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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Downregulation of HER3 by a novel antisense oligonucleotide, EZN-3920, improves the antitumor activity of EGFR and HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors in animal models.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Among the four human EGF receptor (HER) family members (EGFR, HER2, HER3, HER4), HER3 is of particular interest as it interacts with HER2 and EGFR via heterodimerization and is a key link to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signal transduction axis. Recent studies indicate that HER3 plays a critical role in mediating resistance to agents that target EGFR or HER2. As HER3 lacks significant kinase activity and cannot be inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies and alternative inhibitors of HER3 have been sought as cancer therapeutics. We describe here a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based HER3 antisense oligonucleotide, EZN-3920, that specifically downmodulated the expression of HER3, which was associated with growth inhibition. EZN-3920 effectively downmodulated HER3 expression, HER3-driven PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and growth in tumors derived from BT474M1 breast and HCC827 lung carcinoma cell lines, which overexpress HER2 and EGFR, respectively. Furthermore, when EZN-3920 was coadministered with gefitinib or lapatinib in xenograft tumor models, enhanced antitumor activity compared with the effect of monotherapy was found. The effect was associated with a blockade of induced HER3 mRNA expression caused by lapatinib or gefitinib treatment. Finally, EZN-3920 sustained its antiproliferative effect in trastuzumab-resistant cells and three independently derived gefitinib-resistant cells. Our findings show that downmodulation of HER3 by EZN-3920 leads to the suppression of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that HER3 can be an effective target for the treatment of various cancers that have been activated by HER3 alone or where HER3 activation is associated with EGFR or HER2 expression.
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Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Axonal Outgrowth through Activation of PI3K/AKT Signaling in Primary Cortical Neurons Followed Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transplantation with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) improves the survival of neurons and axonal outgrowth after stroke remains undetermined. Here, we investigated whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in these therapeutic effects of BMSCs.
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Reduced expression of the androgen receptor by third generation of antisense shows antitumor activity in models of prostate cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of a unique class of transcription factors because it contains a ligand-binding domain that, when activated, results in nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activation of genes associated with prostate cancer development. Although androgen deprivation therapies are effective initially for the treatment of prostate cancer, the disease eventually relapses and progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Nonetheless, the AR still plays a critical role because late-stage investigational agents that deplete testosterone (abiraterone) or block ligand binding (MDV3100) can still control tumor growth in patients with CRPC. These findings indicate that downmodulation of AR expression may provide a complementary strategy for treating CRPC. In this article, we describe a novel, locked, nucleic acid-based antisense oligonucleotide, designated EZN-4176. When administered as a single agent, EZN-4176 specifically downmodulated AR mRNA and protein, and this was coordinated with inhibition of the growth of both androgen-sensitive and CRPC tumors in vitro as well as in animal models. The effect was specific because no effect on growth was observed with a control antisense oligonucleotide that does not recognize AR mRNA, nor on tumors derived from the PC3, AR-negative, tumor cell line. In addition, EZN-4176 reduced AR luciferase reporter activity in a CRPC model derived from C4-2b cells that were implanted intratibially, indicating that the molecule may control prostate cancer that has metastasized to the bone. These data, together with the continued dependency of CRPC on the AR signaling pathway, justify the ongoing phase I evaluation of EZN-4176 in patients with CRPC.
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ErbB3 ablation impairs PI3K/Akt-dependent mammary tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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The ErbB receptor family member ErbB3 has been implicated in breast cancer growth, but it has yet to be determined whether its disruption is therapeutically valuable. In a mouse model of mammary carcinoma driven by the polyomavirus middle T (PyVmT) oncogene, the ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib reduced the activation of ErbB3 and Akt as well as tumor cell growth. In this phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent tumor model, ErbB2 is part of a complex containing PyVmT, p85 (PI3K), and ErbB3, that is disrupted by treatment with lapatinib. Thus, full engagement of PI3K/Akt by ErbB2 in this oncogene-induced mouse tumor model may involve its ability to dimerize with and phosphorylate ErbB3, which itself directly binds PI3K. In this article, we report that ErbB3 is critical for PI3K/Akt-driven tumor formation triggered by the PyVmT oncogene. Tissue-specific, Cre-mediated deletion of ErbB3 reduced Akt phosphorylation, primary tumor growth, and pulmonary metastasis. Furthermore, EZN-3920, a chemically stabilized antisense oligonucleotide that targets the ErbB3 mRNA in vivo, produced similar effects while causing no toxicity in the mouse model. Our findings offer further preclinical evidence that ErbB3 ablation may be therapeutically effective in tumors where ErbB3 engages PI3K/Akt signaling.
