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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association between occupational dust exposure and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A Korean national survey.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Background:Previous studies have investigated the relationship between occupational and environmental agents and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there have been few studies regarding the prognosis of IPF patients, according to patient occupation. Objective:We investigated whether occupational dust exposure was associated with clinically decreased lung function and poor prognosis. Design:The Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Research Group conducted a national survey to evaluate the clinical, physiological, radiological, and survival characteristics of IPF patients. A total of 1,311 IPF patients were stratified into five groups, according to their occupation: (1) unemployed or homemakers (n = 628); (2) farmers, fishers, or ranchers (n = 230); (3) sales or service personnel (n = 131); (4) clerical or professional personnel (n = 151); (5) specific dust-exposed workers (n = 171). Results:The mean age of subjects, at diagnosis, was 67.5 ± 9.7 years. Current smokers were 336 patients, 435 were ex-smokers, and 456 were never smokers. Dust-exposed workers showed early onset of IPF (61.3 ± 8.6 years, p < 0.001) and a longer duration of symptoms at diagnosis (17.0 ± 28.2 months, p = 0.004). Aging (p = 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 1.034; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.014-1.054), forced vital capacity (% of predicted) at diagnosis (p = 0.004; HR, 0.984; 95% CI, 0.974-0.995), and dust-exposure occupation (p = 0.033; HR, 1.813; 95% CI, 1.049-3.133) were associated with mortality. Conclusion:These findings indicate that occupational dust may be an aggravating factor associated with a poor prognosis in IPF.
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Repair of a radial tear in the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus.
Knee
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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There have been no studies evaluating the clinical results after repair of a radial tear in the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus (PHLM) using the FasT-Fix system. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes after repair of a radial tear in the PHLM using the FasT-Fix system in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.
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Comparison of Korean COPD guideline and GOLD initiative report in term of acute exacerbation: a validation study for Korean COPD guideline.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare the Korean COPD guideline to GOLD consensus report in terms of acute exacerbation. A total of 361 patients were enrolled in this study, and 16.9% of them experienced acute exacerbation during the follow-up. A total of 6.3% of patients in GOLD A, 9.5% in GOLD B, 7.7% in GOLD C and 17.0% of GOLD D experienced exacerbation during the first year of follow-up, respectively (P=0.09). There was no one who experienced exacerbation during the first year of follow-up in the Korean group 'ga'. The 12-month exacerbation rates of Korean group 'na' and 'da' were 4.5% and 16.0%, respectively (P<0.001). We explore the experience of exacerbation in patients with change of their risk group after applying Korean COPD guideline. A total of 16.0% of the patients who were reclassified from GOLD A to Korean group 'da' experienced acute exacerbation,and 15.3% from GOLD B to Korean group 'da' experienced acute exacerbation. In summary, the Korean COPD guideline is useful to differentiate the high risk from low risk for exacerbation in terms of spirometry. This indicates that application of Korean COPD guideline is appropriate to treat Korean COPD patients.
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Water-polysaccharide interactions in the primary cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana from polarization transfer solid-state NMR.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water (1)H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide (13)C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water-pectin polarization transfer is much faster than water-cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water-polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water-pectin spin diffusion precedes water-cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins.
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Effects of plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides on bacterial cellulose structure studied with vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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The crystallinity, allomorph content, and mesoscale ordering of cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus cultured with different plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides were studied with vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystallinity and ordering were assessed as the intensity of SFG signals in the CH/CH2 stretch vibration region (and confirmed by XRD), while I? content was assessed by the relative intensity of the OH stretch vibration at 3240 cm(-1). A key finding is that the presence of xyloglucan in the culture medium greatly reduced I? allomorph content but with a relatively small effect on cellulose crystallinity, whereas xylan resulted in a larger decrease in crystallinity with a relatively small decrease in the I? fraction. Arabinoxylan and various pectins had much weaker effects on cellulose structure as assessed by SFG and XRD. Homogalacturonan with calcium ion reduced the SFG signal, evidently by changing the ordering of cellulose microfibrils. We propose that the distinct effects of matrix polysaccharides on cellulose crystal structure result, at least in part, from selective interactions of the backbone and side chains of matrix polysaccharides with cellulose chains during the formation of the microfibril.
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Implant Overhang after Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Oxford Prosthesis versus Miller-Galante II Prosthesis.
Knee Surg Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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The purpose of the present study is to compare the prevalence of implant overhang between the Oxford and the Miller-Galante II (M-G II) unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) prostheses and determine whether overhang is associated with postoperative clinical results.
