A missense C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism in the PTPN22 gene recently emerged as a major risk factor for human autoimmunity. PTPN22 encodes the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), which forms a complex with the kinase Csk and is a critical negative regulator of signaling through the T cell receptor. The C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism results in the LYP-R620W variation within the LYP-Csk interaction motif. LYP-W620 exhibits a greatly reduced interaction with Csk and is a gain-of-function inhibitor of signaling. Here we show that LYP constitutively interacts with its substrate Lck in a Csk-dependent manner. T cell receptor-induced phosphorylation of LYP by Lck on an inhibitory tyrosine residue releases tonic inhibition of signaling by LYP. The R620W variation disrupts the interaction between Lck and LYP, leading to reduced phosphorylation of LYP, which ultimately contributes to gain-of-function inhibition of T cell signaling.
The lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase LYP, encoded by the PTPN22 gene, recently emerged as a major player and candidate drug target for human autoimmunity. The enzyme includes a classical N-terminal protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain and a C-terminal PEST-enriched domain, separated by an approximately 300-amino acid interdomain. Little is known about the regulation of LYP. Herein, by analysis of serial truncation mutants of LYP, we show that the phosphatase activity is strongly inhibited by protein regions C-terminal to the catalytic domain. We mapped the minimal inhibitory region to the proximal portion of the interdomain. We show that the activity of LYP is inhibited by an intramolecular mechanism, whereby the proximal portion of the interdomain directly interacts with the catalytic domain and reduces its activity.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.