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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Real-time dispersion-compensated image reconstruction for compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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In this work, we propose a novel dispersion compensation method that enables real-time compressive sensing (CS) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) image reconstruction. We show that dispersion compensation can be incorporated into CS SD OCT by multiplying the dispersion-correcting terms by the undersampled spectral data before CS reconstruction. High-quality SD OCT imaging with dispersion compensation was demonstrated at a speed in excess of 70 frames per s using 40% of the spectral measurements required by the well-known Shannon/Nyquist theory. The data processing and image display were performed on a conventional workstation having three graphics processing units.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Schizopygopsis).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Abstract Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis is endemic to the Baoxing River in China and may become an endangered species due to its very narrow habitat and the construction of hydropower dams. In this study, we successfully sequenced the first mitochondrial genome of S. c. baoxingensis. The mitogenome is 16,787?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 28.5% A, 26.2% T, 18.4% C, and 26.9% G, with a slight AT bias of 54.7%. The sequenced mtDNA genome of S. c. baoxingensis is similar in gene arrangement to that of other cyprinidaes except for a 191?bp non-coding region found between tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro).
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Ruthenium-Catalyzed Redox-Neutral C-H Activation via N-N Cleavage: Synthesis of N-Substituted Indoles.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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The first Ru-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation reaction via N-N bond cleavage is reported. Pyrazolidin-3-one is demonstrated as an internally oxidative directing group that enables C-H annulation reactions with a broad scope of alkynes, including previously incompetent terminal alkynes. Pharmacologically privileged 3-(1H-indol-1-yl)propanamides were synthesized in high yields.
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Research Progress in Applying Proteomics Technology to Explore Early Diagnosis Biomarkers of Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer and Ovarian Cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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According to the China tumor registry 2013 annual report , breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer are three common cancers in China nowadays, with high mortality due to the absence of early diagnosis technology. However, proteomics has been widespreadly implanted into every field of life science and medicine as an important part of post-genomics era research. The development of theory and technology in proteomics has provided new ideas and research fields for cancer research. Proteomics can be used not only for elucidating the mechanisms of carcinogenesis focussing on whole proteins of the tissue or cell, but also seeking the biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, we introduce proteomics principles, covering current technology used in exploring early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.
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[Influence of drying method on content of epigoitrin and uridine in isatidis radix].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To study the influence of different drying methods on the content of epigoitrin and uridine in Isatidis Radix.
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Comparing the Novel Method of Assessing PrEP Adherence/Exposure using Hair Samples to other Pharmacologic and Traditional Measures.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The efficacy of pre-exposure-prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV can diminish with poor adherence; pharmacologic measures of drug exposure have proven critical to PrEP trial interpretation. We assessed drug exposure in hair against other pharmacologic and more routinely-used measures to assess pill-taking.
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The enhanced photothermal effect of graphene/conjugated polymer composites: photoinduced energy transfer and applications in photocontrolled switches.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Composites prepared by grafting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) onto the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) (RGO-g-P3HT) exhibit an enhanced photothermal effect due to photoinduced energy transfer from P3HT to RGO. A remote photo-controlled electrical switch was prepared using RGO-g-P3HT as a photothermal layer.
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A feedback control strategy for the airfoil system under non-Gaussian colored noise excitation.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The stability of a binary airfoil with feedback control under stochastic disturbances, a non-Gaussian colored noise, is studied in this paper. First, based on some approximated theories and methods the non-Gaussian colored noise is simplified to an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Furthermore, via the stochastic averaging method and the logarithmic polar transformation, one dimensional diffusion process can be obtained. At last by applying the boundary conditions, the largest Lyapunov exponent which can determine the almost-sure stability of the system and the effective region of control parameters is calculated.
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[Absorption of extractive Polygonum orientale in rat everted gut sacs].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Using in vitro everted gut to investigate the intestinal absorption of the extracts from Polygonum orientale at different concentration. UPLC-MS/MS was used to detect the content of protocatechuic acid, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, cynaroside, quercitrin, kaempferol-rhamnoside in different intestinal segments, then compared the results with the absorption of chemical components of extractive P. orientale in each intestinal segments, and calculated the absorption parameter. We took the statistic analysis with SPSS statistic software. The influence significance of each factors were analyzed to describe the character of absorption. The absorption of each component is linearity in different intestinal segments and different dose, and the square of coeficient correlation exceed 0.95, which consistent with zero order rate process. The K(a) increase along with the raised dosage of the extractive P. orientale (R2 > 0.95), indicated it is the passive absorption; different intestinal segments have different absorption. And the absorption trend in intestinal is duodenum, jejunum, ileum are greater than the colon. As ingredients are selectively absorbed in intestinal sac, the everted intestinal sac method is selected to assess the intestinal absorption charcteristics of ingredients of extractive P. orientale.
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Weak base pairing in both seed and 3' regions reduces RNAi off-targets and enhances si/shRNA designs.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The use of RNA interference is becoming routine in scientific discovery and treatment of human disease. However, its applications are hampered by unwanted effects, particularly off-targeting through miRNA-like pathways. Recent studies suggest that the efficacy of such off-targeting might be dependent on binding stability. Here, by testing shRNAs and siRNAs of various GC content in different guide strand segments with reporter assays, we establish that weak base pairing in both seed and 3' regions is required to achieve minimal off-targeting while maintaining the intended on-target activity. The reduced off-targeting was confirmed by RNA-Seq analyses from mouse liver RNAs expressing various anti-HCV shRNAs. Finally, our protocol was validated on a large scale by analyzing results of a genome-wide shRNA screen. Compared with previously established work, the new algorithm was more effective in reducing off-targeting without jeopardizing on-target potency. These studies provide new rules that should significantly improve on siRNA/shRNA design.
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Strain prioritization for natural product discovery by a high-throughput real-time PCR method.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Natural products offer unmatched chemical and structural diversity compared to other small-molecule libraries, but traditional natural product discovery programs are not sustainable, demanding too much time, effort, and resources. Here we report a strain prioritization method for natural product discovery. Central to the method is the application of real-time PCR, targeting genes characteristic to the biosynthetic machinery of natural products with distinct scaffolds in a high-throughput format. The practicality and effectiveness of the method were showcased by prioritizing 1911 actinomycete strains for diterpenoid discovery. A total of 488 potential diterpenoid producers were identified, among which six were confirmed as platensimycin and platencin dual producers and one as a viguiepinol and oxaloterpin producer. While the method as described is most appropriate to prioritize strains for discovering specific natural products, variations of this method should be applicable to the discovery of other classes of natural products. Applications of genome sequencing and genome mining to the high-priority strains could essentially eliminate the chance elements from traditional discovery programs and fundamentally change how natural products are discovered.
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Divergent Influence of MicroRNA-21 Deletion on Murine Colitis Phenotypes.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) acting as negative regulators of gene expression are differentially expressed in intestinal tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Assessing the functions of miRNAs in murine colitis facilitates elucidating the role of specific miRNAs in human IBD. We aimed to determine the miRNA signature of several models of colitis and to assess the influence of miR-21 on intestinal inflammation.
