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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Wavelength-locking-free 1.57µm differential absorption lidar for CO2 sensing.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We propose a novel wavelength-locking-free differential absorption lidar system for CO2 sensing. The ON-line wavelength laser was wavelength modulated around a specific CO2 absorption line to ensure that the emission from the ON-line laser hit the atmospheric CO2 absorption line peak twice a cycle. In the meantime, the intensity of the ON-line and OFF-line wavelength lasers were sinusoidally intensity modulated to enhance the SNR of the back-scattered signal. As a consequence, the system configuration was simplified and the measurement error caused by the deviation of CO2 absorption coefficient from the long-time ON-line wavelength drifting was completely eliminated. Furthermore, a more precise calibration method was developed which could simultaneously calibrate the offset and precision of the lidar detector. This method could be applied to other differential-absorption-based lidar systems. The result showed that a measurement precision of 0.525% for the column concentration was achieved in 1 s time interval through a path of 780m. We recorded the CO2 concentration variation for 12 hours starting from mid-night, the result showed that the course of the concentration derived from the DIAL was in good agreement with that of the in situ CO2 sensor only when the status of atmosphere was stable.
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Cobalt nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Cobalt based catalysts are promising bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) operating with alkaline electrolytes. Here we report a hybrid composite of cobalt nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N-C) via a solvothermal carbonization strategy. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped carbon and cobalt nanoparticles in the composite, the Co/N-C hybrid catalyst exhibits highly efficient bifunctional catalytic activity and excellent stability toward both ORR and OER. The ?E (oxygen electrode activity parameter for judging the overall electrocatalytic activity of a bifunctional electrocatalyst) value for Co/N-C is 0.859 V, which is smaller than those of Pt/C and most of the non-precious metal catalysts in previous studies. Furthermore, the Co/N-C composite also shows better bifunctional catalytic activity than its oxidative counterparts, which could be attributed to the high specific surface area and the efficient charge transfer ability of the composite, as well as the good synergistic effect between N-doped carbon and the Co nanoparticles in the Co/N-C composite.
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Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation via Right Carotid Artery Route for Severe Aortic Regurgitation Management in a Patient with Chronic Operated Type A Aortic Dissection.
Heart Surg Forum
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) technique is now widely accepted as an alternative for the treatment of very high-risk patients in cases of aortic stenosis. However, use of this technique in cases of pure native aortic regurgitation (AR) remains discussed.
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Series asymmetric supercapacitors based on free-standing inner-connection electrodes for high energy density and high output voltage.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on free-standing membranes with high energy density and high output voltage are reported. MnO2 nanowire/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and MoO3 nanobelt/CNT composites are selected as the anode and the cathode materials of the devices, respectively. The ASC has a high volumetric capacitance of 50.2 F cm(-3) at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1) and a high operation voltage window of 2.0 V. Especially, after a middle layer with an inner-connection structure was inserted between the anode and the cathode, the output voltage of the whole device can achieve 4.0 V. The full cell of series ASCs (SASC) with an inner-connection middle layer has a high energy density of 28.6 mW h cm(-3) at a power density of 261.4 mW cm(-3), and exhibits excellent cycling performance of 99.6% capacitance retention over 10?000 cycles. This strategy of designing the hybridized structure for SASCs provides a promising route for next-generation SCs with high energy density and high output voltage.
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Design and Optimization of Novel Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors of Bis-Substituted Aromatic Amides Bearing Potent Activities against Tumor Growth and Metastasis.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are one of the most promising drug targets for cancer therapy, and since more than 90% of all cancer-related deaths are associated with tumor metastasis, developing strategies to inhibit tumor metastasis while retaining anti-tumor growth activity are of great interest. Herein we demonstrated the design and identification of a series of novel hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitors bearing potent activities against tumor growth and metastasis. Optimization of the initial hit resulted in the discovery of new HDAC inhibitors through studying the structure-activity relationship. Among them, compound 11b, one of the most potent leads, exhibited nanomolar IC50 values toward inhibition of class I and IIb HDACs as well as sub-micromolar activity against proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. More importantly, it also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a breast tumor xenograft mouse model and dose-dependently blocked in vivo tumor metastasis in a mouse pulmonary metastasis model.
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Associations of diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular disease risk factors with decline in the ankle-brachial index.
Vasc Med
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We compared the associations of diabetes mellitus (DM) and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with decline in the ankle-brachial index (ABI) over 4 years in participants with and without peripheral artery disease (PAD). A total of 566 participants, 300 with PAD, were followed prospectively for 4 years. Mean (SD) baseline ABI values were 0.70 (0.13) for participants with both PAD and DM, 0.67 (0.14) for participants with only PAD, 1.10 (0.13) for participants with only DM, and 1.10 (0.10) for participants with neither PAD nor DM. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline ABI, the corresponding ABI change from baseline to 4-year follow-up were -0.02, -0.04, +0.05, and +0.05, respectively. Compared to participants with neither PAD nor DM, participants with only PAD showed significantly more ABI decline (p <0.01), while the decline in participants with both PAD and DM was borderline non-significant (p = 0.06). After adjustments for baseline ABI, age, sex, African American ethnicity, and other CVD risk factors, independent factors associated with ABI decline in participants with PAD in the lower ABI leg were older age and elevated D-dimer. DM was not related to ABI decline. Despite being an important risk factor for PAD, DM was not independently associated with ABI decline. This could reflect the effect of DM promoting both PAD and lower-extremity arterial stiffness, resulting in a small decline in the ABI over time. In conclusion, ABI change over time in persons with diabetes may not accurately reflect underlying atherosclerosis.
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Functional Polymorphisms in Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Are Associated with Increased Susceptibility to Ovarian Cancer.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is highly expressed in various malignancies and promotes carcinogenesis. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between MCP-1 genetic polymorphisms and the susceptibility to ovarian cancer. MCP-1 rs1024611A/G and rs3760396C/G polymorphisms were examined in 257 ovarian cancer patients and 273 healthy controls. We found that distributions of rs1024611GG genotype and rs3760396GG genotype were clearly increased in ovarian cancer cases compared to healthy donors (odds ratio [OR]=1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.29, p=0.015; OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.63-9.33, p=0.001). Stratification analyses revealed that patients with serous papillary type had further increased percentage of rs3760396GG genotype than those with other types (OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.11-13.66, p=0.024). In addition, we evaluated the possible effect of MCP-1 polymorphisms on gene expression by examining the serum level of MCP-1 in patients and controls. Data revealed that subjects carrying rs1024611AG and GG genotypes had a significantly higher serum level of MCP-1 than those with AA genotype. These data suggest that MCP-1 rs1024611A/G and rs3760396C/G polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to ovarian cancer, in which rs1024611A/G may increase serum level of MCP-1 in the Chinese population.
