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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Role of cardiac magnetic resonance on predicting outcome in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy undergoing percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To investigate the predictive value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) on outcome of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) undergoing percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA).
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Characterization of the herb-derived components in rats following oral administration of Carthamus tinctorius extract by extracting diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) in the MS(n) chromatograms.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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In this study, a new strategy named extracting diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) in the MS(n) chromatograms [E(DFI)MS(n)Cs] was proposed to rapidly detect and identify the in vivo components derived from the extract of Carthamus tinctorius (ECT), using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. In order to comprehensively summarize the DFIs for the global identification of in vivo constituents of ECT, chemical profiling was carried out, and then the typical metabolic pathways of the primary components were proposed according to their chemical categories, by orally administering representative reference compounds. Based on the proposed metabolic pathways and the fragmentation rules, a list of DFIs was constructed and adopted to differentiate and identify the metabolites from the endogenous substances in the MS(n) chromatograms of ECT-treated biological samples, in combination with the neutral loss scan mode as a supplement. As a result, a total of 156 compounds were tentatively assigned in vivo, including 63, 73, 50, and 17 components from rat plasma, urine, bile, and feces, respectively, following oral administration of ECT. Deglycosylation, oxidation, methylation, sulfonation, and glucuronidation were observed as the major metabolic pathways for the chemical constituents of ECT, and dehydroxylation was detected at the A-ring of flavones for the first time. The findings suggested that the E(DFI)MS(n)Cs-based strategy which integrated ideas from single compounds to herbal extracts and from extract chemical profiling to in vivo metabolite profiling, could be used as a reliable tool for rapidly discovering and identifying herb-related constituents in vivo.
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Injury-induced MRP8/MRP14 stimulates IP-10/CXCL10 in monocytes/macrophages.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Trauma/hemorrhagic shock is associated with morbidity and mortality due to dysregulated inflammation, which is driven in part by monocytes/macrophages stimulated by injury-induced release of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. MRP8/MRP14 is an endogenous DAMP involved in various inflammatory diseases, though its mechanism of action is unclear. Circulating MRP8/MRP14 levels in human blunt trauma nonsurvivors were significantly lower than those of survivors (P < 0.001). Human monocytic THP-1 cells stimulated with MRP8/MRP14 expressed the chemokine IFN-? inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10. Circulating IP-10 levels in human blunt trauma patients were correlated positively with MRP8/MRP14 levels (r = 0.396, P < 0.001), and were significantly lower in trauma nonsurvivors than in survivors (P < 0.001). We therefore sought to determine the mechanisms by which MRP8/MRP14 stimulates IP-10 in monocytes/macrophages, and found that induction of IP-10 by MRP8/MRP14 required Toll-like receptor 4 and TRIF but not MyD88. Full induction of IP-10 by MRP8/MRP14 required synergy between the transcription factors NF-?B and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). The receptor for IP-10 is CXCR3, and MRP8/MRP14-induced chemotaxis of CXCR3(+) cells was dependent on the production of IP-10 in monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, in vivo study with a mouse trauma/hemorrhagic shock model showed that administration of neutralizing antibody against MRP8 prevented activation of NF-?B and IRF3 as well as IP-10 production. Thus, the current study identified a novel signaling mechanism that controls IP-10 expression in monocytes/macrophages by MRP8/MRP14, which may play an important role in injury-induced inflammation.-Wang, J., Vodovotz, Y., Fan, L., Li, Y., Liu, Z., Namas, R., Barclay, D., Zamora, R., Billiar, T. R., Wilson, M. A., Fan, J., Jiang, Y. Injury-induced MRP8/MRP14 stimulates IP-10/CXCL10 in monocytes/macrophages.
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[Results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for early lung cancer: prevalence in 4 690 asymptomatic participants].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To report the results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for early lung cancer in 4 690 asymptomatic participants at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between July 2007 and June 2012.
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Co nanoparticles induced resistive switching and magnetism for the electrochemically deposited polypyrrole composite films.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The resistive switching behavior of Co-nanoparticle-dispersed polypyrrole (PPy) composite films is studied. A novel design method for resistive random access memory (ReRAM) is proposed. The conducting polymer films with metal nanocrystal (NC)-dispersed carbon chains induce the spontaneous oxidization of the conducting polymer at the surface. The resistive switching behavior is achieved by an electric field controlling the oxygen ion mobility between the metal electrode and the conducting polymer film to realize the mutual transition between intrinsic conduction (low resistive state) and oxidized layer conduction (high resistive state). Furthermore, the formation process of intrinsic conductive paths can be effectively controlled in the conducting polymer ReRAM using metal NCs in films because the inner metal NCs induce electric field lines converging around them and the intensity of the electric field at the tip of NCs can greatly exceed that of the other region. Metal NCs can also bring new characteristics for ReRAM, such as magnetism by dispersing magnetic metal NCs in polymer, to obtain multifunctional electronic devices or meet some special purpose in future applications. Our works will enrich the application fields of the electromagnetic PPy composite films and present a novel material for ReRAM devices.
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Cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor attenuates acute lung injury induced by acute pancreatitis in rats.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Acute pancreatitis (AP) is known to induce injuries to extrapancreatic organs. Because respiratory dysfunction is the main cause of death in patients with severe AP, acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (APALI) is a great challenge for clinicians. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of APALI.
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[The cytokine homeostasis was regulated by over-expression of Sirt1 in collagen-induced arthritis mice].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Objective To investigate the effects of over-expression of Sirt1 on cytokines in the collagen type 2-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Methods The female DBA/1 mouse CIA model was establised by subcutaneous injection of collagen type 2. Recombinant adenovirus carrying Sirt1 gene was infected into CIA mice through tail vein injection. The effects of over-expression of Sirt1 on CIA mice were assessed by measuring arthritis index. The serum levels of cytokines including interleukin 1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), IL-17, IL-4 and IL-10 in CIA mice were examined by ELISA. The mRNA levels of Sirt1, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein levels of NF-?B subunit p65 and acetylated p65 were determined by Western blotting. Results Compared with control groups, over-expression of Sirt1 significantly ameliorated the symptoms of arthritis in CIA mouse. Furthermore, proinflammatory factors (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-17) decreased while anti-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and IL-10) increased in CIA mice. The over-expression of Sirt1 significantly down-regulated MMP-13 mRNA level and up-regulated TIMP-1 mRNA level. Additionally, the over-expressed Sirt1 reduced acetylation of p65. Conclusion Over-expression of Sirt1 may regulate the balance of cytokines in CIA mice.
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Treatment of pseudoepitheliomatous, keratotic, and micaceous balanitis with topical photodynamic therapy.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Pseudoepitheliomatous, keratotic, and micaceous balanitis (PKMB) is an extremely rare condition occurring over the glans in older men who undergo circumcision late in life. Its exact etiology is unknown.
