 gene can be readily expressed in E. coli. Results showed that the protein BANF1 fusion with the N-terminally His-tagged form gave rise to the accumulation of an expected 14 kD polypeptide that formed inclusion bodies. The expression products obtained could be used to purify the proteins and study their function further.
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Long-term and short-term effects of hemodialysis on liver function evaluated using the galactose single-point test.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The galactose single-point (GSP) test assesses functioning liver mass by measuring the galactose concentration in the blood 1 hour after its administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on short-term and long-term liver function by use of GSP test.
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[Restriction endonuclease digest - melting curve analysis: a new SNP genotyping and its application in traditional Chinese medicine authentication].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) is an important molecular marker in traditional Chinese medicine research, and it is widely used in TCM authentication. The present study created a new genotyping method by combining restriction endonuclease digesting with melting curve analysis, which is a stable, rapid and easy doing SNP genotyping method. The new method analyzed SNP genotyping of two chloroplast SNP which was located in or out of the endonuclease recognition site, the results showed that when attaching a 14 bp GC-clamp (cggcgggagggcgg) to 5' end of the primer and selecting suited endonuclease to digest the amplification products, the melting curve of Lonicera japonica and Atractylodes macrocephala were all of double peaks and the adulterants Shan-yin-hua and A. lancea were of single peaks. The results indicated that the method had good stability and reproducibility for identifying authentic medicines from its adulterants. It is a potential SNP genotyping method and named restriction endonuclease digest - melting curve analysis.
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Underlying mechanisms of Tai-Chi-Chuan training for improving balance ability in the elders.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To compare balance ability between elderly individuals who practiced Tai-Chi-Chuan (TCC) for average 9.64 years and elderly individuals who did not practice TCC and its relationship with lower extremity muscle strength and ankle proprioception.
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The 2011 heat wave in Greater Houston: Effects of land use on temperature.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Effects of land use on temperatures during severe heat waves have been rarely studied. This paper examines land use-temperature associations during the 2011 heat wave in Greater Houston. We obtained high resolution of satellite-derived land use data from the US National Land Cover Database, and temperature observations at 138 weather stations from Weather Underground, Inc (WU) during the August of 2011, which was the hottest month in Houston since 1889. Land use regression and quantile regression methods were applied to the monthly averages of daily maximum/mean/minimum temperatures and 114 land use-related predictors. Although selected variables vary with temperature metric, distance to the coastline consistently appears among all models. Other variables are generally related to high developed intensity, open water or wetlands. In addition, our quantile regression analysis shows that distance to the coastline and high developed intensity areas have larger impacts on daily average temperatures at higher quantiles, and open water area has greater impacts on daily minimum temperatures at lower quantiles. By utilizing both land use regression and quantile regression on a recent heat wave in one of the largest US metropolitan areas, this paper provides a new perspective on the impacts of land use on temperatures. Our models can provide estimates of heat exposures for epidemiological studies, and our findings can be combined with demographic variables, air conditioning and relevant diseases information to identify 'hot spots' of population vulnerability for public health interventions to reduce heat-related health effects during heat waves.
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Accumulation of CD208(+) Mature Dendritic Cells Does Not Correlate With Survival Time in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To investigate the distribution and clinical outcomes of tumor-infiltrating CD208(+) mature dendritic cells (mDCs) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
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[Efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe in treating patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure: a randomized controlled clinical study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe (BCDR) in treating patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) of heat-toxicity accumulation syndrome (HTAS).
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[Detection technologies of microRNA and their prospects for forensic applications].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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MicroRNA (miRNA) belongs to a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules that contains 18-25 nucleotides and regulates gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Many miRNAs are highly conserved and display timing- and tissue-specific expression. With the advance of the miRNA detection technologies, miRNA has been introduced to forensic science as a potentially novel set of genetic markers of forensic body fluid identification, species identification and PMI estimation. In this article, the detection methodologies of miRNA are reviewed, and their potential applications in forensic practice and research future are also discussed.
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Revisiting the coordination chemistry for preparing manganese oxide nanocrystals in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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By pyrolyzing manganese(II) acetate in 1-octadecene in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid, manganese oxide nanocrystals were prepared. It was observed that both MnO and Mn3O4 nanocrystals were simultaneously formed by quickly heating the reaction mixture up to 250 °C, while a preheating procedure carried out at 100 °C led to uniform MnO nanocubes that developed into eight-arm MnO nanocrystals upon prolonged reaction. To understand the mechanisms for forming these two different kinds of manganese oxide nanocrystals, i.e., Mn3O4 and MnO, the coordination between oleic acid/oleylamine and Mn(2+) was investigated. The detailed investigations suggest that Mn(2+)-oleylamine coordination is kinetically driven and favorable for the formation of Mn3O4 nanocrystals due to the relatively low electronegativity of N from oleylamine, while Mn(2+)-oleate coordination is thermodynamically driven and can prevent the central metal ion (Mn(2+)) from being oxidized owing to the relatively high electronegativity of O from the oleate ligand. Following these new insights, by properly balancing the coordination of oleic acid and oleylamine to Mn(2+), the selective synthesis of MnO and Mn3O4 nanocrystals with uniform shapes was successfully achieved.
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Restructuring and Remodeling of NaREF4 Nanocrystals by Electron Irradiation.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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NaREF4 nanocrystals are found to be highly manipulable by electron beam irradiation. With 200 kV electron beam irradiation, both 14.6 nm spherical NaGdF4 :Yb,Er nanoparticles and 44.7 nm × 34.1 nm ellipsoidal NaYF4 :Yb,Er nanorods form hollow structures and eventually convert to the corresponding REF3 upon prolonged irradiation. Furthermore, the NaYF4 nanorods fractured with irradiation with a 100 kV electron source are found to be subsequently self-healed when irradiated with a 200 kV source. The detailed experimental results, in combination with theoretical analysis, suggest that knock-on effects, specific lattice energy, and the inherently low surface energy of NaREF4 collectively contribute to the formation of the hollow structures. These mechanisms allow controlled engineering and manipulation of RE nanomaterials on the nanometer scale.