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Effects of transplantation with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells modified by Survivin on experimental stroke in rats.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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This study was performed to determine whether injury induced by cerebral ischemia could be further improved by transplantation with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by Survivin (SVV).
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of tricyclic anilinopyrimidines as IKKbeta inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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A series of tricyclic anilinopyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated as IKKbeta inhibitors. Several analogues, including tricyclic phenyl (10, 18a, 18c, 18d, and 18j) and thienyl (26 and 28) derivatives were shown to have good in vitro enzyme potency and excellent cellular activity. Pharmaceutical profiling of a select group of tricyclic compounds compared to the non-tricyclic analogues suggested that in some cases, the improved cellular activity may be due to increased clog P and permeability.
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Expression of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in rats with cerebral infarction after transplantation with mesenchymal stem cells.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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We investigated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation on the recovery of neurological functions in rats MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) model and its mechanism. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female adult SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: sham-operated group, MCAO group, vehicle group and MCAO + MSCs-treated group. MSCs were injected into the lateral ventricle of rats in the MSCs-treated group and the same volume of PBS was given to the vehicle group. The expressions of IL-10 and TNF-alpha were assayed by RT-PCR and ELISA detections at day 1 and 4 after MCAO. The infarction volume was measured by TTC-staining. All rats underwent behavioral tests before, as well as 1, 4, and 14 days after MCAO. MSCs significantly improved functional recovery compared with the control at day 14 after transplantation. Compared with the MCAO group and the vehicle group, the expression of IL-10 mRNA and its protein level in the MSCs group significantly upregulated. However, the expression of TNF-alpha at day 4 after MCAO in the MSCs group significantly decreased compared with that of the MCAO group and the vehicle group. As a result, transplantation with MSCs significantly decreased infarct volume at day 1 and 4. This study strongly suggested transplantation with MSCs could reduce neuronal injury post focal cerebral ischemia in rats partly by regulating the expressions of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the brain.
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Specific IKKbeta inhibitor IV blocks Streptonigrin-induced NF-kappaB activity and potentiates its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Many anticancer agents activate NF-kappaB, which plays an important role in the survival of cancer cells. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity may therefore potentiate the efficacy of anticancer agents. We found that a previously used anticancer agent Streptonigrin (SN) was also a potent NF-kappaB inducer. Using a specific IKKbeta inhibitor IV (Podolin et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312: 373-381), we revealed that the activation of NF-kappaB was mediated through DNA damage-induced activation of IKK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SN-induced DNA damage was unrelated to reactive oxygen species but to the hydroquinone form of SN converted by the NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1). The study suggests that the combination of SN with IKK inhibitor may improve efficacy over the use of single agent.
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EZN-2208 (PEG-SN38) overcomes ABCG2-mediated topotecan resistance in BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary tumors.
PLoS ONE
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BRCA1 dysfunction in hereditary breast cancer causes defective homology-directed DNA repair and sensitivity towards DNA damaging agents like the clinically used topoisomerase I inhibitors topotecan and irinotecan. Using our conditional K14cre;Brca1(F/F);p53(F/F) mouse model, we showed previously that BRCA1;p53-deficient mammary tumors initially respond to topotecan, but frequently acquire resistance by overexpression of the efflux transporter ABCG2. Here, we tested the pegylated SN38 compound EZN-2208 as a novel approach to treat BRCA1-mutated tumors that express ABCG2. We found that EZN-2208 therapy resulted in more pronounced and durable responses of ABCG2-positive tumors than topotecan or irinotecan therapy. We also evaluated tumor-specific ABCG2 inhibition by Ko143 in Abcg2(-/-) host animals that carried tumors with topotecan-induced ABCG2 expression. Addition of Ko143 moderately increased overall survival of these animals, but did not yield tumor responses like those seen after EZN-2208 therapy. Our results suggest that pegylation of Top1 inhibitors may be a useful strategy to circumvent efflux transporter-mediated resistance and to improve their efficacy in the clinic.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.