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Epidemiological aspects of pertussis among adults and adolescents in a Korean outpatient setting: a multicenter, PCR-based study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Epidemiological data of Bordetella pertussis infection among adolescents and adults are limited in Korea. Patients (? 11 yr of age) with a bothersome cough for less than 30 days were enrolled during a 1-yr period at 22 hospitals in Korea. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteriologic culture. In total, 490 patients were finally enrolled, and 34 (6.9%) patients tested positive for B. pertussis; cough duration (14.0 days [7.0-21.0 days]) and age distribution were diverse. The incidence was the highest in secondary referral hospitals, compared to primary care clinics or tertiary referral hospitals (24/226 [10.6%] vs. 3/88 [3.4%] vs. 7/176 [4.0%], P = 0.012), and the peak incidence was observed in February and August (15.8% and 15.9%), with no confirmed cases between March and June. In the multivariate analysis, post-tussive vomiting was significantly associated with pertussis (odds ratio, 2.508; 95% confidence interval, 1.146-5.486) and secondary referral hospital showed a borderline significance. In conclusion, using a PCR-based method, 6.9% of adolescent and adult patients with an acute cough illness had pertussis infection in an outpatient setting. However, hospital levels and seasonal trends must be taken into account to develop a better strategy for controlling pertussis.
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Probing crystal structure and mesoscale assembly of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls, tunicate tests, and bacterial films using vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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This study reports that the noncentrosymmetry and phase synchronization requirements of the sum frequency generation (SFG) process can be used to distinguish the three-dimensional organization of crystalline cellulose distributed in amorphous matrices. Crystalline cellulose is produced as microfibrils with a few nanometer diameters by plants, tunicates, and bacteria. Crystalline cellulose microfibrils are embedded in wall matrix polymers and assembled into hierarchical structures that are precisely designed for specific biological and mechanical functions. The cellulose microfibril assemblies inside cell walls are extremely difficult to probe. The comparison of vibrational SFG spectra of uniaxially-aligned and disordered films of cellulose I? nanocrystals revealed that the spectral features cannot be fully explained with the crystallographic unit structure of cellulose. The overall SFG intensity, the alkyl peak shape, and the alkyl/hydroxyl intensity ratio are sensitive to the lateral packing and net directionality of the cellulose microfibrils within the SFG coherence length scale. It was also found that the OH SFG stretch peaks could be deconvoluted to find the polymorphic crystal structures of cellulose (I? and I?). These findings were used to investigate the cellulose crystal structure and mesoscale cellulose microfibril packing in intact plant cell walls, tunicate tests, and bacterial films.
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COPD patients with exertional desaturation are at a higher risk of rapid decline in lung function.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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A recent study demonstrated that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the study was limited by its method used to detect exertional desaturation. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether exertional desaturation assessed using nadir oxygen saturation (SpO?) during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) can predict rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD.
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Association of lung function genes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Spirometric measurements of pulmonary function are important in diagnosing and determining the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed this study to determine whether candidate genes identified in genome-wide association studies of spirometric measurements were associated with COPD and if they interacted with smoking intensity.
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The association between airflow obstruction and radiologic change by tuberculosis.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is not the only one and there is consistent evidence from epidemiologic studies that nonsmokers may develop chronic airflow limitation. A history of tuberculosis has recently been found to be associated with airflow obstruction in adults older than 40 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the radiologic changes by tuberculosis and airflow obstruction in a population based sample.
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Interferon-? Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay in Patients with Tuberculosis and Healthy Adults.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Interferon-? assays based on tuberculosis (TB)-specific antigens have been utilized for diagnosing and ruling out latent TB and active TB, but their utility is still limited for TB incidence countries. The aim of this study is to understand the clinical utility of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays among patients with clinically suspected TB and healthy adults in clinical practices and community-based settings.
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Medical Utilization and Cost in Patients with Overlap Syndrome of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Abstract Background: Little information is available regarding medical utilization and cost in patients with overlap syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. The purpose of this study is to analyze medical utilization and cost in patients with overlap syndrome and to compare them to COPD patients without asthma. Methods: Using the 2009 Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) database, COPD patients were identified. Medical utilization and costs were also analyzed. Results: Of a total of 185,147 patients identified with COPD, 101,004 patients were classified with overlap syndrome of COPD and asthma and 84,143 patients with COPD without asthma. In 2009, the percentages of emergency room visits, admissions, and intensive care unit admissions were 14.6%, 30.5%, and 0.5%, respectively, in the patients with overlap syndrome group and 5.0%, 14.1%, and 0.2%, respectively, in the COPD patients without asthma group (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). The cost of medical utilization was 790 ± 71 US dollars per person and 3,373 ± 4,628 dollars per person for outpatient and inpatient services, respectively, in the patients with overlap syndrome and 413 ± 512 and 3,010 ± 5,013, respectively, in the COPD patients without asthma (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Multiple linear regression showed that age, sex, overlap syndrome, hospitalization in the last year, low socioeconomic status, and type of hospital use were significant factors affecting medical utilization and cost. Conclusions: In patients with overlap syndrome, both medical utilization and cost were higher than in COPD patients without asthma.
