Histone proteins are decorated by a variety of protein posttranslational modifications called histone marks that modulate chromatin structure and function, contributing to the cellular gene expression program. This SnapShot summarizes the reported human, mouse, and rat histone marks, including recently identified lysine acylation marks.
Emerging evidence suggests that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a clinically approved HDAC inhibitor for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, shows promising clinical benefits in neuroblastoma, the most common extra cranial solid neoplasm with limited choice of therapeutic intervention. However, the molecular mechanism under which the compound exerts its antitumor effect remains elusive. Here we report a quantitative proteomics study that determines changes of protein expression, histone lysine acetylation, and butyrylation in response to SAHA treatment. We detected and quantified 28 histone lysine acetylation and 18 histone lysine butyrylation marks, most of which are dramatically induced by SAHA. Importantly, we identified 11 histone Kbu sites as novel histone marks in human cells. Furthermore, quantitative proteomic analysis identified 5426 proteins, among which 510 proteins were up-regulated and 508 proteins were down-regulated (significant p value <0.05). The subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified distinct SAHA-response gene ontology (GO) categories and signaling pathways, including cellular metabolism and DNA-dependent pathways. Our study therefore reveals new histone epigenetic marks and offers key insights into the molecular mechanism by which SAHA regulates proteomic changes in neuroblastoma cells and identifies biomarker candidates for SAHA.
Ethanol-induced apoptosis in selected cell populations is a major component of pathogenesis underlying ethanol-induced teratogenesis. However, there is a fundamental gap in understanding how ethanol leads to apoptosis in embryos. In this study, we investigate the role of seven in absentia homolog-1 (Siah1) protein, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in ethanol-induced apoptosis. Using an in vitro model of neural crest cell (NCC), JoMa1.3 cells, we found that exposure to 100mM ethanol resulted in a significant increase in Siah1 mRNA expression in NCCs, an ethanol-sensitive cell population implicated in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Treatment with 100mM ethanol for 24h also significantly increased the protein expression of Siah1 in JoMa1.3 cells. The nuclear translocation and accumulation of Siah1 was evidenced in the cells exposed to ethanol. In addition, we have found that the inhibition of Siah1 function with siRNA prevents ethanol-induced increase in Siah1 protein expression and nuclear translocation in NCCs. Down-regulation of Siah1 by siRNA also greatly diminished ethanol-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation, indicating that inhibition of Siah1 can attenuate ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that Siah1 plays an important role in ethanol-induced apoptosis in NCCs.
Retinoid homeostasis is critical for normal embryonic development. Both the deficiency and excess of these compounds are associated with congenital malformations. Here we demonstrate that SIRT1, the most conserved mammalian NAD?-dependent protein deacetylase, contributes to homeostatic retinoic acid (RA) signaling and modulates mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation in part through deacetylation of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII). We show that RA-mediated acetylation of CRABPII at K102 is essential for its nuclear accumulation and subsequent activation of RA signaling. SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates CRABPII, regulating its subcellular localization. Consequently, SIRT1 deficiency induces hyperacetylation and nuclear accumulation of CRABPII, enhancing RA signaling and accelerating mESC differentiation in response to RA. Consistently, SIRT1 deficiency is associated with elevated RA signaling and development defects in mice. Our findings reveal a molecular mechanism that regulates RA signaling and highlight the importance of SIRT1 in regulation of ESC pluripotency and embryogenesis.
We report the identification of a new type of histone mark, lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib), and identify the mark at 63 human and mouse histone Khib sites, including 27 unique lysine sites that are not known to be modified by lysine acetylation (Kac) and lysine crotonylation (Kcr). This histone mark was initially identified by MS and then validated by chemical and biochemical methods. Histone Khib shows distinct genomic distributions from histone Kac or histone Kcr during male germ cell differentiation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, gene expression analysis and immunodetection, we show that in male germ cells, H4K8hib is associated with active gene transcription in meiotic and post-meiotic cells. In addition, H4K8ac-associated genes are included in and constitute only a subfraction of H4K8hib-labeled genes. The histone Khib mark is conserved and widely distributed, has high stoichiometry and induces a large structural change. These findings suggest its critical role on the regulation of chromatin functions.
We report the identification and characterization of a five-carbon protein posttranslational modification (PTM) called lysine glutarylation (Kglu). This protein modification was detected by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (MS), and then comprehensively validated by chemical and biochemical methods. We demonstrated that the previously annotated deacetylase, sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), is a lysine deglutarylase. Proteome-wide analysis identified 683 Kglu sites in 191 proteins and showed that Kglu is highly enriched on metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. We validated carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in urea cycle, as a glutarylated protein and demonstrated that CPS1 is targeted by SIRT5 for deglutarylation. We further showed that glutarylation suppresses CPS1 enzymatic activity in cell lines, mice, and a model of glutaric acidemia type I disease, the last of which has elevated glutaric acid and glutaryl-CoA. This study expands the landscape of lysine acyl modifications and increases our understanding of the deacylase SIRT5.
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the most conserved mammalian oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase, is an important metabolic sensor in many tissues. However, little is known about its role in the small intestine, which absorbs and senses nutrients. We investigated the functions of intestinal SIRT1 in systemic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in mice.
SRG3 plays essential roles both in early mouse embryogenesis, and in extra-embryonic vascular development. In addition, as one of the core components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex, SRG3 serves as the scaffold protein, and its protein level controls the stability of the BAF complex, which controls diverse physiological processes through transcriptional regulation. However, little is known about how the protein level of SRG3 is regulated in mammalian cells. Previously, we identified a murine ubiquitin ligase Wwp2 and demonstrated that it interacts with pluripotency associated key transcription factor Oct4 and RNA polymerase II large subunit Rpb1, promoting their ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we report that Wwp2 acts as an ubiquitin ligase of SRG3. Our results show that Wwp2 and SRG3 form protein complexes and co-localize in the nucleus in mammalian cells. The interaction is mediated through the WW domain of Wwp2 and the PPPY motif of SRG3, respectively. Importantly, Wwp2 promotes ubiquitination and degradation of SRG3 through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of Wwp2 abolishes SRG3 ubiquitination. Collectively, our study opens up a new avenue to understand how the protein level of SRG3 is regulated in mammalian cells.
Itch, a C2-WW-HECT domain ubiquitin E3 ligase, plays an important role in various biological processes. However, its role in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unknown. Here, we report that Itch interacts with and targets pluripotency-associated transcription factor Oct4 for ubiquitination. Moreover, Itch enhances Oct4 transcriptional activities and controls Oct4 protein stability dependent on its catalytic activity. Importantly, silencing Itch expression compromises ESC self-renewal capacity and somatic cell reprogramming efficiency. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a regulator of Oct4 stability and transcriptional activity, establishing a functional link between an E3 ligase and the regulation of pluripotency.