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Diagnostic value of surfactant protein-a in severe acute pancreatitis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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The complexity of multiple-item criteria in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often causes inconvenience for physicians in the management of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We evaluated whether serum SP-A levels in the presence of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) can be qualitatively assessed for diagnosis of SAP-induced ARDS.
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A687V EZH2 is a driver of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) hyper-trimethylation.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The EZH2 methyltransferase silences gene expression through methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27). Recently, EZH2 mutations have been reported at Y641, A677, and A687 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While the Y641F/N/S/H/C and A677G mutations exhibit clearly increased activity with substrates di-methylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me2), the A687V mutant has been shown to prefer a mono-methylated lysine 27 (H3K27me1) with little gain of activity toward H3K27me2. Herein, we demonstrate that despite this unique substrate preference, A687V EZH2 still drives increased H3K27me3 when transiently expressed in cells. However, unlike the previously described mutants which dramatically deplete global H3K27me2 levels, A687V EZH2 retains normal levels of H3K27me2. Sequencing of B-cell derived cancer cell lines identified an acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line harboring this mutation. Similar to exogenous expression of A687V EZH2, this cell line exhibited elevated H3K27me3 while possessing H3K27me2 levels higher than Y641 or A677 mutant lines. Treatment of A687V EZH2 mutant cells with GSK126, a selective EZH2 inhibitor, was associated with a global decrease in H3K27me3, robust gene activation, caspase activation, and decreased proliferation. Structural modeling of the A687V EZH2 active site suggests that the increased catalytic activity with H3K27me1 may be due to a weakened interaction with an active site water molecule that must be displaced for di-methylation to occur. These findings suggest that A687V EZH2 likely increases global H3K27me3 indirectly through increased catalytic activity with H3K27me1 and cells harboring this mutation are highly dependent on EZH2 activity for their survival.
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Graphene Activating Room-Temperature Ferromagnetic Exchange in Cobalt-Doped ZnO Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Control over the magnetic interactions in dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum dots (DMSQDs) is a key issue to future development of nanometer-sized integrated "spintronic" devices. However, manipulating the magnetic coupling between impurity ions in DMSQDs remains a great challenge because of the intrinsic quantum confinement effects and self-purification of the quantum dots. Here, we propose a hybrid structure to achieve room-temperature ferromagnetic interactions in DMSQDs, via engineering the density and nature of the energy states at the Fermi level. This idea has been applied to Co-doped ZnO DMSQDs where the growth of a reduced graphene oxide shell around the Zn0.98Co0.02O core turns the magnetic interactions from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic at room temperature, due to the hybridization of 2pz orbitals of graphene and 3d obitals of Co(2+)-oxygen-vacancy complexes. This design may open up a kind of possibility for manipulating the magnetism of doped oxide nanostructures.
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Constituents of Vigna angularis and their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Nine non-phenolic compounds, including four furanylmethyl glycosides, angularides A-D, one ent-kaurane diterpene glycoside, angularin A, and four triterpenoid saponins, angulasaponins A-D, were isolated from seeds of Vigna angularis, together with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as chemical methods. Angularin A, angulasaponins A-C, and azukisaponins III and VI showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values ranging from 13?M to 24?M.
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ASC, a Bioactive Steroidal Saponin from Ophitopogin japonicas, Inhibits Angiogenesis through Interruption of Src Tyrosine Kinase-dependent Matrix Metalloproteinase Pathway.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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As angiogenesis is an important target for antitumour drugs, the agents that inhibit angiogenesis may help reduce the use of chemotherapy by blocking tumour blood supply. In this study, we investigated a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, ASC, a steroidal saponin compound, which has been purified from Ophitopogin japonicus (L.f) Ker.-Gawl. Our observations showed that ASC significantly suppressed human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) growth both in vitro and in vivo. This may be resulted from the G2/M cell cycle arrest effects of ASC. Moreover, ASC inhibited HUVECs invasion and tube formation processes, which were associated with endothelial cells remodelling. A mechanism study indicated that ASC down-regulated the expression of Src tyrosine kinase, further leading to the blockage of Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinases (mainly for MMP-9) signalling pathway, which was functionally associated with angiogenic blood vessels. Finally, ASC significantly inhibited angiogenesis and MMPs/VEGF expression in the subcutaneously injected matrigel in C57/BL mice. These findings suggest that ASC might be a potential drug candidate in anti-angiogenesis and anticancer therapies.
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LPS promote the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells via MAPK, but not NF-KB signaling pathway.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) show significant potential for exploitation in novel regeneration strategies, although lack of understanding of their responses to bacterial challenge constrains their application. The present study aimed to investigate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major pathogenic factor of Gram-negative bacteria, regulates the differentiation of hDPSCs and which intracellular signaling pathways may be involved. LPS treatment significantly promoted the differentiation of hDPSCs demonstrable by increased mineralized nodule formation and mRNA expression of several odontoblastic markers in a dose-dependent manner. While inhibition of TLR4, p38, and ERK signaling markedly antagonized LPS-mediated differentiation of hDPSCs. The inhibition of JNK and NF-?B signaling had no detectable effect on LPS activation of hDPSCs. LPS stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of NF-?B p65, I?B-?, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in DPSCs in a time-dependent manner, which was markedly suppressed by their specific inhibitors, respectively. Data demonstrated that LPS promoted odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs via TLR4, ERK, and P38 MAPK signaling pathways, but not NF-?B signaling. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Effects of cathode potentials and nitrate concentrations on dissimilatory nitrate reductions by Pseudomonas alcaliphila in bioelectrochemical systems.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The effects of cathode potentials and initial nitrate concentrations on nitrate reduction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) were reported. These factors could partition nitrate reduction between denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Pseudomonas alcaliphilastrain MBR utilized an electrode as the sole electron donor and nitrate as the sole electron acceptor. When the cathode potential was set from -0.3 to -1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at an initial nitrate concentration of 100 mg NO3(-)-N/L, the DNRA electron recovery increased from (10.76 ± 1.6)% to (35.06 ± 0.99)%; the denitrification electron recovery decreased from (63.42 ± 1.32)% to (44.33 ± 1.92)%. When the initial nitrate concentration increased from (29.09 ± 0.24) to (490.97 ± 3.49) mg NO3(-)-N/L at the same potential (-0.9 V), denitrification electron recovery increased from (5.88 ± 1.08)% to (50.19 ± 2.59)%; the DNRA electron recovery declined from (48.79 ± 1.32)% to (16.02 ± 1.41)%. The prevalence of DNRA occurred at high ratios of electron donors to acceptors in the BESs and denitrification prevailed against DNRA under a lower ratio of electron donors to acceptors. These results had a potential application value of regulating the transformation of nitrate to N2 or ammonium in BESs for nitrate removal.