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Au@TiO2 double-shelled octahedral nanocages with improved catalytic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A novel and facile strategy has been successfully developed to synthesize uniform gold@titanium dioxide octahedral nanocages (Au@TiO2), which have a well-defined double-shelled structure with Au as the internal shell and TiO2 as the external shell. The unique Au@TiO2 double-shelled octahedral nanocages were elaborately fabricated by a Cu2O-templated strategy combining with spatially confined galvanic replacement. The formation process of these delicate hierarchical octahedral architectures is discussed in detail. The catalytic performance of the Au@TiO2 double-shelled octahedral nanocages was investigated using the reduction of 4-nitrophenol as a model reaction. The mesoporous structure of both the Au and TiO2 shells provides direct access for the reactant molecules to diffuse and subsequently interact with the Au shell. This novel catalyst shows excellent and stable activity for the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol, which can be recycled for ten successive cycles of the reaction with a conversion efficiency of more than 90%. The superior catalytic activity attributes to mesoporous double shells, enhanced synergistic effects between the Au and TiO2 shells and the unique properties of the octahedral structure. More importantly, the as-obtained Au@TiO2 double-shelled octahedral nanocages also show potential applications in solar cells, organocatalysis and water splitting.
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DNA methylation aberrations rather than polymorphisms of FZD3 gene increase the risk of spina bifida in a high-risk region for neural tube defects.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Animal models of neural tube defects (NTDs) have indicated roles for the Fzd3 gene and the planar cell polarity signaling pathway in convergent extension. We investigated the involvement of FZD3 in genetic and epigenetic mechanisms associated with human NTDs, especially spina bifida. We explored the effects of variants spanning the FZD3 gene in NTDs and examined the role of aberrant methylation of the FZD3 promoter on gene expression in brain tissue in spina bifida.
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Oncogenic mutations are associated with histological subtypes but do not have an independent prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Lung adenocarcinomas have diverse genetic and morphological backgrounds and are usually classified according to their distinct oncogenic mutations (or so-called driver mutations) and histological subtypes (the de novo classification proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society [IASLC/ATS/ERS]). Although both these classifications are essential for personalized treatment, their integrated clinical effect remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed 981 lung adenocarcinomas to detect the potential correlation and combined effect of oncogenic mutations and histological subtype on prognosis. Analysis for oncogenic mutations included the direct sequencing of EGFR, KRAS, HER2, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, and RET for oncogenic mutations/rearrangements, and a rereview of the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification was undertaken. Eligible tumors included 13 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia/adenocarcinoma in situ, 20 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas, 901 invasive adenocarcinomas, 44 invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas, and three other variants. The invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas had a lower prevalence of EGFR mutations but a higher prevalence of KRAS, ALK, and HER2 mutations than invasive adenocarcinomas. Smoking, a solid predominant pattern, and a mucinous component were independently associated with fewer EGFR mutations. The ALK rearrangements were more frequently observed in tumors with a minor mucinous component, while the KRAS mutations were more prevalent in smokers. In addition, 503 patients with stage I-IIIA tumors were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival. The stage and histological pattern were independent predictors of relapse-free survival, and the pathological stage was the only independent predictor for the OS. Although patients with the EGFR mutations had better OS than those without the mutations, no oncogenic mutation was an independent predictor of survival. Oncogenic mutations were associated with the novel IASLC/ATS/ERS classification, which facilitates a morphology-based mutational analysis strategy. The combination of these two classifications might not increase the prognostic ability, but it provides essential information for personalized treatment.
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YAP inhibits squamous transdifferentiation of Lkb1-deficient lung adenocarcinoma through ZEB2-dependent DNp63 repression.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Whether the Hippo pathway contributes to cell lineage transition under pathological conditions, especially tumorigenesis, remains largely unknown. Here we show that YAP, the major effector of the Hippo pathway, displays a distinct activation pattern in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); YAP is initially activated by LKB1 loss in lung ADC, which upregulates ZEB2 expression and represses DNp63 transcription in a default manner. During transdifferentiation, YAP is inactivated, which in turn relieves ZEB2-mediated default repression of DNp63 and triggers squamous differentiation reprogramming. Disruption of the YAP barrier for phenotypic transition significantly accelerates squamous transdifferentiation, whereas constitutive YAP activation conversely inhibits this transition. More importantly, ectopic DNp63 expression rescues the inhibitory effect of YAP on squamous transdifferentiation. These findings have established YAP as an essential barrier for lung cancer cell fate conversion and provided a mechanism for regulating cancer plasticity, which might hold important implication for YAP-targeted therapies.
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Ultrathin and lightweight 3D free-standing Ni@NiO nanowire membrane electrode for a supercapacitor with excellent capacitance retention at high rates.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A free-standing binder-free 3D Ni@NiO nanowire membrane is fabricated by a simple filtration method followed by thermal annealing. With an appropriate annealing temperature, the functional nanowires can keep their rough and echinate surface, and the conductive network composed of welded nickel nanowire cores is well-preserved without isolation (0.53 ?/sq). The unique 3D multigrade mesporous structure not only accelerates the intercalation and deintercalation velocity of electrolyte ions but also provides numerous electroactive sites for the Faraday reaction. As a result, the supercapacitor electrode can preserve a capacitance retention of 96.1% (36.9 F/cm(3)) with a high discharge current density, indicating its wonderful rate capability. The fabricated membrane electrode exhibits high volumetric capacitance, stable cycling life, and remarkable retention of the capacitance at high rate, energy, and power density, making it a promising candidate for application in portable electronic products.
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Single/multiple-mode-selection optical nanofilters based on end-coupled split-ring resonators.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A plasmonic mode-selection filter based on end-coupled circular split-ring resonators is proposed and demonstrated. In contrast to regular ring resonators, which can support only the integer modes, extra noninteger resonance modes will be excited by placing metallic nanowalls in the proposed circular ring resonators. Since all the modes are highly sensitive to the position of the nanowall, the associated modes are effectively excited or suppressed by manipulating the position. This proposed scheme offers great flexibility to design the transmission spectrum with expected modes. Moreover, each integer or noninteger resonance mode with high transmittance can be selected individually by cascading two proposed split-ring resonators that share an intersection of transmission peaks. The corresponding spectra and the propagation characteristics are numerically investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain method.
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Meta-analysis of lobectomy, segmentectomy, and wedge resection for stage I non-small cell lung cancer.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Survival difference following lobectomy, segmentectomy, and wedge resection in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its subgroups remains undetermined.
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Time-dependent movement and distribution of chlorpyrifos and its metabolism in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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The dissipation and distribution of chlorpyrifos (CHP) granule formulation in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching conditions (CP) and noncovered cultivation conditions (NCP) from soil to product were investigated. In the CP treatment, the CHP granule with slow-release effect leached from the topsoil to the subsoil. Conversely, the CHP was fixed in the topsoil (0-5 cm layer) in the NCP treatment, and no obvious leaching effect could be observed. The residue of CHP could be found in bamboo shoots from CP treatment, mainly at the bottom part (5 cm length). CHP could be degraded into 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in the soil and bamboo shoots. In addition, the straw used as the mulching material with higher OM and pH had some regulatory role in changing the pH and OM characteristics of the soil. Thus the straw could indirectly affect the adsorption and degradation behavior of CHP and TCP in the soil.