Lysine succinylation is a newly identified protein post-translational modification pathway present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, succinylation substrates and regulatory enzyme(s) remain largely unknown, hindering the biological study of this modification. Here we report the identification of 2,580 bacterial lysine succinylation sites in 670 proteins and 2,803 lysine acetylation (Kac) sites in 782 proteins, representing the first lysine succinylation dataset and the largest Kac dataset in wild-type E. coli. We quantified dynamic changes of the lysine succinylation and Kac substrates in response to high glucose. Our data showed that high-glucose conditions led to more lysine-succinylated proteins and enhanced the abundance of succinyllysine peptides more significantly than Kac peptides, suggesting that glucose has a more profound effect on succinylation than on acetylation. We further identified CobB, a known Sir2-like bacterial lysine deacetylase, as the first prokaryotic desuccinylation enzyme. The identification of bacterial CobB as a bifunctional enzyme with lysine desuccinylation and deacetylation activities suggests that the eukaryotic Kac-regulatory enzymes may have enzymatic activities on various lysine acylations with very different structures. In addition, it is highly likely that lysine succinylation could have unique and more profound regulatory roles in cellular metabolism relative to lysine acetylation under some physiological conditions.
Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) is one of the in vivo metabolic labeling methods widely used for dynamic analysis of protein modifications. Here, we describe a general approach to applying SILAC, in combination with affinity enrichment of acetyllysine peptides and mass spectrometry, to study the dynamic changes of the Lysine acetylome in response to Sirt1. The method should be applicable to quantify changes to other post translational modifications in diverse cellular systems.
The conversion of male germ cell chromatin to a nucleoprotamine structure is fundamental to the life cycle, yet the underlying molecular details remain obscure. Here we show that an essential step is the genome-wide incorporation of TH2B, a histone H2B variant of hitherto unknown function. Using mouse models in which TH2B is depleted or C-terminally modified, we show that TH2B directs the final transformation of dissociating nucleosomes into protamine-packed structures. Depletion of TH2B induces compensatory mechanisms that permit histone removal by up-regulating H2B and programming nucleosome instability through targeted histone modifications, including lysine crotonylation and arginine methylation. Furthermore, after fertilization, TH2B reassembles onto the male genome during protamine-to-histone exchange. Thus, TH2B is a unique histone variant that plays a key role in the histone-to-protamine packing of the male genome and guides genome-wide chromatin transitions that both precede and follow transmission of the male genome to the egg.
Protein function is regulated by diverse posttranslational modifications. The mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 removes malonyl and succinyl moieties from target lysines. The spectrum of protein substrates subject to these modifications is unknown. We report systematic profiling of the mammalian succinylome, identifying 2,565 succinylation sites on 779 proteins. Most of these do not overlap with acetylation sites, suggesting differential regulation of succinylation and acetylation. Our analysis reveals potential impacts of lysine succinylation on enzymes involved in mitochondrial metabolism; e.g., amino acid degradation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, and fatty acid metabolism. Lysine succinylation is also present on cytosolic and nuclear proteins; indeed, we show that a substantial fraction of SIRT5 is extramitochondrial. SIRT5 represses biochemical activity of, and cellular respiration through, two protein complexes identified in our analysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and succinate dehydrogenase. Our data reveal widespread roles for lysine succinylation in regulating metabolism and potentially other cellular functions.
Variability in the quality of antibodies to histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) is a widely recognized hindrance in epigenetics research. Here, we produced recombinant antibodies to the trimethylated lysine residues of histone H3 with high specificity and affinity and no lot-to-lot variation. These recombinant antibodies performed well in common epigenetics applications, and enabled us to identify positive and negative correlations among histone PTMs.
Defects in DNA repair have been linked to cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disease, yet the mechanisms that protect neurons from genotoxic stress remain largely obscure. We sought to characterize the roles of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 in the neuronal response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We found that SIRT1 was rapidly recruited to DSBs in postmitotic neurons, where it showed a synergistic relationship with ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). SIRT1 recruitment to breaks was ATM dependent; however, SIRT1 also stimulated ATM autophosphorylation and activity and stabilized ATM at DSB sites. After DSB induction, SIRT1 also bound the neuroprotective class I histone deacetylase HDAC1. We found that SIRT1 deacetylated HDAC1 and stimulated its enzymatic activity, which was necessary for DSB repair through the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. HDAC1 mutations that mimic a constitutively acetylated state rendered neurons more susceptible to DNA damage, whereas pharmacological SIRT1 activators that promoted HDAC1 deacetylation also reduced DNA damage in two mouse models of neurodegeneration. We propose that SIRT1 is an apical transducer of the DSB response and that SIRT1 activation offers an important therapeutic avenue in neurodegeneration.
Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is one of the major regulatory mechanisms that fine-tune protein functions. Undescribed mass shifts, which may suggest novel types of PTMs, continue to be discovered because of the availabilities of more sensitive mass spectrometry technologies and more powerful sequence alignment algorithms. In this study, the histone extracted from HeLa cells was analyzed using an approach that takes advantages of in vitro propionylation, efficient peptide separation using isoelectric focusing fractionation, and the high sensitivity of the linear ion trap coupled with hybrid FT mass spectrometer. One modified peptide was identified with a new type of protein modification (+42 Da), which was assigned to acetylation of threonine 15 in histone2A. The modified peptide was verified by careful manual evaluation of the tandem mass spectrum and confirmed by high-resolution MS/MS analysis of the corresponding synthetic peptide. However, HPLC coelution and MS/MS/MS of key ions showed that the +42 Da mass shifts at threonine residue did not correspond to acetylation. The key fragment ion, y4, in the MS/MS/MS spectra (indicative of the modification site) differed between the in vivo and synthetic peptide. We showed that the misidentification was originated from sequence homologues and chemical derivitization during sample preparation. This result indicated that a more stringent procedure that includes MS/MS, MS/MS/MS, and HPLC coelution of synthetic peptides is required to identify a new PTM.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is one of the major angiogenic factors being studied for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. Our previous study demonstrated adenovirus-HGF was effective in myocardial ischemia models. The first clinical safety study showed a positive effect in patients with severe and diffused triple coronary disease.
The transcription factor zinc-finger protein Miz1 represses TNF-?-induced JNK activation and the repression is relieved upon TNF-? stimulation. However, the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. Here we report that Miz1 interferes with the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) Ubc13 for binding to the RING domain of TNF-receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2), thereby inhibiting the ubiquitin ligase (E3) activity of TRAF2 and suppressing TNF-?-induced JNK activation. Upon TNF-? stimulation, Miz1 rapidly undergoes K48-linked polyubiquitination at Lys388 and Lys472 residues and subsequent proteasomal degradation in a TRAF2-dependent manner. Replacement of Lysine 388 and Lysine 472 by arginines generates a nondegradable Miz1 mutant, which significantly suppresses TNF-?-induced JNK1 activation and inflammation. Thus, our results reveal a molecular mechanism by which the repression of TNF-?-induced JNK activation by Miz1 is de-repressed by its own site-specific ubiquitination and degradation, which may account for the temporal control of TNF-?-JNK signaling.
The haploid male germ cell differentiation program controls essential steps of male gametogenesis and relies partly on a significant number of sex chromosome-linked genes. These genes need to escape chromosome-wide transcriptional repression of sex chromosomes, which occurs during meiosis and is largely maintained in post-meiotic cells. A newly discovered histone lysine modification, crotonylation (Kcr), marks X/Y-linked genes that are active in post-meiotic male germ cells. Histone Kcr, by conferring resistance to transcriptional repressors, could be a dominant element in maintaining these genes active in the globally repressive environment of haploid cell sex chromosomes. Furthermore, the same mark was found associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes. Histone Kcr therefore appears to be an indicator of the male haploid cell gene expression program and a notable element of genome programming in the post-meiotic phases of spermatogenesis.
Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) at the lysine residue, such as lysine methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination, are diverse, abundant, and dynamic. They play a key role in the regulation of diverse cellular physiology. Here we report discovery of a new type of lysine PTM, lysine malonylation (Kmal). Kmal was initially detected by mass spectrometry and protein sequence-database searching. The modification was comprehensively validated by Western blot, tandem MS, and high-performance liquid chromatography of synthetic peptides, isotopic labeling, and identification of multiple Kmal substrate proteins. Kmal is a dynamic and evolutionarily conserved PTM observed in mammalian cells and bacterial cells. In addition, we demonstrate that Sirt5, a member of the class III lysine deacetylases, can catalyze lysine demalonylation and lysine desuccinylation reactions both in vitro and in vivo. This result suggests the possibility of nondeacetylation activity of other class III lysine deacetylases, especially those without obvious acetylation protein substrates. Our results therefore reveal a new type of PTM pathway and identify the first enzyme that can regulate lysine malonylation and lysine succinylation status.
Initiation of eukaryotic genome duplication begins when a six-subunit origin recognition complex (ORC) binds to DNA. However, the mechanism by which this occurs in vivo and the roles played by individual subunits appear to differ significantly among organisms. Previous studies identified a soluble human ORC(2-5) complex in the nucleus, an ORC(1-5) complex bound to chromatin, and an Orc6 protein that binds weakly, if at all, to other ORC subunits. Here we show that stable ORC(1-6) complexes also can be purified from human cell extracts and that Orc6 and Orc1 each contain a single nuclear localization signal that is essential for nuclear localization but not for ORC assembly. The Orc6 nuclear localization signal, which is essential for Orc6 function, is facilitated by phosphorylation at its cyclin-dependent kinase consensus site and by association with Kpna6/1, nuclear transport proteins that did not co-purify with other ORC subunits. These and other results support a model in which Orc6, Orc1, and ORC(2-5) are transported independently to the nucleus where they can either assemble into ORC(1-6) or function individually.
To develop an effective therapeutic strategy for cardiac regeneration using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), the primary mouse BM-MSCs (1(st) BM-MSCs) and 5(th) passage BM-MSCs from ?-galactosidase transgenic mice were respectively intramyocardially transplanted into the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model of wild type mice. At the 6(th) week, animals/tissues from the 1(st) BM-MSCs group, the 5(th) passage BM-MSCs group, control group were examined. Our results revealed that, compared to the 5(th) passage BM-MSCs, the 1(st) BM-MSCs had better therapeutic effects in the mouse MI model. The 1(st) BM-MSCs maintained greater differentiation potentials towards cardiomocytes or vascular endothelial cells in vitro. This is indicated by higher expressions of cardiomyocyte and vascular endothelial cell mature markers in vitro. Furthermore, we identified that 24 proteins were down-regulated and 3 proteins were up-regulated in the 5(th) BM-MSCs in comparison to the 1(st) BM-MSCs, using mass spectrometry following two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our data suggest that transplantation of the 1(st) BM-MSCs may be an effective therapeutic strategy for cardiac tissue regeneration following AMI, and altered protein expression profiles between the 1(st) BM-MSCs and 5(th) passage BM-MSCs may account for the difference in their maintenance of stemness and their therapeutic effects following AMI.
Recent proteomics studies suggest high abundance and a much wider role for lysine acetylation (K-Ac) in cellular functions. Nevertheless, cross influence between K-Ac and other post-translational modifications (PTMs) has not been carefully examined. Here, we used a variety of bioinformatics tools to analyze several available K-Ac datasets. Using gene ontology databases, we demonstrate that K-Ac sites are found in all cellular compartments. KEGG analysis indicates that the K-Ac sites are found on proteins responsible for a diverse and wide array of vital cellular functions. Domain structure prediction shows that K-Ac sites are found throughout a wide variety of protein domains, including those in heat shock proteins and those involved in cell cycle functions and DNA repair. Secondary structure prediction proves that K-Ac sites are preferentially found in ordered structures such as alpha helices and beta sheets. Finally, by mutating K-Ac sites in silico and predicting the effect on nearby phosphorylation sites, we demonstrate that the majority of lysine acetylation sites have the potential to impact protein phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination status. Our work validates earlier smaller-scale studies on the acetylome and demonstrates the importance of PTM crosstalk for regulation of cellular function.
We report the identification of 67 previously undescribed histone modifications, increasing the current number of known histone marks by about 70%. We further investigated one of the marks, lysine crotonylation (Kcr), confirming that it represents an evolutionarily-conserved histone posttranslational modification. The unique structure and genomic localization of histone Kcr suggest that it is mechanistically and functionally different from histone lysine acetylation (Kac). Specifically, in both human somatic and mouse male germ cell genomes, histone Kcr marks either active promoters or potential enhancers. In male germinal cells immediately following meiosis, Kcr is enriched on sex chromosomes and specifically marks testis-specific genes, including a significant proportion of X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. These results therefore dramatically extend the repertoire of histone PTM sites and designate Kcr as a specific mark of active sex chromosome-linked genes in postmeiotic male germ cells.
Iodinated contrast media (CM) can induce apoptosis and necrosis of renal tubular cells. The injuries of endothelial cells induced by CM on the systemic condition have not been fully understood. To assess the toxic effects of non-ionic CM on the glomerular and aortic endothelial cells, iopromide and iodixanol, two kinds of representative non-ionic CM, were used for the in vivo study. Sixty aged rats were respectively received the agents or normal sodium intravascularly. No obvious apoptosis and morphological change was detected in the glomerular and aortic endothelial cells apart from renal tubules after CM administration. However, expressions of the nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in glomerular endothelium were decreased at 12h after CM injection. Furthermore, plasma creatinine and endothelin-1 were increased and plasma nitric oxide (NO) was decreased significantly after CM administration. However, we failed to observe the significant increase of plasma von Willebrand Factor. These results suggest that non-ionic iodinated CM do not induce apoptosis and necrosis of glomerular and aortic endothelial cells in vivo. Decreased eNOS expression and increased plasma endothelin-1 may be involved in non-ionic iodinated CM-induced endothelial dysfunction and kidney injury.
Recent studies show that mutations in Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the cause of the most common inherited and some sporadic forms of Parkinsons disease (PD). The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenic role of LRRK2 mutations in PD remains unknown.
Acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins is an important posttranslational modification affecting many cellular processes. Here, we report that NuA4 acetylation of Sip2, a regulatory ? subunit of the Snf1 complex (yeast AMP-activated protein kinase), decreases as cells age. Sip2 acetylation, controlled by antagonizing NuA4 acetyltransferase and Rpd3 deacetylase, enhances interaction with Snf1, the catalytic subunit of Snf1 complex. Sip2-Snf1 interaction inhibits Snf1 activity, thus decreasing phosphorylation of a downstream target, Sch9 (homolog of Akt/S6K), and ultimately leading to slower growth but extended replicative life span. Sip2 acetylation mimetics are more resistant to oxidative stress. We further demonstrate that the anti-aging effect of Sip2 acetylation is independent of extrinsic nutrient availability and TORC1 activity. We propose a protein acetylation-phosphorylation cascade that regulates Sch9 activity, controls intrinsic aging, and extends replicative life span in yeast.
