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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Discovery of AM-7209, a Potent and Selective 4-Amidobenzoic Acid Inhibitor of the MDM2-p53 Interaction.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Structure-based rational design and extensive SAR led to the discovery of AMG 232 (1), a potent piperidinone inhibitor of MDM2-p53 association, which is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Further modifications of 1, including replacing the carboxylic acid with an 4-amidobenzoic acid, afforded AM-7209 (25), featuring improved potency (KD from ITC competition = 38 pM, SJSA-1 EdU IC50 = 1.6 nM), remarkable pharmacokinetic properties, and in vivo anti-tumor activity in both the SJSA-1 osteosarcoma xenograft model (ED50 = 2.6 mg/kg QD) and the HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma xenograft model (ED50 = 10 mg/kg QD). In addition, 25 possesses distinct mechanisms of elimination compared to 1.
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[Analysis of mature T-cell and NK-cell lymphoma with CD30 expression based on latest WHO classification].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the frequency of different types of mature T- and NK-cell lymphomas diagnosed in a 4-year period at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, and to study baseline CD30 for potential anti-CD30 targeted therapy in mature T- and NK-cell lymphoma.
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Low- but Not High-Frequency LFP Correlates with Spontaneous BOLD Fluctuations in Rat Whisker Barrel Cortex.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rsMRI) is thought to reflect ongoing spontaneous brain activity. However, the precise neurophysiological basis of rsMRI signal remains elusive. Converging evidence supports the notion that local field potential (LFP) signal in the high-frequency range correlates with fMRI response evoked by a task (e.g., visual stimulation). It remains uncertain whether this relationship extends to rsMRI. In this study, we systematically modulated LFP signal in the whisker barrel cortex (WBC) by unilateral deflection of rat whiskers. Results show that functional connectivity between bilateral WBC was significantly modulated at the 2 Hz, but not at the 4 or 6 Hz, stimulus condition. Electrophysiologically, only in the low-frequency range (<5 Hz) was the LFP power synchrony in bilateral WBC significantly modulated at 2 Hz, but not at 4- or 6-Hz whisker stimulation, thus distinguishing these 2 experimental conditions, and paralleling the findings in rsMRI. LFP power synchrony in other frequency ranges was modulated in a way that was neither unique to the specific stimulus conditions nor parallel to the fMRI results. Our results support the hypothesis that emphasizes the role of low-frequency LFP signal underlying rsMRI.
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[Characteristics change of the human directional highly lymphatic metastasis ovarian carcinoma cell and venous endothelial cell after establishment of their condition cultrue and co-culture cell system].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To establish the condition cultrue cell system and co- culture cell system with SKOV3/PM4, HUVEC and to study the changes of their biological characteristics.
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Suppression of the hERG potassium channel response to premature stimulation by reduction in extracellular potassium concentration.
Physiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Potassium channels encoded by human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) mediate the cardiac rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr), which participates in ventricular repolarization and has a protective role against unwanted premature stimuli late in repolarization and early in diastole. Ionic current carried by hERG channels (IhERG) is known to exhibit a paradoxical dependence on external potassium concentration ([K(+)]e), but effects of acute [K(+)]e changes on the response of IhERG to premature stimulation have not been characterized. Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of hERG current were made at 37°C from hERG channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Under conventional voltage-clamp, both wild-type (WT) and S624A pore-mutant IhERG during depolarization to +20 mV and subsequent repolarization to -40 mV were decreased when superfusate [K(+)]e was decreased from 4 to 1 mmol/L. When [K(+)]e was increased from 4 to 10 mmol/L, pulse current was increased and tail IhERG was decreased. Increasing [K(+)]e produced a +10 mV shift in voltage-dependent inactivation of WT IhERG and slowed inactivation time course, while lowering [K(+)]e from 4 to 1 mmol/L produced little change in inactivation voltage dependence, but accelerated inactivation time course. Under action potential (AP) voltage-clamp, lowering [K(+)]e reduced the amplitude of IhERG during the AP and suppressed the maximal IhERG response to premature stimuli. Raising [K(+)]e increased IhERG early during the AP and augmented the IhERG response to premature stimuli. Our results are suggestive that during hypokalemia not only is the contribution of IKr to ventricular repolarization reduced but its ability to protect against unwanted premature stimuli also becomes impaired.
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Efficient synthesis of kinsenoside and goodyeroside a by a chemo-enzymatic approach.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Kinsenoside (1) and goodyeroside A (2), two naturally occurring stereoisomers with diverse biological activities, have been synthesized efficiently by a chemo-enzymatic approach with a total yield of 12.7%. The aglycones, (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxy-?-butyrolactone, were prepared from D- and L-malic acid by a four-step chemical approach with a yield of 75%, respectively. These butyrolactones were then successfully glycosidated using ?-D-glucosidase as a catalyst in a homogeneous organic-water system. Under the optimized enzymatic conditions, the yields of kinsenoside and goodyeroside A in the enzymatic steps both reached 16.8%.
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Extracellular matrix modulates the biological effects of melatonin in mesenchymal stem cells.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Both self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are triggered by their in vivo microenvironment including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and secreted hormones. The ECM may modulate the physiological functions of hormones by providing binding sites and by regulating downstream signaling pathways. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of adsorption of melatonin to a natural cell-deposited ECM and the effects of this interaction on the biological functions of melatonin in human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). The fibrillar microstructure, matrix composition, and melatonin-binding affinity of decellularized ECM were characterized. The cell-deposited ECM improved melatonin-mediated cell proliferation by 31.4%, attenuated accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA and protein expression. Interaction with ECM significantly enhanced the osteogenic effects of melatonin on BM-MSCs by increasing calcium deposition by 30.5%, up-regulating osteoblast-specific gene expression and down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The underlying mechanisms of these changes in expression may involve intracellular antioxidant enzymes, because osteoblast-specific genes were down-regulated, whereas MMP expression was up-regulated, in the presence of SOD-specific inhibitors. Collectively, our findings indicate the importance of native ECM in modulating the osteoinductive and antioxidant effects of melatonin and provide a novel platform for studying the biological actions of growth factors or hormones in a physiologically relevant microenvironment. Moreover, a better understanding of the enhancement of MSC growth and osteogenic differentiation resulting from the combination of ECM and melatonin could improve the design of graft substitutes for skeletal tissue engineering.
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[Optimized sample preparation for metabolome studies on Streptomyces coelicolor].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Streptomycetes produce many antibiotics and are important model microorgansims for scientific research and antibiotic production. Metabolomics is an emerging technological platform to analyze low molecular weight metabolites in a given organism qualitatively and quantitatively. Compared to other Omics platform, metabolomics has greater advantage in monitoring metabolic flux distribution and thus identifying key metabolites related to target metabolic pathway. The present work aims at establishing a rapid, accurate sample preparation protocol for metabolomics analysis in streptomycetes. In the present work, several sample preparation steps, including cell quenching time, cell separation method, conditions for metabolite extraction and metabolite derivatization were optimized. Then, the metabolic profiles of Streptomyces coelicolor during different growth stages were analyzed by GC-MS. The optimal sample preparation conditions were as follows: time of low-temperature quenching 4 min, cell separation by fast filtration, time of freeze-thaw 45 s/3 min and the conditions of metabolite derivatization at 40 degrees C for 90 min. By using this optimized protocol, 103 metabolites were finally identified from a sample of S. coelicolor, which distribute in central metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and citrate cycle), amino acid, fatty acid, nucleotide metabolic pathways, etc. By comparing the temporal profiles of these metabolites, the amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways were found to stay at a high level during stationary phase, therefore, these pathways may play an important role during the transition between the primary and secondary metabolism. An optimized protocol of sample preparation was established and applied for metabolomics analysis of S. coelicolor, 103 metabolites were identified. The temporal profiles of metabolites reveal amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways may play an important role in the transition from primary to secondary metabolism in S. coelicolor.