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Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed activation in right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 7 and 19), the right temporal lobe (Brodmann area 39), the right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 23) and bilateral occipital lobes (Brodmann area 18). Furthermore, inhibition of bilateral frontal lobes (Brodmann area 4, 6, and 45), right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 1 and 5) and left temporal lobe (Brodmann area 21) were observed in the true point group. Activation in the precuneus of right parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7) and inhibition of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) was observed in the sham group. Compared with sham acupuncture, acupuncture at Waiguan in stroke patients inhibited Brodmann area 5 on the healthy side. Results indicated that the altered specificity of sensation-associated cortex (Brodmann area 5) is possibly associated with a central mechanism of acupuncture at Waiguan for stroke patients.
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Acupuncture/electroacupuncture enhances anti-depressant effect of Seroxat: the Symptom Checklist-90 scores.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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ONE HUNDRED AND FIVE PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: drug group (Seroxat administration), acupuncture group (Seroxat plus acupuncture), and electroacupuncture group (Seroxat plus acupuncture plus electroacupuncture). Patients' symptoms were evaluated using a psychometric questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, before intervention and after 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks of treatment. The individual factor scores and the total score from the Symptom Checklist-90 reduced in all three groups as treatment progressed. In the acupuncture and electroacupuncture groups, the total score and the factor scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety were significantly lower than those in the drug group. There was no significant difference in the factor scores or total scores between the acupuncture and electroacupuncture groups. Some factor scores in the electroacupuncture group, such as somatization, depression, hostility, and phobic anxiety, were increased at 10 weeks compared with the respective score immediately after the course of electroacupuncture at 6 weeks. Our findings indicate that administration of Seroxat alone or in combination with acupuncture/electroacupuncture can produce a significant effect in patients with primary unipolar depression. Furthermore, acupuncture/electroacupuncture has a rapid onset of therapeutic effect and produces a noticeable improvement in obsessive-compulsive, depressive and anxiety symptoms.
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Alleviated Toxicity of Cadmium by the Rhizosphere of Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the Cadmium (Cd) toxicity alleviated by the rhizosphere of Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong (K. obovata), using a rhizobox with Cd concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) soil. The rhizobox used to plant K. obovata was divided into five sections by nylon cloth (S2-S5). Our results showed that pH was lower in rhizosphere than in non-rhizosphere soil. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic) was stimulated in rhizosphere zone, but inhibited by Cd additions. Soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in rhizosphere (S2) than in non-rhizosphere soil (S5) (p < 0.05). In addition, DTPA-extractable Cd in different rhizosphere zone soil (S2-S5) was influenced directly under different rates of Cd supply. Moreover, Cd treatments could induce the enhancement of DTPA-extractable Cd. This study suggests that Cd toxicity can be alleviated in the rhizosphere even under high Cd supply.
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Breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop distinct gut microbiotas and immune systems.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Diet has a strong influence on the intestinal microbiota in both humans and animal models. It is well established that microbial colonization is required for normal development of the immune system and that specific microbial constituents prompt the differentiation or expansion of certain immune cell subsets. Nonetheless, it has been unclear how profoundly diet might shape the primate immune system or how durable the influence might be. We show that breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop markedly different immune systems, which remain different 6 months after weaning when the animals begin receiving identical diets. In particular, breast-fed infants develop robust populations of memory T cells as well as T helper 17 (TH17) cells within the memory pool, whereas bottle-fed infants do not. These findings may partly explain the variation in human susceptibility to conditions with an immune basis, as well as the variable protection against certain infectious diseases.
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Characterization of the morphology and genome of an Escherichia coli podovirus.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Escherichia coli is an important opportunistic pathogen. It can cause sepsis and severe infection. The application of lytic bacteriophages to treat infectious diseases is an alternative to antibiotics. A lytic Escherichia coli phage, designated IME-EC2, was isolated from hospital sewage. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that IME-EC2 to be a member of the family Podoviridae. It had a 60-nm head and a 15-nm tail. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of this phage, which consists of 41,510 bp with an overall G+C content of 59.2 %. A total of 60 coding sequences (CDS) were identified, and the phage genome does not contain any tRNA genes. Forty percent of the unknown CDSs are unique to IME-EC2. This phage does not show significant similarity to other phages at the DNA level, which suggests that IME-EC2 could be a novel phage. One of the unique features identified in the IME-EC2 genome was a gene coding for a putative colanic-acid-degrading protein, which could allow the phage to degrade bacterial capsule and biofilms. Another unique feature is that IME-EC2 does not contain a terminase small subunit, which suggests that this phage may have a unique packaging mechanism. The present work provides novel information on phages and shows that this lytic phage or its products could be exploited to destroy bacterial biofilms and pathogenic E. coli.
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Recognition of Bungarus multicinctus venom by a DNA aptamer against ?-bungarotoxin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Antibody-based technology is the main method for diagnosis and treatment of snake bite envenoming currently. However, the development of an antibody, polyclonal or monoclonal, is a complicated and costly procedure. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that recognize specific targets such as proteins and have shown great potential over the years as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers can be selected in vitro without immunization of animals, and synthesized chemically with extreme accuracy, low cost and high degree of purity. In this study we firstly report on the identification of DNA aptamers that bind to ?-bungarotoxin (?-BuTx), a neurotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. A plate-SELEX method was used for the selection of ?-BuTx specific aptamers. After 10 rounds of selection, four aptamer candidates were obtained, with the dissociation constant ranged from 65.9 nM to 995 nM measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Competitive binding assays using both the fluorescently labeled and unlabeled aptamers revealed that the four aptamers bound to the same binding site of ?-BuTx. The best binder, ?B-1, bound specifically to ?-BuTx, but not to BSA, casein or ?-Bungarotoxin. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked aptamer assay demonstrated that ?B-1 could discriminate B. multicinctus venom from other snake venoms tested. The results suggest that aptamer ?B-1 can serve as a useful tool for the design and development of drugs and diagnostic tests for ?-BuTx poisoning and B. multicinctus bites.
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A general synthesis of ynones from aldehydes via oxidative C-C bond cleavage under aerobic conditions.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We describe a direct synthesis of various ynones from readily available aldehydes and hypervalent alkynyl iodides. In this method, a gold catalyst and a secondary amine work synergistically to produce the trisubstituted allenyl aldehyde, which can be converted to the desired ynone through an in situ C-C bond oxidative cleavage using molecular oxygen.