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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of five organophosphorus pesticides in camellia oil.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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A matrix solid-phase dispersion and direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MSPD-ELISA) was developed for five organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in camellia oil. Seven haptens with different substituents in the aromatic ring were used to prepare different competitors; the ELISA showed highest sensitivity and specificity to OPs when the competitor had moderate heterology to the immunizing hapten. Several assay conditions were optimized to increase the ELISA sensitivity. The optimized ELISA for five OPs had 50% inhibitory concentrations of 6.3 ng/ml (parathion), 18.9 ng/ml (methyl parathion), 120.7 ng/ml (fenitrothion), 110.4 ng/ml (fenthion), and 20.7 ng/ml (phoxim). The average recoveries of five OPs in camellia oil ranged from 75.7 to 105.3%, with the interassay coefficient of variations ranging from 6.0 to 13.4%. Compared with the results previously reported, the ELISA that was developed in the present study showed a much higher sensitivity. Additionally, MSPD was used in the sample preparation to minimize the matrix effect. Recoveries from the method developed here were in agreement with those obtained by gas chromatography, which indicated that the detection performance of the MSPD-ELISA could meet the regulatory requirements of different governments and international organizations.
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A novel synthetic small molecule YH-306 suppresses colorectal tumour growth and metastasis via FAK pathway.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Cell migration and invasion are key processes in the metastasis of cancer, and suppression of these steps is a promising strategy for cancer therapeutics. The aim of this study was to explore small molecules for treating colorectal cancer (CRC) and to investigate their anti-metastatic mechanisms. In this study, six CRC cell lines were used. We showed that YH-306 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, YH-306 inhibited cell adhesion and protrusion formation of HCT116 and HT-29 CRC cells. Moreover, YH-306 potently suppressed uninhibited proliferation in all six CRC cell lines tested and induced cell apoptosis in four cell lines. Furthermore, YH-306 inhibited CRC colonization in vitro and suppressed CRC growth in a xenograft mouse model, as well as hepatic/pulmonary metastasis in vivo. YH-306 suppressed the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), c-Src, paxillin, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), Rac1 and the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMP) 2 and MMP9. Meanwhile, YH-306 also inhibited actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex-mediated actin polymerization. Taken together, YH-306 is a candidate drug in preventing growth and metastasis of CRC by modulating FAK signalling pathway.
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Durable modification of segmented polyurethane for elastic blood-contacting devices by graft-type 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine copolymer.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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We propose a novel application of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for enhancing the performance of modified segmented polyurethane (SPU) surfaces for the development of a small-diameter vascular prosthesis. The SPU membranes were modified by random-type, block-type, and graft-type MPC polymers that were prepared using a double-solution casting procedure on stainless steel substrates. Among these MPC polymers, the graft-type poly(MPC-graft-2-ethylhexyl methacrylate [EHMA]), which is composed of a poly(MPC) segment as the main chain and poly(EHMA) segments as side chains, indicated a higher stability on the SPU membrane after being peeled off from the stainless steel substrate, as well as after immersion in an aqueous medium. This stability was caused by the intermiscibility in the domain of the poly(EHMA) segments and the soft segments of the SPU membrane. Each SPU/MPC polymer membrane exhibited a dramatic suppression of protein adsorption from human plasma and endothelium cell adhesion. Based on these results, the performance of SPU/poly(MPC-graft-EHMA) tubings 2?mm in diameter as vascular prostheses was investigated. Even after blood was passed through the tubings for 2?min, the graft-type MPC polymers effectively protected the blood-contacting surfaces from thrombus formation. In summary, SPU modified by graft-type MPC polymers has the potential for practical application in the form of a non-endothelium, small-diameter vascular prosthesis.
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Analysis of the molecular and clinicopathologic features of surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma in patients under 40 years old.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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The youthful lung cancer may constitute an entity with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics and a controversial prognosis compared with the older counterpart. Whether the youthful lung cancer has the exclusively distinct molecular features has not been well investigated.
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Home-based walking exercise in peripheral artery disease: 12-month follow-up of the goals randomized trial.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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We studied whether a 6-month group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) intervention for peripheral artery disease (PAD) participants, which promoted home-based walking exercise, improved 6-minute walk and other outcomes at 12-month follow-up, 6 months after completing the intervention, compared to a control group.
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Antitumor action of a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, YF479, in breast cancer.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Accumulating evidence demonstrates important roles for histone deacetylase in tumorigenesis (HDACs), highlighting them as attractive targets for antitumor drug development. Histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACIs), which have shown favorable anti-tumor activity with low toxicity in clinical investigations, are a promising class of anticancer therapeutics. Here, we screened our compound library to explore small molecules that possess anti-HDAC activity and identified a novel HDACI, YF479. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), which was the first approved HDAC inhibitor for clinical treatment by the FDA, was as positive control in our experiments. We further demonstrated YF479 abated cell viability, suppressed colony formation and tumor cell motility in vitro. To investigate YF479 with superior pharmacodynamic properties, we developed spontaneous and experimental breast cancer animal models. Our results showed YF479 significantly inhibited breast tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Further study indicated YF479 suppressed both early and end stages of metastatic progression. Subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy animal experiment revealed the elimination of local-regional recurrence (LRR) and distant metastasis by YF479. More important, YF479 remarkably prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Intriguingly, YF479 displayed more potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with SAHA. Together, our results suggest that YF479, a novel HDACI, inhibits breast tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. In light of these results, YF479 may be an effective therapeutic option in clinical trials for patients burdened by breast cancer.
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FGFR1/3 tyrosine kinase fusions define a unique molecular subtype of non-small cell lung cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-3 fusion genes have been recently demonstrated in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To aid in identification and treatment of these patients, we examined the frequency, clinicopathologic characteristics, and treatment outcomes of patients who had NSCLC with or without FGFR fusions.
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Dispersed CuO nanoparticles on a silicon nanowire for improved performance of nonenzymatic H2O2 detection.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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A finely dispersed CuO nanoparticle electrocatalyst on a silicon nanowire (SiNW) was achieved via a designed, precursor-mediated strategy by combining metal-assisted chemical etching, electroless deposition, and thermal oxidation. The CuO assembled on silicon nanowires (CuO-SiNWs) showed a competent sensitivity of 22.27 ?A/mM, a wider linear range from 0.01 to 13.18 mM, and a comparable detection limit of 1.6 ?M (3S/N) for nonenzymatic H2O2 detection. The archetype sensor also demonstrated eligible selectivity against common interfering species. By the introduction of the SiNW carrier, which led to mitigated conglomeration of the electrocatalyst and a favorable microstructure of the electrocatalyst-carrier system, improved signal-concentration linearity and higher electrocatalyst utilization efficiency were obtained with CuO-SiNWs. These results demonstrated the feasibility of the synthetic strategy and the potential of the nanocomposite as a promising candidate for H2O2 sensing.