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Evaluation of net causal influences in the circuit responding to premotor control during the movement-readiness state using conditional Granger causality.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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As an initialization procedure for brain responding to subsequent movement execution (ME), the movement-readiness (MR) state is important for understanding the formation processes from daily movement training to long-term memory of movement pattern. As such, based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the net causal influences among regions contributing to premotor control during the MR state were explored by means of conditional Granger causality (CGC) and graph-theory methods in the present study. Our results found that net causal circuits responding to unimanual MR were identified during right-hand or left-hand MR, involving in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), upper precuneus (UPCU), caudate nucleus (CN), cingulate motor area (CMA), supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary sensorimotor area (S1M1). Moreover, the contralateral CN, SMA and S1M1 revealed greater net causal influences during unimanual MR, which highlighted the contralateral dominant modulations during unimanual MR. Furthermore, according as the graph-theory analysis, the higher In+Out degrees of upper precuneus (UPCU) during right-hand MR or higher In+Out degrees of cingulate motor area (CMA) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) during left-hand MR implied the brain asymmetry of causal connectivity in the circuit responding to right-hand or left-hand MR. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory.
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Nerve growth factor mediates a switch in intracellular signaling for PGE2-induced sensitization of sensory neurons from protein kinase A to Epac.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We examined whether nerve growth factor (NGF), an inflammatory mediator that contributes to chronic hypersensitivity, alters the intracellular signaling that mediates the sensitizing actions of PGE2 from activation of protein kinase A (PKA) to exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epacs). When isolated sensory neurons are grown in the absence of added NGF, but not in cultures grown with 30 ng/ml NGF, inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA) activity blocks the ability of PGE2 to augment capsaicin-evoked release of the neuropeptide CGRP and to increase the number of action potentials (APs) evoked by a ramp of current. Growing sensory neurons in culture in the presence of increasing concentrations of NGF increases the expression of Epac2, but not Epac1. An intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the rat hindpaw also increases the expression of Epac2, but not Epac1 in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord: an effect blocked by intraplantar administration of NGF antibodies. Treating cultures grown in the presence of 30 ng/ml NGF with Epac1siRNA significantly reduced the expression of Epac1, but not Epac2, and did not block the ability of PGE2 to augment capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP from sensory neurons. Exposing neuronal cultures grown in NGF to Epac2siRNAreduced the expression of Epac2, but not Epac1 and prevented the PGE2-induced augmentation of capsaicin and potassium-evoked CGRP release in sensory neurons and the PGE2-induced increase in the number of APs generated by a ramp of current. In neurons grown with no added NGF, Epac siRNAs did not attenuate PGE2-induced sensitization. These results demonstrate that NGF, through increasing Epac2 expression, alters the signaling cascade that mediates PGE2-induced sensitization of sensory neurons, thus providing a novel mechanism for maintaining PGE2-induced hypersensitivity during inflammation.
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A new tumour suppression mechanism by p27Kip1: EGFR down-regulation mediated by JNK/c-Jun pathway inhibition.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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p27Kip1 is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases that drive G1-to-S cell-cycle transition. Reduced p27Kip1 expression is prevalent in a wide range of human tumours; however, the exact mechanism(s) of p27Kip1-mediated tumour suppression remains obscure. In the present study, we identified a close inverse relationship between p27Kip1 and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) expression: the parental T24 human bladder cancer cells had high p27Kip1 expression but low EGFR expression and, in striking contrast, the metastatic derivative of T24 (T24T) had low p27Kip1 expression but high EGFR expression. This relationship was also found in various human cancer tissues, and was not only just correlative but also causal; depletion of p27Kip1 in MEF (mouse embryonic fibroblast) cells resulted in markedly elevated EGFR expression, a result reproducible with an Egfr promoter-luciferase reporter in both T24 and MEF cells, suggesting transcriptional repression of EGFR by p27Kip1. Indeed, p27Kip1 was found to regulate EGFR expression via the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)/c-Jun transcription factor: p27Kip1 deficiency activated JNK/c-Jun, whereas inhibition of JNK/c-Jun by dominant-negative mutants dramatically repressed Egfr transcription. Furthermore, the proximal promoter of the Egfr gene was crucial for its transcription, where the recruiting activity of c-Jun was much greater in p27Kip1-/- cells than in p27Kip1+/+ cells. Introduction of GFP-p27Kip1 into T24T cells suppressed JNK/c-Jun activation, EGFR expression and anchorage-independent growth. The results of the present study demonstrate that p27Kip1 suppresses JNK/c-Jun activation and EGFR expression in MEFs and human bladder cancer cells, and the results obtained are consistent with those from human cancer specimens. The present study provides new insights into p27Kip1 suppression of cancer cell growth, migration and metastasis.
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Oral microbiota and host innate immune response in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Bacterial biofilms have emerged as potential critical triggers in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) or BRONJ. BRONJ lesions have shown to be heavily colonized by oral bacteria, most of these difficult to cultivate and presents many clinical challenges. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacterial diversity in BRONJ lesions and to determine host immune response. We examined tissue specimens from three cohorts (n=30); patients with periodontal disease without a history of BP therapy (Control, n=10), patients with periodontal disease having history of BP therapy but without ONJ (BP, n=5) and patients with BRONJ (BRONJ, n=15). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed less bacterial diversity in BRONJ than BP and Control cohorts. Sequence analysis detected six phyla with predominant affiliation to Firmicutes in BRONJ (71.6%), BP (70.3%) and Control (59.1%). Significant differences (P<0.05) in genera were observed, between Control/BP, Control/BRONJ and BP/BRONJ cohorts. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results indicated that the levels of myeloperoxidase were significantly lower, whereas interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were moderately elevated in BRONJ patients as compared to Controls. PCR array showed significant changes in BRONJ patients with downregulation of host genes, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein 2, and cathepsin G, the key modulators for antibacterial response and upregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, proteinase 3 and conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase. The results suggest that colonization of unique bacterial communities coupled with deficient innate immune response is likely to impact the pathogenesis of ONJ.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication, 8 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.46.
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[Impact of the number of lymph nodes dissected on the prognosis of G3 advanced gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To explore the risk factors associated with the prognosis in poorly differentiated(G3) advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and the effect of number of harvested lymph nodes on the prognosis.
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Abstinence from cocaine and sucrose self-administration reveals altered mesocorticolimbic circuit connectivity by resting state MRI.