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Asthma and severity of the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza: a case-control study.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Abstract Objective: Previous studies reported that the most common chronic condition found among hospitalized patients due to the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza was asthma. However, these studies did not include a concurrent control group. Thus, we investigated the association of asthma status and severity of H1N1 influenza in adults. Methods: The study was designed as a multi-site case-control study. Cases were patients who had positive PCR for H1N1 influenza and were admitted to the ICU or general ward with a diagnosis of H1N1 influenza from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009. Controls were patients who had positive PCR for H1N1 influenza, but were not admitted to hospitals. Results: There were 91 H1N1 cases admitted to either ICU (n?=?41) or general hospital ward (n?=?50), and 56 controls who met the matching criteria were available. Of the 91 cases, the mean age was 47.3 years, 59% were female, and 38% had comorbid conditions. Of the 91 cases, 12 (13%) had asthma. Stratified analysis by comorbid conditions showed that among those without any comorbid conditions, 8 of 56 cases (14%) and 2 of 49 controls (4%) had asthma, (OR: 3.92, 95% CI: 0.79-19.42, p?=?0.095) whereas, among the 39 subjects with one or more comorbid conditions, one of 7 controls (14%) had asthma and 4 of 35 (11%) cases had asthma (p?=?0.83). Conclusions: Asthma may be associated with severity of H1N1 influenza among those without any non-asthma comorbid conditions. However, the limited sample size did not allow this study to fully establish statistical significance. We still recommend asthmatics as a priority group for influenza vaccination and treatment.
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Sensitivity-enhanced solid-state NMR detection of expansins target in plant cell walls.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Structure determination of protein binding to noncrystalline macromolecular assemblies such as plant cell walls (CWs) poses a significant structural biology challenge. CWs are loosened during growth by expansin proteins, which weaken the noncovalent network formed by cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins, but the CW target of expansins has remained elusive because of the minute amount of the protein required for activity and the complex nature of the CW. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, combined with sensitivity-enhancing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and differential isotopic labeling of expansin and polysaccharides, we have now determined the functional binding target of expansin in the Arabidopsis thaliana CW. By transferring the electron polarization of a biradical dopant to the nuclei, DNP allowed selective detection of (13)C spin diffusion from trace concentrations of (13)C, (15)N-labeled expansin in the CW to nearby polysaccharides. From the spin diffusion data of wild-type and mutant expansins, we conclude that to loosen the CW, expansin binds highly specific cellulose domains enriched in xyloglucan, whereas more abundant binding to pectins is unrelated to activity. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate short (13)C-(13)C distances of 4-6 Å between a hydrophobic surface of the cellulose microfibril and an aromatic motif on the expansin surface, consistent with the observed NMR signals. DNP-enhanced 2D (13)C correlation spectra further reveal that the expansin-bound cellulose has altered conformation and is enriched in xyloglucan, thus providing unique insight into the mechanism of CW loosening. DNP-enhanced NMR provides a powerful, generalizable approach for investigating protein binding to complex macromolecular targets.
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Monitoring meso-scale ordering of cellulose in intact plant cell walls using sum frequency generation spectroscopy.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy can selectively detect crystalline cellulose without spectral interference from cell wall matrix components. Here, we show that the cellulose SFG spectrum is sensitive to cellulose microfibril alignment and packing within the cell wall. SFG intensity at 2,944 cm(-1) correlated well with crystalline cellulose contents of various regions of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence, while changes in the 3,320/2,944 cm(-1) intensity ratio suggest subtle changes in cellulose ordering as tissues mature. SFG analysis of two cellulose synthase mutants (irx1/cesa8 and irx3/cesa7) indicates a reduction in cellulose content without evidence of altered cellulose structure. In primary cell walls of Arabidopsis, cellulose exhibited a characteristic SFG peak at 2,920 and 3,320 cm(-1), whereas in secondary cell walls, it had peaks at 2,944 and 3,320 cm(-1). Starch (amylose) gave an SFG peak at 2,904 cm(-1) (CH methine) whose intensity increased with light exposure prior to harvest. Selective removal of matrix polysaccharides from primary cell walls by acid hydrolysis resulted in an SFG spectrum resembling that of secondary wall cellulose. Our results show that SFG spectroscopy is sensitive to the ordering of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls at the meso scale (nm to ?m) that is important for cell wall architecture but cannot be probed by other spectroscopic or diffraction techniques.
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Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a national cross-sectional cohort study.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough and a potential risk factor for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of GERD in patients with COPD and association between GERD and COPD exacerbation.