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Multifunctional Fe3O4@TiO2@Au magnetic microspheres as recyclable substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of multifunctional triplex Fe3O4@TiO2@Au core-shell magnetic microspheres (MSs), which show excellent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity with high reproducibility and stability. In addition, due to their excellent catalytic properties, the as-prepared Fe3O4@TiO2@Au magnetic MSs can clean themselves by photocatalytic degradation of target molecules adsorbed onto the substrate under irradiation with visible light, and can be re-used for several cycles with convenient magnetic separability. The influence of the size and distribution of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on the Fe3O4@TiO2 beads is investigated. The optimized samples employing Au NPs of 15 nm size and an areal density of about 2120 Au NPs on every MS show the best SERS activity and recyclable performance. The experimental results show that these magnetic MSs indicate a new route in eliminating the 'single-use' problem of traditional SERS substrates and exhibit their applicability as analytical tools for the detection of different molecular species.
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Frequent loss expression of dab2 and promotor hypermethylation in human cancers: a meta-analysis and systematic review.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Objective : Disabled-2 (Dab2) is an important endocytic adaptor which plays an inhibition role in cancer cell growth. The objective of this study was to systematically review expressions of Dab2 in human cancers. Methods : Eligible studies about Dab2 in human cancers were retrieved from databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science. Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Review Manager 5.0 software and statistical analyses were performed by the SPSS 13.0 software. Results : Fourteen case-control studies with a total of 689 human tumor tissues, 332 control tissues and 32 cancer cell lines were included in the meta-analysis study. The results indicated loss expressions of Dab2 were observed in 74.9% and 46.9% in human malignant cancer tissues and cancer cell lines, respectively. The ratio of Dab2 promotor hypermethylation is 34.54% in cancer tissues which Dab2 expression are lost, but none in the control tissues or cells by Methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Conclusions : The expressions of Dab2 are frequently lost in human malignant cancer tissues, and promotor hypermethylation of Dab2 are common in human malignant cancer tissues, which is an important factor for the loss expression of Dab2 in human cancers tissues.
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The RNA expression signature of the HepG2 cell line as determined by the integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Understanding miRNAs' regulatory networks and target genes could facilitate the development of therapies for human diseases such as cancer. Although much useful gene expression profiling data for tumor cell lines is available, microarray data for miRNAs and mRNAs in the human HepG2 cell line have only been compared with that of other cell lines separately. The relationship between miRNAs and mRNAs in integrated expression profiles for HepG2 cells is still unknown. To explore the miRNA-mRNA correlations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, we performed miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in HepG2 cells and normal liver HL-7702 cells at the genome scale using next-generation sequencing technology. We identified 193 miRNAs that are differentially expressed in these two cell lines. Of these, 89 miRNAs were down-regulated in HepG2 cells compared with HL-7702 cells, while 104 miRNAs were up-regulated. We also observed 3035 mRNAs that are significantly dys-regulated in HepG2 cells. We then performed an integrated analysis of the expression data for differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs and found several miRNA-mRNA pairs that are significantly correlated in HepG2 cells. Further analysis suggested that these differentially expressed genes were enriched in four tumorigenesis-related signaling pathways, namely, ErbB, JAK-STAT, mTOR, and WNT, which until now had not been fully reported. Our results could be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of HCC occurrence and development.
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A novel de novo duplication mutation of PAX6 in a Chinese family with aniridia and other ocular abnormalities.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Aniridia is a congenital panocular disorder caused by the mutations of the paired box gene-6 (PAX6). To investigate the clinical characterization and the underlying genetic defect in a Chinese family with aniridia and other ocular abnormalities, we recruited the family members who underwent ophthalmic examination. Two patients in this family, the proband and his affected son, both have bilateral aniridia, foveal hypoplasia and nystagmus. Moreover, the proband also had presenile cataracts, but his affected son did not show cataracts at the time of examination. Sequencing PAX6 revealed that a heterozygous duplication mutation c.95_105dup11, predicted to generate non-functional truncated protein at position Gly36 (p.G36X), was found in the affected individuals but not in any of the unaffected family members including the parents of the proband. Haplotype analysis showed that the proband and his affected son shared a common disease-related haplotype, which was arisen from the proband's unaffected father through crossing-over. In conclusion, we identified a novel de novo duplication mutation of PAX6 in the aniridia and other ocular abnormalities family. This mutation has occurred de novo on a paternal chromosome by direct duplication, which presumably results from replication slippage or unequal non-sister chromatids exchange during spermatogenesis.
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Strain-enhanced cable-type 3D UV photodetecting of ZnO nanowires on a Ni wire by coupling of piezotronics effect and pn junction.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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A 3D-sensitified and strain-enhanced UV wire-photodetector has been fabricated with ZnO NWs grown on an oxidized Ni wire by chemical vapor deposition method. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the device shows a sharp UV peak at around 380 nm and a negligible peak at around 520 nm, which proves that the as-prepared ZnO nanowires were well-crystallized. The current-voltage (I-V) and current-time (I-T) characteristics under different rotation angles of the heterojunctions show good rectifying diode behaviors and stability under different angles which make 3D detection possible. The sensitivity of the device is enhanced by strains due to piezotronic effect of ZnO nanowires. These performances of the device demonstrates a promising approach to 3D photodetecting and strain sensing and also provide a prospective application to the development of weaving single wire into fabrics technology.
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Vulnerable blood in high risk vascular patients: study design and methods.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Basic research suggests that rapid increases in circulating inflammatory and hemostatic blood markers may trigger or indicate impending plaque rupture and coronary thrombosis, resulting in acute ischemic heart disease (IHD) events. However, these associations are not established in humans.
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A new class of tunable dendritic diphosphine ligands: synthesis and applications in the Ru-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of functionalized ketones.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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A series of tunable G0-G3 dendritic 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (BINAP) ligands was prepared by attaching polyaryl ether dendrons onto the four phenyl rings on the P atoms. Their ruthenium complexes were employed in the asymmetric hydrogenation of ?-ketoesters, ?-ketoesters, and ?-ketoamides to reveal the effects of dendron size on the catalytic properties. The second- and third-generation catalysts exhibited excellent enantioselectivities, which are remarkably higher than those obtained from the small molecular catalysts and the first-generation catalyst. Molecular modeling indicates that the incorporation of bulky dendritic wedges can influence the steric environments around the metal center. In addition, the ruthenium catalyst bearing a second-generation dendritic ligand could be recycled and reused seven times without any obvious decrease in enantioselectivity.