VEGF and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) are two major angiogenic factors being investigated for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting VEGF and Ang1 expression in the ischemic myocardium can increase their local therapeutic effects and reduce possible adverse effects. Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) expressing cardiac-specific and hypoxia-inducible VEGF [AAV-myosin light chain-2v (MLC)VEGF] and Ang1 (AAV-MLCAng1) were coinjected (VEGF/Ang1 group) into six different sites of the porcine myocardium at the peri-infarct zone immediately after ligating the left descending coronary artery. An identical dose of AAV-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)LacZ or saline was injected into control animals. AAV genomes were detected in the liver in addition to the heart. RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA analyses showed that VEGF and Ang1 were predominantly expressed in the myocardium in the infarct core and border of the infarct heart. Gated single-photon emission computed tomography analyses showed that the VEGF/Ang1 group had better cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at 8 wk than at 2 wk after vector injection. Compared with the saline and LacZ controls, the VEGF/Ang1 group expressed higher phosphorylated Akt and Bcl-xL, less Caspase-3 and Bad, and had higher vascular density, more proliferating cardiomyocytes, and less apoptotic cells in the infarct and peri-infarct zones. Thus, cardiac-specific and hypoxia-induced coexpression of VEGF and Ang1 improves the perfusion and function of porcine MI heart through the induction of angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation, activation of prosurvival pathways, and reduction of cell apoptosis.
Dynamic instability is a critical property of microtubules (MTs). By regulating the rate of tubulin polymerization and depolymerization, cells organize the MT cytoskeleton to accommodate their specific functions. Among many processes, posttranslational modifications of tubulin are implicated in regulating MT functions. Here we report a novel tubulin acetylation catalyzed by acetyltransferase San at lysine 252 (K252) of ?-tubulin. This acetylation, which is also detected in vivo, is added to soluble tubulin heterodimers but not tubulins in MTs. The acetylation-mimicking K252A/Q mutants were incorporated into the MT cytoskeleton in HeLa cells without causing any obvious MT defect. However, after cold-induced catastrophe, MT regrowth is accelerated in San-siRNA cells while the incorporation of acetylation-mimicking mutant tubulins is severely impeded. K252 of ?-tubulin localizes at the interface of ?-/?-tubulins and interacts with the phosphate group of the ?-tubulin-bound GTP. We propose that the acetylation slows down tubulin incorporation into MTs by neutralizing the positive charge on K252 and allowing tubulin heterodimers to adopt a conformation that disfavors tubulin incorporation.
Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac ?- and ?-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the K(m) for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both ?- and ?-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of ?-myosin by 20% and ?-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.
Alteration of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in various human cancers and has been intensively investigated. A plethora of evidence demonstrates that posttranslational modifications of EGFR play a pivotal role in controlling its function and metabolism. Here, we show that EGFR can be acetylated by CREB binding protein (CBP) acetyltransferase. Interestingly, EGFR acetylation affects its tyrosine phosphorylation, which may contribute to cancer cell resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs). Since there is an increasing interest in using HDACIs to treat various cancers in the clinic, our current study provides insights and rationale for selecting effective therapeutic regimen. Consistent with the previous reports, we also show that HDACI combined with EGFR inhibitors achieves better therapeutic outcomes and provides a molecular rationale for the enhanced effect of combination therapy. Our results unveil a critical role of EGFR acetylation that regulates EGFR function, which may have an important clinical implication.
As one of the most common malignancies, colon cancer is initiated by abnormal activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Although the treatment options have increased for some patients, overall progress has been modest. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatments. We have found that bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid tetrandrine (TET) exhibits anticancer activity. TET is used as a calcium channel blocker to treat hypertensive and arrhythmic conditions in Chinese medicine. Here, we investigate the molecular basis underlying TETs anticancer activity. We compare TET with six chemotherapy drugs in eight cancer lines and find that TET exhibits comparable anticancer activities with camptothecin, vincristine, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin, and better than that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and carboplatin. TET IC?? is ?5 ?M in most of the tested cancer lines. TET exhibits synergistic anticancer activity with 5-FU and reduces migration and invasion capabilities of HCT116 cells. Furthermore, TET induces apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tumor growth of colon cancer. TET treatment leads to a decrease in ?-catenin protein level in xenograft tumors, which is confirmed by T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor and c-Myc reporter assays. It is noteworthy that HCT116 cells with allelic oncogenic ?-catenin deleted are less sensitive to TET-mediated inhibition of proliferation, viability, and xenograft tumor growth. Thus, our findings strongly suggest that the anticancer effect of TET in colon cancer may be at least in part mediated by targeting ?-catenin activity. Therefore, TET may be used alone or in combination as an effective anticancer agent.
Protein hydroxylation at proline and lysine residues is known to have important effects on cellular functions, such as the response to hypoxia. However, protein hydroxylation at tyrosine residues (called protein-bound 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (PB-DOPA)) has not been carefully examined. Here we report the first proteomics screening of the PB-DOPA protein substrates and their sites in Escherichia coli and human mitochondria by nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MS/MS) and protein sequence alignment using the PTMap algorithm. Our study identified 67 novel PB-DOPA sites in 43 E. coli proteins and 9 novel PB-DOPA sites in 7 proteins from HeLa mitochondria. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that the structured region is more favored than the unstructured regions of proteins for the PB-DOPA modification. The PB-DOPA substrates in E. coli were dominantly enriched in proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism. Our study showed that PB-DOPA may be involved in regulation of the specific activity of certain evolutionarily conserved proteins such as superoxide dismutase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting the conserved nature of the modification among distant biological species. The substrate proteins identified in this study offer a rich source for determining their regulatory enzymes and for further characterization of the possible contributions of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases.
The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, with the Office of Rare Diseases Research, held a workshop to identify priority areas and strategic goals to enhance and accelerate research that will result in improved understanding of the lung vasculature, translational research needs, and ultimately the care of patients with pulmonary vascular diseases. Multidisciplinary experts with diverse experience in laboratory, translational, and clinical studies identified seven priority areas and discussed limitations in our current knowledge, technologies, and approaches. The focus for future research efforts include the following: (1) better characterizing vascular genotype-phenotype relationships and incorporating systems biology approaches when appropriate; (2) advancing our understanding of pulmonary vascular metabolic regulatory signaling in health and disease; (3) expanding our knowledge of the biologic relationships between the lung circulation and circulating elements, systemic vascular function, and right heart function and disease; (4) improving translational research for identifying disease-modifying therapies for the pulmonary hypertensive diseases; (5) establishing an appropriate and effective platform for advancing translational findings into clinical studies testing; and (6) developing the specific technologies and tools that will be enabling for these goals, such as question-guided imaging techniques and lung vascular investigator training programs. Recommendations from this workshop will be used within the Lung Vascular Biology and Disease Extramural Research Program for planning and strategic implementation purposes.