Brain Connect
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Previous preclinical studies have emphasized that drugs of abuse, through actions within and between mesocorticolimbic (MCL) regions, usurp learning and memory processes normally involved in the pursuit of natural rewards. To distinguish MCL circuit pathobiological neuroadaptations that accompany addiction from general learning processes associated with natural reward, we trained two groups of rats to self-administer either cocaine (IV) or sucrose (orally) followed by an identically enforced 30 day abstinence period. These procedures are known to induce behavioral changes and neuroadaptations. A third group of sedentary animals served as a negative control group for general handling effects. We examined low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal, known as resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), as a measure of intrinsic neurobiological interactions between brain regions. Decreased rsFC was seen in the cocaine-SA compared with both sucrose-SA and housing control groups between prelimbic (PrL) cortex and entopeduncular nucleus and between nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). Moreover, individual differences in cocaine SA escalation predicted connectivity strength only in the Acb-dmPFC circuit. These data provide evidence of fronto-striatal plasticity across the addiction trajectory, which are consistent with Acb-PFC hypoactivity seen in abstinent human drug addicts, indicating potential circuit level biomarkers that may inform therapeutic interventions. They further suggest that available data from cross-sectional human studies may reflect the consequence of rather a predispositional predecessor to their dependence.
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A mixture of carcinoid tumors, extensive neuroendocrine proliferation, and multiple pulmonary sclerosing hemangiomas.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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We encountered an extremely rare case of multiple pulmonary sclerosing hemangiomas (PSH) with extensive neuroendocrine lesions, including pulmonary neuroendocrine cell (PNC) hyperplasia, multiple carcinoid tumorlets and typical carcinoid tumors within one pulmonary lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the English medical literature of PSH combined and admixed with carcinoid tumors and extensive neuroendocrine proliferation. This case is noteworthy for several reasons. First, the lesion is multi-nodular and unusually large for a typical PSH, which may mimic malignancy on imaging studies and cause diagnostic difficulties. Second, sampling bias may lead to diagnostic errors for a lesion containing two different types of neoplasms. Third, our case displays a rare mixed and mosaic pattern of PSH with a full spectrum of pulmonary neuroendocrine lesions, which may imply a potential intrinsic association in pathogenesis between PSH and concomitant neuroendocrine neoplasms. The clinical implication of multiple PSHs is also discussed.
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Roles of deletion of Arid1a, a tumor suppressor, in mouse ovarian tumorigenesis.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The chromatin remodeling gene, ARID1A, has been implied as a tumor suppressor, and its somatic inactivating mutations occur in a wide variety of human cancers, most frequently in ovarian and uterine endometrioid and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Tumors with ARID1A mutations also frequently harbor PTEN or PIK3CA mutations, suggesting their collaboration in tumorigenesis. Here, we used a conditional knockout mouse model in which Arid1a and Pten were deleted either individually or in combination in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium. After 6 months, 59.1% of mice with Arid1a and Pten double knockout developed ovarian endometrioid or undifferentiated carcinoma, whereas the remaining mice showed hyperplasia of ovarian surface epithelium. In contrast, 52 mice with homozygous or heterozygous deletion in either Arid1a or Pten did not develop ovarian lesions. These results demonstrate that inactivation of Arid1a alone is insufficient for tumor initiation but it requires additional genetic alteration(s) such as Pten deletion to drive tumorigenesis.
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[Synergistic tumor suppression by Ad. RGD-iNG4 in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE and its mechanism].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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To investigate the effect of adenovirus-mediated ING4 with RGD on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE and explore its probable mechanism.
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A novel Affibody bioconjugate for dual-modality imaging of ovarian cancer.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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An Affibody based dual imaging probe (PET and optical imaging) has been successfully developed. Dendrimer PAMAM G0 was used as a platform to assemble an NIRF dye, a metal chelator, and Affibody for dual modality imaging of ovarian cancer. Excellent tumor imaging quality was achieved in both modalities in the living tumor mice models.
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Bacterial community structure in Apis florea larvae analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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This study characterizes the colonization and composition of bacterial flora in dwarf Asian honeybee (Apis florea) larvae and compares bacterial diversity and distribution among different sampling locations. A. florea larvae were collected from 3 locations in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each larva using the phenol-chloroform method. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed, and the dominant bands were excised from the gels, cloned, and sequenced for bacterial species identification. The result revealed similarities of bacterial community profiles in each individual colony, but differences between colonies from the same and different locations. A. florea larvae harbor bacteria belonging to 2 phyla (Firmicutes and Proteobacteria), 5 classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Clostridia), 6 genera (Clostridium, Gilliamella, Melissococcus, Lactobacillus, Saccharibacter, and Snodgrassella), and an unknown genus from uncultured bacterial species. The classes with the highest abundance of bacteria were Alphaproteobacteria (34%), Bacilli (25%), Betaproteobacteria (11%), Gammaproteobacteria (10%), and Clostridia (8%), respectively. Similarly, uncultured bacterial species were identified (12%). Environmental bacterial species, such as Saccharibacter floricola, were also found. This is the first study in which sequences closely related to Melissococcus plutonius, the causal pathogen responsible for European foulbrood, have been identified in Thai A. florea larvae.
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Prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with insomnia in a community based population in China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Studies of the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with insomnia are scarce in China. This study investigated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with insomnia in a community based Chinese population.
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Prognostic value of stromal cell-derived factor 1 expression in patients with gastric cancer after surgical resection.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Aberrant chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) expression has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of various malignancies. Our present study aims to investigate the clinical and prognostic value of SDF-1 expression and improve risk stratification in patients with gastric cancer. Peritumoral and intratumoral SDF-1 levels were assessed in 220 retrospectively enrolled gastric cancer patients, and their relations with clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes were evaluated. A predictive nomogram was created to refine risk stratification for overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Compared with peritumor tissues, tumor tissues showed decreased SDF-1 expression levels according to TNM stage progression in gastric cancer specimens. Peritumoral SDF-1 expression correlated positively with tumor invasion depth and lymph node metastasis, whereas intratumoral SDF-1 expression associated negatively with tumor size, tumor differentiation, tumor invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, and clinical TNM stage. Moreover, both low peritumoral SDF-1 expression and high intratumoral SDF-1 expression indicated favorable overall survival, and SDF-1 risk derived from the peritumoral/intratumoral SDF-1 expression signature could stratify prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. After backward elimination, SDF-1 risk was identified as an independent prognostic factor for survival. Finally, a predictive nomogram was generated with identified independent prognosticators to assess patient survival at 3 and 5 years following surgery. Conclusively, SDF-1 risk, an identified independent prognostic factor, could be developed into a nomogram with tumor invasion depth, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis to refine predictive accuracy for survival in patients with gastric cancer after surgical resection.
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Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and low ankle brachial index in an elderly population.
VASA
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The associations of triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (HDL?C) and total cholesterol (TC) to HDL?C ratio and low ankle brachial index (ABI) were seldom investigated.
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Gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph nodes metastasis: curable dissection possible but be cautiously selected.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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This is a reply letter to Dr. M Daniele et al. entitled as "gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph nodes metastasis: do not miss a chance of cure!". Para-aortic lymph node metastasis has been regarded as a pattern of distant metastasis in gastric cancer. Even patients with PAN metastasis undergo extensive lymph nodes, the prognosis is unsatisfactory and the overall survival is not better than the patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. However, for the patients who were responded to the preoperative chemotherapy, subsequent radical gastrectomy performed prolonged survival. Meanwhile, patients who were resistant to the previous chemotherapy were not optimal candidates for curative resection in advanced gastric cancer patients with PAN metastasis. How large with lymph nodes dissection for the patients with initially PAN metastasis after effective neo-chemotherapy is still a controversial issue and needs further large-scale randomized trials.