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The identification of two arabinosyltransferases from tomato reveals functional equivalency of xyloglucan side chain substituents.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Xyloglucan (XyG) is the dominant hemicellulose present in the primary cell walls of dicotyledonous plants. Unlike Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) XyG, which contains galactosyl and fucosyl substituents, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) XyG contains arabinofuranosyl residues. To investigate the biological function of these differing substituents, we used a functional complementation approach. Candidate glycosyltransferases were identified from tomato by using comparative genomics with known XyG galactosyltransferase genes from Arabidopsis. These candidate genes were expressed in an Arabidopsis mutant lacking XyG galactosylation, and two of them resulted in the production of arabinosylated XyG, a structure not previously found in this plant species. These genes may therefore encode XyG arabinofuranosyltransferases. Moreover, the addition of arabinofuranosyl residues to the XyG of this Arabidopsis mutant rescued a growth and cell wall biomechanics phenotype, demonstrating that the function of XyG in plant growth, development, and mechanics has considerable flexibility in terms of the specific residues in the side chains. These experiments also highlight the potential of reengineering the sugar substituents on plant wall polysaccharides without compromising growth or viability.
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Early-onset neutropenia during perioperative chemotherapy is predictive of increased survival in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective analysis.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) has been found to be predictive of better therapeutic outcomes in studies of patients with various tumors. This study investigated whether CIN occurring during perioperative chemotherapy cycles 1 or 2 is a prognostic indicator in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test can predict depression: a prospective multi-center study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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This study was conducted to investigate the association between the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) and depression in COPD patients. The Korean versions of the CAT and patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to assess COPD symptoms and depressive disorder, respectively. In total, 803 patients with COPD were enrolled from 32 hospitals and the prevalence of depression was 23.8%. The CAT score correlated well with the PHQ-9 score (r=0.631; P<0.001) and was significantly associated with the presence of depression (?±standard error, 0.452±0.020; P<0.001). There was a tendency toward increasing severity of depression in patients with higher CAT scores. By assessment groups based on the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, the prevalence of depression was affected more by current symptoms than by airway limitation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the CAT was 0.849 for predicting depression, and CAT scores ?21 had the highest accuracy rate (80.6%). Among the eight CAT items, energy score showed the best correlation and highest power of discrimination. CAT scores are significantly associated with the presence of depression and have good performance for predicting depression in COPD patients.
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Effects of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation with a metronome-guided walking pace in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Despite documented efficacy and recommendations, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been underutilized. Home-based PR was proposed as an alternative, but there were limited data. The adequate exercise intensity was also a crucial issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of home-based PR with a metronome-guided walking pace on functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in COPD. The subjects participated in a 12-week home-based PR program. Exercise intensity was initially determined by cardiopulmonary exercise test, and was readjusted (the interval of metronome beeps was reset) according to submaximal endurance test. Six-minute walk test, pulmonary function test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were done before and after the 12-week program, and at 6 months after completion of rehabilitation. Thirty-three patients participated in the program. Six-minute walking distance was significantly increased (48.8 m; P = 0.017) and the SGRQ score was also improved (-15; P < 0.001) over the six-month follow-up period after rehabilitation. There were no significant differences in pulmonary function and peak exercise parameters. We developed an effective home-based PR program with a metronome-guided walking pace for COPD patients. This rehabilitation program may improve functional exercise capacity and HRQOL.
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Association between pet ownership and the sensitization to pet allergens in adults with various allergic diseases.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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As pet ownership increases, sensitization to animal allergens due to domestic exposure is a concern. Sensitization to animal allergens may occur from indirect exposure, as well as direct ownership of animals. However, there have been conflicting results regarding the association between pet ownership and sensitization to animal allergens in adults.
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The health care burden of high grade chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea: analysis of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Patients with high grade chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) account for much of the COPD-related mortality and incur excessive financial burdens and medical care utilization. We aimed to determine the characteristics and medical care use of such patients using nationwide data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in 2009.