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Pollution profiles and health risk assessment of VOCs emitted during e-waste dismantling processes associated with different dismantling methods.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Pollution profiles of typical volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during dismantling of various printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) of e-wastes using different methods were comparatively investigated in the real e-waste dismantling workshops in South China in April 2013. Similar pollution profiles and concentrations of VOCs were observed between dismantling mobile phone and hard disk PCBAs by using electric blowers and between dismantling television and power supplier PCBAs using electric heating furnaces. Aromatic hydrocarbons (accounting for >60% of the sum of VOCs) were the dominant group during using electric blowers, while aromatic (accounting for >44% of the sum of VOCs) and halogenated hydrocarbons (accounting for >48% of the sum of VOCs) were the two dominant groups which contributed equally using electric heating furnaces. However, the distribution profiles of VOCs emitted during dismantling of televisions, hard disks and micro motors using rotary incinerators varied greatly, though aromatic hydrocarbons were still the dominant group. The combustion of e-wastes led to the most severe contamination of VOCs, with total VOCs (3.3×10(4)?gm(-3)) using rotary incinerators about 190, 180, 139, and 40 times higher than those using mechanical cutting, electric soldering iron, electric blower, and electric heating furnace, respectively. Both cancer and non-cancer risks existed for workers due to exposure to on-site emitted VOCs in all workshops especially in those using rotary incinerators according to the USEPA methodology, whereas only cancer risks existed in rotary incinerator workshops according to the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists methodology.
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Functional roles of long non-coding RNA in human breast cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The discovery of long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) changes our view of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. With application of new research techniques such as high-throughput sequencing, the biological functions of LncRNAs are gradually becoming to be understood. Multiple studies have shown that LncRNAs serve as carcinogenic factors or tumor suppressors in breast cancer with abnormal expression, prompts the question of whether they have potential value in predicting the stages and survival rate of breast cancer patients, and also as therapeutic targets. Focusing on the latest research data, this review mainly summarizes the tumorigenic mechanisms of certain LncRNAs in breast cancer, in order to provide a theoretical basis for finding safer, more effective treatment of breast cancer at the LncRNA molecular level.
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Transbronchial lung biopsy and pneumothorax.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Mini-interventional procedures are used in the everyday clinical practice by pulmonary physicians and radiologists. Fine needle aspiration and biopsy forceps are the tools mostly used. During these procedures pneumothorax can occur and immediate treatment is necessary. In our current work, we will focus on minimal invasive techniques for biopsy and pneumothorax treatment.
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Intermolecular interactions and 3D structure in cellulose-NaOH-urea aqueous system.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The dissolution of cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solution at low temperature is a key finding in cellulose science and technology. In this paper, (15)N and (23)Na NMR experiments were carried out to clarify the intermolecular interactions in cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution. It was found that there are direct interactions between OH(-) anions and amino groups of urea through hydrogen bonds and no direct interaction between urea and cellulose. Moreover, Na(+) ions can interact with both cellulose and urea in an aqueous system. These interactions lead to the formation of cellulose-NaOH-urea-H2O inclusion complexes (ICs). (23)Na relaxation results confirmed that the formation of urea-OH(-) clusters can effectively enhance the stability of Na(+) ions that attracted to cellulose chains. Low temperature can enhance the hydrogen bonding interaction between OH(-) ions and urea and improve the binding ability of the NaOH/urea/H2O clusters that attached to cellulose chains. Cryo-TEM observation confirmed the formation of cellulose-NaOH-urea-H2O ICs, which is in extended conformation with mean diameter of about 3.6 nm and mean length of about 300 nm. Possible 3D structure of the ICs was proposed by the M06-2X/6-31+G(d) theoretical calculation, revealing the O3H···O5 intramolecular hydrogen bonds could remain in the ICs. This work clarified the interactions in cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution and the 3D structure of the cellulose chain in dilute cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution.
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Probing the Endocytic Pathways of the Filamentous Bacteriophage in Live Cells Using Ratiometric pH Fluorescent Indicator.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Viral nanoparticles have attracted extensive research interests in diverse applications of diagnosis and therapy. In particular, filamentous M13 bacteriophages have shown great potential in biomedical applications. However, its pathways entering into cells still remain unclear, and this greatly hinders its further use as a drug or gene carrier. Here, a ratiometric M13 pH probe is designed by conjugating two fluorescent dyes onto the surface of M13. Since the intensity ratio is not influenced by probe concentration, ion strength, temperature, photobleaching, and optical path length, this ratiometric probe can be used to investigate the intracellular pH map of M13. More importantly, the internalization mechanism of M13 can be elucidated. It is found that this filamentous phage shows great cell-type dependence in interaction with cells and internalization mechanism. The phage tends to be bounded on the cell membrane of only epithelial cells, not endothelial cells. Furthermore, the M13 phage enters into cells through endocytosis with specific mechanism: clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis for HeLa; vesicular transport, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis for MCF-7; caveolae-mediated endocytosis for human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC). This work provides key notes for cancer diagnosis and therapy based on filamentous bacteriophage, especially for design of pH-sensitive drug delivery systems.
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Alginate gelation-induced cell death during laser-assisted cell printing.
Biofabrication
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Modified laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a promising bioprinting technique. Depending on the operating conditions and cell properties, laser cell printing may cause cell injury and even death, which should be carefully elucidated for it to be a viable technology. This study has investigated the effects of alginate gelation, gelation time, alginate concentration, and laser fluence on the post-transfer cell viability of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Sodium alginate and calcium chloride are used as the gel precursor and gel reactant solution to form cell-laden alginate microspheres. It is found that the effects of gelation depend on the duration of gelation. Two-minute gelation is observed to increase the cell viability after 24 h incubation, mainly due to the protective cushion effect of the forming gel membrane during droplet landing. Despite the cushion effect from 10 min gelation, it is observed that the cell viability decreases after 24 h incubation because of the forming thick gel membrane that reduces nutrient and oxygen diffusion from the culture medium. In addition, the cell viability after 24 h incubation decreases as the laser fluence or alginate concentration increases.
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A multitasking functional group leads to structural diversity using designer C-H activation reaction cascades.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The C-H activation strategy has become one of the preferred methods to introduce chemical functionality to a chemically inert carbon atom. Intensive efforts have been devoted to developing either versatile bond formations (product structural diversity) or effective directing groups (substrate site selectivity). From the views of medicinal and synthetic practitioners, the C-H activation approach remains inadequate due to its limitation to point-to-point derivatization. Direct assembly of 3D molecular complexity in a single step remains elusive for this strategy. Towards this goal, a multitasking functional group is required to accomplish several missions in one pot: site selecitivity, cleavability and redox versatility. We demonstrate that an oxyacetamide group is such a multifunctional warhead that enables a series of C-H functionalization cascades and allows direct access to structurally diverse polycyclic heterocyles in one pot. The progress of these reaction cascades were fully controlled by oxidants and temperature. The proliferation of the reaction chain can be extended to a four-step cascade.
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Directed arene/alkyne annulation reactions via aerobic copper catalysis.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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We describe a straightforward protocol for a smooth dehydrogenative annulation reaction between various arenes and terminal alkynes using a catalytic amount of CuBr2 and molecular oxygen. 3-Methyleneisoindoline derivatives are prepared in high yields.