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Spontaneous Arterial Calcification: A Possible Etiology for Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in a Patient on Maintenance Hemodialysis.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) is a rare condition in contrast to traumatic splenic hematoma, and vascular abnormality has rarely mentioned as an etiology in SSR with patients who had chronic kidney disease. We reported a 80-year-old female whose SSR might be related to splenic arterial calcification. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Serum CCL2 and CCL3 as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?/CCL3) are small chemotactic proteins that have been found in several kinds of tumor tissue samples and function as key regulators of cancer progression. However, the expression of CCL2 and CCL3 in serum samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic meaning of serum CCL2 and CCL3 in OSCC. The concentration of CCL2 and CCL3 was assessed by ELISA in serum of OSCC patients (n?=?98), leukoplakia patients (n?=?14), and healthy donors (n?=?27). The results showed that the concentration of CCL2 in the OSCC group was significantly lower compared to that in the healthy controls (67.81 vs. 108.1 pg/ml, P?
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Are Platelet Concentrates An Ideal Biomaterial for Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The present study aims to conduct a meta-analysis of Level I evidence studies to investigate the efficacy of concomitant platelet concentrate (PC) used in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
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Inhibition of autophagy enhances the cytotoxic effect of PA-MSHA in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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PA-MSHA, a genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) strain, is currently under investigation as a new anti-cancer drug. It can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different human cancer cells, including hormone receptor negative breast cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of tumor lethality mediated by PA-MSHA remains to be fully investigated.
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A high-sensitivity lanthanide nanoparticle reporter for mass cytometry: tests on microgels as a proxy for cells.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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This paper addresses the question of whether one can use lanthanide nanoparticles (e.g., NaHoF4) to detect surface biomarkers expressed at low levels by mass cytometry. To avoid many of the complications of experiments on live or fixed cells, we carried out proof-of-concept experiments using aqueous microgels with a diameter on the order of 700 nm as a proxy for cells. These microgels were used to test whether nanoparticle (NP) reagents would allow the detection of as few as 100 proteins per "cell" in cell-by-cell assays. Streptavidin (SAv), which served as the model biomarker, was attached to the microgel in two different ways. Covalent coupling to surface carboxyls of the microgel led to large numbers (>10(4)) of proteins per microgel, whereas biotinylation of the microgel followed by exposure to SAv led to much smaller numbers of SAv per microgel. Using mass cytometry, we compared two biotin-containing reagents, which recognized and bound to the SAvs on the microgel. One was a metal chelating polymer (MCP), a biotin end-capped polyaspartamide containing 50 Tb(3+) ions per probe. The other was a biotinylated NaHoF4 NP containing 15?000 Ho atoms per probe. Nonspecific binding was determined with bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated microgels. The MCP was effective at detecting and quantifying SAvs on the microgel with covalently bound SAv (20?000 SAvs per microgel) but was unable to give a meaningful signal above that of the BSA-coated microgel for the samples with low levels of SAv. Here the NP reagent gave a signal 2 orders of magnitude stronger than that of the MCP and allowed detection of NPs ranging from 100 to 500 per microgel. Sensitivity was limited by the level of nonspecific adsorption. This proof of concept experiment demonstrates the enhanced sensitivity possible with NP reagents in cell-by-cell assays by mass cytometry.
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Nucleotide sequences of an important functional gene hnRNPA2/B1 from Ailuropoda melanoleuca and Ursus thibetanus mupinensis and its potential value in phylogenetic study.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The cDNA fragments of hnRNPA2/B1 were cloned from the giant panda and black bear using RT-PCR method, which were, respectively, 1029bp and 1026bp in length encoding 343 and 341 amino acids. Analysis indicated the cDNA cloned from the giant panda encoded variant B1 while the cDNA cloned from black bear encoded variant A2. Analyzing the hnRNPA2B1 peptide of the giant panda and black bear, 76 glycine residues and 86 glycine residues were, respectively, found, and moreover, most glycine are concentrated in the latter halves of the hnRNPA2B1 peptides. Functional sites prediction also showed many N-myristoylation sites existed in the glycine-rich domain, which is probably related to the role of telomere maintenance. From base bias and substitution analysis, we can conclude that the ORF of hnRNPA2/B1 biased G while hated C, and transition of the third site did not achieve the level of saturation. Orthology analysis indicated that both the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity to other 26 hnRNPA2/B1 sequences from mammals and nonmammals reported. These sequences were used to construct phylogenetic trees employing the NJ method with 1000 bootstrap, and the obtained tree demonstrated similar topology with the classical systematics, which suggested the potential value of hnRNPA2/B1 in phylogenetic analysis. This report will be the first step to the study function of hnRNPA2/B1 in the giant panda and black bear, and will provide a scientific basis to disease surveillance, captive breeding, and conservation of the endangered species.
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Inhibitory effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on cell apoptosis and senescence is potentially mediated by the p53 signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) fruit or extract has been regarded as a superior-grade Chinese medicine, used to modulate body immunity and for anti-aging purposes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these effects remain unclear. In the present study, L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), considered a major contributor of L. barbarum effects, were used to elucidate its mechanism of action by phenotypic and senescence associated-?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) assays, evaluation of survival rates in vivo and expression profiling of genes related to the p53 signaling pathway in a zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were continuously exposed to various concentrations of LBPs (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/ml) for 3 days. The results of fluorescent acridine orange and SA-?-gal staining indicated that cell apoptosis and senescence mainly occur in the head at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) and 72 hpf. In addition, resistance to replicative senescence was observed at low doses of LBPs, especially at the 3.0 mg/ml concentration. Furthermore, the expression of genes that relate to aging, such as p53, p21 and Bax, was decreased, while that of Mdm2 and TERT genes was increased after treatment with LBPs. The results demonstrated that the effects of LBPs on cell apoptosis and aging might be mediated by the p53-mediated pathway.