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Loss of ALDH1A1 expression is an early event in the pathogenesis of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Tumor-initiating cells are thought to share features with normal somatic stem cells. In mice, stem cells at the ovarian hilum have been shown to express the stem cell marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1A1 (ALDH1A1), and are prone to malignant transformation. The potential relevance of this finding to humans has not been established. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to assess the distribution of ALDH1A1 staining in the epithelium of human fallopian tubes, with particular reference to the transition of tubal epithelium to mesothelium (ie, tubal-mesothelial junction), ovarian surface epithelium, as well as putative precursors of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, namely, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and 'p53 signatures,' and overt serous carcinoma. Expression of ALDH1A1 was detected in both secretory and ciliated tubal epithelial cells, tubal-mesothelial junctions and ovarian surface epithelium, but was absent in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and p53 signatures. Positive staining in high-grade serous carcinoma, when present, was typically limited to rare tumor cells. In silico analyses of the mRNA expression data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed downregulation of ALDH1A1 transcripts in high-grade serous carcinoma relative to normal tubal epithelium, and no association between ALDH1A1 expression levels and overall survival. Our results do not support ALDH1A1 as a specific marker of stem cells in human fallopian tube and demonstrate that its loss of expression is an early event in the development of high-grade serous carcinoma.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 12 September 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.89.
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Ranolazine inhibition of hERG potassium channels: drug-pore interactions and reduced potency against inactivation mutants.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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The antianginal drug ranolazine, which combines inhibitory actions on rapid and sustained sodium currents with inhibition of the hERG/IKr potassium channel, shows promise as an antiarrhythmic agent. This study investigated the structural basis of hERG block by ranolazine, with lidocaine used as a low potency, structurally similar comparator. Recordings of hERG current (IhERG) were made from cell lines expressing wild-type (WT) or mutant hERG channels. Docking simulations were performed using homology models built on MthK and KvAP templates. In conventional voltage clamp, ranolazine inhibited IhERG with an IC50 of 8.03?M; peak IhERG during ventricular action potential clamp was inhibited ~62% at 10?M. The IC50 values for ranolazine inhibition of the S620T inactivation deficient and N588K attenuated inactivation mutants were respectively ~73-fold and ~15-fold that for WT IhERG. Mutations near the bottom of the selectivity filter (V625A, S624A, T623A) exhibited IC50s between ~8 and 19-fold that for WT IhERG, whilst the Y652A and F656A S6 mutations had IC50s ~22-fold and 53-fold WT controls. Low potency lidocaine was comparatively insensitive to both pore helix and S6 mutations, but was sensitive to direction of K(+) flux and particularly to loss of inactivation, with an IC50 for S620T-hERG ~49-fold that for WT IhERG. Docking simulations indicated that the larger size of ranolazine gives it potential for a greater range of interactions with hERG pore side chains compared to lidocaine, in particular enabling interaction of its two aromatic groups with side chains of both Y652 and F656. The N588K mutation is responsible for the SQT1 variant of short QT syndrome and our data suggest that ranolazine is unlikely to be effective against IKr/hERG in SQT1 patients.
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[A cross-sectional study of factors related to traditional Chinese medicine use for hospitalized acute coronary syndrome patients in China's level 2 hospitals].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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To explore the current status on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use for hospitalized acute coronary syndrome patients in China's level 2 hospitals, and to explore associated factors of TCM use for these patients.
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Homogeneous isolation of nanocelluloses by controlling the shearing force and pressure in microenvironment.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Nanocelluloses were prepared from sugarcane bagasse celluloses by dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM), aiming at achieving a homogeneous isolation through the controlling of shearing force and pressure within a microenvironment. In the DHPM process, the homogeneous cellulose solution passed through chambers at a higher pressure in fewer cycles, compared with the high pressure homogenization (HPH) process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated that entangled network structures of celluloses were well dispersed in the microenvironment, which provided proper shearing forces and pressure to fracture the hydrogen bonds. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), CP/MAS (13)C NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements suggested that intra-molecular hydrogen bonds were maintained. These nanocelluloses of smaller particle size, good dispersion and lower thermal stability will have great potential to be applied in electronics devices, electrochemistry, medicine, and package and printing industry.
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Novel inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction featuring hydrogen bond acceptors as carboxylic acid isosteres.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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We previously reported the discovery of potent and selective morpholinone and piperidinone inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction. These inhibitors have in common a carboxylic acid moiety that engages in an electrostatic interaction with MDM2-His96. Our continued search for potent and diverse inhibitors led to the discovery of novel replacements for these acids uncovering new interactions with the MDM2 protein. In particular, using pyridine or thiazole as isosteres of the carboxylic acid moiety resulted in very potent analogues. From these, AM-6761 (4) emerged as a potent inhibitor with remarkable biochemical (HTRF IC50 = 0.1 nM) and cellular potency (SJSA-1 EdU IC50 = 16 nM), as well as favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 4 also shows excellent antitumor activity in the SJSA-1 osteosarcoma xenograft model with an ED50 of 11 mg/kg. Optimization efforts toward the discovery of these inhibitors as well as the new interactions observed with the MDM2 protein are described herein.
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Ubiquitylation of autophagy receptor Optineurin by HACE1 activates selective autophagy for tumor suppression.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In selective autophagy, receptors are central for cargo selection and delivery. However, it remains yet unclear whether and how multiple autophagy receptors might form complex and function concertedly to control autophagy. Optineurin (OPTN), implicated genetically in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was a recently identified autophagy receptor. Here we report that tumor-suppressor HACE1, a ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitylates OPTN and promotes its interaction with p62/SQSTM1 to form the autophagy receptor complex, thus accelerating autophagic flux. Interestingly, the Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains that HACE1 conjugates onto OPTN might predominantly target OPTN for autophagic degradation. By demonstrating that the HACE1-OPTN axis synergistically suppresses growth and tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells, our findings may open an avenue for developing autophagy-targeted therapeutic intervention into cancer.
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Determination of the water vapor continuum absorption by THz-TDS and Molecular Response Theory.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Determination of the water vapor continuum absorption from 0.35 to 1 THz is reported. The THz pulses propagate though a 137 m long humidity-controlled chamber and are measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The average relative humidity along the entire THz path is precisely obtained by measuring the difference between transit times of the sample and reference THz pulses to an accuracy of 0.1 ps. Using the measured total absorption and the calculated resonance line absorption with the Molecular Response Theory lineshape, based on physical principles and measurements, an accurate continuum absorption is obtained within four THz absorption windows, that agrees well with the empirical theory. The absorption is significantly smaller than that obtained using the van Vleck-Weisskopf lineshape with a 750 GHz cut-off.
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Myeloid WNT7b mediates the angiogenic switch and metastasis in breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Oncogenic targets acting in both tumor cells and tumor stromal cells may offer special therapeutic appeal. Interrogation of the Oncomine database revealed that 52 of 53 human breast carcinomas showed substantial upregulation of WNT family ligand WNT7B. Immunolabeling of human mammary carcinoma showed that WNT7B immunoreactivity was associated with both tumor cells and with tumor-associated macrophages. In the MMTV-PymT mouse model of mammary carcinoma, we found tumor progression relied upon WNT7B produced by myeloid cells in the microenvironment. Wnt7b deletion in myeloid cells reduced the mass and volume of tumors due to a failure in the angiogenic switch. In the tumor overall, there was no change in expression of Wnt/?-catenin pathway target genes, but in vascular endothelial cells (VEC), expression of these genes was reduced, suggesting that VECs respond to Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Mechanistic investigations revealed that failure of the angiogenic switch could be attributed to reduced Vegfa mRNA and protein expression in VECs, a source of VEGFA mRNA in the tumor that was limiting in the absence of myeloid WNT7B. We also noted a dramatic reduction in lung metastasis associated with decreased macrophage-mediated tumor cell invasion. Together, these results illustrated the critical role of myeloid WNT7B in tumor progression, acting at the levels of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We suggest that therapeutic suppression of WNT7B signaling might be advantageous due to targeting multiple aspects of tumor progression.