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Changes in cell wall biomechanical properties in the xyloglucan-deficient xxt1/xxt2 mutant of Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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The main load-bearing network in the primary cell wall of most land plants is commonly depicted as a scaffold of cellulose microfibrils tethered by xyloglucans. However, a xyloglucan-deficient mutant (xylosyltransferase1/xylosyltransferase2 [xxt1/xxt2]) was recently developed that was smaller than the wild type but otherwise nearly normal in its development, casting doubt on xyloglucans role in wall structure. To assess xyloglucan function in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wall, we compared the behavior of petiole cell walls from xxt1/xxt2 and wild-type plants using creep, stress relaxation, and stress/strain assays, in combination with reagents that cut or solubilize specific components of the wall matrix. Stress/strain assays showed xxt1/xxt2 walls to be more extensible than wild-type walls (supporting a reinforcing role for xyloglucan) but less extensible in creep and stress relaxation processes mediated by ?-expansin. Fusicoccin-induced "acid growth" was likewise reduced in xxt1/xxt2 petioles. The results show that xyloglucan is important for wall loosening by ?-expansin, and the smaller size of the xxt1/xxt2 mutant may stem from the reduced effectiveness of ?-expansins in the absence of xyloglucan. Loosening agents that act on xylans and pectins elicited greater extension in creep assays of xxt1/xxt2 cell walls compared with wild-type walls, consistent with a larger mechanical role for these matrix polymers in the absence of xyloglucan. Our results illustrate the need for multiple biomechanical assays to evaluate wall properties and indicate that the common depiction of a cellulose-xyloglucan network as the major load-bearing structure is in need of revision.
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Accuracy of blind versus ultrasound-guided suprapatellar bursal injection.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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To compare the accuracy rates between ultrasound (US)-guided and blind knee intra-articular injection via the suprapatellar bursa.
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Pigmented villonodular synovitis after TKA associated with tibial component loosening.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
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There is no known causal link between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). There also is no known relationship between PVNS and implant loosening after TKA in the literature. This article presents a case of PVNS in a patient undergoing revision TKA for tibial component loosening. A 74-year-old woman who had undergone cemented bilateral TKA 5 years earlier presented with painful swelling in her right knee. At the time of the primary TKA, no abnormal signs were found in the synovial membrane. Routine follow-up radiographs did not indicate implant loosening. At the patients final follow-up examination before revision surgery, a radiolucent lesion was found below the tibial component. During revision surgery, there was focal proliferation of the synovial tissue with heavy pigmentation around the anteromedial part of the tibial component. The abnormal tissue was removed, and the tibial component was exchanged. The articular surface of the polyethylene was not damaged, and backside wear was not found. For the revision surgery, 5-mm thick medial metal block and extension stem were used. Histological analysis of the resected tissue revealed the typical appearance of PVNS. We present a typical case of PVNS found during revision TKA 5 years after primary TKA. It is hoped this report will encourage surgeons to consider PVNS in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with painful swelling of the knee and to consider PVNS as one of the causes of implant loosening after TKA. Further research about causal factors between PVNS and implant loosening are needed.
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Selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in biomass was demonstrated with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy. SFG is a second-order nonlinear optical response from a system where the optical centrosymmetry is broken. In secondary plant cell walls that contain mostly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin with varying concentrations, only certain vibration modes in the crystalline cellulose structure can meet the noninversion symmetry requirements. Thus, SFG can be used to detect and analyze crystalline cellulose selectively in lignocellulosic biomass without extraction of noncellulosic species from biomass or deconvolution of amorphous spectra. The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass is not readily achievable with other techniques such as XRD, solid-state NMR, IR, and Raman analyses. Therefore, the SFG analysis presents a unique opportunity to reveal the cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass.
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Acute kidney injury in critically ill patients with pandemic influenza A pneumonia 2009 in Korea: a multicenter study.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients infected with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and its effect on clinical outcomes.
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Norm references of fat-free mass index and fat mass index and subtypes of obesity based on the combined FFMI-%BF indices in the Korean adults aged 18-89 yr.
Obes Res Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Summary: Objective: To establish reference values for fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), and percent body fat (%BF) in a large Korean adult group of apparently healthy subjects, and to analyze the characteristics of body composition indices among the subtypes of obesity in Korean adults.Subjects and methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1275 community-dwelling healthy Koreans, 504 men and 771 women, aged 18-89 years. Body composition parameters were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FFMI (FFM/height squared) and FMI (FM/height squared) were calculated, and then three subtypes of obesity were divided by FFMI; underlean (or sarcopenic), proportional, and heavy (or muscular) obesity.Results: The reference values (5th-95th percentile) of the reference group (18-59 yr) for the FFMI was 16.3-22.3 kg/m(2) in men and 13.3-17.8 kg/m(2) in women. The %BF increased with age because of the reduction of FFM. Due to lower FFMI in the oldest men, they had the lowest BMI while FMI and BMI of Korean women increased with age like Caucasian women. The %BF among three subtypes of obesity was similar while FMI and BMI were increased as FFMI increased. The prevalence of underlean obesity in men was more than double in women.Conclusion: It is essential to analyze FFMI as well as %BF because %BF alone cannot explain the effects of ageing on FFM and the characteristics of subtypes of obesity. This is the first study to present DXA-determined age- and sex-specific percentiles for body composition indices in Korean adults. These reference values may be useful for clinical evaluation of body composition and nutritional status for Korean adults.