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Paternally induced transgenerational inheritance of susceptibility to diabetes in mammals.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The global prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, and it is contributing to the susceptibility to diabetes and its related epidemic in offspring. Although the impacts of paternal impaired fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance on the metabolism of offspring have been well established, the exact molecular and mechanistic basis that mediates these impacts remains largely unclear. Here we show that paternal prediabetes increases the susceptibility to diabetes in offspring through gametic epigenetic alterations. In our findings, paternal prediabetes led to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in offspring. Relative to controls, offspring of prediabetic fathers exhibited altered gene expression patterns in the pancreatic islets, with down-regulation of several genes involved in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways. Epigenomic profiling of offspring pancreatic islets revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on paternal prediabetes, including reproducible changes in methylation over several insulin signaling genes. Paternal prediabetes altered overall methylome patterns in sperm, with a large portion of differentially methylated genes overlapping with that of pancreatic islets in offspring. Our study uniquely revealed that prediabetes can be inherited transgenerationally through the mammalian germ line by an epigenetic mechanism.
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Upregulation of a potential prognostic biomarker, miR-155, enhances cell proliferation in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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We sought to investigate the role and diagnostic value of microRNA 155 (miR-155) in OSCC patients.
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Are rare-Earth nanoparticles suitable for in vivo applications?
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Rare earth (RE) nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their unique optical and magnetic properties associated with f-electrons. The recent accomplishments in RE nanoparticle synthesis have aroused great interest of scientists to further explore their biomedical applications. This Research News summarizes recent achievements in controlled synthesis of magnetic and luminescent RE nanoparticles, surface modification, and toxicity studies of RE nanomaterials, and highlights state-of-the-art in in vivo applications of RE nanoparticles.
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Maternal obesity and diabetes may cause DNA methylation alteration in the spermatozoa of offspring in mice.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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The adverse effects on offspring of diabetic and/or obese mothers can be passed to the next generation. However, the mechanisms behind this are still unclear. Epigenetics may play a key role during this process.
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Anchoring group effects of surface ligands on magnetic properties of Fe? O? nanoparticles: towards high performance MRI contrast agents.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The effect of the anchoring group of surface ligands on the magnetic properties, especially relaxometric properties, of PEGylated Fe? O? nanoparticles is investigated. Systematic experimental results together with in-depth theoretical analysis reveal that the ligand binding affinity can largely vary the saturation magnetization, whereas conjugated anchoring groups can remarkably enhance the transverse relaxivity, which highlights a novel approach for achieving high-performance MRI contrast agents.
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Low-rank and eigenface based sparse representation for face recognition.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this paper, based on low-rank representation and eigenface extraction, we present an improvement to the well known Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC). Firstly, the low-rank images of the face images of each individual in training subset are extracted by the Robust Principal Component Analysis (Robust PCA) to alleviate the influence of noises (e.g., illumination difference and occlusions). Secondly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to extract the eigenfaces from these low-rank and approximate images. Finally, we utilize these eigenfaces to construct a compact and discriminative dictionary for sparse representation. We evaluate our method on five popular databases. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.
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Serum hyperglycemia might be not related to fat composition of diet and vegetable composition of diet might improve sugar control in taiwanese diabetic subjects.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This is an Asian study, which was designed to examine the correlations between biochemical data and food composition of diabetic patients in Taiwan.
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Specific deletion of Cdc42 does not affect meiotic spindle organization/migration and homologous chromosome segregation but disrupts polarity establishment and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Mammalian oocyte maturation is distinguished by highly asymmetric meiotic divisions during which a haploid female gamete is produced and almost all the cytoplasm is maintained in the egg for embryo development. Actin-dependent meiosis I spindle positioning to the cortex induces the formation of a polarized actin cap and oocyte polarity, and it determines asymmetric divisions resulting in two polar bodies. Here we investigate the functions of Cdc42 in oocyte meiotic maturation by oocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 through Cre-loxP conditional knockout technology. We find that Cdc42 deletion causes female infertility in mice. Cdc42 deletion has little effect on meiotic spindle organization and migration to the cortex but inhibits polar body emission, although homologous chromosome segregation occurs. The failure of cytokinesis is due to the loss of polarized Arp2/3 accumulation and actin cap formation; thus the defective contract ring. In addition, we correlate active Cdc42 dynamics with its function during polar body emission and find a relationship between Cdc42 and polarity, as well as polar body emission, in mouse oocytes.
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Knockdown of UCHL5IP causes abnormalities in ?-tubulin localisation, spindle organisation and chromosome alignment in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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UCHL5IP is one of the subunits of the haus complex, which is important for microtubule generation, spindle bipolarity and accurate chromosome segregation in Drosophila and human mitotic cells. In this study, the expression and localisation of UCHL5IP were explored, as well as its functions in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The results showed that the UCHL5IP protein level was consistent during oocyte maturation and it was localised to the meiotic spindle in MI and MII stages. Knockdown of UCHL5IP led to spindle defects, chromosome misalignment and disruption of ?-tubulin localisation in the spindle poles. These results suggest that UCHL5IP plays critical roles in spindle formation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
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Magnetically engineered Cd-free quantum dots as dual-modality probes for fluorescence/magnetic resonance imaging of tumors.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Magnetically engineered Cd-free CuInS2@ZnS:Mn quantum dots (QDs) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential dual-modality probes for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumors in vivo. The synthesis of Mn-doped core-shell structured CuInS2@ZnS mainly comprised three steps, i.e., the preparation of fluorescent CuInS2 seeds, the particle surface coating of ZnS, and the Mn-doping of the ZnS shells. Systematic spectroscopy studies were carried out to illustrate the impacts of ZnS coating and the following Mn-doping on the optical properties of the QDs. In combination with conventional fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, the structure of CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs prepared under optimized conditions presented a Zn gradient CuInS2 core and a ZnS outer shell, while Mn ions were mainly located in the ZnS shell, which well balanced the optical and magnetic properties of the resultant QDs. For the following in vivo imaging experiments, the hydrophobic CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs were transferred into water upon ligand exchange reactions by replacing the 1-dodecanethiol ligand with dihydrolipoic acid-poly(ethylene glycol) (DHLA-PEG) ligand. The MTT assays based on HeLa cells were carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the current Cd-free CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs for comparing with that of water soluble CdTe QDs. Further in vivo fluorescence and MR imaging experiments suggested that the PEGylated CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs could well target both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors in vivo.