Of the 20 ribosomally coded amino acid residues, lysine is the most frequently post-translationally modified, which has important functional and regulatory consequences. Here we report the identification and verification of a previously unreported form of protein post-translational modification (PTM): lysine succinylation. The succinyllysine residue was initially identified by mass spectrometry and protein sequence alignment. The identified succinyllysine peptides derived from in vivo proteins were verified by western blot analysis, in vivo labeling with isotopic succinate, MS/MS and HPLC coelution of their synthetic counterparts. We further show that lysine succinylation is evolutionarily conserved and that this PTM responds to different physiological conditions. Our study also implies that succinyl-CoA might be a cofactor for lysine succinylation. Given the apparent high abundance of lysine succinylation and the significant structural changes induced by this PTM, it is expected that lysine succinylation has important cellular functions.
The four WNK (with no lysine (K)) protein kinases affect ion balance and contain an unusual protein kinase domain due to the unique placement of the active site lysine. Mutations in two WNKs cause a heritable form of ion imbalance culminating in hypertension. WNK1 activates the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase SGK1; the mechanism is noncatalytic. SGK1 increases membrane expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and sodium reabsorption via phosphorylation and sequestering of the E3 ubiquitin ligase neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2), which otherwise promotes ENaC endocytosis. Questions remain about the intrinsic abilities of WNK family members to regulate this pathway. We find that expression of the N termini of all four WNKs results in modest to strong activation of SGK1. In reconstitution experiments in the same cell line all four WNKs also increase sodium current blocked by the ENaC inhibitor amiloride. The N termini of the WNKs also have the capacity to interact with SGK1. More detailed analysis of activation by WNK4 suggests mechanisms in common with WNK1. Further evidence for the importance of WNK1 in this process comes from the ability of Nedd4-2 to bind to WNK1 and the finding that endogenous SGK1 has reduced activity if WNK1 is knocked down by small interfering RNA.
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates various cellular functions, including tumorigenesis, and is inhibited by the tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1)-TSC2 complex. Here, we demonstrate that arrest-defective protein 1 (ARD1) physically interacts with, acetylates, and stabilizes TSC2, thereby repressing mTOR activity. The inhibition of mTOR by ARD1 inhibits cell proliferation and increases autophagy, thereby inhibiting tumorigenicity. Correlation between ARD1 and TSC2 abundance was apparent in multiple tumor types. Moreover, evaluation of loss of heterozygosity at Xq28 revealed allelic loss in 31% of tested breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Together, our findings suggest that ARD1 functions as an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway and that dysregulation of the ARD1-TSC2-mTOR axis may contribute to cancer development.
Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the CHD (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding domain) member CHD7, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller homologous to the Drosophila trithorax-group protein Kismet, result in a complex constellation of congenital anomalies called CHARGE syndrome, which is a sporadic, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malformations of the craniofacial structures, peripheral nervous system, ears, eyes and heart. Although it was postulated 25 years ago that CHARGE syndrome results from the abnormal development of the neural crest, this hypothesis remained untested. Here we show that, in both humans and Xenopus, CHD7 is essential for the formation of multipotent migratory neural crest (NC), a transient cell population that is ectodermal in origin but undergoes a major transcriptional reprogramming event to acquire a remarkably broad differentiation potential and ability to migrate throughout the body, giving rise to craniofacial bones and cartilages, the peripheral nervous system, pigmentation and cardiac structures. We demonstrate that CHD7 is essential for activation of the NC transcriptional circuitry, including Sox9, Twist and Slug. In Xenopus embryos, knockdown of Chd7 or overexpression of its catalytically inactive form recapitulates all major features of CHARGE syndrome. In human NC cells CHD7 associates with PBAF (polybromo- and BRG1-associated factor-containing complex) and both remodellers occupy a NC-specific distal SOX9 enhancer and a conserved genomic element located upstream of the TWIST1 gene. Consistently, during embryogenesis CHD7 and PBAF cooperate to promote NC gene expression and cell migration. Our work identifies an evolutionarily conserved role for CHD7 in orchestrating NC gene expression programs, provides insights into the synergistic control of distal elements by chromatin remodellers, illuminates the patho-embryology of CHARGE syndrome, and suggests a broader function for CHD7 in the regulation of cell motility.
A few protein PTMs, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, are known to be critical in regulation of protein kinase activities. However, the roles of other PTMs have not been extensively studied in kinases. Development of a comprehensive description of all types of PTMs and discovering novel in vivo PTMs in low abundance represent major analytical challenges. Toward this goal, we have developed a strategy for systematic and accurate identification of the full-spectrum of PTMs in yeast protein kinases. Our strategy involves isolation of GST-fused kinase proteins, MS analysis, and unrestrictive PTM identification by PTMap algorithm. Among the 30 purified yeast kinases, we identified 27 different types of PTMs, and 53 PTM sites, among which are 13 novel mass shifts that have not been previously reported, likely representing novel PTMs. These results represent a significant expansion of our current understanding of PTMs in kinases and suggest highly complex regulation of kinase function.
Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are controlled by intracellular transcriptional factors and extracellular factor-activated signaling pathways. Transcription factor Oct4 is a key player maintaining ESCs in an undifferentiated state, whereas the Erk/MAPK pathway is known to be important for ESC differentiation. However, the manner in which intracellular pluripotency factors modulate extracellular factor-activated signaling pathways in ESCs is not well understood. Here, we report identification of a target gene of Oct4, serine/threonine kinase 40 (Stk40), which is able to activate the Erk/MAPK pathway and induce extraembryonic-endoderm (ExEn) differentiation in mouse ESCs. Interestingly, cells overexpressing Stk40 exclusively contribute to the ExEn layer of chimeric embryos when injected into host blastocysts. In contrast, deletion of Stk40 in ESCs markedly reduces ExEn differentiation in vitro. Mechanistically, Stk40 interacts with Rcn2, which also activates Erk1/2 to induce ExEn specification in mouse ESCs. Moreover, Rcn2 proteins are specifically located in the cytoplasm of the ExEn layer of early mouse embryos. Importantly, knockdown of Rcn2 blocks Stk40-activated Erk1/2 and ESC differentiation. Therefore, our study establishes a link between the pluripotency factor Oct4 and the Erk/MAPK signaling pathway, and it uncovers cooperating signals in the Erk/MAPK activation that control ExEn differentiation.
Tight regulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is essential for proper chromosome movement during mitosis. Here we show, using mammalian cells, that structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) is a novel regulator of MT dynamics. SSRP1 colocalizes with the spindle and midbody MTs, and associates with MTs both in vitro and in vivo. Purified SSRP1 facilitates tubulin polymerization and MT bundling in vitro. Knockdown of SSRP1 inhibits the growth of MTs and leads to disorganized spindle structures, reduction of K-fibers and midbody fibers, disrupted chromosome movement, and attenuated cytokinesis in vivo. These results demonstrate that SSRP1 is crucial for MT growth and spindle assembly during mitosis.