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Large-scale brain network coupling predicts acute nicotine abstinence effects on craving and cognitive function.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders.
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Infiltration of diametrically polarized macrophages predicts overall survival of patients with gastric cancer after surgical resection.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), the most predominant tumor-infiltrating immune cells, are emerging prognostic factors and therapeutic targets for personalized therapy against malignant neoplasms. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of diametrically polarized TAMs in gastric cancer and generate a predictive nomogram to refine a risk stratification system.
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Selective and potent morpholinone inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 protein-protein interaction.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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We previously reported the discovery of AMG 232, a highly potent and selective piperidinone inhibitor of the MDM2-p53 interaction. Our continued search for potent and diverse analogues led to the discovery of novel morpholinone MDM2 inhibitors. This change to a morpholinone core has a significant impact on both potency and metabolic stability compared to the piperidinone series. Within this morpholinone series, AM-8735 emerged as an inhibitor with remarkable biochemical potency (HTRF IC50 = 0.4 nM) and cellular potency (SJSA-1 EdU IC50 = 25 nM), as well as pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 4 also shows excellent antitumor activity in the SJSA-1 osteosarcoma xenograft model with an ED50 of 41 mg/kg. Lead optimization toward the discovery of this inhibitor as well as key differences between the morpholinone and the piperidinone series will be described herein.
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[Adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): Chinese subgroup analysis].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of XELOX (capecitabine/oxaliplatin) in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who underwent curative D2 resection in China.
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HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition.
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Molecular detection of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in humans, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The cause of diphyllobothriosis in 5 persons in Harbin and Shanghai, China, during 2008-2011, initially attributed to the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, was confirmed as D. nihonkaiense by using molecular analysis of expelled proglottids. The use of morphologic characteristics alone to identify this organism was inadequate and led to misidentification of the species.
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Evaluation of microinvasion and lymph node involvement in ovarian serous borderline/atypical proliferative serous tumors: a morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 37 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Most of the literature on serous borderline/atypical proliferative serous tumors (SBT/APSTs) shows no effect of microinvasion or lymph node involvement on outcome. This study is a morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the cells comprising SBT/APSTs, microinvasion, lymph node involvement, and low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) in an attempt to explain this unusual behavior. We found that the cells in microinvasion and in lymph nodes were morphologically similar to the cells in SBT/APSTs but differed significantly from the cells in LGSCs. In addition, one particular population of cells, those with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (eosinophilic cells), in SBT/APSTs, microinvasion, and lymph nodes showed a significant loss of expression of ER, PR, and WT-1 compared with the cuboidal/columnar tumor cells, both in cases of microinvasion (P<0.001 for all 3 markers) and lymph node involvement (P<0.001, P=0.02, P=0.002, respectively). There was a significant decrease in the Ki-67 proliferation index for microinvasion (P=0.004) and a decreasing trend for lymph node involvement (nonsignificant) compared with the columnar/cuboidal cells. In addition, cells in these tumors showed morphologic evidence of apoptosis, which was confirmed by immunostaining with M30, a marker of apoptosis. In contrast, LGSCs lacked eosinophilic cells and showed no loss of expression of ER, PR, and WT-1. They also had a significantly higher Ki-67 proliferation index than their associated SBT/APSTs (P=0.029). On the basis of these findings, we propose that the cells comprising microinvasion do not represent an invasive neoplastic process. Instead, in view of the loss of expression of ER, PR, and WT-1, evidence of apoptosis, and decrease in the Ki-67 proliferation index, we postulate that they are senescent and terminally differentiated with a subset of cells undergoing apoptosis, which could explain their lack of an adverse effect on outcome.
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Design Aspects of a Case-Control Clinical Investigation of the Effect of HIV on Oral and Gastrointestinal Soluble Innate Factors and Microbes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The impaired host defense system in HIV infection impacts the oral and gastrointestinal microbiota and associated opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment is predicted to partially restore host defenses and decrease the oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the interactions of soluble host defense proteins with bacteria and virus in HIV/AIDS. "Crosstalk" was designed as a longitudinal study of host responses along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and interactions between defense molecules and bacteria in HIV infection and subsequent therapy.
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B-myb is a gene implicated in cell cycle and proliferation of breast cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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B-myb belongs to the myb family of transcription factors that include A-myb and c-myb. While A-myb and c-myb are tissue-specific, B-myb is broadly expressed in rapidly dividing cells of developing adult mammals. Results of our study showed that increased B-myb expression of was associated with the progression of breast cancer and that B-myb protein levels were signi?cantly elevated in matched metastases. High B-myb levels also predict shorter overall survival of breast cancer patients. Moreover, B-myb stimulated transcription of target genes that promoted entry into the S and M-phases of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, migration and invasion in breast cancer. Taken together, our results strongly demonstrated that B-myb had a critical role in both cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, and might serve as a novel potential target in the diagnosis and/or treatment of human breast cancer.
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TGF-? isoforms induce EMT independent migration of ovarian cancer cells.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) plays major roles in tumorigenesis by regulating cell growth, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration/invasion and metastasis. The epithelial markers E-cadherin, claudin-3 and claudin-4, commonly decreased in human adenocarcinomas are actually up regulated during ovarian carcinogenesis. In human ovarian cancer TGF-?1 may either suppress or promote tumor progression, but whether other TGF-? isoforms (TGF-?2 and TGF-?3) exert similar effects is not known.
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Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL) would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI), the key node of cognitive control network (CCN) and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.
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Resting-State Glutamate and GABA Concentrations Predict Task-Induced Deactivation in the Default Mode Network.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Deactivation of the human brains default mode network (DMN) is regarded as suppression of endogenous activity to support exogenous task-related processes. This phenomenon has important functional relevance and insufficient DMN deactivation has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the neurochemical mechanism of the DMNs deactivation remains largely unknown. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, respectively, are associated with DMN deactivation. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure neurotransmitter concentrations in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a key component of the DMN, and functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate DMN deactivation induced by an n-back working memory task. Our results demonstrate significant associations of glutamate and GABA with DMN deactivation. Specifically, high regional GABA concentration in the PCC/PCu area is associated with enhanced deactivation induced by the task in the same region, whereas high glutamate concentration is associated with reduced deactivation. Furthermore, the association between GABA and DMN deactivation increases with the cognitive loads. These neurochemical characteristics of DMN deactivation may provide novel insights toward better understanding of the DMNs functions under normal physiological conditions and dysfunctions in neuropsychiatric disorders.
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MiR-320a downregulation is associated with imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2013
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Though imatinib improves the outcome, drug resistance remains the major problem for extending patient survival. Genetic mutation of the drug targets is the known mechanism for imatinib resistance. However, it cannot explain all of the phenomena of imatinib resistance, and numerous additional mechanisms have been proposed to account for imatinib resistance in various model systems. In this study, we applied the SYBR-green quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based array approach to screen the differentially expressed miRNAs between primary GIST patients and imatinib-resistant patients. The selected candidate miRNAs were validated in a cohort of 12 GIST patients. We found that low expression of miR-320a was correlated with short time to imatinib resistance, and proposed the potential mechanism of miR-320a for imatinib resistance.