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Magnetic/upconversion fluorescent NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanoparticle-based dual-modal molecular probes for imaging tiny tumors in vivo.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Detection of early malignant tumors remains clinically difficult; developing ultrasensitive imaging agents is therefore highly demanded. Owing to the unusual magnetic and optical properties associated with f-electrons, rare-earth elements are very suitable for creating functional materials potentially useful for tumor imaging. Nanometer-sized particles offer such a platform with which versatile unique properties of the rare-earth elements can be integrated. Yet the development of rare-earth nanoparticle-based tumor probes suitable for imaging tiny tumors in vivo remains difficult, which challenges not only the physical properties of the nanoparticles but also the rationality of the probe design. Here we report new approaches for size control synthesis of magnetic/upconversion fluorescent NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals and their applications for imaging tiny tumors in vivo. By independently varying F(-):Ln(3+) and Na(+):Ln(3+) ratios, the size and shape regulation mechanisms were investigated. By replacing the oleic acid ligand with PEG2000 bearing a maleimide group at one end and two phosphate groups at the other end, PEGylated NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles with optimized size and upconversion fluorescence were obtained. Accordingly, a dual-modality molecular tumor probe was prepared, as a proof of concept, by covalently attaching antitumor antibody to PEGylated NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles through a "click" reaction. Systematic investigations on tumor detections, through magnetic resonance imaging and upconversion fluorescence imaging, were carried out to image intraperitoneal tumors and subcutaneous tumors in vivo. Owing to the excellent properties of the molecular probes, tumors smaller than 2 mm was successfully imaged in vivo. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies on differently sized particles were performed to disclose the particle size dependent biodistributions and elimination pathways.
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Unique insights into maternal mitochondrial inheritance in mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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In animals, mtDNA is always transmitted through the female and this is termed "maternal inheritance." Recently, autophagy was reported to be involved in maternal inheritance by elimination of paternal mitochondria and mtDNA in Caenorhabditis elegans; moreover, by immunofluorescence, P62 and LC3 proteins were also found to colocalize to sperm mitochondria after fertilization in mice. Thus, it has been speculated that autophagy may be an evolutionary conserved mechanism for paternal mitochondrial elimination. However, by using two transgenic mouse strains, one bearing GFP-labeled autophagosomes and the other bearing red fluorescent protein-labeled mitochondria, we demonstrated that autophagy did not participate in the postfertilization elimination of sperm mitochondria in mice. Although P62 and LC3 proteins congregated to sperm mitochondria immediately after fertilization, sperm mitochondria were not engulfed and ultimately degraded in lysosomes until P62 and LC3 proteins disengaged from sperm mitochondria. Instead, sperm mitochondria unevenly distributed in blastomeres during cleavage and persisted in several cells until the morula stages. Furthermore, by using single sperm mtDNA PCR, we observed that most motile sperm that had reached the oviduct for fertilization had eliminated their mtDNA, leaving only vacuolar mitochondria. However, if sperm with remaining mtDNA entered the zygote, mtDNA was not eliminated and could be detected in newborn mice. Based on these results, we conclude that, in mice, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is not an active process of sperm mitochondrial and mtDNA elimination achieved through autophagy in early embryos, but may be a passive process as a result of prefertilization sperm mtDNA elimination and uneven mitochondrial distribution in embryos.
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An extragastrointestinal stromal tumor originating from the seminal vesicles: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The present study reports a case of an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) originating from the seminal vesicles. A 74-year-old male patient with a tumor in the seminal vesicles underwent a radical spermatocystectomy due to an increased defecation frequency and a huge mass in the seminal vesicles. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) initially diagnosed the mass as a tumor originating from the prostate. However, the mass was ultimately confirmed as an EGIST from the seminal vesicles following a laparotomy. According to the size, mitotic activity, cellularity, necrotic situation and immunohistochemical data, the tumor belonged to a low-risk group. No recurrence or metastasis has been identified during six years of follow-up observations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report this particular pathological type of EGIST.
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A high IL-4 production diplotype is associated with an increased risk but better prognosis of oral and pharyngeal carcinomas.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Interleukin (IL)-4 is a key cytokine in humoral and adaptive immunity. This study aimed to evaluate the association of IL-4 genetic variants (-590C>T and VNTR in intron 3) with the risk and prognosis of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).
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Maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence in mice: transcriptome analysis of non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) and surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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During mouse antral follicle development, the oocyte chromatin gradually transforms from a less condensed state with no Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (NSN) to a fully condensed chromatin state with a Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (SN). Compared with SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a higher gene transcription activity and a lower rate of meiosis resumption (G2/M transition), and they are mostly arrested at the two-cell stage after in vitro fertilization. To explore the differences between NSN and SN oocytes, and the maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence, we compared the whole-transcriptome profiles between NSN and SN oocytes. First, we found that the NSN and SN oocytes were different in their metabolic pathways. In the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, the SN oocytes tend to produce diacylglycerol, whereas the NSN oocytes tend to produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. For energy production, the SN oocytes and NSN oocytes differed in the gluconeogenesis and in the synthesis processes. Second, we also found that the key genes associated with oocyte meiosis and/or preimplantation embryo development were differently expressed in the NSN and SN oocytes. Our results illustrate that during the NSN-SN transition, the oocytes change their metabolic activities and accumulate maternal factors for further oocyte maturation and post-fertilization embryo development.