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Ultrathin core-sheath fibers for liposome stabilization.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Ultrathin core-sheath fibers with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) in the core were prepared by coaxial electrospinning. SUVs/sodium hyaluranate (HA-Na)/water and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/ethanol solutions were used as core and sheath fluid in electrospinning, respectively. The ultrathin fibers were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The SUVs were successfully encapsulated in the core HA-Na matrix of the ultrathin fibers and are in the elliptic shape. The SUVs encapsulated in the core matrix of the ultrathin fibers have an excellent stability. The SUVs embedded in the ultrathin fibers are stable. When the ultrathin fibers were re-dissolved in water after one-month storage at room temperature, the rehydrated SUVs have the similar size and size distribution as the as-prepared SUVs. The liposome-loaded ultrathin fiber mats have the promising applications in wound healing materials.
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Approach of the treatment for pneumothorax.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Pneumothorax can occur in several situations such as; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where emphysema is observed or due to a biopsy for malignancy suspicion. In any case it is a dangerous situation that requires immediate attention and treatment. Pneumothorax can be divided in primary and secondary. Staging of pneumothorax is also very important. In our current editorial we summarize etiology and treatment of pneumothorax from a panel of pulmonary physicians, oncologists and thoracic surgeons.
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Unipolar resistive switching of ZnO-single-wire memristors.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Well unipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviors were observed from Ag/ZnO single-microwire/Ag memristors. The reset voltages were larger than the set voltages, and all of them were less than 1 V. The resistance ratios of high-resistance state (HRS) to low-resistance state (LRS) reached 10(3). The bistable RS behaviors were entirely reversible and steady within 100 cycles. It was found that the dominant conduction mechanisms in LRS and HRS were ohmic behavior and space-charge-limited current (SCLC), respectively.
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[Impact of introduction of O2 on the welding arc of gas pool coupled activating TIG].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In the present paper, Boltzmann plot method was applied to analyze the temperature distributions of the are plasma when the gas pool coupled activating TIG welding was at different coupling degrees with the outer gas being O2. Based on this study of temperature distributions, the changing regularities of are voltage and are appearance were studied. The result shows that compared with traditional TIG welding, the introduction of O2 makes the welding arc constricted slightly, the temperature of the are center build up, and the are voltage increase. When argon being the inner gas, oxygen serving as the outer gas instead of argon makes the are constricted more obviously. When the coupling degree increases from 0 to 2, the temperature of the are center and the are voltage both increase slightly. In the gas pool coupled activating TIG welding the are is constricted not obviously, and the reason why the weld penetration is improved dramatically in the welding of stainless steel is not are constriction.
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[Precise laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the treatment of 140 patients with obesity and metabolic diseases].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To investigate the efficacy and safety of precise laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass(LRYGB) in the treatment of obesity and metabolic diseases.
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Dissolution mechanism of cellulose in N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride: revisiting through molecular interactions.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Understanding the interactions between solvent molecules and cellulose at a molecular level is still not fully achieved in cellulose/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl system. In this paper, cellobiose was used as the model compound of cellulose to investigate the interactions in cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (13)C, (35)Cl, and (7)Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. It was found that when cellulose is dissolved in DMAc/LiCl cosolvent system, the hydroxyl protons of cellulose form strong hydrogen bonds with the Cl(-), during which the intermolecular hydrogen bonding networks of cellulose is broken with simultaneous splitting of the Li(+)-Cl(-) ion pairs. Simultaneously, the Li(+) cations are further solvated by free DMAc molecules, which accompany the hydrogen-bonded Cl(-) to meet electric balance. Thereafter, the cellulose chains are dispersed in molecular level in the solvent system to form homogeneous solution. This work clarifies the interactions in the cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution at molecular level and the dissolution mechanism of cellulose in DMAc/LiCl, which is important for understanding the principle for selecting and designing new cellulose solvent systems.
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Study of droplet formation process during drop-on-demand inkjetting of living cell-laden bioink.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Biofabrication offers a great potential for the fabrication of three-dimensional living tissues and organs by precisely layer-by-layer placing various tissue spheroids as anatomically designed. Inkjet printing of living cell-laden bioink is one of the most promising technologies enabling biofabrication, and the bioink printability must be carefully examined for it to be a viable biofabrication technology. In this study, the cell-laden bioink droplet formation process has been studied in terms of the breakup time, droplet size and velocity, and satellite formation using a time-resolved imaging approach. The bioink has been prepared using fibroblasts and sodium alginate with four different cell concentrations: without cells, 1 × 10(6), 5 × 10(6), and 1 × 10(7) cells/mL to appreciate the effect of cell concentration on the droplet formation process. Furthermore, the bioink droplet formation process is compared with that during the inkjetting of a comparable polystyrene microbead-laden suspension under the identical operating conditions to understand the effect of particle physical properties on the droplet formation process. It is found that (1) as the cell concentration of bioink increases, the droplet size and velocity decrease, the formation of satellite droplets is suppressed, and the breakup time increases, and (2) compared to the hard bead-laden suspension, the bioink tends to have a less ejected fluid volume, lower droplet velocity, and longer breakup time.
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Polymeric supra-amphiphiles based on terminal group electrostatic interactions: fabrication of micelles with modifiable surfaces.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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On the basis of terminal group electrostatic interactions (TGEI), a supra-amphiphile is formed between a homopolymer of polylactic acid with carboxyl group at one end (PLA-COOH) and hepta-6-hydrazyl-?-cyclodextrin (HH-CD). The amphiphile can self-assemble into a micellar structure in aqueous solution. The outer surface of the micelle, which is composed of cyclodextrins, can be further modified via host-guest interactions. Considering the biocompatibility of the building blocks, the application of the micelles in a nanocarrier of anticancer drugs is further explored.
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A city park as a potential epidemic site of scrub typhus: a case¿control study of an outbreak in Guangzhou, China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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BackgroundScrub typhus is an important public health problem in China, especially in Guangzhou city. Typical outbreaks of scrub typhus have been previously reported in rural areas, affecting mainly farmers. We describe an atypical outbreak of the disease with case fatalities, from a park in Haizhu District, Guangzhou, that could turn out to be a potential scrub typhus epidemic site.MethodsFrom May 2012 to June 2012, a case¿control study was conducted to identify source and risk factors of this outbreak. Reported cases of scrub typhus in Xiaogang Park were confirmed by Weil¿Felix test or a nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR). Controls were matched with their neighbors by gender and age. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors and protective factors.ResultsA total of 29 cases were confirmed by Weil¿Felix test, including 4 deaths by both Weil¿Felix test and NPCR. All patients presented with fever (100%), while 28 (96.6%) cases had eschars, 10 (34.5%) headache, 10 (34.5%) chills, 6 (20.7%) lymphadenopathy, 5 (17.2%) rash, 2 (6.9%) vomiting and 1 (3.5%) presented with conjunctival congestion. The proportion of cases with activity history in Xiaogang Park was much higher than the control group (72.4% vs 24.1%, P¿<¿0.001), and morning exercise in park or field was also as a risk factor for scrub typhus (adjusted OR =3.0, 95% CI: 1.1 - 8.2). Four factors were significantly associated with the risk of developing scrub typhus: sitting on the lawn (adjusted OR =8.0, 95% CI: 1.4 - 44.5), close contact with rats (adjusted OR =3.3, 95% CI: 1.2 -9.6), sitting near the rat holes (OR =6.8, 95% CI: 1.2 - 38.1) and wearing long-sleeved clothing when outside (adjusted OR =0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 - 0.7).ConclusionsWe confirmed an atypical outbreak of scrub typhus in a park in Guangzhou city, which has the potential to develop into an important epidemic site. This public health risk should not be neglected and requires more attention from authorities.