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The pemetrexed-containing treatments in the non-small cell lung cancer is -/low thymidylate synthase expression better than +/high thymidylate synthase expression: a meta-analysis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The predictive value of thymidylate synthase (TS) for clinical sensitivity to pemetrexed-containing chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. This meta-analysis is performed to provide an assessment of whether expression variations of TS are associated with objective response in patients with NSCLC treated with pemetrexed-containing chemotherapy.
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The expression of disabled-2 is common reduced in meningiomas.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Disabled-2 (Dab2) is frequently down-regulated in several types of cancers. We examined the expression level of Dab2 in human meningiomas and meningioma cells, aimed to investigate its role in the oncogenesis and development of meningiomas.
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A general method for preparing anatase TiO? treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires for fiber dye-sensitized solar cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays were prepared on various metal wires (Ti, W, Ni, etc.) through one-step facile hydrothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays consist of long TiO2 nanowire trunks with direct charge transport channels, and a large number of short TiO2 nanorod branches with large surface areas. Fiber dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays deposited on Ti wires can achieve outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.32%, while FDSSCs on W wires have lower PCE of 3.24% due to the formation of WO3 layer, which might enhance recombination of charges. When the substrate is changed to a Nicole oxide wire, a novel p-n heterojunction can be obtained. This universal method is simple, facile, and low cost for preparing anatase TiO2 treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires, which may find potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.
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Impaired methylation modifications of FZD3 alter chromatin accessibility and are involved in congenital hydrocephalus pathogenesis.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Congenital hydrocephalus is heterogeneous in its etiology, and in addition to a genetic component, has been shown to be caused by environmental factors. Until now, however, no methylation alterations of target genes have been connected with congenital hydrocephalus in humans. Frizzled 3(FZD3) is a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene required for PCP signaling. Partial restoration of frizzled 3 activities in FZD3 mutant mice results in hydrocephalus. To analyze the possible roles of epigenetic modifications of the FZD3 gene in congenital hydrocephalus pathogenesis, DNA methylation in the promoter region of FZD3 was assayed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Gene expression and chromatin accessibility were also determined to assess the role of methylation alterations. Our study found methylation levels of the FZD3 gene were increased in congenital hydrocephalus, especially in males (10.57 ± 3.90 vs. 7.08 ± 0.94, p=0.001). Hypermethylation of FZD3 increased congenital hydrocephalus risk, with an odds ratio of 10.125 (p=0.003). Aberrant methylation modification of FZD3 altered both chromatin structure in this region and FZD3 expression levels. Totally, aberrant methylation modification of the FZD3 gene increases the risk of congenital hydrocephalus by altering chromatin structure and disturbing gene expression.
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Upconversion fluorescent strip sensor for rapid determination of Vibrio anguillarum.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Here, we report a simple and ultrasensitive upconversion fluorescent strip sensor based on NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles (NPs) and the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA). Carboxyl-modified ?-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs were successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal approach, upon further coupling with monoclonal antibody, the resultant UCNPs-antibody conjugates probes were used in LFIA and served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent reporters. V. anguillarum was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of this strip sensor. The limit of the detection for the fluorescent strip was determined as 10(2) CFU mL(-1), which is 100 times lower than those displayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while the time needed for the detection was only 15 min. Furthermore, no cross-reaction with other eight pathogens was found, indicating the good specificity of the strip. This developed LFIA would offer the potential as a useful tool for the quantification of pathogens analysis in the future.
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Delta mean neutrophil volume (?MNV) is comparable to procalcitonin for predicting postsurgical bacterial infection.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The Coulter LH750 (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA) analyzer can determine intrinsic biophysical properties of white blood cell (WBC), known as cell population data. Previous studies have shown that mean neutrophil volume (MNV) was significantly increased in postsurgical patients with bacterial infection. To further validate its potential clinical usefulness, we investigate the changes in MNV before and after surgery, called ?MNV. We also compare the ?MNV with procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in terms of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for postsurgical bacterial infection.
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Determination of polarization-fields across polytype interfaces in InAs nanopillars.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Polarization fields within InAs nanopillars with zincblende(ZB)/wurtzite(WZ) polytype stacking are quantified. The displacement of charged ions inside individual tetrahedra of WZ regions is measured at the atomic scale. The variations of spontaneous polarization along the interface normal are related to strain at interfaces of different polytypes. Thus, direct correlation between local atomic structure and electric properties is demonstrated.
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Optimization of 2-(3-(arylalkyl amino carbonyl) phenyl)-3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-thiazolidinone derivatives as potent antitumor growth and metastasis agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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A series of 2,3-diaryl-4-thiazolidinone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative properties against two well-known cancer cell lines (A549 as human lung cancer and MDA-MB-231 as human breast cancer). Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis resulted in the discovery of 2-(3-(arylalkyl amino carbonyl)phenyl)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-4-thiazolidinone derivatives with high potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of both cancer cell lines. Furthermore, several compounds with potent antiproliferative activities displayed excellent inhibitory activities on migration with an IC50 of about 0.05 ?M on MDA-MB-231 cells in two different migration assays. In particular, compound 39 was indicated to suppress tumor growth and metastasis as well as promote survival rate. Intriguingly, this series of analogs have been indicated to inhibit tumor cell proliferation through inducing cell cycle arrest. These results suggested that the new series of 2-(3-(arylalkyl amino carbonyl)phenyl)-3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-thiazolidinone derivatives could be regarded and developed as novel highly potential anticancer agents in the future.
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A clinicopathologic prediction model for postoperative recurrence in stage Ia non-small cell lung cancer.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Controversy remains over the appropriate postoperative management for patients with stage Ia non-small cell lung cancer who underwent complete surgical resection as a result of a heterogeneous prognosis. We aimed to identify the predictive factors for recurrence in these patients to aid in the decision making.
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Nitrogen and phosphorus dual-doped hierarchical porous carbon foams as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Despite tremendous progress in developing doped carbocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the ORR activity of current metal-free carbocatalysts is still inferior to that of conventional Pt/C catalysts, especially in acidic media and neutral solution. Moreover, it also remains a challenge to develop an effective and scalable method for the synthesis of metal-free carbocatalysts. Herein, we have developed nitrogen and phosphorus dual-doped hierarchical porous carbon foams (HP-NPCs) as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR. The HP-NPCs were prepared for the first time by copyrolyzing nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing precursors and poly(vinyl alcohol)/polystyrene (PVA/PS) hydrogel composites as in situ templates. Remarkably, the resulting HP-NPCs possess controllable nitrogen and phosphorus content, high surface area, and a hierarchical interconnected macro-/mesoporous structure. In studying the effects of the HP-NPCs on the ORR, we found that the as-prepared HP-NPC materials exhibited not only excellent catalytic activity for ORR in basic, neutral, and acidic media, but also much better tolerance for methanol oxidation and much higher stability than the commercial, state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts. Because of all these outstanding features, it is expected that the HP-NPC material will be a very suitable catalyst for next-generation fuel cells and lithium-air batteries. In addition, the novel synthetic method described here might be extended to the preparation of many other kinds of hierarchical porous carbon materials or porous carbon that contains metal oxide for wide applications including energy storage, catalysis, and electrocatalysis.