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[Effect of different intensities of electroacupuncture stimulation on expression of SOCS-3 and PPAR-gamma mRNA in adipose tissues of obesity rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma genes in the epididymis adipose tissue of obesity rats so as to explore its mechanism underlying weight reduction.
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DNA Methylation in Oocytes and Liver of Female Mice and Their Offspring: Effects of High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obesity.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Maternal obesity has adverse effects on oocyte quality, embryo development and it also affects the health of the offspring.
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Effects of stroke rehabilitation on incidence of poststroke depression: a population-based cohort study.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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To investigate the effects of rehabilitation intervention provided within the first 3 months after admission for stroke on the incidence of poststroke depression (diagnosed according to ICD-9-CM code 296, 309, or 311, or A-code A212 or A219).
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Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits NSCLC cells proliferation and induces apoptosis by affecting p53 expression.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Long non-coding RNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis, hence, identification of cancer-associated lncRNAs and investigation of their biological functions and molecular mechanisms are important for understanding the development and progression of cancer. Recently, the downregulation of lncRNA MEG3 has been observed in various human cancers. However, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the expression pattern of MEG3 in NSCLC and to evaluate its biological role and clinical significance in tumor progression.
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Tau proteins expressions in advanced breast cancer and its significance in taxane-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Tau is a microtubule-associated protein and expressed in normal breast epithelial cells and breast cancer. Tau expression in breast cancer may be important for chemotherapy optimization. This study is to investigate the expression of Tau in advanced breast cancer and its significance in taxane-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Levels of Tau protein in advanced breast cancer were detected immunohistochemically. The chemotherapeutic efficacy indexes in Tau(-) group, which includes the remission rate, Miller-Payne pathological reactive grade, and pathologic complete response rate, were improved compared with that in Tau(+) group. There was difference in the efficacy indexes among ER+ subgroups but not among ER- patients. In addition, Tau expression was positively correlated (r = 0.32, P < 0.00). In multivariate analysis, when age, clinical stage, postoperative lymph node metastasis, ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67, TP53, or Tau status were included, postoperative lymph node metastasis and Tau-negative status were identified as independent predictors of pathologic complete response. In conclusion, negative Tau protein expression may be an effective predictor for taxane-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, especially in ER+ subgroups. Further study on the molecular mechanism and utility of Tau for individualizing adjuvant chemotherapy is warranted.
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The effects of DNA double-strand breaks on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Both endogenous and exogenous factors can induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in oocytes, which is a potential risk for human-assisted reproductive technology as well as animal nuclear transfer. Here we used bleomycin (BLM) and laser micro-beam dissection (LMD) to induce DNA DSBs in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and compared the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) rates and first polar body extrusion (PBE) rates between DNA DSB oocytes and untreated oocytes. Employing live cell imaging and immunofluorescence labeling, we observed the dynamics of DNA fragments during oocyte maturation. We also determined the cyclin B1 expression pattern in oocytes to analyze spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity in DNA DSB oocytes. We used parthenogenetic activation to determine if the DNA DSB oocytes could be activated. As a result, we found that the BLM- or LMD-induced DSB oocytes showed lower GVBD rates and took a longer time to undergo GVBD compared with untreated oocytes. PBE was also delayed in DSB oocytes, but once GVBD had occurred, PBE was not affected, even in oocytes with severe DSBs. Compared with control oocytes, the DSB oocytes showed higher SAC activity, as indicated by less Ccnb1-GFP degradation during metaphase I to anaphase I transition. Parthenogenetic activation could activate the metaphase to interphase transition in the DNA DSB mature oocytes, but many oocytes contained multiple pronuclei or numerous micronuclei. These data suggest that DNA damage inhibits or delays the G2/M transition, but once GVBD occurs, DNA-damaged oocytes can complete chromosome separation and polar body extrusion even under a higher SAC activity, causing the formation of numerous micronuclei in early embryos.
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Second primary tumors and myeloperoxidase expression in buccal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The present study investigated the relationship between the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in buccal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the risk of second primary tumors (SPTs).
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Maternal diabetes causes abnormal dynamic changes of endoplasmic reticulum during mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The adverse effects of maternal diabetes on oocyte maturation and embryo development have been reported.
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Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in colon cancer.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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To study the expression of ALDH1 in colon cancer and its clinical significance.
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Determination of copy number of short tandem repeat using NAD-dependent ligase and pyrosequencing-compatible method.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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A sensitive and pyrosequencing-compatible method for determining the copy number of the short tandem repeat (STR) is presented in this study. When Escherichia coli ligase catalyzes the ligation of primer and probes complementary to the proper sites of the target DNA template, it converts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and nicotinamide. The AMP release level is proportional to the copy number of the STR and can be measured using adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase, and luciferase. Unlike current standard methods based on electrophoresis, the present assay is sensitive to the point mutation. Furthermore, after determination of the copy number of the tandem repeat using the proposed method, the DNA templates, primer and probes immobilized onto super paramagnetic beads can be washed and pyrosequencing can be applied for the remaining DNA sequencing. This assay is specially efficient to handle a large number of samples because massively parallel tests could be executed in a microplate photometer. Furthermore, it can work with the pyrosequencing for further sequencing like genome sequencing.