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[Association between body mass index and quality of life in Chinese adults].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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To assess the relationship between body mass index and quality of life (QOL) in Chinese adults.
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Detecting the oligomeric state of Escherichia coli MutS from its geometric architecture observed by an atomic force microscope at a single molecular level.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Atomic force microscopy (AFM), which provides true 3D surface topography, can also be used to determine the geometric parameters of proteins quantitatively at a single molecular level. In this paper, two different kinds of Escherichia coli MutS (MutS) protein were observed using AFM, and the geometric parameters of the proteins such as height, perimeter, area, and volume were measured. On the basis of these measurements, the molecular weight, association constant, oligomeric state, and orientation of MutS proteins on a mica surface were deduced. The oligomerization mechanism of MutS was analyzed in detail, and the results show that two different kinds of interactions between MutS protein may be involved in oligomerization. Our results also show that AFM imaging is an accurate method for analyzing the geometric structures of a single protein quantitatively at a single-molecule level.
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Half-unit-cell ?-Fe2O3 semiconductor nanosheets with intrinsic and robust ferromagnetism.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The synthesis of atomically thin transition-metal oxide nanosheets as a conceptually new class of materials is significant for the development of next-generation electronic and magnetic nanodevices but remains a fundamental chemical and physical challenge. Here, based on a "template-assisted oriented growth" strategy, we successfully synthesized half-unit-cell nanosheets of a typical transition-metal oxide ?-Fe2O3 that show robust intrinsic ferromagnetism of 0.6 ?B/atom at 100 K and remain ferromagnetic at room temperature. A unique surface structure distortion, as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, produces nonidentical Fe ion environments and induces distance fluctuation of Fe ion chains. First-principles calculations reveal that the efficient breaking of the quantum degeneracy of Fe 3d energy states activates ferromagnetic exchange interaction in these Fe(5-co)-O-Fe(6-co) ion chains. These results provide a solid design principle for tailoring the spin-exchange interactions and offer promise for future semiconductor spintronics.
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[Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese elderly aged 60 and above in 2010].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To describe the prevalence on overweight and obesity among Chinese elderly aged 60 and above.
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Rupestonic acids B-G, NO inhibitory sesquiterpenoids from Artemisia rupestris.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Six new guaiane sesquiterpenoids, rupestonic acids B-G (1-6), have been isolated from the whole plants of Artemisia rupestris together with six known compounds (7-12). The structures of the new isolates (1-6) were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and the absolute configurations were established by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) in combination with density functional theory calculations. In in vitro bioassays, compounds 2 and 6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on LPS-stimulated NO production in BV-2 microglial cells with IC50 values of 2.6 and 2.2 ?M, respectively.
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[Investigation on knowledge, attitude and behavior of salt reduction in Chinese adults, 2010].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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To explore the knowledge, attitude and behavior of salt reduction among Chinese adults aged over 18 years old in 2010.
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[Post-transcriptional regulation of dual-specificity phosphatase-1 by RNA-binding protein HuR T118 in heat shock].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To investigate the post-transcriptional regulation of dual-specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) by the RNA- binding protein HuR in heat shock.
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Automated headspace solid-phase microextraction and on-fiber derivatization for determination of clenbuterol in meat products by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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A method was developed for the determination of clenbuterol in meat using stable-isotope-dilution gas chromatography with mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase microextraction and on-fiber derivatization. The samples were first homogenized with hydrochloric acid followed by protein deposition. After a headspace solid-phase microextraction and on-fiber derivatization, the content of clenbuterol was measured with the aid of the stable-isotope-dilution. The condition of SPME was optimized by central composite design. The relative standard deviations, limit of detection and recoveries for clenbuterol were 4.2-9.2%, 0.48 ?g/kg and 96-104%, respectively. The proposed method was satisfactory for analysis of real samples as compared with the Chinese standard method. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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PRAK Interacts with DJ-1 and Prevents Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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As a core member of p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway, p38 regulated/activated kinase (PRAK) is activated by cellular stresses. However, the function of PRAK and its downstream interacting partner remain undefined. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified DJ-1 as a potential PRAK interacting protein. We further verified that DJ-1 bound to PRAK in vitro and in vivo and colocalized with PRAK in the nuclei of NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, following H2O2 stimulation the majority of endogenous DJ-1 in PRAK(+/+) cells still remained in the nucleus, whereas most DJ-1 in PRAK(-/-) cells translocated from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, indicating that PRAK is essential for DJ-1 to localize in the nucleus. In addition, PRAK-associated phosphorylation of DJ-1 was observed in vitro and in vivo of H2O2-challenged PRAK(+/+) cells. Cytoplasmic translocation of DJ-1 in H2O2-treated PRAK(-/-) cells lost its ability to sequester Daxx, a death protein, in the nucleus, and as a result, Daxx gained access to the cytoplasm and triggered cell death. These data highlight that DJ-1 is the downstream interacting target for PRAK, and in response to oxidative stress PRAK may exert a cytoprotective effect by facilitating DJ-1 to sequester Daxx in the nucleus, thus preventing cell death.
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[Leisure-time physical exercise and sedentary behavior among Chinese elderly, in 2010].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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To describe the prevalence of leisure-time physical exercise and sedentary behavior among Chinese elderly.
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Essential role of Osterix for tooth root but not crown dentin formation.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Tooth is made of crown and root. It is widely believed that dentin formation in crown and root uses the same regulatory mechanism. However, identification of NFIC's unique function in determining root but not crown dentin formation challenges the old thought. In searching for the target molecules downstream of NFIC, we unexpectedly found a sharp reduction of OSX (osterix), the key transcription factor in skeleton formation, in the Nfic knockout (KO) tooth root. We then demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of Osx in the odontoblast cell line due to a transient transfection of Nfic expression plasmid. Studies of global and conditional Osx KO mice revealed no apparent changes in the crown dentin tubules and dentin matrix. However, the OSX conditional KO mice (crossed to the 2.3 kb Col 1-Cre) displayed an increase in cell proliferation but great decreases in expressions of root dentin matrix proteins (DMP1 and DSPP), leading to an inhibition in odontoblast differentiation, and short thin root dentin with few dentin tubules. Compared to the Nfic KO tooth, which contains essentially no dentin tubules and remains in a "root-less" status at adult stages, the Osx cKO root phenotype had partially improved at the late stage, indicating that other factors can compensate for OSX function. Thus, we conclude that OSX, one of the key downstream molecules of NFIC, plays a critical role in root, but not crown, formation.