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Synchronous Non-small Cell Lung Cancers: Diagnostic Yield can be Improved by Histologic and Genetic Methods.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Current criteria for identification of synchronous non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) may be confusing in patients with lymphatic metastases. This study was aimed at investigating the strategy using both the new histologic classification and driver-mutational testing to define multiple primary lung cancers.
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Analysis of major known driver mutations and prognosis in resected adenosquamous lung carcinomas.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Genotyping for driver mutations is now routinely used to guide clinical care of patients with lung cancer. Adenosquamous lung carcinoma (AdSqLC) is a subtype of cancer that contains both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. However, the incidence, clinicopathologic characteristics, and prognostic implications of major driver mutations in AdSqLCs are not well established.
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ALK, ROS1 and RET fusions in 1139 lung adenocarcinomas: a comprehensive study of common and fusion pattern-specific clinicopathologic, histologic and cytologic features.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To have a comprehensive investigation of the clinicopathologic, histologic and cytologic features of fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas.
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Hierarchical nanostructures of polypyrrole@MnO2 composite electrodes for high performance solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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A solid-state high performance flexible asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was fabricated. Its anode is based on organic-inorganic materials, where polypyrrole (PPy) is uniformly wrapped on MnO2 nanoflowers grown on carbon cloth (CC), and its cathode is made of activated carbon (AC) on CC. The ASC has an areal capacitance of 1.41 F cm(-2) and an energy density of 0.63 mW h cm(-2) at a power density of 0.9 mW cm(-2). An energy storage unit fabricated using multiple ASCs can drive a light-emitting diode (LED) segment display, a mini motor and even a toy car after full charging. The high-performance ASCs have significant potential applications in flexible electronics and electrical vehicles.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel tetrahydro-?-carboline derivatives as antitumor growth and metastasis agents through inhibiting the transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) signaling cascade is considered as one of the pivotal oncogenic pathways in most advanced cancers. Inhibition of the TGF? signaling pathway by specific antagonists, neutralizing antibodies, or small molecules is considered as an effective strategy for the treatment of tumor growth and metastasis. Here we demonstrated the identification of a series of tetrahydro-?-carboline derivatives from virtual screening which potentially inhibit the TGF? signaling pathway. Optimization of the initial hit compound 2-benzoyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydro-?-carboline (8a) through substitution at different positions to define the structure-activity relationship resulted in the discovery of potent inhibitors of the TGF? signaling pathway. Among them, compound 8d, one of the tested compounds, not only showed potent inhibition of lung cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro but also strongly suppressed growth of lung cancer and breast cancer in vivo.
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Vitamin D status, functional decline, and mortality in peripheral artery disease.
Vasc Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Associations of vitamin D levels with prospectively measured functional decline and mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) are unknown. We determined whether lower baseline vitamin D levels are associated with a faster decline in functional performance and higher mortality among people with and without PAD. A total of 658 participants (395 with PAD) underwent baseline measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (DiaSorin radioimmunoassay), a 6-minute walk test, 4-meter walking velocity and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and were followed annually for up to 4 years. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, comorbidities, the ankle-brachial index, and other confounders. Among participants with PAD, lower baseline vitamin D levels were associated with a faster decline in the 6-minute walk (vitamin D < 30 nmol/L: -70.0 feet/year; vitamin D 30 to < 50 nmol/L: -72.3 feet/year; vitamin D 50 to < 75 nmol/L: -35.5 feet/year; vitamin D 75 to < 120 nmol/L: -35.9 feet/year; p trend=0.012). PAD participants with vitamin D < 30 nmol/L had a faster decline in the SPPB and 6-minute walk compared to those with levels of 50 to < 75 (p=0.034 and p=0.04, respectively). Among participants without PAD, lower vitamin D was associated with a faster decline in the fast 4-meter walking velocity (p trend=0.003). There were no significant associations of baseline vitamin D levels with all-cause or cardiovascular disease mortality in PAD or non-PAD participants. In conclusion, among individuals with and without PAD, low vitamin D status was associated with a faster decline in some measures of functional performance but was not related to mortality.
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Transdifferentiation of lung adenocarcinoma in mice with Lkb1 deficiency to squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Lineage transition in adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of non-small cell lung cancer, as implicated by clinical observation of mixed ADC and SCC pathologies in adenosquamous cell carcinoma, remains a fundamental yet unsolved question. Here we provide in vivo evidence showing the transdifferentiation of lung cancer from ADC to SCC in mice: Lkb1-deficient lung ADC progressively transdifferentiates into SCC, via a pathologically mixed mAd-SCC intermediate. We find that reduction of lysyl oxidase (Lox) in Lkb1-deficient lung ADC decreases collagen disposition and triggers extracellular matrix remodelling and upregulates p63 expression, a SCC lineage survival oncogene. Pharmacological Lox inhibition promotes the transdifferentiation, whereas ectopic Lox expression significantly inhibits this process. Notably, ADC and SCC show differential responses to Lox inhibition. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the de novo transdifferentiation of lung ADC to SCC in mice and provide mechanistic insight that may have important implications for lung cancer treatment.
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Integrative genomic analysis reveals a high frequency of LKB1 genetic alteration in Chinese lung adenocarcinomas.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) genetic alteration in lung cancer involves not only point mutations and small deletion of several base pairs but also exonic loss. However, most of recent studies in LKB1 gene status only focus on point mutations and small deletion, and thus may underestimate the actual frequency of LKB1 genetic alteration in lung cancer. Thus, an integrative analysis of LKB1 genetic alteration is timely and important for providing a better estimate for the incidence of genetic alterations in this important tumor suppressor gene. One hundred and seven lung adenocarcinomas with more than 70% tumor have been analyzed for mutation of LKB1 as well as LKB1 large deletions detection by using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. These samples were also analyzed for EGFR, KRAS, HER2, BRAF, ALK, ROS1, and RET status in stepwise method. Among 107 lung adenocarcinomas analyzed, 29 (27.1%) harbored LKB1 genetic alteration. Twenty-three (21.5%) harbored LKB1 large exonic deletions and eight (7.48%) had LKB1 points mutations, two samples harbored both LKB1 large exonic deletions and point mutations. Eighty-seven samples (81.31%) harbored known driver mutations and 20 samples (18.69%) had no identifiable driver mutations. A high rate of LKB1 genetic alteration in Chinese lung adenocarcinomas is revealed by the integrative analysis of point mutation and exonic deletion. Moreover, LKB1 genetic alterations are concurrent with EGFR, KRAS, HER2, and CD74-ROS fusions.