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Overexpression of SET?, a protein localizing to centromeres, causes precocious separation of chromatids during the first meiosis of mouse oocytes.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Chromosome segregation in mammalian oocyte meiosis is an error-prone process, and any mistake in this process may result in aneuploidy, which is the main cause of infertility, abortion and many genetic diseases. It is now well known that shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) play important roles in the protection of centromeric cohesion during the first meiosis. PP2A can antagonize the phosphorylation of rec8, a member of the cohesin complex, at the centromeres and thus prevent cleavage of rec8 and so maintain the cohesion of chromatids. SET? is a protein that physically interacts with shugoshin and inhibits PP2A activity. We thus hypothesized that SET? might regulate cohesion protection and chromosome segregation during oocyte meiotic maturation. Here we report for the first time the expression, subcellular localization and functions of SET? during mouse oocyte meiosis. Immunoblotting analysis showed that the expression level of SET? was stable from the germinal vesicle stage to the MII stage of oocyte meiosis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed SET? accumulation in the nucleus at the germinal vesicle stage, whereas it was targeted mainly to the inner centromere area and faintly localized to the interchromatid axes from germinal vesicle breakdown to MI stages. At the MII stage, SET? still localized to the inner centromere area, but could relocalize to kinetochores in a process perhaps dependent on the tension on the centromeres. SET? partly colocalized with PP2A at the inner centromere area. Overexpression of SET? in mouse oocytes caused precocious separation of sister chromatids, but depletion of SET? by RNAi showed little effects on the meiotic maturation process. Taken together, our results suggest that SET?, even though it localizes to centromeres, might not be essential for chromosome separation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation, although its forced overexpression causes premature chromatid separation.
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Polyurethane-based drug delivery systems.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Polyurethanes (PUs) are formed by a reaction between isocyanates and diols to yield polymers with urethane bonds (-NH-COO-) in their main chain. A great variety of building blocks is commercially available that allows the chemical and physical properties of PUs to be tailored to their target applications, particularly for the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. This article reviews the synthesis and characterization of PUs and PU-copolymers, as well as their in vitro and in vivo biodegradability and biocompatibility. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of PUs for the controlled release of drugs and for the (targeted) delivery of biotherapeutics.
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Reversible tetraplegia after percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and septic shock: a case of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy with acute onset and complete recovery.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM) are complications causing weakness of respiratory and limb muscles in critically ill patients. As an important differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), CIP and CIM should be diagnosed with caution, after a complete clinical and laboratory examination. Although not uncommon in ICU, CIP and CIM as severe complications of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PNL) have not been documented in literature.
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Salmonella detection using 16S ribosomal DNA/RNA probe-gold nanoparticles and lateral flow immunoassay.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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An ultrasensitive, simple, and fast lateral flow immunoassay for Salmonella detection using gold nanoparticles conjugated with a DNA probe, which is complementary to the 16S ribosomal RNA and DNA of Salmonella, has been developed. The detection limit is 5 fmol for the synthetic single-stranded DNA. For the Salmonella cultured samples, the nucleic acids from 10(7) bacteria were rapidly detected in 30 min. After silver enhancement, the detection limit was as low as 10(4) cells which is lower than 10(5) bacteria cells, the human infective dose of food-borne Salmonella. Furthermore, the probes used in this study are specific to Salmonella compared to several other Enterobacteriaceae. This approach would be a useful tool for microbial detection regarding food safety or clinical diagnosis. It is also suitable for large-scale screening in developing countries because it is low-cost, sensitive, specific and convenient.
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The distribution and possible role of ERK8 in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo cleavage.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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It is well known that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 8 (ERK8) plays pivotal roles in various mitotic events. But its physiological roles in oocyte meiotic maturation remain unclear. In this study, we found that although no specific ERK8 signal was detected in oocyte at the germinal vesicle stage, ERK8 began to migrate to the periphery of chromosomes shortly after germinal vesicle breakdown. At prometaphase I, metaphase I (MI), anaphase I, telophase I, and metaphase II (MII) stages, ERK8 was stably detected at the spindles. By taxol treatment, we clarified that the ERK8 signal was stained on the spindle fibers as well as microtubule asters in MI and MII oocytes. In fertilized eggs, the ERK8 signal was not observed in the two pronuclei stages. At prometaphase, metaphase, and anaphase of the first mitosis, ERK8 was detected on the mitotic spindle. ERK8 knock down by antibody microinjection and specific siRNA caused abnormal spindles, failed chromosome congression, and decreased first polar body extrusion. Taken together, our results suggest that ERK8 plays an important role in spindle organization during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo cleavage.
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"Dynamic spot sign" on CT perfusion source images predicts haematoma expansion in acute intracerebral haemorrhage.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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To evaluate the association between dynamic progressive enhancing foci ("dynamic spot sign") in acute haematoma on CT perfusion source images (CTP-SI) and haematoma expansion.
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Molecular mechanism of Ca(2+)-catalyzed fusion of phospholipid micelles.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Although membrane fusion plays key roles in intracellular trafficking, neurotransmitter release, and viral infection, its underlying molecular mechanism and its energy landscape are not well understood. In this study, we employed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the fusion mechanism, catalyzed by Ca(2+) ions, of two highly hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) micelles. This simulation system mimics the small contact zone between two large vesicles at which the fusion is initiated. Our simulations revealed that Ca(2+) ions are capable of catalyzing the fusion of POPE micelles; in contrast, we did not observe close contact of the two micelles in the presence of only Na(+) or Mg(2+) ions. Determining the free energy landscape of fusion allowed us to characterize the underlying molecular mechanism. The Ca(2+) ions play a key role in catalyzing the micelle fusion in three aspects: creating a more-hydrophobic surface on the micelles, binding two micelles together, and enhancing the formation of the pre-stalk state. In contrast, Na(+) or Mg(2+) ions have relatively limited effects. Effective fusion proceeds through sequential formation of pre-stalk, stalk, hemifused-like, and fused states. The pre-stalk state is the state featuring lipid tails exposed to the inter-micellar space; its formation is the rate-limiting step. The stalk state is the state where a localized hydrophobic core is formed connecting two micelles; its formation occurs in conjunction with water expulsion from the inter-micellar space. This study provides insight into the molecular mechanism of fusion from the points of view of energetics, structure, and dynamics.