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Induction of hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis through activation of the JNK-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-ROS self-driven death signal circuit.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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As an efficient method for inducing tumor cell apoptosis, ROS can be constantly formed and accumulated in NADPH oxidase overactivated-cells, resulting in further mitochondrial membrane damage and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAPK) signal also acts as a vital candidate pathway for inducing tumor cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondrial death pathway. However, the relationship between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK signal still remains unclear. Here, we discovered a novel self-driven signal circuit between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK, which was induced by a cytotoxic steroidal saponin (ASC) in hepatoma carcinoma cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production was markedly activated by ASC and directly led to JNK MAPK activation. Moreover, antioxidant, NADPH oxidase inhibitor and specific knock-out for p47 subunit of NADPH oxidase could effectively block NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent JNK activation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an upstream regulator of JNK MAPK. Conversely, a specific JNK inhibitor could inhibit ASC-induced NADPH oxidase activation and down-regulate ROS levels as well, indicating that JNK might also regulate NADPH oxidase activity to some extent. These observations indicate that NADPH oxidase and JNK MAPK activate each other as a signal circuit. Furthermore, drug pretreatment experiments with ASC showed this signal circuit operated continuously via a self-driven mode and finally induced apoptosis in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Taken together, we provide a proof for inducing hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis by activating the JNK-NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent self-driven signal circuit pathway.
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Chrysin suppressed inflammatory responses and the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway after spinal cord injury in rats.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Chrysin (CH), a natural plant flavonoid, has shown a variety of beneficial effects. Our present study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CH three days after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and to probe the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. SCI was induced using the modified weight-drop method in Wistar rats. Then, they were treated with saline or CH by doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg for 26 days. Neuronal function was assessed with the Basso Beattle Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB). The water content of spinal cord was determined after traumatic SCI. The NF-?B p65 unit, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 in serums, as well as the apoptotic marker, caspase-3, of spinal cord tissues were measured using commercial kits. The protein level and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by western blot and a commercial kit, respectively. NO (nitric oxide) production was evaluated by the determination of nitrite concentration. The rats with SCI showed marked reductions in BBB scores, coupled with increases in the water content of spinal cord, the NF-?B p65 unit, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, iNOS, NO production and caspase-3. However, a CH supplement dramatically promoted the recovery of neuronal function and suppressed the inflammatory factors, as well as the iNOS pathway in rats with SCI. Our findings disclose that CH improved neural function after SCI in rats, which might be linked with suppressing inflammation and the iNOS pathway.
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[Quality standard study on Vigna radiata].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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In order to control the quality of Vigna radiata, the quality control method and standard were established in this study. The tests of water content, ash and ethanol-soluble extractives of V. radiata were carried out according to the methods recoded in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition, volume 1). The TLC method was established by using vitexin and isovitexin as references, and a mixture of acetate-method-water (10: 1.7 : 1.3) as the developing solvent system on GF254 thin layer plate. The contents of vitexin and isovitexin were determined by HPLC on a Prevail C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column, using acetonitrile: water (23 : 77) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature is 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength is 337 nm. As a result, vitexin, isovitexin and the other constituents were well separated on TLC detected under the UV light (254 nm). The methodology validation for the assay of vitexin and isovitexin presented that they were in good linear correlation in the ranges of 6.12-98 mg x L(-1) and 6.85-109.6 mg x L(-1), with the regression equations of Y = 46.213X - 7.100 (r = 1.000) and Y = 54.515X + 6.829 (r = 1.000), and the average recoveries were 98.2% (RSD 1.9%) and 97.2% (RSD 0.79%), respectively. The content ranges of vitexin and isovitexin from 25 different batches of V. radiata were 1.076-2.062 mg x g(1) and 1.127-2.303 mg x g(-1), respectively. suggesting that the qualities of V. radiata are relatively stable. The ethanol-soluble extractives, water content and total ash of 25 samples varied in the ranges of 13.27% - 18.46%, 9.59% - 12.43% and 2.63% - 3.53%, respectively. All of the above data proved that the established quality of control method V. radiata is specific and accurate, which can be used for the quality control of this drug.
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Adjuvant chemotherapy after esophagectomy: Is there a role in the treatment of the lymph node positive thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma?
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with regional lymph node metastases have poor prognosis after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various treatment modalities on survival in these patients.
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Stem cell-like circulating tumor cells indicate poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which have stem cell-like characteristics, might play a crucial role in cancer metastasis. CD44 has been identified as gastric cancer (GC) stem cell (CSC) marker. Here, the prognostic significance of CD44-positive CTCs in GC patients was investigated. CTCs were detected in 27 of 45 GC patients. The presence of CTCs was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and recurrence (P = 0.007, P = 0.035, and P = 0.035, resp.). Nineteen of the 27 CTC-positive patients had CD44-positive CTCs. These patients were more likely to develop metastasis and recurrence than patients with CD44-negative CTCs. CD44-positive CTC counts were higher in recurrent patients than in the nonrecurrent ones (means 4.8 and 1.9, resp.; P = 0.010). Furthermore, 13 of 19 patients with CD44-positive CTCs developed recurrent disease, and the mean time to recurrence was shorter than that in patients with CD44-negative CTCs (10.54 ± 5.55 and 19.13 ± 9.72 months, resp.; P = 0.04). COX proportional hazards model indicated that the presence of CD44-positive CTCs and TNM stage were independent predictors of recurrence for GC (P = 0.030 and 0.008). So identifying the stem cell-like CTC subset may provide more clinically useful prognostic information than only detecting CTCs.
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Peripheral blood miRNAs as a biomarker for chronic cardiovascular diseases.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Vascular diseases are the most prevalent diseases worldwide. This study intended to analyze peripheral blood miRNA levels and their correlation with NT-pro-BNP and cTN-I in patients with atherosclerosis or pre-atherosclerotic conditions to build a dynamic correlation between vascular diseases and their biomarkers. Serum NT-pro-BNP and cTN-I levels were measured by their respective ELISA kits. The miRNA levels were assayed by quantitative PCR. Unique miRNA signatures were identified for both atherosclerosis and pre-atherosclerosis. The levels of miR-92a, 126, 130a, 222, and 370 levels were decreased in the peripheral blood of pre-atherosclerotic subjects. In atherosclerosis, miR-21, 122, 130a, and 211 were significantly increased whereas miR-92a, 126, and 222 were markedly decreased. Serum levels of NT-pro-BNP and cTN-I correlated with each other and increased with the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the levels of cTN-I and NT-pro-BNP were positively correlated with miR-21 and negatively correlated with miR-126. Integrating specific pattern of miRNA levels with NT-pro-BNP and/or cardiac troponin may improve the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.
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[Expression of voltage gated sodium channel Nav1.9 in experimental pulpal lesions in the rats].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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To investigate the relationship between pulpitis pain and voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.9) by detecting the expression of Nav1.9 at different time points of the rat pulpal lesion model.