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Effects of transforaminal injection for degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with spinal stenosis.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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The objectives of this study were to clarify the short-term effects of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) for degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with spinal stenosis (DLSS), and to extrapolate factors relating to the prognosis of treatment.
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Novel approach to reducing discrepancies in radiographic and navigational limb alignments in computer-assisted TKA.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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This study was conducted (1) to document discrepancies between preoperative and postoperative radiographic measurements and postregistration and postimplantation intraoperative navigational measurements of coronal limb alignments, and (2) to identify predictors of discrepancies between radiographic and navigational measures. In addition, we propose the use of a novel radiographic measuring method, and we demonstrate that this method reduces discrepancies. For 107 total knee arthroplasties performed using a navigation system, coronal alignment were assessed using preoperative and postoperative whole limb radiographs using the standard and novel radiographic methods. During surgery, coronal limb alignment was measured using the navigation system postregistration and postprosthesis implantation. Strengths of correlations and discrepancies between radiographic and navigational assessments were compared between the standard and novel methods. Multivariate regression was performed to identify predictors of discrepancies. Differences between radiographic and navigational measurements were observed for both preoperative and postoperative assessments, but discrepancies were greater for preoperative assessments, despite their stronger correlations. Extent of preoperative varus deformity was identified as the strongest predictor of discrepancy in preoperative radiographic and navigational measurements, and varus malalignment was identified as the strongest predictor of discrepancy in postoperative measurements. Strengths of correlations between radiographic and navigational measurements were similar for the standard and novel radiographic methods, but discrepancies between the 2 were significantly smaller for the novel method for both preoperative and postoperative assessments. The authors propose the use of the described novel radiographic method that reduces discrepancies between radiographic and navigational measurements.
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Superhydrophobic cylindrical nanoshell array.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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A superhydrophobic property was demonstrated on a cylindrical poly crystalline silicon nanoshell array due to its geometrical properties, even without a hydrophobic coating. The proposed structure showed superior water-repellency compared to a conventional pillar structure with an identical structural dimension. This superhydrophobic property is attributed to an air pillar that exists in the nanoshell. Through the calculation of capillary pressure, the stability of the air pillar was confirmed. Furthermore, a droplet impinging test was conducted on the fabricated cylindrical nanoshell array to verify the robust Cassie state of the proposed structure under a dynamic condition.
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Acute Myocardial Infarction due to Polyarteritis Nodosa in a Young Female Patient.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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Coronary artery aneurysms are uncommon, are usually associated with atherosclerosis, and rarely involve all three major coronary arteries. The present report describes a rare case of a young female patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Coronary angiography revealed multiple severe aneurysmal and stenotic changes. Based on clinical feature and angiographic findings, it was strongly suspected that the patient had polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) complicated by AMI. The patient was treated with standard cardiac medications and immunosuppressive agents and has remained stable without further complications during a follow-up period of 6 months.
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Clinical features and outcomes of idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in Korean population.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates within alveoli. There were few reports on Asian populations with idiopathic PAP. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients with idiopathic PAP in Korea. We assessed clinical features, therapeutic efficacy and outcomes of whole lung lavage in patients with idiopathic PAP. The mean age at diagnosis was 52 yr. Eighty six percent of patients were symptomatic at diagnosis. Dyspnea and cough were the most common symptoms. Crackles were the most common physical examination finding. On pulmonary function test, a mild restrictive ventilatory defect was common, with a predicted mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 77% and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) of 84.6%. Diffusing capacity was disproportionately reduced at 67.7%. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia with a decreased PaO2 of 69.0 mmHg and an increased D(A-a)O2 of 34.2 mmHg. After whole lung lavage, PaO2, D(A-a)O2 and DL(CO) were significantly improved, but FVC and total lung capacity (TLC) were not different. This is the first multicenter study to analyze 38 Korean patients with idiopathic PAP. The clinical features and pulmonary parameters of Korean patients with idiopathic PAP are consistent with reports in other published studies. Whole lung lavage appears to be the most effective form of treatment.
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Feasibility of sonography for intra-articular injections in the knee through a medial patellar portal.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using real-time high-resolution sonography to guide an injection needle into the intra-articular space within the knee.