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Recombinant lysostaphin protects mice from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The advent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the frequent and excessive abuse of ventilators have made MRSA pneumonia an inordinate threat to human health. Appropriate antibacterial therapies are crucial, including the use of lysostaphin as an alternative to antibiotics. To explore the potential use of lysostaphin as a therapeutic agent for MRSA pneumonia, mice were intranasally infected with MRSA and then treated with recombinant lysostaphin (rLys; 45?mg/kg in the high-dose group and 1?mg/kg in the low-dose group) (0.33?mg/mL, 15?mg/mL), vancomycin (120?mg/kg) (40?mg/mL), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, negative control) 4?h after infection. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by mouse survival, lung histopathology, bacterial density in the lungs, bodyweight, lung weight, temperature, white blood cells counts, lymphocytes counts, granulocytes counts, and monocytes counts. The mice treated with rLys showed lower mortality, less lung parenchymal damage, and lower bacterial density at metastatic tissue sites than mice treated with PBS or vancomycin. The overall mortality was 100%, 60%, 40%, and 60% for the control, vancomycin, high-dose rLys, and low-dose rLys groups, respectively. These findings indicate that, as a therapeutic agent for MRSA pneumonia, lysostaphin exerts profound protective effects in mice against the morbidity and mortality associated with S. aureus pneumonia.
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GPU-accelerated non-uniform fast Fourier transform-based compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We implemented the graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated compressive sensing (CS) non-uniform in k-space spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Kaiser-Bessel (KB) function and Gaussian function are used independently as the convolution kernel in the gridding-based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm with different oversampling ratios and kernel widths. Our implementation is compared with the GPU-accelerated modified non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (MNUDFT) matrix-based CS SD OCT and the GPU-accelerated fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based CS SD OCT. It was found that our implementation has comparable performance to the GPU-accelerated MNUDFT-based CS SD OCT in terms of image quality while providing more than 5 times speed enhancement. When compared to the GPU-accelerated FFT based-CS SD OCT, it shows smaller background noise and less side lobes while eliminating the need for the cumbersome k-space grid filling and the k-linear calibration procedure. Finally, we demonstrated that by using a conventional desktop computer architecture having three GPUs, real-time B-mode imaging can be obtained in excess of 30 fps for the GPU-accelerated NUFFT based CS SD OCT with frame size 2048(axial) × 1,000(lateral).
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Characterization, sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of vB_AbaM-IME-AB2, a novel lytic bacteriophage that infects multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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With the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive drugs, and glucocorticoids, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) has become a major nosocomial pathogen species. The recent renaissance of bacteriophage therapy may provide new treatment strategies for combatting drug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, we isolated a lytic bacteriophage vB_AbaM-IME-AB2 has a short latent period and a small burst size, which clear its host's suspension quickly, was selected for characterization and a complete genomic comparative study.
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Simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for rectal and gastric cancer.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Laparoscopy-assisted surgery for either rectal or gastric cancer has been increasingly performed. However, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is rarely reported in the literature. In our study, 3 cases of patients who received simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer were recorded. The results showed that all 3 patients recovered well, with only 253 minutes of mean operation time, 57 mL of intraoperative blood loss, 5 cm of assisted operation incision, 4 days to resume oral intake, 12 days' postoperative hospital stay, and no complication or mortality. No recurrence or metastasis was found within the follow-up period of 22 months. When performed by surgeons with plentiful experience in laparoscopic technology, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is safe and feasible, with the benefits of minimal trauma, fast recovery, and better cosmetic results, compared with open surgery.
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Basal cell adenoma in the parotid: a bizarre myoepithelial-derived stroma rich variant.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a specific entity that lacks the myxochondroid stromal component of a pleomorphic adenoma. There are six histopathological types of BCA: solid, tubular, trabecular, membranous, cribriform, and myoepithelial-derived stroma rich. Myoepithelial-derived stroma rich variant is so rare, especially with cellular atypia. Herin we describe a rare case of BCA arising in the parotid on a 25-year-old man. A well-demarcated nodule arising in the parotid that was composed of basaloid cells, forming small duct-like or tubular structures containing basement membrane-like material, as well as highly cellular elongated cells with hyperchromatic, enlarged, pleomorphic, and bizarre nuclei. Immunohistochemically, S100 protein and p63 highlighted the basal aspect of the peripheral epithelial cells and peripheral spindle and bizarre cells, while CK7 expressed on the luminal cells. We made a diagnosis of "basal cell adenoma, myoepithelial-derived stroma rich variant, with bizarre myoepithelial proliferation". The differential diagnosis includes cellular pleomorphic adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. After follow-up for 3 years, there was no evidence of recurrence. Further pathological characteristics of this disease are discussed.
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Membranous basal cell adenoma arising in the eyelid.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a specific entity that lacks the myxochondroid stromal component of pleomorphic adenoma. Membranous basal cell adenoma is a rare variant of BCA, which is characteristic by abundant eosinophilicextracellular hyaline material deposited either inside or at the periphery of the epithelial islands. Herin we describe the first case of membranous BCA arising in the upper eyelid in a 38-year-old woman. A well-demarcated nodule arising in the eyelid was composed of isomorphic basaloid cells organized with a prominent basal cell layer and distinct basement membrane-like material. Immunohistochemically, S100 protein and p63 highlighted the basal aspect of the peripheral epithelial cells, while CK7 expressed on the luminal cells. A diagnosis of membranous basal cell adenoma of the eyelid was made. At follow-up for 2 years and 3 months later, there was no evidence of recurrence. Further pathological characteristics of this disease are discussed.
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Intraneural malignant perineurioma: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The great majority of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) exhibit Schwann differentiation. Few MPNSTs with perineurial differentiation are also named malignant perineuriomas. Benign perineurioms were classified as intraneural, extraneural (soft tissue), sclerosing, and reticular variant. Histopathological features of intraneural perineurioma are individual nerve axons surrounded by whorls of spindle-shaped cells arranged in an onion bulb-like pattern. However, intraneural malignant perineurioma is uncommon, its characteristic histological features were not clearly described yet. Positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), glut-1 and claudin-1, is characteristic of malignant perineurioma. Herein, we report an intraneural malignant perineurioma in median nerve of a 13-year-old girl. The clinicopathological features were summarized and the related literatures were reviewed.