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Benzocoumarins: isolation, synthesis, and biological activities.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Benzocoumarins are coumarins with a phenyl group bonded to 3,4-, 5,6-, 6,7-, or 7,8-positions. Over the past years, significant efforts have been made not only to isolate the novel structural analogs of benzocoumarins with prominent bioactivities but also to design new synthetic methods to synthesize benzocoumarins with better or novel biological properties. The aim of this review is to provide the readers with an overview of the research progress of benzocoumarins from 1953 to May 2014, covering its isolation, synthesis, and biological activities.
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Anti-tumor and macrophage activation induced by alkali-extracted polysaccharide from Pleurotus ostreatus.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Pleurotus ostreatus is popularly consumed as traditional medicine and health food for enhancing immune function in China. Polysaccharides from mushroom have been demonstrated to possess a wide range of health beneficial properties. This study was carried out to elucidate the immunomodulating effects and molecular mechanism involved in the in vivo and in vitro anti-tumor activities of alkali-extracted polysaccharide (WPOP-N1) from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus. The results showed that WPOP-N1 significantly inhibited the tumor growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing mice, and markedly increased the secretion level of TNF-? in serum. In addition, WPOP-N1 enhanced the phagocytic capability of peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the secretion of TNF-? and NO and the amount of TNF-? and iNOS transcript were increased significantly when the peritoneal macrophages were exposed to WPOP-N1. Meanwhile, Western blot analysis revealed that the stimulation of peritoneal macrophages by WPOP-N1 induced the phosphorylation of p65 and a marked decrease of I?B expression. These results suggest that WPOP-N1 could activate macrophages through NF-?B signaling pathway, and the anti-tumor effects of WPOP-N1 can be achieved by its immunostimulating property.
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Aligned Fe2TiO5-containing nanotube arrays with low onset potential for visible-light water oxidation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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There remains a pressing challenge in the efficient utilization of visible light in the photoelectrochemical applications of water splitting. Here, we design and fabricate pseudobrookite Fe2TiO5 ultrathin layers grown on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays that can enhance the conduction and utilization of photogenerated charge carriers. Our photoanodes are characterized by low onset potentials of ~0.2?V, high photon-to-current efficiencies of 40-50% under 400-600?nm irradiation and total energy conversion efficiencies of ~2.7%. The high performance of Fe2TiO5 nanotube arrays can be attributed to the anisotropic charge carrier transportation and elongated charge carrier diffusion length (compared with those of conventional TiO2 or Fe2O3 photoanodes) based on electrochemical impedance analysis and first-principles calculations. The Fe2TiO5 nanotube arrays may open up more opportunities in the design of efficient and low-cost photoanodes working in visible light for photoelectrochemical applications.
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Triterpene saponins from the roots of Ilex pubescens.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Five new triterpene saponins, Ilexpublesnins N-R (1-5), along with seven known analogs were isolated from the root of Ilex pubescens. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Ilexpublesnin N (1) possessed a rare 20-hydroxyursolic acid scaffold from natural resource. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HLE, BEL7402, BEL7403, BEL7405, MCF-7, HeLa. Among them, only compounds 5 and 10 showed cytotoxic potentiality against BEl-7403 and HEL cell lines [inhibition (%): 35.38 and 45.12, respectively].
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Effects of experimentally-enhanced precipitation and nitrogen on resistance, recovery and resilience of a semi-arid grassland after drought.
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Resistance, recovery and resilience are three important properties of ecological stability, but they have rarely been studied in semi-arid grasslands under global change. We analyzed data from a field experiment conducted in a native grassland in northern China to explore the effects of experimentally enhanced precipitation and N deposition on both absolute and relative measures of community resistance, recovery and resilience-calculated in terms of community cover-after a natural drought. For both absolute and relative measures, communities with precipitation enhancement showed higher resistance and lower recovery, but no change in resilience compared to communities with ambient precipitation in the semi-arid grassland. The manipulated increase in N deposition had little effect on these community stability metrics except for decreased community resistance. The response patterns of these stability metrics to alterations in precipitation and N are generally consistent at community, functional group and species levels. Contrary to our expectations, structural equation modeling revealed that water-driven community resistance and recovery result mainly from changes in community species asynchrony rather than species diversity in the semi-arid grassland. These findings suggest that changes in precipitation regimes may have significant impacts on the response of water-limited ecosystems to drought stress under global change scenarios.
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The epigenetic promotion of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the genetic and chemical blockade of histone demethylase LSD1.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a highly attractive source in bone tissue engineering. It has become increasingly clear that chromatin regulators play an important role in cell fate determination. However, how osteogenic differentiation of hASCs is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms is not fully understood. Here we use genetic tools and chemical inhibitors to modify the epigenetic program of hASCs and identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a histone demethylase that specifically catalyzes demethylation of di- and mono- methyl histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2/1), as a key regulator in osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Specifically, we demonstrated that genetic depletion of LSD1 with lentiviral strategy for gene knockdown promoted osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by cell studies and xenograft assays. At the molecular level, we found that LSD1 regulates osteogenesis-associated genes expression through its histone demethylase activity. Significantly, we demonstrated LSD1 demethylase inhibitors could efficiently block its catalytic activity and epigenetically boost osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Altogether, our study defined the functional and biological roles of LSD1 and extensively explored the effects of its enzymatic activity in osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. A better understanding of how LSD1 influences on osteogenesis associated epigenetic events will provide new insights into the modulation of hASCs based cell therapy and improve the development of bone tissue engineering with epigenetic intervention.
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Autocrine interleukin-6 drives skin-derived mesenchymal stem cell trafficking via regulating voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising therapeutic potential for a variety of diseases including autoimmune disorders. A fundamental requirement for MSC-mediated in vivo immunosuppression is their effective trafficking. However the mechanism underlying MSC trafficking remains elusive. Here we report that skin-derived MSCs (S-MSCs) secrete high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in inflammatory conditions. Disruption of the il6 or its signaling transducer gp130 blocks voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+) ) channels (VGCC) critically required for cell contraction involved in the sequential adhesion and de-adhesion events during S-MSC migration. Deletion of il6 gene leads to a severe defect in S-MSC's trafficking and immunosuppressive function in vivo. Thus, this unexpected requirement of autocrine IL-6 for activating Ca(2+) channels uncovers a previously unrecognized link between the IL-6 signaling and the VGCC and provides novel mechanistic insights for the trafficking and immunomodulatory activities of S-MSCs.
