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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analytical and toxicity characterization of halo-hydroxyl-benzoquinones as stable halobenzoquinone disinfection byproducts in treated water.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Exposure to chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is potentially associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Four halobenzoquinones (HBQs) have been detected in treated drinking water and have shown potency in producing reactive oxygen species and inducing damage to cellular DNA and proteins. These HBQs are unstable in drinking water. The fate and behavior of these HBQs in drinking water distribution systems is unclear. Here we report the high-resolution mass spectrometry identification of the transformation products of HBQs as halo-hydroxyl-benzoquinones (OH-HBQs) in water under realistic conditions. To further examine the kinetics of transformation, we developed a solid-phase extraction with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) method to determine both the HBQs and OH-HBQs. The method provides reproducible retention times (SD < 0.05 min), limits of detection (LODs) at subnanogram per liter levels, and recoveries of 68%-96%. Using this method, we confirmed that decrease of HBQs correlated with increase of OH-HBQs in both the laboratory experiments and several distribution systems, supporting that OH-HBQs were more stable forms of HBQ DBPs. To understand the toxicological relevance of the OH-HBQs, we studied the in vitro toxicity with CHO-K1 cells and determined the IC50 of HBQs and OH-HBQs ranging from 15.9 to 72.9 ?M. While HBQs are 2-fold more toxic than OH-HBQs, both HBQs and OH-HBQs are substantially more toxic than the regulated DBPs.
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Performance and membrane fouling characteristics of a combined biofilm and membrane bioreactor for treatment of fluorescent whitening agent wastewater.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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A full-scale system, composed of one anoxic fixed biofilm reactor, four oxic fixed biofilm reactors and an activated sludge membrane bioreactor, was used to treat heavily organic loaded, high toxic and saline fluorescent whitening agent wastewater. This system was running steady during the experimental period of three months. Treatment performance and membrane fouling characteristics were investigated. The concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+, NO3- and total nitrogen (TN) in effluent were 447, 27, 14 and 114 mg L(-1), corresponding to the removal rates of 89%, 76%, 68% and 64%, respectively. A series of analyses, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and protein and polysaccharide concentration measurements, represented that the sludge layer formed on the membrane surface contained both organic and inorganic foulants. Polysaccharides in bound extracellullar polymeric substances in mixed liquor were the main contributor to membrane fouling. Off-line tap water rinsing was proved to be a cost-effective method of fouling control.
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Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500?L injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water.
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Identification of tobacco-specific nitrosamines as disinfection byproducts in chloraminated water.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) exist in environmental waters; however, it is unknown whether TSNAs can be produced during water disinfection. Here we report on the investigation and evidence of TSNAs as a new class of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using five common TSNAs, including (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) as the targets, we first developed a solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method capable of rapidly determining these TSNAs at levels as low as 0.02 ng/L in treated water. Using this highly sensitive method, we investigated the occurrence and formation potential (FP) (precursor test conducted in the presence of chloramines) of TSNAs in treated water from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and seven drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). NNAL was detected in the FP samples, but not in the samples before the FP test, confirming NNAL as a DBP. NNK was detected in the treated wastewater before the FP test, but its concentration increased significantly after chloramination in two of three tests. Thus, NNK could be a DBP and/or a contaminant in wastewater. Moreover, these TSNAs were detected in FP tests of wastewater-impacted DWTP plant influents in 9 of 11 samples. However, TSNAs were not detected at full-scale DWTPs, except for at one DWTP with high ammonia where breakpoint chlorination was not achieved. The concentration of the sum of five TSNAs (0.3 ng/L) was 100-fold lower than NDMA, suggesting that TSNAs have a minor contribution to total nitrosamines in water. We examined several factors in the treatment process and found that chlorine or ozone may destroy TSNA precursors and granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment may remove the precursors. Further research is warranted into the efficiency of these processes at different DWTPs using sources of varying water quality.
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Interrelationships between ALOX5AP polymorphisms, serum leukotriene B4 level and risk of acute coronary syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated the relationships between the ALOX5AP gene rs10507391 and rs4769874 polymorphisms, serum levels of leukotriene (LT) B4, and risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of twelve halobenzoquinones at ng/L levels in drinking water.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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We report here the characterization of twelve halobenzoquinones (HBQs) using electrospray ionization (ESI) high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The high resolution negative ESI spectra of the twelve HBQs formed two parent ions, [M + H(+) + 2e(-)], and the radical M(-•). The intensities of these two parent ions are dependent on their chemical structures and on instrumental parameters such as the source temperature and flow rate. The characteristic ions of the HBQs were used to develop an ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. At the UPLC flow rate (400 ?L/min) and under the optimized ESI conditions, eleven HBQs showed the stable and abundant transitions [M + H(+) + 2e(-)] ? X(-) (X(-) representing Cl(-), Br(-), or I(-)), while dibromo-dimethyl-benzoquinone (DBDMBQ) showed only the transition of M(-•) ? Br(-). The UPLC efficiently separates all HBQs including some HBQ isomers, while the MS/MS offers exquisite limits of detection (LODs) at subng/mL levels for all HBQs except DBDMBQ. Combined with solid phase extraction (SPE), the method LOD is down to ng/L. The results from analysis of authentic samples demonstrated that the SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method is reliable, fast, and sensitive for the identification and quantification of the twelve HBQs in drinking water.