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Sliced microRNA targets and precise loop-first processing of MIR319 hairpins revealed by analysis of the Physcomitrella patens degradome.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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Expression profiling of the 5 ends of uncapped mRNAs ("degradome" sequencing) can be used to empirically catalog microRNA (miRNA) targets, to probe patterns of miRNA hairpin processing, to examine mRNA decay, and to analyze accumulation of endogenous short interfering RNA (siRNA) precursors. We sequenced and analyzed the degradome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, an important model system for functional genomic analyses in plant evolution. A total of 52 target mRNAs of 27 different Physcomitrella miRNA families were identified. Many targets of both more conserved and less conserved miRNA families encoded putative regulatory proteins. Remnants of MIRNA hairpin processing also populated the degradome data and indicated an unusual "loop-first" mode of precise processing for the MIR319 gene family. Precise loop-first processing was confirmed for native Physcomitrella, rice, and Arabidopsis MIR319 hairpins, as well as an Arabidopsis artificial MIRNA (aMIRNA) based upon a MIR319 backbone. MIR319 is thus a conserved exception to the general rule of loop-last processing of MIRNA hairpins. Loop-first MIR319 processing may contribute to the high efficacy of a widely used MIR319-based strategy for aMIRNA production in plants.
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Clinical efficacy of direct DNA sequencing analysis on sputum specimens for early detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a clinical setting.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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Early detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important for the control and prevention of disease transmission. However, conventional drug susceptibility tests for drug-resistant M tuberculosis take at least 3 to 8 weeks. Here, we report the clinical efficacy of direct DNA sequencing analysis for detecting drug-resistant TB on sputum specimens in a clinical setting.
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Comparison of the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosed by lower limit of normal and fixed ratio criteria.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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The Global Initiative of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in subjects with FEV(1)/FVC <0.7. However, the use of this fixed ratio may result in over-diagnosis of COPD in the elderly, especially with mild degree of COPD. The lower limit of normal (LLN) can be used to minimize the potential misclassification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different definitions of airflow obstruction (LLN or fixed ratio of FEV(1)/FVC) on the estimated prevalence of COPD in a population-based sample. We compared the prevalence of COPD and its difference diagnosed by different methods using either fixed ratio (FEV(1)/FVC <0.7) or LLN criterion (FEV(1)/FVC below LLN). Among the 4,816 subjects who had performed spirometry, 2,728 subjects met new ATS/ERS spirometry criteria for acceptability and repeatability. The prevalence of COPD was 10.9% (14.7% in men, 7.2% in women) by LLN criterion and 15.5% (21.8% in men, 9.1% in women) by fixed ratio of FEV(1)/FVC among subjects older than 45 yr. The difference of prevalence between LLN and fixed ratio of FEV(1)/FVC was even higher among subjects with age >/=65, 14.9% and 31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of COPD by LLN criterion was significantly lower in elderly compared to fixed ratio of FEV(1)/FVC. Implementing LLN criterion instead of fixed ratio of FEV(1)/FVC may reduce the risk of over-diagnosis of COPD in elderly people.
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Catamenial hemoptysis: a nationwide analysis in Korea.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Background: Hemoptysis is a potentially serious clinical problem. However, there is no consensus on the clinical characteristics, treatment and patient outcome of catamenial hemoptysis. Objective: Clinical characteristics, treatments and outcome in patients of catamenial hemoptysis were evaluated. Methods: We conducted a retrospective nationwide observational analysis of Korean patients with catamenial hemoptysis. Results: Nineteen patients with catamenial hemoptysis were evaluated from 13 tertiary-care hospitals in Korea. The median age of the patients was 25 years; 8 (42%) were ever-smokers. Eight patients were pathologically diagnosed; 11 were diagnosed by clinical criteria. Sixteen (84%) patients had a history of obstetric or gynecological procedures before developing hemoptysis. The mean amount of hemoptysis (mean +/- SD) was 58.3 +/- 71.3 for surgery, 46.4 +/- 33.2 for hormonal and 29.1 +/- 26.3 for conservative treatment groups. Hemoptysis did not recur in 8 (89%) of 9 patients after surgery. None of the patients in the hormonal or conservative treatment groups had persistent hemoptysis. There was an excellent outcome (complete remission and partial responses) in all patients with conservative treatment, suggesting that endometrial cells implanted into the lung may have a benign course. Conclusion: Patients without massive hemoptysis can be treated conservatively or with hormonal agents.
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Incidence and etiology of overt gastrointestinal bleeding in adult patients with aplastic anemia.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Patients with thrombocytopenia caused by various neoplastic and primary bone marrow diseases are susceptible to major hemorrhage. There are few reports addressing the incidence and outcome of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with aplastic anemia characterized by long-standing thrombocytopenia. We sought to retrospectively determine the incidence, etiology, clinical outcomes, and risk factors associated with overt GI bleeding in patients with aplastic anemia. We analyzed the medical records of 508 patients with aplastic anemia after excluding patients below 15 years of age or those who underwent stem cell transplantation between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. A total of 32 patients developed overt GI bleeding during this period. We evaluated the site, etiology, outcomes, and major risk factors in these patients who developed GI bleeding episodes. The incidence of GI bleeding was 6.3% (32 of 508 patients) in adult patients with aplastic anemia. The incidence increased to 12.6% (28 of 222 patients) in patients with severe disease. One patient died from massive GI bleeding. Bleeding sites included the esophagus (two patients, 6.3%), stomach (five, 16.3%), duodenum (two, 6.3%), small intestine (five, 15.6%), large intestine (seven, 21.6%), and unknown site (11, 34.4%). Lower GI bleeds mainly caused by neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) and solitary ulcer developed more frequently than upper GI bleeds. The major risk factors for GI bleeding included old age (P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) = 1.039), severe aplastic anemia (P < 0.001, OR = 11.934), non-response to therapy (P = 0.001, OR = 5.652), and major bleeding history in another organ (P < 0.001, OR = 6.677). Overt GI bleeding in patients with aplastic anemia more frequently develops in the lower tract than in the upper tract. The risk of GI bleeding is higher in patients with the following risk factors: older age, severe disease, poor response to treatment, and major bleeding history in another organ.