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Large-scale brain networks in the awake, truly resting marmoset monkey.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful tool that is increasingly used as a noninvasive method for investigating whole-brain circuitry and holds great potential as a possible diagnostic for disease. Despite this potential, few resting-state studies have used animal models (of which nonhuman primates represent our best opportunity of understanding complex human neuropsychiatric disease), and no work has characterized networks in awake, truly resting animals. Here we present results from a small New World monkey that allows for the characterization of resting-state networks in the awake state. Six adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were acclimated to light, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following behavioral training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each conscious subject. Group independent component analysis revealed 12 brain networks that overlap substantially with known anatomically constrained circuits seen in the awake human. Specifically, we found eight sensory and "lower-order" networks (four visual, two somatomotor, one cerebellar, and one caudate-putamen network), and four "higher-order" association networks (one default mode-like network, one orbitofrontal, one frontopolar, and one network resembling the human salience network). In addition to their functional relevance, these network patterns bear great correspondence to those previously described in awake humans. This first-of-its-kind report in an awake New World nonhuman primate provides a platform for mechanistic neurobiological examination for existing disease models established in the marmoset.
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Identification of BZR1-interacting Proteins as Potential Components of the Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway in Arabidopsis Through Tandem Affinity Purification.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential phytohormones for plant growth and development. BRs are perceived by the cell surface receptor kinase BRI1, and downstream signal transduction through multiple components leads to activation of the transcription factors BZR1 and BZR2/BES1. BZR1 activity is highly controlled by BR through reversible phosphorylation, protein degradation, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. To further understand the molecular function of BZR1, we performed tandem affinity purification of the BZR1 complex and identified BZR1-associated proteins using mass spectrometry. These BZR1-associated proteins included several known BR signaling components, such as BIN2, BSK1, 14-3-3?, and PP2A, as well as a large number of proteins with previously unknown functions in BR signal transduction, including the kinases MKK5 and MAPK4, histone deacetylase 19, cysteine proteinase inhibitor 6, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, cysteine endopeptidases RD21A and RD21B, calmodulin-binding transcription activator 5, ubiquitin protease 12, cyclophilin 59, and phospholipid-binding protein synaptotagmin A. Their interactions with BZR1 were confirmed by in vivo and in vitro assays. Furthermore, MKK5 was found to phosphorylate BZR1 in vitro. This study demonstrates an effective method for purifying proteins associated with low-abundance transcription factors, and identifies new BZR1-interacting proteins with potentially important roles in BR response.
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Soluble E-cadherin in systemic lupus erythematosus.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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E-cadherin is a potent adherens junction molecule implicated in tissue morphogenesis, epithelial functioning, and immune regulation. Serum levels of soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin), an end product of proteolytic cleavage of E-cadherin, is increased in patients with cancer, infections, and inflammation-related diseases. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of sE-cadherin in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to determine associations between serum levels of sE-cadherin and markers of inflammation and organ damage in female patients with SLE.
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Atmosphere characterization for simulation of the two optimal wireless terahertz digital communication links.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Our studies of terahertz pulse propagation in the atmosphere have identified the two most optimal communication channels. The potential of these channels is demonstrated by physically accurate linear dispersion theory calculations of digital pulse propagation, showing it is possible to have two high-performance, point-to-point digital terahertz links in the atmosphere: a direct 95 GHz, 20 km ground link at 9.5 Gb/s with power loss of 10 dB due to water vapor at RH 58% (10 g/m3) and 20°C, and a direct 250 GHz, geosynchronous satellite link at 20.8 Gb/s with a 2 km zenith path with water vapor loss of 9 dB.
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Developmental stage-dependent transcriptional regulatory pathways control neuroblast lineage progression.
Development
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Neuroblasts generate neurons with different functions by asymmetric cell division, cell cycle exit and differentiation. The underlying transcriptional regulatory pathways remain elusive. Here, we performed genetic screens in C. elegans and identified three evolutionarily conserved transcription factors (TFs) essential for Q neuroblast lineage progression. Through live cell imaging and genetic analysis, we showed that the storkhead TF HAM-1 regulates spindle positioning and myosin polarization during asymmetric cell division and that the PAR-1-like kinase PIG-1 is a transcriptional regulatory target of HAM-1. The TEAD TF EGL-44, in a physical association with the zinc-finger TF EGL-46, instructs cell cycle exit after the terminal division. Finally, the Sox domain TF EGL-13 is necessary and sufficient to establish the correct neuronal fate. Genetic analysis further demonstrated that HAM-1, EGL-44/EGL-46 and EGL-13 form three transcriptional regulatory pathways. We have thus identified TFs that function at distinct developmental stages to ensure appropriate neuroblast lineage progression and suggest that their vertebrate homologs might similarly regulate neural development.
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Zero-frequency refractivity of water vapor, comparison of Debye and van-Vleck Weisskopf theory.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We show that the zero-frequency, refractivity of water vapor calculated by the van-Vleck Weisskopf theory via a summation over all the water lines from 22.2 GHz to 30 THz can explain all of the previous measurements from 0.5 MHz to microwave, mm-waves and THz frequencies. This result removes a long standing discrepancy in comparisons of measurements and theory, and is in excellent agreement with experiments.
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Rescue of proinflammatory cytokine-inhibited chondrogenesis by the antiarthritic effect of melatonin in synovium mesenchymal stem cells via suppression of reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinases.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Cartilage repair by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) often occurs in diseased joints in which the inflamed microenvironment impairs chondrogenic maturation and causes neocartilage degradation. In this environment, melatonin exerts an antioxidant effect by scavenging free radicals. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of melatonin on human MSCs in a proinflammatory cytokine-induced arthritic environment. MSCs were induced toward chondrogenesis in the presence of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) with or without melatonin. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and cell viability were then assessed. Deposition of glycosaminoglycans and collagens was also determined by histological analysis. Gene expression of chondrogenic markers and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the involvement of the melatonin receptor and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chondrogenesis was investigated using pharmacologic inhibitors. The results showed that melatonin significantly reduced ROS accumulation and increased SOD expression. Both IL-1? and TNF-? had an inhibitory effect on the chondrogenesis of MSCs, but melatonin successfully restored the low expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic genes. Melatonin prevented cartilage degradation by downregulating MMPs. The addition of luzindole and SOD inhibitors abrogated the protective effect of melatonin associated with increased levels of ROS and MMPs. These results demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines impair the chondrogenesis of MSCs, which was rescued by melatonin treatment. This chondroprotective effect was potentially correlated to decreased ROS, preserved SOD, and suppressed levels of MMPs. Thus, melatonin provides a new strategy for promoting cell-based cartilage regeneration in diseased or injured joints.