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8-C N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone substituted flavan-3-ols as the marker compounds of Chinese dark teas formed in the post-fermentation process provide significant antioxidative activity.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the aqueous extract of pu-erh tea afforded eight novel 8-C N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone substituted flavan-3-ols (puerins I-VIII) by (1)H, (13)C, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) analysis. Comparative chemical analysis of green tea, black tea and Chinese dark teas confirmed that these compounds were the marker compounds of Chinese dark teas. Furthermore, fungal fermentation was indispensable for the biosynthesis of these novel compounds. Through single fungal fermentation, it was proved that catechins and theanine were the precursors of puerins I-VIII. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis elucidated the biosynthetic pathway for puerins I-VIII. Puerins I-IV have potential protective effects for the human micro-vascular endothelial cells (HMEC) injury induced by hydrogen dioxide compared to other tea polyphenols. 8-C N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone substituted flavan-3-ols could be used in the quality control and authentication of Chinese dark teas.
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Dimeric guaianolides from Artemisia absinthium.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Five dimeric guaianolides, absinthins A-E, and seven known dimeric guaianolides were isolated from Artemisia absinthium. Their structures were elucidated based on 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY, and through HRESIMS data analysis. The absolute configuration of the known compound, anabsinthin, was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested to assess their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells; absinthin C and isoanabsinthin exhibited significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 1.52 and 1.98?M, respectively.
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Rare case of omentum-wrapped abscess caused by a fish bone penetrating the terminal ileum.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Accidentally ingested foreign bodies, for the most part, pass through the gastrointestinal tract, but can cause several complications. Perforation is rare, but can occur in any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal perforations due to foreign bodies are rarely diagnosed preoperatively as clinical symptoms are non-specific and they can mimic other abdominal conditions. We describe a case of a 48-year-old patient who was admitted to the emergency room because of severe abdominal pain of 5 d duration. A computed tomography scan showed an undefined liquid collection involving a linear image 35 mm in size, suggestive of a foreign body. On laparotomy, an abscess containing a fish bone was resected. As fish bone ingestion is usually not remembered by the patient, the diagnosis can be delayed. The preoperative diagnosis is frequently acute abdomen of unknown cause. A low threshold of suspicion along with a good clinical history and radiological studies are extremely important in order to make a correct diagnosis.
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Health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost: observations from the floating population in china.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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China has the world's largest floating (migrant) population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population.
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Fine needle aspiration cytology of a granular cell tumor arising in the thyroid gland: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon tumor of soft tissue, and rarely occurs in thyroid. In this article, we report the FNAC results and pathological analysis of a 14-year-old female who presented with a painless mass in the right lobe of thyroid gland. A resection of the right lobe and isthmus of thyroid were applied after cells with abundant strong eosinophilic cytoplasma, indistinct border and inconspicuous nucleolus were found in the FNAC of the mass. Postoperative pathology and immunohistology helped diagnosis the lesion as thyroid GCT. Differential diagnosis from five diseases and cell types were performed and a review of all eleven papers reporting thyroid GCT was provided.
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[Population-attributable risk estimates for breast cancer in Chinese females].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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To estimate the contribution of known identified risk factors to breast cancer incidence and mortality in China, and provide evidence to support the prevention and control of breast cancer for Chinese females.
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Comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of Murraya paniculata and M. exotica.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from the leaves and twigs of two aromatic species of Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and M. exotica L. It has long been used as a folk medicine in South China for the treatment of a variety of disorders, particularly for inflammatory lesions and pains. In the present study, a detailed chemical examination as well as a comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of M. paniculata and M. exotica was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 141 volatile components were identified from the essential oil of these two plants. Sesquiterpenes were found to be the predominant constituents, accounting for 92.8% of the oil from M. paniculata and 87.9% of that from M. exotica. A comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of these two plants revealed a high level of similarity in their main constituents, such as the co-occurrence of E-caryophyllene, spathulenol and delta-elemene, which gave the chemical evidence for their equal medicinal application as MFC in TCMs. Moreover, in combination with literature reports, E-caryophyllene was theoretically deduced as one of the pharmacologically effective components of MFC that is responsible for treating inflammatory lesions and for local anaesthesia.
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[Relationship between prevalent features of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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To study the relationship between prevalence of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people over 60 years old.
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[Diagnosis and surgical treatment of solitary fibrous tumor of the pelvis].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To explore the clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment of pelvic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT).
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[Chemical constituents from stems of Cistanche deserticola cultured in Tarim desert].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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In order to clarify the chemical constituents of Cistanche deserticola cultured in Tarim desert, a systematically phytochemical investigation was carried out. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography, over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, MCI gel, ODS and semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were determined on the basis of MS, NMR spectroscopic data analysis, physicochemical properties and/or comparison with literature data Seventeen compounds were isolated from the 85% ethanol extract of the stems of C. deserticola cultured in Tarim desert. Their structures were identified as salsaside B (1), syringin (2), demethyl syrinyin (3), coniferin (4), (2E,6E)-3,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyoctadien-1-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), (+)-syringaresinol (6), 2S,3S, 4S-trihydroxypentanoic acid (7), panaxytriol (8), beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (9), androsin (10), 3-methyl-but-2-en-1-yl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), benzyl-glucopyranoside (12), 4-hydroxybenzyl-beta-D-glucoside (13), nicotinamide (14), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (15), 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol (16), and galactitol (17). Compounds 3, 6-13 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and compounds 1, 4 and 5 were obtained from this species for the first time.
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Transcystic Approach with Micro-incision of the Cystic Duct and Its Confluence Part in Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Abstract Background: Laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration has become a safe and ideal treatment of common bile duct stones. This study was designed to explore the clinical value of modified laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration as a first line of treatment for patients with common bile duct stones. Patients and Methods: A retrospective, case-control study of clinically comparable groups of patients who underwent the laparoscopic transcystic approach with micro-incision of the cystic duct and its confluence part in common bile duct exploration (LTM-CBD) (n=110) and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBD) (n=100) under the care of one surgeon was performed. All clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of operation time between the two groups (P>.05). Postoperative hospital stay and abdominal drainage time were shorter in the LTM-CBD group than in the LCBD group (P<.05). Postoperative bile leakage was seen in 1 case (1 of 110) in the LTM-CBD group and 10 cases (10 of 100) in the LCBD group (P<.05). Twenty patients underwent T-tube drainage in the LCBD group, and primary closure was performed in the other patients; however, all cases in the LTM-CBD group underwent primary closure. The median follow-up was 12 months; 2 patients in the LCBD group who suffered from bile leakage presented with obstructive jaundice due to bile duct stenosis 6 months postoperatively. Conclusions: LTM-CBD, which can avoid postoperative T-tube drainage, decrease complications, shorten hospitalization time, and enhance the existing quality, is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective treatment.