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UV-induced transformation of four halobenzoquinones in drinking water.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are a group of emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) found in treated drinking water. Because the use of UV treatment for disinfection is becoming more widespread, it is important to understand how the HBQs may be removed or changed due to UV irradiation. Water samples containing four HBQs, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DCMBQ), and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DBBQ), were treated using a modified bench scale collimated beam device, mimicking UV treatment. Water samples before and after UV irradiation were analyzed for the parent compounds and products using a high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. As much as 90% of HBQs (0.25 nmol L(-1)) in both pure water and tap water were transformed to other products after UV254 irradiation at 1000 mJ cm(-2). The major products of the four HBQs were identified as 3-hydroxyl-2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (OH-DCBQ) from DCBQ, 5-hydroxyl-2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (OH-DCMBQ) from DCMBQ, 5-hydroxyl-2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (OH-TCBQ) from TCBQ, and 3-hydroxyl-2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (OH-DBBQ) from DBBQ. These four OH-HBQs were further modified to monohalogenated benzoquinones when the UV dose was higher than 200 mJ cm(-2). These results suggested possible pathways of UV-induced transformation of HBQs to other compounds. Under the UV dose commonly used in water treatment plants, it is likely that HBQs are partially converted to other halo-DBPs. The occurrence and toxicity of these mixed DBPs warrant further investigation to understand whether they pose a health risk.
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Halobenzoquinones in swimming pool waters and their formation from personal care products.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are a class of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health relevance. In this study, we aimed to uncover which HBQs are present in swimming pools. To achieve this goal, we developed a new method capable of determining eight HBQs while overcoming matrix effects to achieve reliable quantification. The method provided reproducible and quantitative recovery (67-102%) and detection limits of 0.03-1.2 ng/L for all eight HBQs. Using this new method, we investigated water samples from 10 swimming pools and found 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ) in all the pools at concentrations of 19-299 ng/L, which was as much as 100 times higher than its concentration in the input tap water (1-6 ng/L). We also identified 2,3,6-trichloro-(1,4)benzoquinone (TriCBQ), 2,3-dibromo-5,6-dimethyl-(1,4)benzoquinone (DMDBBQ), and 2,6-dibromo-(1,4)benzoquinone (2,6-DBBQ) in some swimming pools at concentrations of <0.1-11.3, <0.05-0.7, and <0.05-3.9 ng/L, respectively, but not in the input tap water. We examined several factors to determine why HBQ concentrations in pools were much higher than in the input tap water. Higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC), higher doses of chlorine and higher temperatures enhanced the formation of HBQs in the pools. In addition, we conducted laboratory disinfection experiments and discovered that personal care products (PCPs) such as lotions and sunscreens can serve as precursors to form additional HBQs, such as TriCBQ, 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-(1,4)benzoquinone (DCMBQ), and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-(1,4)benzoquinone (TetraB-1,4-BQ). These results explained why some HBQs existed in swimming pools but not in the input water. This study presents the first set of occurrence data, identification of new HBQ DBPs, and the factors for their enhanced formation in the swimming pools.
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Characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria in sediments from a shallow eutrophic lake and a wetland: isolation, molecular identification and phosphorus release ability determination.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2010
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The transformation of phosphorus (P) is a major factor of lake eutrophication, and phosphate releasing bacteria play an important role in the release process. Experiments were conducted to investigate P content and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacterial composition at the molecular level in a shallow eutrophic lake and a wetland. Results showed that P concentrations were relatively high and derived from agricultural runoff and domestic or industrial pollution. Enumeration and molecular identification of these strains indicated that these bacterial groups were abundant in the ecosystem and various kinds of bacteria participated in the phosphorus release process. Twelve phosphate solubilizing bacteria, including eight organic P-solubilizing bacteria (OPBs) and four inorganic P-solubilizing bacteria (IPBs), which belonged to three different families, were isolated and identified. Cupriavidus basilensis was found for the first time to have the ability to mineralize organic P (OP). Laboratory tests on P release ability revealed that IPBs were more effective at releasing P than OPBs. The most efficient IPB strain could accumulate over 170 mg·L-1 orthophosphate, while the equivalent OPB strain only liberated less than 4 mg·L-1 orthophosphate in liquid culture. The results obtained from this investigation should help clarify the roles of microorganisms in aquatic systems and the mechanisms of eutrophication.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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