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Withdrawal from long-term methamphetamine self-administration normalizes neurometabolites in rhesus monkeys: a (1) H MR spectroscopy study.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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(1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy has demonstrated alterations in several neurometabolites in methamphetamine (METH)-dependent individuals in brain regions implicated in addiction. Yet, it is unclear whether these neurochemicals return to homeostatic levels after an individual abstains from drug use, a difficult question to address due to high recidivism and poor study retention in human subjects. We thus utilized a non-human primate model of addiction to explore the effects of long-term drug exposure and withdrawal on brain neurochemistry. Ten rhesus macaque monkeys on an active METH self-administration protocol (average use 4.6?±?0.8 years, average daily intake between 0.4 and 1.2?mg/kg) and 10 age- and sex-matched drug-naive controls (CONT) served as subjects. Concentrations of several neurochemicals were evaluated at several timepoints following withdrawal from drug availability (10 monkeys at 1 week and 1 and 3 months, and 6 monkeys at 6 and 12 months; CONT examined at one timepoint). At 1 week following METH withdrawal, we found increases in myo-inositol in anterior cingulate cortex in the METH group relative to CONT. These alterations showed a linear pattern of decreased levels (normalization) by 1 year of abstinence. We also found decreases in glutamine and Glx (composed mainly of glutamate and glutamine) in the caudate-putamen of the same animals at early withdrawal that showed a similar linear pattern of increasing concentration by 1 year. These results demonstrate that despite protracted, long-term use, neurochemical changes seen following long-term drug administration do not persist following prolonged abstinence, suggesting therapeutic effects of long-term withdrawal from drug use.
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Fast detection of atrazine in corn using thermometric biosensors.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Fast detection is important in screening large-scale samples. This study establishes a direct competitive ELISA method (dcTELISA) based on an enzyme thermistor for fast atrazine (ATZ) detection. ATZ competes with ?-lactamase-labeled ATZ (ATZ-E) for the binding sites on anti-ATZ monoclonal antibody (mAb). The mAb are covalently bound to Controlled Pore Glass (CPG) in an immunoreactor to form immunocomplexes with ATZ and ATZ-E. Several parameters of biosensor performance were optimized, such as the ATZ-E concentration, concentration and nature of the substrate, flow rate, and effect of temperature on the sensor response. After optimization, the assay time for a single sample was 12 min. The work process and result were compared with those of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The detection results exhibited a recovery rate of 88% to 107% in ATZ-spiked fresh cut corn stalks and silage samples. The results obtained via dcTELISA had good correlation with that of HPLC, and the biosensor response was reproducible and stable even when used continuously for over 4 months. All these properties suggested that the fast detection method, dcTELISA, may be used to detect pesticide residue in large-scale samples.
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Octopus visual system: A functional MRI model for detecting neuronal electric currents without a blood-oxygen-level-dependent confound.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Despite the efforts that have been devoted to detecting the transient magnetic fields generated by neuronal firing, the conclusion that a functionally relevant signal can be measured with MRI is still controversial. For human studies of neuronal current MRI (nc-MRI), the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect remains an irresolvable confound. For tissue studies where hemoglobin is removed, natural sensory stimulation is not possible. This study investigates the feasibility of detecting a physiologically induced nc-MRI signal in vivo in a BOLD-free environment.
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Aberrant gene expression in the Arabidopsis SULTR1;2 mutants suggests a possible regulatory role for this sulfate transporter in response to sulfur nutrient status.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Sulfur is required for the biosynthesis of cysteine, methionine and numerous other metabolites, and thus is critical for cellular metabolism and various growth and developmental processes. Plants are able to sense their physiological state with respect to sulfur availability, but the sensor remains to be identified. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel allelic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, sel1-15 and sel1-16, which show increased expression of a sulfur deficiency-activated gene ?-glucosidase 28 (BGLU28). The mutants, which represent two different missense alleles of SULTR1;2, which encodes a high-affinity sulfate transporter, are defective in sulfate transport and as a result have a lower cellular sulfate level. However, when treated with a very high dose of sulfate, sel1-15 and sel1-16 accumulated similar amounts of internal sulfate and its metabolite glutathione (GSH) to wild-type, but showed higher expression of BGLU28 and other sulfur deficiency-activated genes than wild-type. Reduced sensitivity to inhibition of gene expression was also observed in the sel1 mutants when fed with the sulfate metabolites Cys and GSH. In addition, a SULTR1;2 knockout allele also exhibits reduced inhibition in response to sulfate, Cys and GSH, consistent with the phenotype of sel1-15 and sel1-16. Taken together, the genetic evidence suggests that, in addition to its known function as a high-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR1;2 may have a regulatory role in response to sulfur nutrient status. The possibility that SULTR1;2 may function as a sensor of sulfur status or a component of a sulfur sensory mechanism is discussed.
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Transmembrane protein MIG-13 links the Wnt signaling and Hox genes to the cell polarity in neuronal migration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Directional cell migration is a fundamental process in neural development. In Caenorhabditis elegans, Q neuroblasts on the left (QL) and right (QR) sides of the animal generate cells that migrate in opposite directions along the anteroposterior body axis. The homeobox (Hox) gene lin-39 promotes the anterior migration of QR descendants (QR.x), whereas the canonical Wnt signaling pathway activates another Hox gene, mab-5, to ensure the QL descendants (QL.x) posterior migration. However, the regulatory targets of LIN-39 and MAB-5 remain elusive. Here, we showed that MIG-13, an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein, cell-autonomously regulates the asymmetric distribution of the actin cytoskeleton in the leading migratory edge. We identified mig-13 as a cellular target of LIN-39 and MAB-5. LIN-39 establishes QR.x anterior polarity by binding to the mig-13 promoter and promoting mig-13 expression, whereas MAB-5 inhibits QL.x anterior polarity by associating with the lin-39 promoter and downregulating lin-39 and mig-13 expression. Thus, MIG-13 links the Wnt signaling and Hox genes that guide migrations, to the actin cytoskeleton, which executes the motility response in neuronal migration.
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Promotion of hepatic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on decellularized cell-deposited extracellular matrix.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Interactions between stem cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) are requisite for inducing lineage-specific differentiation and maintaining biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells by providing a composite set of chemical and structural signals. Here we investigated if cell-deposited ECM mimicked in vivo livers stem cell microenvironment and facilitated hepatogenic maturation. Decellularization process preserved the fibrillar microstructure and a mix of matrix proteins in cell-deposited ECM, such as type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and laminin that were identical to those found in native liver. Compared with the cells on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) cultured on cell-deposited ECM showed a spindle-like shape, a robust proliferative capacity, and a suppressed level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, accompanied with upregulation of two superoxide dismutases. Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from BM-MSCs on ECM were determined with a more intensive staining of glycogen storage, an elevated level of urea biosynthesis, and higher expressions of hepatocyte-specific genes in contrast to those on TCPS. These results demonstrate that cell-deposited ECM can be an effective method to facilitate hepatic maturation of BM-MSCs and promote stem-cell-based liver regenerative medicine.
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The association between tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Studies investigating the association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha promoter polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis have reported conflicting results. We here performed a meta-analysis based on the evidence currently available from the literature to make a more precise estimation of this relationship.
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Aerobic exercise and strength training effects on cardiovascular sympathetic function in healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Exercise has widely documented cardioprotective effects, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not entirely known. Previously, we demonstrated that aerobic but not strength training lowered resting heart rate and increased cardiac vagal regulation, changes that were reversed by sedentary deconditioning. Here, we focus on the sympathetic nervous system and test whether aerobic training lowers levels of cardiovascular sympathetic activity in rest and that deconditioning would reverse this effect.
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Structure guided design of a series of sphingosine kinase (SphK) inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling plays a vital role in mitogenesis, cell migration and angiogenesis. Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) catalyze a key step in sphingomyelin metabolism that leads to the production of S1P. There are two isoforms of SphK and observations made with SphK deficient mice show the two isoforms can compensate for each others loss. Thus, inhibition of both isoforms is likely required to block SphK dependent angiogenesis. A structure based approach was used to design and synthesize a series of SphK inhibitors resulting in the identification of the first potent inhibitors of both isoforms of human SphK. Additionally, to our knowledge, this series of inhibitors contains the only sufficiently potent inhibitors of murine SphK1 with suitable physico-chemical properties to pharmacologically interrogate the role of SphK1 in rodent models and to reproduce the phenotype of SphK1 (-/-) mice.