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Ultrasensitive fluorescence polarization aptasensors based on exonuclease signal amplification and polystyrene nanoparticle amplification.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Here, we combine T7 exonuclease (T7 Exo) signal amplification and polystyrene nanoparticle (PS NP) amplification to develop novel fluorescence polarization (FP) aptasensors. The binding of a target/open aptamer hairpin complex or a target/single-stranded aptamer complex to dye-labeled DNA bound to PS NPs, or the self-assembly of two aptamer subunits (one of them labeled with a dye) into a target/aptamer complex on PS NPs leads to the cyclic T7 Exo-catalyzed digestion of the dye-labeled DNA or the dye-labeled aptamer subunit. This results in a substantial decrease in the FP value for the amplified sensing process. Our newly developed aptasensors exhibit a sensitivity five orders of magnitude higher than that of traditional homogeneous aptasensors and a high specificity for the target molecules. These distinct advantages of our proposed assay protocol make it a generic platform for the design of amplified aptasensors for ultrasensitive detection of various target molecules.
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Progress of cancer research on astrocyte elevated gene-1/Metadherin (Review).
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Tumor development is initiated by an accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations that promote tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 [AEG-1; also known as Metadherin (MTDH) and Lysine-rich CEACAM1 co-isolated (LYRIC)] has emerged in recent years as a potentially crucial mediator of tumor malignancy, and a key converging point of a complex network of oncogenic signaling pathways. AEG-1/MTDH has a multifunctional role in tumor development that has been found to be involved in the following signaling cascades: i) The Ha-Ras and PI3K/Akt pathways; ii) the nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway; iii) the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase and Wnt/?-catenin pathways; and iv) the Aurora-A kinase signaling pathway. Studies have established that AEG-1/MTDH is crucial in tumor progression, including transformation, the evasion of apoptosis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. In addition, recent clinical studies have convincingly associated AEG-1/MTDH with tumor progression and poor prognosis in a number of cancer types, including hepatocellular, esophageal squamous cell, gallbladder and renal cell carcinomas, breast, non-small cell lung, prostate, gastric and colorectal cancers, and glioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. AEG-1/MTDH may be used as a biomarker to identify subgroups of patients who require more intensive treatments and who are likely to benefit from AEG-1/MTDH-targeted therapies. The therapeutic targeting of AEG-1/MTDH may simultaneously block metastasis, suppress tumor growth and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments.
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Nicking enzyme and graphene oxide-based dual signal amplification for ultrasensitive aptamer-based fluorescence polarization assays.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In this work, two different configurations for novel amplified fluorescence polarization (FP) aptasensors based on nicking enzyme signal amplification (NESA) and graphene oxide (GO) enhancement have been developed for ultrasensitive and selective detection of biomolecules in homogeneous solution. One approach involves the aptamer-target binding induced the stable hybridization between an aptamer probe and a fluorophore-labeled DNA probe linked to GO, and forms a nicking site-containing duplex DNA region due to the enhancement of base stacking. The second analytical method involves the target induced the assembly of two aptamer subunits into an aptamer-target complex, and then hybridizes with a fluorophore-labeled DNA probe linked to GO, forming a nicking site-containing duplex DNA region. The formation of the duplex DNA region in both methods triggers the NESA process, resulting in the release of many short DNA fragments carrying the fluorophore from GO, generating a significant decrease of the FP value that provides the readout signal for the amplified sensing process. By using the NESA coupled GO enhancement path, the sensitivity of the developed aptasensors can be significantly improved by four orders of magnitude over traditional aptamer-based homogeneous assays. Moreover, these aptasensors also exhibit high specificity for target molecules, which are capable of detecting target molecule in biological samples. Considering these qualities, the proposed FP aptasensors based NESA and GO enhancement can be expected to provide an ultrasensitive platform for amplified analysis of target molecules.
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The effectiveness of acupuncture in postoperative gastroparesis syndrome--a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Complement Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Postoperative gastroparesis syndrome (PGS) which is mainly manifested as delayed gastric emptying is often caused by upper abdominal and sometimes lower abdominal surgery. In view of the side effects of drugs therapy, the search of supplementary and alternative has been of increasing interest.
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In Silico cancer cell versus stroma cellularity index computed from species-specific human and mouse transcriptome of xenograft models: towards accurate stroma targeting therapy assessment.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The current state of the art for measuring stromal response to targeted therapy requires burdensome and rate limiting quantitative histology. Transcriptome measures are increasingly affordable and provide an opportunity for developing a stromal versus cancer ratio in xenograft models. In these models, human cancer cells are transplanted into mouse host tissues (stroma) and together coevolve into a tumour microenvironment. However, profiling the mouse or human component separately remains problematic. Indeed, laser capture microdissection is labour intensive. Moreover, gene expression using commercial microarrays introduces significant and underreported cross-species hybridization errors that are commonly overlooked by biologists.
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Correlation between the Effects of Acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Functional Brain Areas: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function.
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Metal-templated chiral Brønsted base organocatalysis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Inert octahedral chiral-at-metal complexes are an emerging class of asymmetric catalysts that exploit the globular, rigid nature and stereochemical options of octahedral compounds. While the central transition metal serves as a structural anchorpoint and provides metal centrochirality, catalysis is mediated through the organic ligand sphere, thereby merging the branches of transition metal catalysis and organocatalysis. Here we report the development of inert octahedral 3-aminopyrazolato iridium(III) complexes as novel chiral Brønsted base catalysts and demonstrate their merit with applications to highly effective asymmetric sulfa-Michael and aza-Henry reactions, permitting catalyst loadings down to 0.02 and 0.25?mol%, respectively. The observed high stereocontrol can be rationalized by a bifunctional mode of action in which the iridium catalyst, after the initial proton transfer, controls a ternary complex through defined hydrogen bonding interactions. This work reveals the potential of octahedral metal complexes as chiral scaffolds for the design of high-performance asymmetric catalysts.
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Multi-model ensemble simulation and projection in the climate change in the Mekong River Basin. Part I: temperature.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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This paper evaluates the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating annual and decadal temperature in the Mekong River Basin from 1950 to 2005. By use of Bayesian multi-model averaging method, the future projection of temperature variation under different scenarios are also analyzed. The results show, the performances of climate model are more accurate in space than time, the model can catch the warming characteristics in the Mekong river Basin, but the accuracy of simulation is not good enough. Bayesian multi-model averaging method can improve the annual and decadal temperature simulation when compared to a single result. The projected temperature in Mekong River will increase by 0.88 °C/100 year, 2.15 °C/100 year and 4.96 °C/100 year for the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, over the twenty-first century. The findings will be beneficial for local people and policy-maker to formulate regional strategies against the potential menaces of warming scenarios.