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The biofunction of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) in innate and adaptive immunity.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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CC chemokine (motif) ligand 4 (CCL4) is indispensable to the chemoattraction of macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes in mammals; however, it has only been cloned in a limited number of fish species and information related to its biofunction remains ambiguous with regard to teleosts. To explore the role of teleost CCL4, we first evaluated the mRNA expression of the Epinephelus coioides CCL4 (gCCL4) gene in various organs under LPS and poly (I:C) stimulated; secondary, we evaluated the immune-related genes expression of fish under the recombinant gCCL4 protein stimulated. Our results revealed an increase in the mRNA of gCCL4 in immune organs immediately following stimulation by poly (I:C); however, in LPS stimulated fish, the expression did not increase until nearly 24 h after induction. In biofunction assays, recombinant gCCL4 was found to induce chemotactic activity in the peripheral blood leukocytes of groupers and up-regulate the gene expressions of grouper TNFA1 (TNF-?1), TNFA2 (TNF-?2), IFNG (IFN-?), MX, TBX21 (T-bet), CD8 (? and ? chain). These findings indicate that grouper CCL4 attracts leukocytes, induces an inflammatory response, and drives lymphocyte differentiation into the Th1 pathway.
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MicroRNA-200a promotes anoikis resistance and metastasis by targeting YAP1 in human breast cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The process of metastases involves the dissociation of cells from the primary tumor, penetration into the basement membrane, invasion, and exiting from the vasculature to seed and colonize distant tissues. miR-200a is involved in this multistep metastatic cascade. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that miR-200a promotes metastasis through increased anoikis resistance in breast cancer.
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Changes in glutathione redox cycle during diapause determination and termination in the bivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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To explore whether glutathione regulates diapause determination and termination in the bivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori, we monitored the changes in glutathione redox cycle in the ovary of both diapause- and nondiapause-egg producers, as well as those in diapause eggs incubated at different temperatures. The activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) was detected in ovaries but not in eggs, while neither ovaries nor eggs showed activity of glutathione peroxidase. A lower reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio was observed in the ovary of diapause-egg producers, due to weaker reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to the reduced glutathione (GSH) catalyzed by glutathione reductase (GR) and TrxR. This indicates an oxidative shift in the glutathione redox cycle during diapause determination. Compared with the 25°C-treated diapause eggs, the 5°C-treated diapause eggs showed lower GSH/GSSG ratio, a result of stronger oxidation of GSH catalyzed by thioredoxin peroxidase and weaker reduction of GSSG catalyzed by GR. Our study demonstrated the important regulatory role of glutathione in diapause determination and termination of the bivoltine silkworm.
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Acrylamide biodegradation ability and plant growth-promoting properties of Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Species of the genus Variovorax are often isolated from nitrile or amide-containing organic compound-contaminated soil. However, there have been few biological characterizations of Variovorax and their contaminant-degrading enzymes. Previously, we reported a new soil isolate, Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, and its nitrile hydratase that transforms the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid into an amide metabolite. In this study, we showed that CGMCC 4969 is able to degrade acrylamide, a neurotoxicant and carcinogen in animals, during cell growth in a mineral salt medium as well as in its resting state. Resting cells rapidly hydrolyzed 600 mg/L acrylamide to acrylic acid with a half-life of 2.5 min. In in vitro tests, CGMCC 4969 showed plant growth-promoting properties; it produced a siderophore, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and the phytohormone salicylic acid. Interestingly, in soil inoculated with this strain, 200 mg/L acrylamide was completely degraded in 4 days. Gene cloning and overexpression in the Escherichia coli strain Rosetta (DE3) pLysS resulted in the production of an aliphatic amidase of 345 amino acids that hydrolyzed acrylamide into acrylic acid. The amidase contained a conserved catalytic triad, Glu59, Lys 134, and Cys166, and an "MRHGDISSS" amino acid sequence at the N-terminal region. Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, which is able to use acrylamide for cell growth and rapidly degrade acrylamide in soil, shows promising plant growth-promoting properties. As such, it has the potential to be developed into an effective Bioaugmentation strategy to promote growth of field crops in acrylamide-contaminated soil.
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Pharmacist-conducted medication reconciliation at hospital admission using information technology in Taiwan.
Int J Med Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Obtaining an accurate medication history upon admission to the hospital can be challenging and time-consuming. This study evaluated the efficacy of a medication reconciliation program, conducted by pharmacists, with the assistance of medication usage data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI). Characteristics of patients at high risk for drug discrepancies were also determined.
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Specific disruption of Tsc1 in ovarian granulosa cells promotes ovulation and causes progressive accumulation of corpora lutea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) is a tumor suppressor negatively regulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). It is reported that mice lacking Tsc1 gene in oocytes show depletion of primordial follicles, resulting in premature ovarian failure and subsequent infertility. A recent study indicated that deletion of Tsc1 in somatic cells of the reproductive tract caused infertility of female mice. However, it is not known whether specific disruption of Tsc1 in granulosa cells influences the reproductive activity of female mice. To clarify this problem, we mated Tsc1(flox/flox) mice with transgenic mice strain expressing cyp19-cre which exclusively expresses in granulosa cells of the ovary. Our results demonstrated that Tsc1(flox/flox); cyp19-cre mutant mice were fertile, ovulating more oocytes and giving birth to more pups than control Tsc1(flox/flox) mice. Progressive accumulation of corpora lutea occurred in the Tsc1(flox/flox); cyp19-cre mutant mice with advanced age. These phenotypes could be explained by the elevated activity of mTORC1, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of rpS6, a substrate of S6 in the Tsc1(flox/flox); cyp19-cre mutant granulosa cells. In addition, rapamycin, a specific mTORC1 inhibitor, effectively rescued the phenotype caused by increased mTORC1 activity in the Tsc1(cko) ovaries. Our data suggest that conditional knockout of Tsc1 in granulosa cells promotes reproductive activity in mice.