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Conditional targeted genome editing using somatically expressed TALENs in C. elegans.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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We have developed a method for the generation of conditional knockouts in Caenorhabditis elegans by expressing transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in somatic cells. Using germline transformation with plasmids encoding TALENs under the control of an inducible or tissue-specific promoter, we observed effective gene modifications and resulting phenotypes in specific developmental stages and tissues. We further used this method to bypass the embryonic requirement of cor-1, which encodes the homolog of human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) protein coronin, and we determined its essential role in cell migration in larval Q-cell lineages. Our results show that TALENs expressed in the somatic cells of model organisms provide a versatile tool for functional genomics.
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Detecting resting-state brain activity by spontaneous cerebral blood volume fluctuations using whole brain vascular space occupancy imaging.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Resting-state brain activity has been investigated extensively using BOLD contrast. However, BOLD signal represents the combined effects of multiple physiological processes and its spatial localization is less accurate than that of cerebral blood flow and volume (CBF and CBF, respectively). In this study, we demonstrate that resting-state brain activity can be reliably detected by spontaneous fluctuations of CBV-weighted signal using whole-brain gradient and spin echo (GRASE) based vascular space occupancy (VASO) imaging. Specifically, using independent component analysis, intrinsic brain networks, including default mode, salience, executive control, visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks were revealed robustly by the VASO technique. We further demonstrate that task-evoked VASO signal aligned well with expected gray matter areas, while blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal extended outside of these areas probably due to their different spatial specificity. The improved spatial localization of VASO is consistent with previous studies using animal models. Moreover, we showed that the 3D-GRASE VASO images had reduced susceptibility-induced signal voiding, compared to the BOLD technique. This is attributed to the fact that VASO does not require T2* weighting, thus the acquisition can use a shorter TE and can employ spin-echo scheme. Consequently VASO-based functional connectivity signals were well preserved in brain regions that tend to suffer from signal loss and geometric distortion in BOLD, such as orbital prefrontal cortex. Our study suggests that 3D-GRASE VASO imaging, with its improved spatial specificity and less sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, may have advantages in resting-state fMRI studies.
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Ambulatory assessments of psychological and peripheral stress-markers predict birth outcomes in teen pregnancy.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Pregnant adolescents have high rates of poor birth outcomes, but the causes are unclear. We present a prospective, longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents assessing associations between maternal psychobiological stress indices and offspring gestational age at birth and birthweight.
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Dorsolateral caudate nucleus differentiates cocaine from natural reward-associated contextual cues.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Chronic drug administration induces neuroplastic changes within brain circuits regulating cognitive control and/or emotions. Following repeated pairings between drug intake and environmental cues, increased sensitivity to or salience of these contextual cues provoke conscious or unconscious craving and enhance susceptibility to relapse. To explore brain circuits participating in such experience-induced plasticity, we combined functional MRI with a preclinical drug vs. food self-administration (SA) withdrawal model. Specifically, two groups of rats were trained to associate odor cues with the availability of i.v. cocaine or oral sucrose, respectively. After 20 d of cocaine or sucrose SA followed by prolonged (30 d) forced abstinence, animals were presented with odor cues previously associated with or without (S+/S-) reinforcer (cocaine/sucrose) availability while undergoing functional MRI scans. ANOVA results demonstrate that a learning effect distinguishing S+ from S- was seen in the insula and nucleus accumbens, with the insula response reflecting the individual history of cocaine SA intake. A main effect of group, distinguishing cocaine from sucrose, was seen in the medial prefrontal cortex (infralimbic, prelimbic, and cingulate cortex) and dorsolateral striatum. Critically, only the dorsomedial striatum demonstrated a double dissociation between the two SA groups and learning (S+ vs. S-). These findings demonstrate altered cortico-limbic-striatal reward-related processing to learned, environment reward-associated contextual odor cues, which may serve as potential biomarkers for therapeutic interventions.
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BAY 11-7082, a nuclear factor-?B inhibitor, induces apoptosis and S phase arrest in gastric cancer cells.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway have shown potential anti-tumor activities. However, it is not fully elucidated in gastric cancer.
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Effects of methylphenidate on resting-state brain activity in normal adults: an fMRI study.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although several studies have evaluated the effects of MPH on human brain activation during specific cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on spontaneous brain activity. In the current study, we investigated the effect of MPH on the intra-regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity during the resting state in 18 normal adult males. A handedness questionnaire and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were applied before medication, and a resting-state fMRI scan was obtained 1 h after medication (20 mg MPH or placebo, order counterbalanced between participants). We demonstrated that: (1) there were no significant differences in the performance of behavioral tasks between the MPH and placebo groups; (2) the left middle and superior temporal gyri had stronger MPHrelated regional homogeneity (ReHo); and (3) the left lingual gyrus had weaker MPH-related ReHo. Our findings showed that the ReHo in some brain areas changes with MPH compared to placebo in normal adults, even though there are no behavioral differences. This method can be applied to patients with mental illness who may be treated with MPH, and be used to compare the difference between patients taking MPH and normal participants, to help reveal the mechanism of how MPH works.
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Maternal and neonatal nurse perceived value of kangaroo mother care and maternal care partnership in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) enhances infant and maternal well-being and requires maternal-care partnerships (MCP) for implementation.
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Coupling of functional connectivity and regional cerebral blood flow reveals a physiological basis for network hubs of the human brain.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Human brain functional networks contain a few densely connected hubs that play a vital role in transferring information across regions during resting and task states. However, the relationship of these functional hubs to measures of brain physiology, such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), remains incompletely understood. Here, we used functional MRI data of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent and arterial-spin-labeling perfusion contrasts to investigate the relationship between functional connectivity strength (FCS) and rCBF during resting and an N-back working-memory task. During resting state, functional brain hubs with higher FCS were identified, primarily in the default-mode, insula, and visual regions. The FCS showed a striking spatial correlation with rCBF, and the correlation was stronger in the default-mode network (DMN; including medial frontal-parietal cortices) and executive control network (ECN; including lateral frontal-parietal cortices) compared with visual and sensorimotor networks. Moreover, the relationship was connection-distance dependent; i.e., rCBF correlated stronger with long-range hubs than short-range ones. It is notable that several DMN and ECN regions exhibited higher rCBF per unit connectivity strength (rCBF/FCS ratio); whereas, this index was lower in posterior visual areas. During the working-memory experiment, both FCS-rCBF coupling and rCBF/FCS ratio were modulated by task load in the ECN and/or DMN regions. Finally, task-induced changes of FCS and rCBF in the lateral-parietal lobe positively correlated with behavioral performance. Together, our results indicate a tight coupling between blood supply and brain functional topology during rest and its modulation in response to task demands, which may shed light on the physiological basis of human brain functional connectome.
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Transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis provide a systems view of citrus response to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Huanglongbing (HLB) is arguably the most destructive disease for the citrus industry. HLB is caused by infection of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. Several citrus GeneChip studies have revealed thousands of genes that are up- or down-regulated by infection with Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus. However, whether and how these host genes act to protect against HLB remains poorly understood.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.