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Adsorption kinetic process of thiol ligands on gold nanocrystals.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Understanding the kinetic mechanism during ligand adsorption on gold nanocrystals is important for designing and fine-tuning their properties and implications. Here, we report a kinetic study on the adsorption process of dodecanethiol ligands on Au nanocrystals of 3.3 nm by an in situ time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure technique. A two-step process of dodecanethiol adsorption on Au NC surfaces is proposed based on the obtained ligand coverage, which shows a quick increase from 0 to 0.40 within the first 20 min, followed by a much slower increase to the limiting value of 0.94. In-depth analysis suggests that the first stage involves the quick adsorption of dodecanethiol to the corner and edge sites of Au NCs surfaces, leading to remarkable surface Au-Au bond length relaxation (from 2.79 to 2.81 Å) and pronounced gold-to-ligand charge transfer. The second step that corresponds to the much slower adsorption process to the surface facets could be described by the Langmuir kinetics equation with an adsorption rate constant of 0.0132 min(-1) and an initial coverage of 0.41, in good agreement with the initially preferable adsorption of thiols to the most favorable sites.
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[Chemical constituents from seeds of Vigna umbellata].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Phytochemical investigation was carried out on the seeds of Vigna umbellata. The 70% ethanol extract of the seeds of V. umbellata was subjected to silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies and preparative HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data Eight compounds were obtained and identified as carboxyatractyligenin (1), 2beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-15alpha-hydroxy-kaur-16-ene-18,19-dicarboxylic acid (2), 2beta-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin (3), 3R-O-[beta-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oct-1-ene-3-ol (4), (6S, 7E, 9R) -roseoside (5), liriodendrin (6), resveratrol (7) and maltol (8). Compounds 1-7 were isolated from Vigna genus for the first time, and compound 8 was isolated from V. umbellata for the first time.
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[Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia rupestris].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia rupestris were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods, including silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. 12 compounds were separated from A. rupestris and their structures were identified as 5,4-dihydroxy -3,6,7-trimethoxy flavone (1), R-(-) -vestitol (2), tricin (3), chrysoeriol (4), 3-indole carboxylic acid (5), esculetin (6), apigenin (7), luteolin (8), trans-caffeic acid (9), casticin (10), chrysosptertin B (11) and artemetin (12). Compound 2 was obtained from the genus Artemisia for the first time, and compounds 1-6 and 9 were separated from this plant for the first time.
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Characterization of in vitro and in vivo metabolites of carnosic acid, a natural antioxidant, by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Carnosic acid (CA) is a widely employed antioxidant and the main active component in rosemary and sage, but its metabolism remains largely unknown. The present study investigated the metabolism of CA in vitro and in vivo for the first time, using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-trap-MS). A couple of scan modes were adopted in mass spectrometer domain, including Q1 full scan, neutral loss scan-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (NL-IDA-EPI) and precursor ion scan-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (PI-IDA-EPI). In particular, a prediction was carried out on the basis of in vitro metabolism results, and gave birth to a multiple ion monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MIM-IDA-EPI) mode aiming to detect the trace metabolites in CA-treated biological samples. A total of ten metabolites (M4-13), along with three degradative products (M1-3), were identified for CA from in vitro metabolism models, including liver microsomes of human and rats (HLMs and RLMs), human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and two species of Cunninghamella elegans. Twelve (U1-12) and six (F1-6) metabolites were detected from CA-treated urine and feces, respectively. In addition, five metabolites (SM2-6) in vivo were purified and definitely identified using NMR spectroscopy. The results of both in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies indicated poor metabolic stability for CA, and the glucuronidation and oxidation metabolisms extensively occurred for CA in vitro, while oxidation, glucuronidation and methylation were the main metabolic pathways observed in vivo.
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Regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 by Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Its activity is controlled by various types of signals, including growth factors, nutrients, and stresses. In this study, we show that changes in expression levels of two antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, also affect mTORC1 signaling activity. In cells overexpressing Bcl-XL, mTORC1 activity is increased and becomes less sensitive to growth factor or nutrient conditions. In contrast, reduction in expression levels of the two antiapoptotic proteins inhibits mTORC1 signaling activity. Our results suggest that the effect of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL on mTORC1 is mediated by FKBP38, an inhibitor of mTORC1. The two proteins compete with mTORC1 for FKBP38 binding and hence alter mTORC1 activity. This study reveals a novel cross-talk between Bcl-2/XL and mTORC1 signaling, which is likely to contribute to cancer development.
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Chemical constituents from leaves of Evodia lepta.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To explore the alternative material for the stems of Evodia lepta used in clinic, the leaves extract of E. lepta was chemically investigated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC and the structures of the compounds were identified mainly by spectroscopic methods. Ten known compounds 4-hydroxy-4, 7-dimethyl-1-tetralone (1), (6R, 7E) -4, 7-megastigmadien-3, 9-dione (2), 4-megastigmen-3, 9-dione (3), formononetin (4), daidzein (5), oroxylin A (6), wogonin (7), 5, 7-dihydroxy-3, 4-dimethoxyflavone (8), N-trans-coumaroyltyranine (9) and (E) -p-hydroxycinnamic acid (10), have been obtained and identified. All these compounds were isolated from this species for the first time. The results revealed that there is a considerate chemical difference between the stems and leaves of E. lepta.
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Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to determine environmental quality status of coastal waters.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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It has increasingly been recognized that the ecological features of protozoan communities have many advantages as a favorable bioindicator to evaluate environmental stress and anthropogenic impact in many aquatic ecosystems. The ability of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities for assessing environmental quality status was studied, using glass slides as an artificial substratum, during a 1-year cycle (August 2011-July 2012) in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. The samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1m from four sampling stations with a spatial gradient of environmental stress. Environmental variables, e.g., salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and soluble reactive phosphates (SRP), were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Results showed that: (1) the community structures of the ciliates represented significant differences among the four sampling stations; (2) spatial patterns of the ciliate communities were significantly correlated with environmental variables, especially COD and the nutrients; (3) five dominant species (Hartmannula angustipilosa, Metaurostylopsis sp.1, Discocephalus ehrenbergi, Stephanopogon minuta and Pseudovorticella paracratera) were significantly correlated with nutrients or COD; and (4) the species richness measure was significantly correlated with the nutrient NO3-N. It is suggested that biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities might be used as a potentially robust bioindicator for discriminating environmental quality status in coastal waters.
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[Effects of echinacoside on extracellular acetylcholine and choline levels of hippocampus and striatum of cerebral ischemia rats].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of echinacoside (ECH) on cholinergic neurotransmitter extracellular of hippocampus and striatum and its possible mechanisms of neuro-protective effect against vascular dementia rats. In this study brain microdialysis technique combined with HPLC-IMER-ECD (high-performance liquid chromatography-immobilized enzyme reactor-electrochemical detector) was used. The bilateral common carotid arteries occluded in two times operation at 72 h interval for vascular dementia model rats were used and the successful vascular dementia model rats were examined by Morris water maze. The content of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) of microdialysate extracellular of hippocampus and striatum was determined by HPLC-IMER-ECD and the AChE activity in the hippocampus was measured. The results showed that the success rate of vascular dementia model was 83.08% after six weeks; the results also showed that echinacoside and galantamine could increase the content of ACh and reduce the content of Ch extracellular of hippocampus and striatum significantly and the AChE activity increased significantly compared with that of the model group. The results suggested that echinacoside could promote the recovery of cholinergic neurotransmitter levels in vascular dementia rats brain, which may be one of the mechanisms of neuro-protection.