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Multi-Enhanced-Phonon Scattering Modes in Ln-Me-A Sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 Ceramics.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Authors reported an effective path to decrease the thermal conductivity while to increase the coefficient of thermal expansion, thus enhancing the thermo-physical properties of the LnMeA11O19-type magnetoplumbite LaMgAl11O19 by simultaneously substituting La(3+), Mg(2+) and Al(3+) ions with large ionic radius Ba(2+), Zn(2+) and Ti(4+), respectively. The mechanism behind the lowered thermal conductivity was mainly due to the multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics. These modes involve the following four aspects, namely, point defect mechanism, the intrinsic scattering in the complex crystal cell and materials with stepped surface to localize phonon vibrational modes, as well as nano-platelet-like structure to incorporate additional grain boundary scattering. This study provides novel thoughts for promising candidate materials of even lower thermal conductivity for the next generation thermal barrier coatings.
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Alteration in lymphocytes responses, cytokine and chemokine profiles in laying hens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Salmonella Typhimurium has been reported to contaminate egg production across the world, but the exact nature of the immune mechanisms protective against Salmonella infection in laying hens has not been characterized at the molecular level. The experiment was conducted to determine Salmonella colonization and lymphocytes subpopulation in the ileum and spleen, and the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6], chemokine IL-8, and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokines [Interferon (IFN)-?, IL-12 and IL-18; IL-4 and IL-10 respectively] in the cecal tonsil and spleen of Salmonella challenged hens. Forty Salmonella-free laying hens were challenged orally with Salmonella Typhimurium or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; control). The Salmonella challenged or non-challenged hens (n=10) were sacrificed at 2 and 7 days post-infection (DPI). The lymphocyte subpopulation was determined via flow cytometric analysis in the ileum and spleen. The cecal tonsil and spleen samples were collected for mRNA expression through quantitative-RT-PCR. The Salmonella counts were higher (P<0.05) in the ileum than that in the spleen at 2 and 7DPI, and were higher (P<0.05) at 7DPI than that at 2DPI in the spleen. Salmonella challenge increased (P<0.05) ileal CD4+ and CD8?+ cells ratios at 2 and 7DPI, whereas it increased (P<0.05) splenic CD8?+ cells ratio only at 7DPI. The magnitude of increase in ileal CD8?+ cells ratio was higher (P<0.05) than that in CD4+ cells ratio. The mRNA expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-?, IL-12 and IL-18 were significantly up-regulated in the cecal tonsil of Salmonella challenged hens, and the magnitude of increases in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 were significantly higher at 7DPI than that at 2DPI. However, Salmonella challenge increased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-1?, IL-10 and IL-18 at 2 and 7DPI, and IL-8 and IFN-? mRNA only at 7DPI in the spleen. These findings demonstrated that there appeared the induction of cellular immune responses, and a Th1-cytokines reaction in the intestine and spleen of laying hens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium.
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Swainsonine induces caprine luteal cells apoptosis via mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway.
J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Swainsonine (SW) is an indolizidine alkaloid isolated from a number of poisonous plants. We have previously reported that SW inhibited luteal cell progesterone production by inducing caprine luteal cell apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this study, SW-treated luteal cells showed apoptosis characteristics, including nuclear fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. Further studies showed that SW activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. SW also increased in Bax/BcL-2 ratios, promoted Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. However, Fas and Fas ligand induction or caspase-8 activity did not appear any significant changes. Additional analysis also showed that pan-caspase inhibitor, caspase-9 inhibitor, or caspase-3 inhibitor almost completely protected the cells from SW-induced apoptosis, but not caspase-8 inhibitor. Overall, these data demonstrated that SW induced luteal cells apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway.
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Controlled release of liposome-encapsulated Naproxen from core-sheath electrospun nanofibers.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Naproxen (NAP) loaded nanofibers of different structures have been successfully prepared by electrospinning. The structures of the nanofibers are NAP and cellulose acetate (CA) mixed nanofibers (NF-1), nanofibers with NAP/CA mixed core and CA sheath (NF-2), and NAP loaded liposomes and sodium hyaluronate (HA-Na) mixed core with CA sheath (NF-3). The structure and morphology of the nanofibers were characterized and the drug release behaviors were investigated. It was found that NAP can disperse in the HA-Na or CA matrix in molecular level without formation of NAP crystals and dimers. The drug release behaviors of NF-1 and NF-2 show a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism, while the NF-3 shows a specific drug release behavior with a burst release within 8h followed by a sustained drug release for 12 days. The particular two-stage drug release behavior of NF-3 nanofibers offers the materials promising applications as wound dressing materials.
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Fe3O4@ionic liquid@methyl orange nanoparticles as a novel nano-adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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A novel nano-adsorbent, Fe3O4@ionic liquid@methyl orange nanoparticles (Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs), was prepared for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. The Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs were synthesized by self-assembly of the ionic liquid 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C18mimBr) and methyl orange (MO) onto the surface of Fe3O4 silica magnetic nanoparticles, as confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interface device magnetometer. The extraction performance of Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs as a nano-adsorbent was evaluated by using five PAHs, fluorene (FLu), anthracene (AnT), pyrene (Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as model analytes. Under the optimum conditions, detection limits in the range of 0.1-2 ng/L were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). This method has been successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in environmental water samples by using the MSPE-HPLC-FLD. The recoveries for the five PAHs tested in spiked real water samples were in the range of 80.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.3 to 4.9%.
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Role of FAM18B in diabetic retinopathy.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have suggested an association between a previously uncharacterized gene, FAM18B, and diabetic retinopathy. This study explores the role of FAM18B in diabetic retinopathy. An improved understanding of FAM18B could yield important insights into the pathogenesis of this sight-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.
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Swainsonine induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in goat trophoblasts.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) has been reported to impair placentae and ultimately cause abortion in pregnant goats. Up to now, however, the precise effects of SW on goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) are still unclear. In this study, the cytotoxicity effects of SW on GTCs were detected and evaluated by MTT assay, AO/EB double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that SW treatment significantly suppressed GTCs viability and induced typical apoptotic features in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. SW treatment increased Bax protein levels, reduced Bcl-2 protein levels, induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, which in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, resulting in GTCs apoptosis. However, caspase-8 activity and the level of Bid did not exhibit significant changes in the process of SW-induced apoptosis. In addition, TUNEL assay suggested that SW induced GTCs apoptosis but not other cells in goat placenta cotyledons. Taken together, these data suggest that SW selectively induces GTCs apoptosis via the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in goat placenta cotyledons, which might contribute to placentae impairment and abortion in pregnant goats fed with SW-containing plants. These findings may provide new insights to understand the mechanisms involved in SW-caused goat's abortion.
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3.0T MR-CAD: Clinical Value in Diagnosis of Breast Tumor Compared with Conventional MRI.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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to explore the clinical value of 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared with computer-aided MR diagnosis (MR-CAD) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of the membrane proteins of two Haemophilus parasuis strains to identify proteins that may help in habitat adaptation and pathogenesis.
Proteome Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease characterized by polyserositis, arthritis, and meningitis in pig, leading to serious economic loss. Despite many years of study, virulence factors and the mechanisms of the entire infection process remain largely unclear. So two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to search for distinctions at the membrane protein expression level between two H. parasuis isolates aimed at uncovering some proteins potentially involved in habitat adaption and pathogenesis.