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Bronchoscopic ethanolamine injection therapy in patients with persistent air leak from chest tube drainage.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
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Chest tube drainage (CTD) is an indication for the treatment of pneumothorax, hemothroax and is used after a thoracic surgery. But, in the case of incomplete lung expansion, and/or persistent air leak from CTD, medical or surgical thoracoscopy or, if that is unavailable, limited thoracotomy, should be considered. We evaluate the efficacy of bronchoscopic injection of ethanolamine to control the persistent air leak in patients with CTD.
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Minor criteria of Infectious Disease Society Of America/American Thoracic Society for severe community-acquired pneumonia can predict delayed treatment response.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical aspects of patients satisfying the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) minor severity criteria, focusing on their treatment response to empirical antibiotics. In total, 381 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients who did not require mechanical ventilation or vasopressors at admission were enrolled, and 50 (13.1%) satisfied the minor severity criteria (i.e. , minor severe CAP [minor-SCAP]). The rates of new complication events and clinical treatment failure were significantly higher in the minor-SCAP group than in the control group (30.0% vs 2.1%, P < 0.001, and 42.0% vs 10.6%, P < 0.001, respectively), and the time to reach clinical stability was longer in the minor-SCAP group (8 days vs 3 days, P < 0.001). In a multivariate model, minor severity criteria (? 3) were significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio, 2.838; 95% confidence interval, 1.216 to 6.626), and for predicting treatment failure the value of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for minor criteria was 0.731, similar to other established scoring methods. The IDSA/ATS minor severity criteria can predict delayed treatment response and clinical treatment failure.
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The Effect of Power-walking in Phase 2 Cardiac Rehabilitation Program.
Ann Rehabil Med
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To evaluate the effects of power walking (PW) training on a treadmill in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and to compare the cardiovascular effects of PW with usual walking (UW).
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A revised architecture of primary cell walls based on biomechanical changes induced by substrate-specific endoglucanases.
Plant Physiol.
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Xyloglucan is widely believed to function as a tether between cellulose microfibrils in the primary cell wall, limiting cell enlargement by restricting the ability of microfibrils to separate laterally. To test the biomechanical predictions of this "tethered network" model, we assessed the ability of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyl walls to undergo creep (long-term, irreversible extension) in response to three family-12 endo-?-1,4-glucanases that can specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, cellulose, or both. Xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase (XEG from Aspergillus aculeatus) failed to induce cell wall creep, whereas an endoglucanase that hydrolyzes both xyloglucan and cellulose (Cel12A from Hypocrea jecorina) induced a high creep rate. A cellulose-specific endoglucanase (CEG from Aspergillus niger) did not cause cell wall creep, either by itself or in combination with XEG. Tests with additional enzymes, including a family-5 endoglucanase, confirmed the conclusion that to cause creep, endoglucanases must cut both xyloglucan and cellulose. Similar results were obtained with measurements of elastic and plastic compliance. Both XEG and Cel12A hydrolyzed xyloglucan in intact walls, but Cel12A could hydrolyze a minor xyloglucan compartment recalcitrant to XEG digestion. Xyloglucan involvement in these enzyme responses was confirmed by experiments with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls, where Cel12A induced creep in wild-type but not in xyloglucan-deficient (xxt1/xxt2) walls. Our results are incompatible with the common depiction of xyloglucan as a load-bearing tether spanning the 20- to 40-nm spacing between cellulose microfibrils, but they do implicate a minor xyloglucan component in wall mechanics. The structurally important xyloglucan may be located in limited regions of tight contact between microfibrils.
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Application of a new spirometric reference equation and its impact on the staging of Korean chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.
Yonsei Med. J.
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A new spirometric reference equation was recently developed from the first national chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) survey in Korea. However, Morris equation has been preferred for evaluating spirometric values instead. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in severity staging in Korean COPD patients by adopting the newly developed Korean equation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.