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Sesquiterpene dimer (DSF-52) from Artemisia argyi inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via suppression of NF-?B, JNK/p38 MAPKs and Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathways.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Microglia-involved neuroinflammation is thought to promote brain damage in various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, novel therapeutics suppressing microglia over-activation could prove useful for neuroprotection in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. DSF-52 is a novel sesquiterpene dimer compound isolated from medical plant Artemisia argyi by our group. In this study, we investigated whether DSF-52 inhibited the neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Our findings showed that DSF-52 inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), as well as mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. Moreover, DSF-52 markedly up-regulated mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Mechanism study indicated that DSF-52 suppressed Akt/I?B/NF-?B inflammation pathway against LPS treatment. Also, DSF-52 down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 MAPKs, but not ERK. Furthermore, DSF-52 blocked Jak2/Stat3 dependent inflammation pathway through inhibiting Jak2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, as well as Stat3 nuclear translocation. We concluded that the inhibitory ability of DSF-52 on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may offer a novel neuroprotective modality and could be potentially useful in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
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Inhibitory constituents from the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia on LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglia cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Five new phenolic glycosides, tenuisides A-E (1-5), and a new megastigmane glycoside, tenuiside F (6), along with seventeen known compounds (7-23) were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Their structures were established by detailed analysis of NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of compounds 5 and 6 were determined by CD spectra and in-NMR-tube Moshers method. The inhibitory effects of these compounds were evaluated on NO production in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia cells. Compound 17 showed the strongest activity, with an IC50 value of 7.4?M, while compounds 1, 8, 14, and 18 showed the moderate activities, with IC50 values of 16.2-38.5?M. And their primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of NO inhibitory effects were also briefly discussed.
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Identification and quantification of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in Chinese eaglewood by HPLC with diode array detection and MS.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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A sensitive and reliable HPLC coupled with diode array detection and MS method was developed and validated for the first time to simultaneously identify and quantify eight characteristic 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (THPECs) in Chinese eaglewood. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax SB C18 column with a gradient of acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid/water as the mobile phase. The MS fragmentation behavior of THPECs was characterized as the successive neutral loss of two molecules of H2 O ([M+H-18-18](+) ) and then two molecules of CO ([M+H-18-18-28-28](+) ), which could be used to differentiate Chinese eaglewood from counterfeits. Validation of the developed analytical method showed good linearity, satisfactory precision, and good recovery. The established method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of eight THPECs in ten batches of Chinese eaglewood, which could be used as a tool for the quality control of Chinese eaglewood.
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Pits confined in ultrathin cerium(IV) oxide for studying catalytic centers in carbon monoxide oxidation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Finding ideal material models for studying the role of catalytic active sites remains a great challenge. Here we propose pits confined in an atomically thin sheet as a platform to evaluate carbon monoxide catalytic oxidation at various sites. The artificial three-atomic-layer thin cerium(IV) oxide sheet with approximately 20% pits occupancy possesses abundant pit-surrounding cerium sites having average coordination numbers of 4.6 as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Density-functional calculations disclose that the four- and five-fold coordinated pit-surrounding cerium sites assume their respective role in carbon monoxide adsorption and oxygen activation, which lowers the activation barrier and avoids catalytic poisoning. Moreover, the presence of coordination-unsaturated cerium sites increases the carrier density and facilitates carbon monoxide diffusion along the two-dimensional conducting channels of surface pits. The atomically thin sheet with surface-confined pits exhibits lower apparent activation energy than the bulk material (61.7 versus 122.9?kJ?mol(-1)), leading to reduced conversion temperature and enhanced carbon monoxide catalytic ability.
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Phage-display library biopanning and bioinformatic analysis yielded a high-affinity peptide to inflamed vascular endothelium both in vitro and in vivo.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Vascular inflammation is considered the primary pathological condition occurring in many chronic diseases. To detect the inflamed endothelium via imaging analysis or guide the drug to target lesions is therefore important for early diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases. In this study, we obtained a novel peptide NTTTH through high throughout biopanning and bioinformatic analysis. In vitro studies indicated that NTTTH homologs could especially target inflamed vascular endothelial cells, as imaging quantitative analysis indicated that the mean of integrated optical density (MIOD) and mean of stained area (MSA) were significantly higher versus control (P<0.05). In vivo studies showed that, after intravenous injection of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled NTTTH homologs into the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed mice for 30min, NTTTH homologs were distributed in highly vascularized and inflamed organs like liver and kidney. As a control, little fluorescence could be detected in mice injected with EGFP alone. Cryosection showed that NTTTH homologs especially targeted inflamed vasculatures but not normal ones. We did not detect fluorescence signal in either normal or inflamed mice which were injected with EGFP alone. The results suggested the role of NTTTH homologs in guiding the targeted binding of EGFP to inflamed vasculature and the potential usage for imaging detection and drug delivery.
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p85-RhoGDI2, a novel complex, is required for PSGL-1-induced ?1 integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to VCAM-1.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 and ?1 integrin play essential roles in T cell trafficking during inflammation. E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are their ligands expressed on inflammation-activated endothelium. During the tethering and rolling of lymphocytes on endothelium, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 binds E-selectin and induces signals. Subsequently, ?1 integrin is activated and mediates stable adhesion. However, the intracellular signal pathways from PSGL-1 to ?1 integrin have not yet been fully understood. Here, we find that p85, a regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, forms a novel complex with Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor-2, a lymphocyte-specific RhoGTPases dissociation inhibitor. Phosporylations of the p85-bound Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor-2 on 130 and 153 tyrosine residues by c-Abl and Src were required for the complex to be recruited to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 and thereby regulate ?1 integrin-mediated T cell adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Both shRNAs to Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor-2 and p85 and over-expression of Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor-2 Y130F and Y153F significantly reduced the above-mentioned adhesion. Although Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor-2 in the p85-Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor-2 complex was also phosphorylated on 24 tyrosine residue by Syk, the phosphorylation is not required for the adhesion. Taken together, we find that specific phosphorylations on 130 and 153 tyrosine residues of p85-bound Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor-2 are pivotal for P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1-induced ?1 integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. This will shed new light on the mechanisms that connect leukocyte initial rolling with subsequent adhesion.
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Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-?B and MAPK pathways.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the I?B kinase/I?B/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-?B inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron-microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases.
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