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Preparation of triple-negative breast cancer vaccine through electrofusion with day-3 dendritic cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in human immune system. DC-based tumor vaccine has met with some success in specific malignancies, inclusive of breast cancer. In this study, we electrofused MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line with day-3 DCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes, and explored the biological characteristics of fusion vaccine and its anti-tumor effects in vitro. Day-3 mature DCs were generated from day-2 immature DCs by adding cocktails composed of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and PEG2. Day-3 mature DCs were identified and electofused with breast cancer cells to generate fusion vaccine. Phenotype of fusion cells were identified by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometer. The fusion vaccine was evaluated for T cell proliferation, secretion of IL-12 and IFN-?, and induction of tumor-specific CTL response. Despite differences in morphology, day-3 and day-7 DC expressed similar surface markers. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-? in fusion vaccine group was much higher than that in the control group. Compared with control group, DC-tumor fusion vaccine could better stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic T lymphocytes and kill more breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Day-3 DCs had the same function as the day-7 DCs, but with a shorter culture period. Our findings suggested that day-3 DCs fused with whole apoptotic breast cancer cells could elicit effective specific antitumor T cell responses in vitro and may be developed into a prospective candidate for adoptivet immunotherapy.
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Adult congenital intestinal malrotation accompanied by midgut volvulus: report of eight cases.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Congenital midgut malrotation is a complex gastrointestinal anomaly, which could easily lead to midgut volvulus and gastrointestinal obstruction. Large studies on congenital midgut malrotation in adults are rarely investigated. The current study aimed to explore the clinical profile and diagnostic modalities of congenital midgut malrotation in Chinese adult patients. Clinical and radiological data of eight adult patients with intestinal malrotation were retrospectively analyzed and related literatures were simultaneously reviewed. Mean age of patients was 41.25 years range, 14 to 63 years. Abdominal radiography and computerized tomography (CT) were conducted for all studied patients prior to surgery, and the diagnosis of congenital midgut malrotation was confirmed during surgery. All patients underwent volvulus reduction, Ladd's band loosening, and stage I appendectomy. In addition, three patients received additional extensive intestinal adhesion loosening, and one patient received resection of bowel up to 50 cm. All patients recovered well after surgery, and no recurrence and adhesive intestinal obstruction were reported. All three patients with malnutrition prior to surgery had gained significant weight. Thus, we consider that adult congenital intestinal malrotation accompanied with midgut volvulus should be treated with surgery as soon as possible. Preoperative colour ultrasonography and CT are helpful for definitive diagnosis.
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Rapid increase of scrub typhus: an epidemiology and spatial-temporal cluster analysis in Guangzhou City, Southern China, 2006-2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Scrub typhus has been increasingly reported in Southern China, and public health authorities are concerned about its increased incidence. Additionally, little evidence is available on the epidemiology of scrub typhus in Southern China. This study aims to analyze the epidemiological and geographic features of ST in Guangzhou City, Southern China, to guide the future prevention efforts.
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[Population genetic structure and interspecific introgressive hybridization between Camellia meiocarpa and C. oleifera].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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A total of 11 pairs of SSR primers were applied to study the genetic diversity of five sympatric populations of Camellia meiocarpa and C. oleifera, the populations genetic structure, and the interspecific introgressive hybridization. The alleles shared by the two species were 57, accounting for 96.6% of the total. There were two specific alleles in C. oleifera, but no specific alleles in C. meiocarpa. Certain difference was observed in the phenotypic frequency between the two species, and the intraspecific genetic diversity of the two species was high. At species level and population level, the polymorphism information content of the two species was between 0.25 and 0.50, suggesting that the genetic polymorphism was moderate. The mean value of genetic differentiation among the sympatric species was 0. 057, being obviously lower than that of the foreign species (C. meiocarpa 0.332; C. oleifera 0.201) and of xyloid angiosperms (0.102). The mean value of gene flow among the sympatric species was 10. 072, which was significantly higher than that among the foreign species (C. meiocarpa 1.006, C. oleifera 1.990). The UPGMA cluster results showed that the genetic relationship of the two species was very close to, meaning that there existed an obvious interspecific introgressive hybridization. C. meiocarpa was possibly a variety of C. oleifera as a result of the introgressive hybridization.
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[Preparation of chitosan/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite films on titanium and its FTIR characteristics].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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Chitosan/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHI/SrHAP) coatings were prepared on titanium substrate by electrochemical deposition technique containing Sr2+, Ca2+, PO4(3-) and Chitosan. The as-prepared coatings were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests. The results indicate that the CHI/SrHAP coatings take the morphology of flake-like rather than the needle-like crystal , and the composite coating becomes more compact. The FTIR test indicates that the typical vibration absorption peaks of chitosan (amide I and amide II) emerged, simulated body fluid immersion test proved that the CHI/SrHAP coatings had induced carbonate-apatite formation, indicating that the composite coating possesses excellent biocompatibility. In the electrochemical corrosion testing, that the CHI/SrHAP coatings showed stronger corrosion resistance than pure Ti.
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[Analyses of risk factors for intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To investigate the risk factors of intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).
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Cytosolic cleaved PINK1 represses Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2013
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PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase proposed to have a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease through the regulation of mitophagy. Here, we show that the PINK1 main cleavage product, PINK152, after being generated inside mitochondria, can exit these organelles and localize to the cytosol, where it is not only destined for degradation by the proteasome but binds to Parkin. The interaction of cytosolic PINK1 with Parkin represses Parkin translocation to the mitochondria and subsequent mitophagy. Our work therefore highlights the existence of two cellular pools of PINK1 that have different effects on Parkin translocation and mitophagy.
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A Low-Cost Method for Analyzing Nevirapine Levels in Hair as a Marker of Adherence in Resource-Limited Settings.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Abstract The measurement of antiretroviral concentrations in hair is emerging as an important technology to objectively quantify adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy. Hair levels of antiretrovirals are the strongest independent predictor of virologic success in large prospective cohorts of HIV-infected patients and surpass self-report in predicting outcomes. Hair is easy to collect and store, but validated methods to analyze antiretroviral levels in hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are expensive. We report here on the development of a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) assay for the semiquantitative analysis of nevirapine in hair. TLC assay results from 11 samples were consistent with results using LC-MS/MS [Spearman correlation coefficient 0.99 (95% CI 0.95-0.996)]. This simple, low-cost method of analyzing nevirapine concentrations in hair may provide a novel monitoring tool for antiretroviral adherence in resource-limited settings and merits further study in clinical settings.
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Synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds via a visible-light-promoted organocatalytic aerobic oxidation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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?,?-Unsaturated ketones and aldehydes have been synthesized from their corresponding silyl enol ethers in a straightforward protocol involving a visible-light promoted organocatalytic, aerobic oxidation reaction. A cheap organic dye was used catalytically in these reactions as the photosensitizer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.