The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha exerts its pleiotropic functions through activation of multiple downstream effectors, including JNK1. Yet, the underlying regulatory mechanism is incompletely understood. Here, we report that the transcription factor Myc-interacting zinc-finger protein 1 (Miz1) selectively suppresses TNF-alpha-induced JNK1 activation and cell death independently of its transcription activity. Proteomics analysis and yeast two-hybrid screening reveal that Miz1 is a JNK-associated protein. The TNF-alpha-induced activation of JNK1 is augmented in Miz1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Miz1(-/-) MEFs), but the augmentation is abrogated by reintroduction of Miz1 or its transcription-deficient mutant. The regulation by Miz1 is highly specific, because it regulates TNF-alpha-induced TRAF2 K63-linked polyubiquitination. Neither JNK1 activation by IL-1beta or UV nor TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38, ERK, or IkappaB kinase complex is affected by the loss of Miz1. The TNF-alpha-induced cell death also is accelerated in Miz1(-/-) MEFs. Upon TNF-alpha stimulation, Miz1 is degraded rapidly by the proteasome, relieving its suppression on JNK1 activation. Thus, our results show that in addition to being a transcription factor Miz1 acts as a signal- and pathway-specific modulator or regulator that specifically regulates TNF-alpha-induced JNK1 activation and cell death.
More than 300 different types of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been described, many of which are known to have pivotal roles in cellular physiology and disease. Nevertheless, only a handful of PTMs have been extensively investigated at the proteome level. Knowledge of protein substrates and their PTM sites is key to dissection of PTM-mediated cellular processes. The past several years have seen a tremendous progress in developing MS-based proteomics technologies for global PTM analysis, including numerous studies of yeast and other microbes. Modification-specific enrichment techniques combined with advanced MS/MS methods and computational data analysis have revealed a surprisingly large extent of PTMs in proteins, including multi-site, cooperative modifications in individual proteins. We review some of the current strategies employed for enrichment and detection of PTMs in modification-specific proteomics.
Acetylation is a well-studied posttranslational modification that has been associated with a broad spectrum of biological processes, notably gene regulation. Many studies have contributed to our knowledge of the enzymology underlying acetylation, including efforts to understand the molecular mechanism of substrate recognition by several acetyltransferases, but traditional experiments to determine intrinsic features of substrate site specificity have proven challenging. Here, we combine experimental methods with clustering analysis of protein sequences to predict protein acetylation based on the sequence characteristics of acetylated lysines within histones with our unique prediction tool PredMod. We define a local amino acid sequence composition that represents potential acetylation sites by implementing a clustering analysis of histone and nonhistone sequences. We show that this sequence composition has predictive power on 2 independent experimental datasets of acetylation marks. Finally, we detect acetylation for selected putative substrates using mass spectrometry, and report several nonhistone acetylated substrates in budding yeast. Our approach, combined with more traditional experimental methods, may be useful for identifying acetylated substrates proteome-wide.
Transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 are key players in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Small changes in their levels disrupt normal expression of their target genes. However, it remains elusive how protein levels of Oct4 and Sox2 and expression of their target genes are precisely controlled in ESCs. Here we identify PARP1, a DNA-binding protein with an NAD+-dependent enzymatic activity, as a cofactor of Oct4 and Sox2 to regulate expression of their target gene FGF4. We demonstrate for the first time that PARP1 binds the FGF4 enhancer to positively regulate FGF4 expression. Our data show that PARP1 interacts with and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates Sox2 directly, which may be a step required for dissociation and degradation of inhibitory Sox2 proteins from the FGF4 enhancer. When PARP1 activity is inhibited or absent, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Sox2 decreases and association of Sox2 with FGF4 enhancers increases, accompanied by an elevated level of Sox2 proteins and reduced expression of FGF4. Significantly, specific knockdown of Sox2 expression by RNA interference can considerably abrogate the inhibitory effect of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor on FGF4 expression. Interestingly, PARP1 deficiency does not affect undifferentiated ESCs but compromises cell survival and/or growth when ESCs are induced into differentiation. Addition of FGF4 can partially rescue the phenotypes caused by PARP1 deficiency during ESC differentiation. Taken together, this study uncovers new mechanisms through which Sox2 protein levels and FGF4 expression are dynamically regulated during ESC differentiation and adds a new member to the family of proteins regulating the properties of ESCs.
Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) regulates key developmental genes in embryonic stem (ES) cells and during development. Here we show that Jarid2/Jumonji, a protein enriched in pluripotent cells and a founding member of the Jumonji C (JmjC) domain protein family, is a PRC2 subunit in ES cells. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analyses of Jarid2, Ezh2, and Suz12 binding reveal that Jarid2 and PRC2 occupy the same genomic regions. We further show that Jarid2 promotes PRC2 recruitment to the target genes while inhibiting PRC2 histone methyltransferase activity, suggesting that it acts as a "molecular rheostat" that finely calibrates PRC2 functions at developmental genes. Using Xenopus laevis as a model we demonstrate that Jarid2 knockdown impairs the induction of gastrulation genes in blastula embryos and results in failure of differentiation. Our findings illuminate a mechanism of histone methylation regulation in pluripotent cells and during early cell-fate transitions.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of an organism. It is essential to understand how these properties are controlled for the potential usage of their derivatives in clinical settings and reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells. Although transcriptional factors, such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, have been considered as a part of the core regulatory circuitry, a growing body of evidence suggests that additional factors exist and contribute to the control of ESC self-renewal and differentiation. Here, we report that Ly-1 antibody reactive clone (LYAR), a zinc finger nucleolar protein highly expressed in undifferentiated ESCs, plays a critical role in maintaining ESC identity. Its downregulation significantly reduces the rate of ESC growth and increases their apoptosis. Moreover, reduced expression of LYAR in ESCs impairs their differentiation capacity, failing to rapidly silence pluripotency markers and to activate differentiation genes upon differentiation. Mechanistically, LYAR forms a complex with another nucleolar protein, nucleolin, and prevents its self-cleavage, maintaining a normal steady-state level of nucleolin protein in undifferentiated ESCs. Interestingly, the downregulation of nucleolin is detrimental to the growth of ESCs and increases the rate of apoptosis, similarly to the knockdown of LYAR. Thus, our data emphasize the fact that other genes besides Oct4 and Nanog are uniquely required for ESC self-renewal and differentiation and demonstrate that LYAR functions to control the stability of nucleolin protein, which in turn is essential for maintaining the self-renewal of ESCs.
Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms have been implicated in cell polarisation and migration through association with Cdc42 and Par6. In distinct migratory models, the Exocyst complex has been shown to be involved in secretory events and migration. By RNA interference (RNAi) we show that the polarised delivery of the Exocyst to the leading edge of migrating NRK cells is dependent upon aPKCs. Reciprocally we demonstrate that aPKC localisation at the leading edge is dependent upon the Exocyst. The basis of this inter-dependence derives from two-hybrid, mass spectrometry, and co-immunoprecipitation studies, which demonstrate the existence of an aPKC-Exocyst interaction mediated by Kibra. Using RNAi and small molecule inhibitors, the aPKCs, Kibra, and the Exocyst are shown to be required for NRK cell migration and it is further demonstrated that they are necessary for the localized activation of JNK at the leading edge. The migration associated control of JNK by aPKCs determines JNK phosphorylation of the plasma membrane substrate Paxillin, but not the phosphorylation of the nuclear JNK substrate, c-jun. This plasma membrane localized JNK cascade serves to control the stability of focal adhesion complexes, regulating migration. The study integrates the polarising behaviour of aPKCs with the pro-migratory properties of the Exocyst complex, defining a higher order complex associated with the localised activation of JNK at the leading edge of migrating cells that determines migration rate.