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Prevalence, Clinicopathologic Characteristics, and Molecular Associations of EGFR Exon 20 Insertion Mutations in East Asian Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To define the prevalence, clinicopathologic characteristics and molecular associations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations in East Asian lung adenocarcinoma patients.
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Effects of molecular architecture of phospholipid polymers on surface modification of segmented polyurethanes.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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To modify the surface properties of segmented polyurethane (SPU), effects of the molecular architecture of the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers on the performance of the SPU/MPC polymer membrane were investigated. We combined the random-type, block-type, and graft-type of the MPC polymers with a typical SPU, Tecoflex(®) using double solution casting procedure. The graft-type MPC polymers composed of a poly(MPC) main chain and poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA)) side chains were synthesized through the combination of two different living radical polymerization techniques to regulate the density and chain length of the side chains. The SPU membranes modified with the MPC polymers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the MPC units were located on the SPU surface. Although the breaking strength of the SPU membranes modified with block-type poly(MPC-block-EHMA) and graft-type poly(MPC-graft-EHMA) was lower than that of SPU membranes modified with random-type poly(MPC-random-EHMA), their breaking strengths were adequate for manufacturing medical devices. On the other hand, better stability was observed in the MPC polymer layer on the SPU membrane after immersion in an aqueous medium, wherein the SPU membrane had been modified with the poly(MPC-graft-EHMA). This was because of the intermixing of the hydrophobic poly(EHMA) segments in the domain of the hard segments in the SPU membrane. After this modification, each SPU/MPC polymer membrane showed hydrophilic nature based on the MPC polymers and a dramatic suppression of protein adsorption. From these results, we concluded that the SPU membrane modified with the poly(MPC-graft-EHMA) was one of the promising polymeric biomaterials for making blood-contacting medical devices.
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Small cardiac hemangioma: a challenge for diagnosis and dilemma for management.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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A small cardiac tumor in the left ventricle was discovered incidentally in a 53-year-old patient by echocardiography and was further confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. A clinical diagnosis of "fibroelastoma or myxoma with an atypical location?" was made, and an uneventful surgical resection was carried out in consideration of the potential embolic risk. The histologic analysis revealed a capillary hemangioma. A posteriori, we reviewed the coronary angiography performed 2 years earlier and found a typical "tumor blush" sign. We discuss the diagnostic features of this case and the alternative approaches that could have been chosen, including a conservative approach with close follow-up.
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High GOLPH3 expression is associated with a more aggressive behavior of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Overexpression of GOLPH3 (Golgi phosphoprotein 3, 34 kDa) is associated with the progression of many solid tumor types leading to an unfavorable clinical outcome. The present study examined the association between GOLPH3 expression and tumor development, clinicopathological factors, and prognosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. GOLPH3 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 18 normal ovarian samples, 28 benign tumors, 55 serous borderline ovarian tumors, and 135 epithelial ovarian carcinomas. The association of GOLPH3 expression with clinical characteristics, response to chemotherapy, and overall survival of epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients was analyzed on fresh tissue samples. GOLPH3 mRNA and protein expression in ovarian cancer and normal ovarian tissues were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results are the following: (1) GOLPH3 immunostaining localized to the cytoplasm in two patterns, condensed into large granules with perinuclear distribution, and dispersed in the cytoplasm as fine granules. (2) GOLPH3 expression was higher in epithelial ovarian carcinoma than in normal ovarian tissues at the mRNA and protein level. The frequency of high-level expression of GOLPH3 increased progressively from benign (cystadenoma) to borderline neoplasms to malignant lesions. (3) Dispersed cytoplasmic GOLPH3 expression in epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients was highly correlated with FIGO stage (p?
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Association between MTHFR gene polymorphism and NTDs in Chinese Han population.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aims to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and neural tube defects (NTDs) in Chinese population.
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Protein expression of programmed death 1 ligand 1 and ligand 2 independently predict poor prognosis in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The clinicopathologic characteristics of tumors expressing programmed death (PD-1) ligands (PD-Ls) PD-L1 or PD-L2 and their associations with common driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma are not clearly defined, despite the progression of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.
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Primary concomitant EGFR T790M mutation predicted worse prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We performed this analysis to improve the understanding of the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring the primary epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation along with activating EGFR mutation.
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PIK3CA mutations frequently coexist with EGFR/KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer and suggest poor prognosis in EGFR/KRAS wildtype subgroup.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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PIK3CA gene encoding a catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is mutated and/or amplified in various neoplasia, including lung cancer. Here we investigated PIK3CA gene alterations, the expression of core components of PI3K pathway, and evaluated their clinical importance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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An association study between SUFU gene polymorphisms and neural tube defects.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Neural tube defects (NTDs) in mammals are rooted in aberrant neural tube closure during early embryogenesis, which is caused by multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway is involved in the induction of the floor plate and participates in formation of the neural tube. Mutation of the suppressor of fused gene (SUFU), an essential repressor of Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway, can result in NTDs. A case-control study was designed to compare the frequencies of the polymorphism at four sites in the SUFU gene in control and NTDs group, as well as in subtype groups, including anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele. We also explored the association between polymorphism and NTDs risk in a high prevalence population in China. Rs10786691, but not the other three SNPs, had an association between polymorphisms and NTDs. The heterozygous AG allele of rs10786691 was significantly related with NTDs and encephalocele (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.04-2.48, p = 0.034; OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.07-7.47, p = 0.036). In female but not male fetuses, the AG genotype of rs10786691 increased the risk of NTDs (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.03-3.41, p = 0.040). The SUFU rs10786691 A>G polymorphism may be a potential risk factor for NTDs and encephalocele in this high-risk population, but the association between the polymorphism and NTDs was probably influenced by gender.
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Photoluminescence enhancement of carbon dots by gold nanoparticles conjugated via PAMAM dendrimers.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Carbon dots (CDs) have many fascinating fluorescent properties, however, their low quantum yield limits their applications. In this study, the photoluminescence (PL) of CDs in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is enhanced significantly due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Au NPs. This is achieved by conjugating Au NPs and CDs to dendrimers (PAMAM) through an amidation reaction, resulting in the formation of the Au-PAMAM-CD conjugates. The maximum 62-fold enhancement was obtained with an optimized molar ratio between Au NPs, PAMAM, and CDs. In this process, PAMAM, which serves as a spacer, can keep Au NPs and CDs at an appropriate distance for PL enhancement. The adjustment of the amount of Au NPs or CDs linked to PAMAM can induce the optimum PL enhancement. This strategy can be easily applied to different metal-space-fluorophore systems to enhance the fluorescence of fluorophores.