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A highly selective fluorescent sensor for Fe3+ based on covalently immobilized derivative of naphthalimide.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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In this paper, the fabrication and analytical characteristics of fluorescence-based ferric ion-sensing glass slides were described. To fabricate the sensor, a naphthalimide derivative (compound 1) with a terminal double bond was synthesized and copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on the activated surface of glass slides by UV irradiation. Upon the addition of Fe(3+) in 0.05 mol/L Tris/HCl (pH 6.02) at 25 °C, the fluorescence intensity of the resulting optical sensor decrease, which has been utilized as the basis for the selective detection of Fe(3+). The sensor can be applied to the quantification of Fe(3+) with a linear range covering form 1.0×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-3) M and a detection limit of 4.5×10(-6) M. The experiment results show that the response behavior of the sensor to Fe(3+) is pH-independent in medium condition (pH 5.00-8.00) and exhibits high selectivity for Fe(3+) over a large number of cations such as alkali, alkaline earth and transitional metal ions. Moreover, satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a rapid response were realized. The sensing membrane was found to have a lifetime at least 2 months. The accuracy and the precision of the method were evaluated by the analysis of the standard reference material, iron in water (1.0 mol/L HNO3). The developed sensor is applied for the determination of iron in pharmaceutical preparation samples with satisfactory results.
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Decreased expression of miR-430 promotes the development of bladder cancer via the upregulation of CXCR7.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of numerous types of malignant tumor. However, the role of miRNA-430 (miR-430) in bladder cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we observed that the expression of miR-430 was significantly downregulated in bladder cancer. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-430 in human bladder cancer 5637 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and colony formation efficiency. These findings were contrary to those obtained following the overexpression of CXCR7, which was found to be a direct target of miR-430 in this study. Further analysis showed that cell proliferation- and migration-related genes, including ERK, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, were significantly downregulated in miR-430 overexpressed 5637 cells, while they were markedly upregulated in CXCR7 overexpressed 5637 cells. In conclusion, our study reveals important roles of miR-430 and CXCR7 in bladder cancer, and suggests that the downregulation of miR-430 enhances the development of bladder cancer, partly via the upregulation of CXCR7.
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Hardware implementation of Lorenz circuit systems for secure chaotic communication applications.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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This paper presents the synchronization between the master and slave Lorenz chaotic systems by slide mode controller (SMC)-based technique. A proportional-integral (PI) switching surface is proposed to simplify the task of assigning the performance of the closed-loop error system in sliding mode. Then, extending the concept of equivalent control and using some basic electronic components, a secure communication system is constructed. Experimental results show the feasibility of synchronizing two Lorenz circuits via the proposed SMC. 
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Effects of matrine on oval cell?mediated liver regeneration and expression of RBP?J? and HES1.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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In the present study a rat model of oval cell?mediated liver regeneration was constructed to examine the molecular mechanisms of matrine in oval cell?mediated liver regeneration and the effects of matrine on hepatic function and the expression of OV6 protein and recombination signal sequence?binding protein J? (RBP?J?) and HES1 mRNA. A total of 48 Sprague Dawley rats were equally and randomly assigned to two groups. The model group underwent oval cell?mediated liver regeneration, whereas the matrine group underwent oval cell?mediated liver regeneration and received oral gavage of matrine. Expression of OV6 protein was tested by immunohistochemistry and RBP?J? and HES1 mRNA expression was determined by reverse?transcription polymerase chain reaction. Recovery of hepatic function was faster in the matrine group compared with the model (P<0.05). OV6 protein, RBP?J? and HES1 mRNA expression levels were lower in the matrine than the model group (P<0.05). Matrine promotes oval cell?mediated liver regeneration through downregulation of the RBP?J??HES1 signaling pathway.
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Outcomes of patients with acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis at a far east poison center.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There is an overall paucity of data regarding the outcomes of patients with acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis in Taiwan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recruit a larger number of patients and to examine the clinical features, the degrees of toxic hepatitis, the physiological markers, and the clinical outcomes after intentional acetaminophen poisoning, and to determine what association, if any, might exist between these findings.
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A pilot study on intravesical administration of curcumin for cystitis glandularis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cystitis glandularis (CG) is a proliferative disorder in the urinary bladder. The outcome of current treatments in some patients is not satisfactory. Curcumin, a herbal medicine that has been used for centuries, has shown great potential in treating various diseases. Our pilot study aimed to explore the feasibility of an intravesical treatment for CG using curcumin. 14 patients diagnosed with CG that remained symptomatic after primary treatments were enrolled, underwent a 3-month curcumin intravesical treatment (50?mg/50?mL, 1 hour, once per week for first 4 weeks and once per month for next 2 months) and were followed up for 3 months. Efficacy of the treatment was evaluated using core lower urinary tract symptom score (CLSS) questionnaire. 10 patients demonstrated persistent improvement in symptoms up to the end of the 6-month study. Their CLSS decreased significantly after the 3-month treatment (6.0 ± 0.8; P < 0.01) from the baseline (10.5 ± 1.6) and maintained decreasing till the end of the study (6.2 ± 0.7; P < 0.01). 4 patients were classified as nonresponders. Our study suggests the feasibility of further randomized controlled trials on curcumin intravesical treatment in CG patients who remain symptomatic after primary treatments.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.