False positives that arise when MS/MS data are used to search protein sequence databases remain a concern in proteomics research. Here, we present five types of false positives identified when aligning sequences to MS/MS spectra by Mascot database searching software. False positives arise because of (1) enzymatic digestion at abnormal sites; (2) misinterpretation of charge states; (3) misinterpretation of protein modifications; (4) incorrect assignment of the protein modification site; and (5) incorrect use of isotopic peaks. We present examples, clearly identified as false positives by manual inspection, that nevertheless were assigned high scores by Mascot sequence alignment algorithm. In some examples, the sequence assigned to the MS/MS spectrum explains more than 80% of the fragment ions present. Because of high sequence similarity between the false positives and their corresponding true hits, the false positive rate cannot be evaluated by the common method of using a reversed or scrambled sequence database. A common feature of the false positives is the presence of unmatched peaks in the MS/MS spectra. Our studies highlight the importance of using unmatched peaks to remove false positives and offer direction to aid development of better sequence alignment algorithms for peptide and PTM identification.
Ten types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) known to be critical to diverse cellular functions have been described in core histone proteins. However, it remains unclear whether additional PTMs exist in histones, and if so, what roles these undiscovered signals play in epigenetic phenomena. Here, we report a systematic analysis of yeast histone PTMs by mass spectrometry in combination with protein sequence alignment using PTMap, a computer program we recently developed. We have identified, for the first time, multiple sites of lysine propionylation and butyrylation in yeast histones H2B, H3, and H4. We confirmed these modifications by Western blotting using modification-specific antibodies, MS/MS of synthetic peptides, and coelution of synthetic and in vivo-derived peptides from an HPLC column. The presence of multiple modification sites in several yeast histones suggests that these two PTMs are histone marks that are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes. In addition, we identified 14 novel mass shifts that do not match any known PTM, suggesting the presence of previously undescribed histone modifications. The chemical natures of these modifications remain to be determined. Our studies therefore expand current knowledge of the "histone code".
SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1) is a member of the AGC branch of the protein kinase family. Among well described functions of SGK1 is the regulation of epithelial transport through phosphorylation of the ubiquitin protein ligase Nedd4-2 (neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-2). The activation of SGK1 has been widely accepted to be dependent on the phosphorylation of Thr256 in the activation loop and Ser422 in the hydrophobic motif near the C terminus. Here, we report the identification of two additional phosphorylation sites, Ser397 and Ser401. Both are required for maximum SGK1 activity induced by extracellular agents or by coexpression with other protein kinases, with the largest loss of activity from mutation of Ser397. Coexpression with active Akt1 increased the phosphorylation of Ser397 and thereby SGK1 kinase activity. SGK1 activation was further augmented by coexpression with the protein kinase WNK1 (with no lysine kinase 1). These findings reveal further complexity underlying the regulation of SGK1 activity.
We report a sensitive peptide pull-down approach in combination with protein identification by LC-MS/MS and qualitative abundance measurements by spectrum counting to identify proteins binding to histone H3 tail containing dimethyl lysine 4 (H3K4me2), dimethyl lysine 9 (H3K9me2), or acetyl lysine 9 (H3K9ac). Our study identified 86 nuclear proteins that associate with the histone H3 tail peptides examined, including seven known direct binders and 16 putative direct binders with conserved PHD finger, bromodomain, and WD40 domains. The reliability of our proteomic screen is supported by the fact that more than one-third of the proteins identified were previously described to associate with histone H3 tail directly or indirectly. To our knowledge, the results presented here are the most comprehensive analysis of H3K4me2, H3K9me2, and H3K9ac associated proteins and will provide a useful resource for researchers studying the mechanisms of histone code effector proteins.
Lysine propionylation and butyrylation are protein modifications that were recently identified in histones. The molecular components involved in the two protein modification pathways are unknown, hindering further functional studies. Here we report identification of the first three in vivo non-histone protein substrates of lysine propionylation in eukaryotic cells: p53, p300, and CREB-binding protein. We used mass spectrometry to map lysine propionylation sites within these three proteins. We also identified the first two in vivo eukaryotic lysine propionyltransferases, p300 and CREB-binding protein, and the first eukaryotic depropionylase, Sirt1. p300 was able to perform autopropionylation on lysine residues in cells. Our results suggest that lysine propionylation, like lysine acetylation, is a dynamic and regulatory post-translational modification. Based on these observations, it appears that some enzymes are common to the lysine propionylation and lysine acetylation regulatory pathways. Our studies therefore identified first several important players in lysine propionylation pathway.
Lysine acetylation and its regulatory enzymes are known to have pivotal roles in mammalian cellular physiology. However, the extent and function of this modification in prokaryotic cells remain largely unexplored, thereby presenting a hurdle to further functional study of this modification in prokaryotic systems. Here we report the first global screening of lysine acetylation, identifying 138 modification sites in 91 proteins from Escherichia coli. None of the proteins has been previously associated with this modification. Among the identified proteins are transcriptional regulators, as well as others with diverse functions. Interestingly, more than 70% of the acetylated proteins are metabolic enzymes and translation regulators, suggesting an intimate link of this modification to energy metabolism. The new dataset suggests that lysine acetylation could be abundant in prokaryotic cells. In addition, these results also imply that functions of lysine acetylation beyond regulation of gene expression are evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that bacterial lysine acetylation is regulated in response to stress stimuli.
Eukaryotic RNase H2 is a heterotrimeric enzyme. Here, we show that the biochemical composition and stoichiometry of the human RNase H2 complex is consistent with the properties previously deduced from genetic studies. The catalytic subunit of eukaryotic RNase H2, RNASEH2A, is well conserved and similar to the monomeric prokaryotic RNase HII. In contrast, the RNASEH2B and RNASEH2C subunits from human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae share very little homology, although they both form soluble B/C complexes that may serve as a nucleation site for the addition of RNASEH2A to form an active RNase H2, or for interactions with other proteins to support different functions. The RNASEH2B subunit has a PIP-box and confers PCNA binding to human RNase H2. Unlike Escherichia coli RNase HII, eukaryotic RNase H2 acts processively and hydrolyzes a variety of RNA/DNA hybrids with similar efficiencies, suggesting multiple cellular substrates. Moreover, of five analyzed mutations in human RNASEH2B and RNASEH2C linked to Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS), only one, R69W in the RNASEH2C protein, exhibits a significant reduction in specific activity, revealing a role for the C subunit in enzymatic activity. Near-normal activity of four AGS-related mutant enzymes was unexpected in light of their predicted impairment causing the AGS phenotype.