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Identifcation of a novel mutation p.I240T in the FRMD7 gene in a family with congenital nystagmus.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Congenital Nystagmus (CN) is a genetically heterogeneous ocular disease, which causes a significant proportion of childhood visual impairment. To identify the underlying genetic defect of a CN family, twenty-two members were recruited. Genotype analysis showed that affected individuals shared a common haplotype with markers flanking FRMD7 locus. Sequencing FRMD7 revealed a T > C transition in exon 8, causing a conservative substitution of Isoleucine to Tyrosine at codon 240. By protein structural modeling, we found the mutation may disrupt the hydrophobic core and destabilize the protein structure. We reviewed the literature and found that exons 2, 8, and 9 (11.4% of the sequence of FRMD7 mRNA) represent the majority (55.3%) of the reported FRMD7 mutations. In summary, we identified a novel mutation in FRMD7, showed its molecular consequence, and revealed the mutation-rich exons of the FRMD7 gene. Collectively, this provides molecular insights for future CN clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment.
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Ultrasensitive and recyclable SERS substrate based on Au-decorated Si nanowire arrays.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Metallic nanoparticle (NP) decorated silicon nanowire (SiNW) heterostructures show significant promise in enhanced optical and opto-electrical properties due to the coupling of surface plasmon to nanowires. Here, recyclable Au-decorated silicon nanowire arrays (Au-SiNWAs) as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were successfully fabricated by a simple galvanic displacement reaction. The influence of different average size and aggregation level of Au NPs on SERS activity was explored. The SERS activity of the substrates strongly depends on the average size and aggregation level of Au NPs on the surface of the SiNWs, and the most optimal size and separation of AuNPs on the SiNWs can be achieved by controlling the reaction time. The optimized Au-SiNWA substrate exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity with an enhancement factor of 10(9), and is able to detect the analyte molecule at a concentration as low as 10(-11) M. More importantly, the SERS substrate is recyclable, as enabled by a self-cleaning function due to UV light photocatalytic degradation of the analyte molecules. The high sensitivity and recyclability of the Au-SiNWA SERS substrate is demonstrated by the detection of a model molecule rhodamine B (RhB). Our studies show that the unique Au-SiNWA SERS substrates have significant potential to put SERS into wider application.
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Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding.
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Two co-existing germline mutations P53 V157D and PMS2 R20Q promote tumorigenesis in a familial cancer syndrome.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Germline mutations are responsible for familial cancer syndromes which account for approximately 5-10% of all types of cancers. These mutations mainly occur at tumor suppressor genes or genome stability genes, such as DNA repair genes. Here we have identified a cancer predisposition family, in which eight members were inflicted with a wide spectrum of cancer including one diagnosed with lung cancer at 22years old. Sequencing analysis of tumor samples as well as histologically normal specimens identified two germline mutations co-existing in the familial cancer syndrome, the mutation of tumor suppressor gene P53 V157D and mismatch repair gene PMS2 R20Q. We further demonstrate that P53 V157D and/or PMS2 R20Q mutant promotes lung cancer cell proliferation. These two mutants are capable of promoting colony formation in soft agar as well as tumor formation in transgenic drosophila system. Collectively, these data have uncovered the important role of co-existing germline P53 and PMS2 mutations in the familial cancer syndrome development.
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Home-based walking exercise intervention in peripheral artery disease: a randomized clinical trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Clinical practice guidelines state there is insufficient evidence to support advising patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) to participate in a home-based walking exercise program.
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Carbon dots as fluorescent probes for "off-on" detection of Cu2+ and L-cysteine in aqueous solution.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Copper ion (Cu(2+)) and L-cysteine (L-Cys) detection is critically important since an abnormal level of Cu(2+) or L-Cys is an indicator for many diseases. In this paper, we demonstrate an "off-on" approach for highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+) and L-Cys using carbon dots (CDs) as fluorescent probes. CDs were prepared by using mesoporous silica (MS) spheres as nanoreactors. The binding ability of CDs towards metal ions was examined by comparing the fluorescence intensities of CDs before and after the addition of the metal ions. The addition of Cu(2+) cations leads to their absorption on the surface of CDs and the significant fluorescence quench of CDs (turn-off). The resulting in CDs-Cu(2+) system was found to be sensitive to L-Cys. The addition of L-Cys not only serves to shelter the CDs effectively from being quenched, but also to reverse the quenching and restore the fluorescence (turn-on) due to its ability to remove Cu(2+) from the surface of CDs. This method is facile, rapid, low cost, and environment-friendly. A detection limit as low as 2.3×10(-8) M for Cu(2+) and 3.4×10(-10) M for L-Cys is obtained, which is promising for biological applications.
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ANCCA Protein Expression is a Novel Independent Poor Prognostic Marker in Surgically Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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AAA+ nuclear coregulator cancer associated (ANCCA) is found to be overexpressed in various cancer types and could play a role in common and fundamental cellular processes. A recent study suggested that ANCCA was a likely driver whose expression explained the behavior of differentially expressed proliferation-related genes in lung adenocarcinoma. However, protein expression of ANCCA in lung adenocarcinoma and its association with clinicopathologic parameters and commonly reported driver mutations remains unexplored.
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Atomic configurations at InAs partial dislocation cores associated with Z-shape faulted dipoles.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The atomic arrangements of two types of InAs dislocation cores associated by a Z-shape faulted dipole are observed directly by aberration-corrected high-angle annular-dark-field imaging. Single unpaired columns of different atoms in a matrix of dumbbells are clearly resolved, with observable variations of bonding lengths due to excess Coulomb force from bare ions at the dislocation core. The corresponding geometric phase analysis provides confirmation that the dislocation cores serve as origins of strain field inversion while stacking faults maintain the existing strain status.
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Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 6-acylamido-6-deoxy-?-D-mannoglycerolipids.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Eight new aminomannoglycerolipids (2a-h) with linear, branched, or aromatic acyl chains were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-influenza A virus (IAV) activity. By comparing six mannosyl donors with different protecting and leaving groups, the critical glycosylation reaction employed mannosyl trichloroacetimidate with 2-O-benzoyl protecting group as the donor to give the glycoside with absolute ?-anomeric selectivity. The bioactivity results showed that the branched compound 2g could effectively inhibit IAV multiplication in MDCK cells with IC50 69.9?M.
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Proximal superficial femoral artery occlusion, collateral vessels, and walking performance in peripheral artery disease.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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We studied associations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions with functional performance, leg symptoms, and collateral vessel number in peripheral artery disease (PAD). We studied associations of collateral vessel number with functional performance in PAD.
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Solid-state high performance flexible supercapacitors based on polypyrrole-MnO2-carbon fiber hybrid structure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an "in situ growth for conductive wrapping" and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3?F cm(-3) at a discharge current density of 0.1?A cm(-3) and an energy density of 6.16 × 10(-3)?Wh cm(-3) at a power density of 0.04?W cm(-3), the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the "in situ growth for conductive wrapping" method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.