JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Topographically-Designed Triboelectric Nanogenerator via Block Copolymer Self-Assembly.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herein, we report a facile and robust route to nanoscale tunable triboelectric energy harvesters realized by the formation of highly functional and controllable nanostructures via block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly. Our strategy is based on the incorporation of various silica nanostructures derived from the self-assembly of BCPs to enhance the characteristics of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) by modulating the contact-surface area and the frictional force. Our simulation data also confirm that the nanoarchitectured morphologies are effective for triboelectric generation.
Related JoVE Video
CXCR2 and its related ligands play a novel role in supporting the pluripotency and proliferation of human pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a crucial factor sustaining human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We designed this study to search the substitutive factors other than bFGF for the maintenance of hPSCs by using human placenta-derived conditioned medium without exogenous bFGF (hPCCM-), containing CXCR2 ligands including IL-8 and GRO?, which was developed on the basis of our previous studies. Firstly, we confirmed that IL-8 and/or GRO? play independent roles to preserve the phenotype of hPSCs. And, we tried CXCR2 blockage of hPSCs in hPCCM- and verified the significant decrease of pluripotency-associated genes expression and the proliferation of hPSCs. Interestingly, CXCR2 suppression of hPSCs in mTeSR™1 containing exogenous bFGF decreased the proliferation of hPSCs with maintaining pluripotency characteristics. Lastly, we found that hPSCs proliferated robustly for more than 35 passages in hPCCM- on a gelatin substratum. As well, the higher CXCR2 expression of hPSCs cultured in hPCCM- than those in mTeSR™1 was observable. Our findings suggest that, CXCR2 and its related ligands might be novel factors comparable to bFGF supporting the characteristics of hPSCs and hPCCM- might be useful for the maintenance of hPSCs as well as for the accurate evaluation of CXCR2 role on hPSCs without the confounding influence of exogenous bFGF.
Related JoVE Video
Significant Association of oncogene YAP1 with Poor Prognosis and Cetuximab Resistance in Colorectal Cancer Patients.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: Activation of YAP1, novel oncogene in Hippo pathway, has been observed in many cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated if activation of YAP1 is significantly associated with prognosis or treatment outcomes in CRC Experimental Design: A gene expression signature reflecting YAP1 activation was identified in CRC cells, and CRC patients were stratified into two groups according to this signature: activated YAP1 CRC (AYCC) or inactivated YAP1 CRC (IYCC). Stratified patients in five test cohorts were evaluated to determine the effect of the signature on CRC prognosis and response to cetuximab treatment. Results: The activated YAP1 signature was associated with poor prognosis for CRC in four independent patient cohorts with stage I-III disease (total n = 1,028). In a multivariate analysis, the impact of the YAP1 signature on the disease-free survival was independent of other clinical variables [hazard ratio (HR), 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.13; P < 0.001]. In patients with stage IV CRC and wild-type KRAS, IYCC patients had a better disease control rate and progression-free survival (PFS) after cetuximab monotherapy than did AYCC patients; however, in patients with KRAS mutations, PFS duration after cetuximab monotherapy was not different between IYCC and AYCC patients. In multivariate analysis, the effect of YAP1 activation on PFS was independent of KRAS mutation status and other clinical variables (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.05-3.16; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Activation of YAP1 is highly associated with poor prognosis for CRC and may be useful in identifying patients with metastatic CRC resistant to cetuximab.
Related JoVE Video
Atypical retinopathy in patients with NPHP type 1: an uncommon ophthalmologic finding.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Progressive retinal degeneration without retinal pigmentation has been repeatedly observed in Korean nephronophthisis (NPHP) type 1 patients with a total homozygous deletion of NPHP1.
Related JoVE Video
A randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of extended-release and immediate-release tramadol HCl/acetaminophen in patients with acute pain following total knee replacement.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol HCl 75?mg/acetaminophen 650?mg (TA-ER) and immediate-release tramadol HCl 37.5?mg/acetaminophen 325?mg (TA-IR) for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain following total knee replacement. Methods: This phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study randomized 320 patients with moderate to severe pain (?4 intensity on an 11 point numeric rating scale) following total knee replacement arthroplasty to receive oral TA-ER (every 12 hours) or TA-IR (every 6 hours) over a period of 48 hours. In the primary analysis, TA-ER was evaluated for efficacy non-inferior to that of TA-IR based on the sum of pain intensity difference (SPID) at 48 hours after the first dose of study drug (SPID48). Secondary endpoints included SPID at additional time points, total pain relief at all on-therapy time points (TOTPAR), sum of SPID and TOTPAR at all on-therapy time points (SPID?+?TOTPAR), use of rescue medication, subjective pain assessment (PGIC, Patient Global Impression of Change), and adverse events (AEs). Results: Analysis of the primary efficacy endpoint (SPID48) could not establish the non-inferiority of TA-ER to TA-IR. However, a post hoc analysis with a re-defined non-inferiority margin did demonstrate the non-inferiority of TA-ER to TA-IR. No statistically significant difference in SPID at 6, 12, or 24 hours was observed between the TA-ER and TA-IR groups. Similarly, analysis of TOTPAR showed that there were no significant differences between groups at any on-therapy time point, and SPID?+?TOTPAR at 6 and 48 hours were similar among groups. There was no difference in the mean frequency or dosage of rescue medication required by both groups, and the majority of patients in both the TA-ER and TA-IR groups rated their pain improvement as 'much' or 'somewhat better'. The overall incidence of ?1 AEs was similar among the TA-ER (88.8%) and TA-IR (89.5%) groups. The most commonly reported AEs by patients treated with TA-ER and TA-IR included nausea (49.7% vs 44.4%), vomiting (28.0% vs 24.2%), and decreased hemoglobin (23.6% vs 26.1%). This study is limited by the lack of placebo control, and the invalidity of the initial non-inferiority margin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the analgesic effect of TA-ER is non-inferior to TA-IR, and supports TA-ER as an effective and safe treatment for moderate to severe acute pain post total knee replacement. Clinical trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01814878.