We present sequence alignment software, called PTMap, for the accurate identification of full-spectrum protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) and polymorphisms. The software incorporates several features to improve searching speed and accuracy, including peak selection, adjustment of inaccurate mass shifts, and precise localization of PTM sites. PTMap also automates rules, based mainly on unmatched peaks, for manual verification of identified peptides. To evaluate the quality of sequence alignment, we developed a scoring system that takes into account both matched and unmatched peaks in the mass spectrum. Incorporation of these features dramatically increased both accuracy and sensitivity of the peptide- and PTM-identifications. To our knowledge, PTMap is the first algorithm that emphasizes unmatched peaks to eliminate false positives. The superior performance and reliability of PTMap were demonstrated by confident identification of PTMs on 156 peptides from four proteins and validated by MS/MS of the synthetic peptides. Our results demonstrate that PTMap is a powerful algorithm capable of identification of all possible protein PTMs with high confidence.
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) conduct many critical functions through nonhistone substrates in metazoans, but only chromatin-associated nonhistone substrates are known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using yeast proteome microarrays, we identified and validated many nonchromatin substrates of the essential nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) complex. Among these, acetylation sites (Lys19 and 514) of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1p) were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetylation at Lys514 was crucial for enzymatic activity and the ability of yeast cells to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, Sir2p deacetylated Pck1p both in vitro and in vivo. Loss of Pck1p activity blocked the extension of yeast chronological life span caused by water starvation. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, human Pck1 acetylation and glucose production were dependent on TIP60, the human homolog of ESA1. Our findings demonstrate a regulatory function for the NuA4 complex in glucose metabolism and life span by acetylating a critical metabolic enzyme.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can disperse stored energy as heat. Promoting BAT-like features in white adipose (WAT) is an attractive, if elusive, therapeutic approach to staunch the current obesity epidemic. Here we report that gain of function of the NAD-dependent deacetylase SirT1 or loss of function of its endogenous inhibitor Deleted in breast cancer-1 (Dbc1) promote "browning" of WAT by deacetylating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-? on Lys268 and Lys293. SirT1-dependent deacetylation of Lys268 and Lys293 is required to recruit the BAT program coactivator Prdm16 to Ppar?, leading to selective induction of BAT genes and repression of visceral WAT genes associated with insulin resistance. An acetylation-defective Ppar? mutant induces a brown phenotype in white adipocytes, whereas an acetylated mimetic fails to induce "brown" genes but retains the ability to activate "white" genes. We propose that SirT1-dependent Ppar? deacetylation is a form of selective Ppar? modulation of potential therapeutic import.
Despite of the progress in identifying many Lys acetylation (Kac) proteins, Kac substrates for Kac-regulatory enzymes remain largely unknown, presenting a major knowledge gap in Kac biology. Here we identified and quantified 4623 Kac sites in 1800 Kac proteins in SIRT1(+/+) and SIRT1(-/-) MEF cells, representing the first study to reveal an enzyme-regulated Kac subproteome and the largest Lys acetylome reported to date from a single study. Four hundred eighty-five Kac sites were enhanced by more than 100% after SIRT1 knockout. Our results indicate that SIRT1 regulates the Kac states of diverse cellular pathways. Interestingly, we found that a number of acetyltransferases and major acetyltransferase complexes are targeted by SIRT1. Moreover, we showed that the activities of the acetyltransferases are regulated by SIRT1-mediated deacetylation. Taken together, our results reveal the Lys acetylome in response to SIRT1, provide new insights into mechanisms of SIRT1 function, and offer biomarker candidates for the clinical evaluation of SIRT1-activator compounds.
Cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence are widely accepted as the major mechanisms by which p53 inhibits tumor formation. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether they are the rate-limiting steps in tumor suppression. Here, we have generated mice bearing lysine to arginine mutations at one (p53(K117R)) or three (p53(3KR); K117R+K161R+K162R) of p53 acetylation sites. Although p53(K117R/K117R) cells are competent for p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest and senescence, but not apoptosis, all three of these processes are ablated in p53(3KR/3KR) cells. Surprisingly, unlike p53 null mice, which rapidly succumb to spontaneous thymic lymphomas, early-onset tumor formation does not occur in either p53(K117R/K117R) or p53(3KR/3KR) animals. Notably, p53(3KR) retains the ability to regulate energy metabolism and reactive oxygen species production. These findings underscore the crucial role of acetylation in differentially modulating p53 responses and suggest that unconventional activities of p53, such as metabolic regulation and antioxidant function, are critical for suppression of early-onset spontaneous tumorigenesis.
Prolonged deficits in neural input activate pathological muscle remodeling, leading to atrophy. In denervated muscle, activation of the atrophy program requires HDAC4, a potent repressor of the master muscle transcription factor MEF2. However, the signaling mechanism that connects HDAC4, a protein deacetylase, to the atrophy machinery remains unknown. Here, we identify the AP1 transcription factor as a critical target of HDAC4 in neurogenic muscle atrophy. In denervated muscle, HDAC4 activates AP1-dependent transcription, whereas AP1 inactivation recapitulates HDAC4 deficiency and blunts the muscle atrophy program. We show that HDAC4 activates AP1 independently of its canonical transcriptional repressor activity. Surprisingly, HDAC4 stimulates AP1 activity by activating the MAP kinase cascade. We present evidence that HDAC4 binds and promotes the deacetylation and activation of a key MAP3 kinase, MEKK2. Our findings establish an HDAC4-MAPK-AP1 signaling axis essential for neurogenic muscle atrophy and uncover a direct crosstalk between acetylation- and phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascades.
Histone protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are significant for gene expression and DNA repair. Here we report the identification and validation of a new type of PTM in histones, lysine succinylation. The identified lysine succinylated histone peptides were verified by MS/MS of synthetic peptides, HPLC co-elution, and isotopic labeling. We identified 13, 7, 10, and 7 histone lysine succinylation sites in HeLa, mouse embryonic fibroblast, Drosophila S2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, respectively. We demonstrated that this histone PTM is present in all eukaryotic cells we examined. Mutagenesis of succinylation sites followed by functional assays implied that histone lysine succinylation can cause unique functional consequences. We also identified one and two histone lysine malonylation sites in HeLa and S. cerevisiae cells, respectively. Our results therefore increase potential combinatorial diversity of histone PTMs and suggest possible new connections between histone biology and metabolism.
Migration and proliferation of bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is critical to treatment of ischemic injury. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) has an important role in maintaining systemic calcium homeostasis, which is related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and paracrine signaling. We hypothesize that CaSR may enhance BMSC proliferation. Rat BMSCs were incubated with various calcium concentrations for 48 h in vitro to activate CaSR. To investigate potential mechanisms responsible for growth enhancement by calcium, the rat BMSC cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and induction of apoptosis confirmed by cytofluorimetric analysis using propidium iodide and Annexin V-FITC double staining. Since the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was one of the most significantly affected by CaSR, MAPK activation was measured by western blotting. Calcium exposure significantly enhanced rat BMSCs proliferation, as well as the proportion of the population in S phase, in a dose-dependent manner, effects which were abolished by NPS2390 (a CaSR antagonist) and U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor). These results demonstrate that CaSR is involved in rat BMSC proliferation, as seen by an increased proliferation index, decreased apoptosis, and ERK1/2 activation, and provide important insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CaSR affects cell proliferation. A CaSR agonist may prove useful to enhance BMSC survival during transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.