Related JoVE Video
Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita.
Plant Pathol. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ? 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficient of variance (CV) of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of AprE176, a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus subtilis HK176.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacillus subtilis HK176 with high fibrinolytic activity was isolated from Cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soyfood. A gene, aprE176, encoding the major fibrinolytic enzyme was cloned from B. subtilis HK176 and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using pET26b(+). The specific activity of purified AprE176 was 216.8 ± 5.4 plasmin unit/mg protein and the optimum pH and temperature were pH 8.0 and 40°C, respectively. Error-prone PCR was performed for aprE176 and PCR products were introduced into E. coli BL21(DE3) after ligated with pET26b(+). Mutants showing enhanced fibrinolytic activities were screened first using skim milk plates and then fibrin plates. Among the mutants, M179 showed the highest activity on a fibrin plate and it had one amino acid substitution (A176T). The specific activity of M179 was 2.2-fold higher than that of wild type enzyme but the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of M179 was not different from wild type enzyme due to reduced substrate affinity. Interestingly, M179 showed increased thermostability. M179 retained 36% of activity after 5 h at 45°C whereas AprE176 retained only 11%. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the 176(th) residue of M179, threonine, was located near the cation binding site compared with the wild type. This probably caused tight binding of M179 with Ca(2+), which increased the thermostability of M179.
Related JoVE Video
Renal Pathology: SY23-2 A CASE OF PERSISTENT LOW C3 SERUM LEVEL WITH MPGN PATTERN: FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW UP.
Pathology
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 10-year-old girl visited for microscopic hematuria and proteinuria on school urine screening. She was asymptomatic with normal renal function. Persistent C3 hypocomplementemia led her to a kidney biopsy. First biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) pattern with only C3 deposition on IF and mesangial electron dense deposits. She was under supportive therapy including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor for over two years. During the period, she did not have renal symptoms nor proteinuria. But microscopic hematuria and C3 hypocomplementemia had persisted. After 33 months of treatment, the patient quit medication on her own. Over one year later, she revisited clinic with microscopic hematuria and normal renal function at the age of 15. She denied of any symptoms during the entire period. Kidney function was within normal range, without decline, and C3 hypocomplementemia persisted. A second kidney biopsy was taken for nephrotic-range proteinuria (53.37?mg/m2/hr). Points of interest: (1) Morphologic progression of this GN after five years with only supportive therapy, (2) pathogenesis and treatment strategies, so far.
Related JoVE Video
Lymph node status did not significantly improve the predictability of survival in patients with clinically early-stage endometrial cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether knowledge of lymph node status improves survival prediction in clinically early-stage endometrial cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic ?-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL) are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND), HFD (60 kcal% fat diet), EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt) EASL), and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt) pinitol) groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), paired box 4 (Pax4), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating ?-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic components and recurrence in early-stage cervical cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological evidence suggests that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer. However, research on the impact of MetS on prognosis in cervical cancer is lacking. This study investigated the association between MetS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. This is a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II cervical cancer in three tertiary hospitals during 2006-2009. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the association between MetS or MetS components and RFS. We were able to evaluate MetS status in 84 patients out of 127. Forty patients had MetS. RFS was not significantly different according to MetS status; however, there was no further event of recurrence in non-MetS group after 2 years from primary surgical treatment. Hypertriglyceridemia (HR 3.67, 95 % CI 1.18-11.43) and impaired fasting glucose (HR 4.30, 95 % CI 1.23-15.03) were independent risk factors for shorter RFS, after adjustment for age, lymph node involvement, tumor involvement of resection margin, parametrial invasion, FIGO stage at diagnosis, and adjuvant treatment. Hypertriglyceridemia and impaired fasting glucose were associated with higher risk of recurrence in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Prospective validation in large populations and further studies on the impact of MetS treatment in patients with cervical cancer are warranted.
Related JoVE Video
TWIK-1 contributes to the intrinsic excitability of dentate granule cells in mouse hippocampus.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundTwo-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels have been shown to modulate neuronal excitability. However, physiological function of TWIK-1, the first identified member of the mammalian K2P channel family, in neuronal cells is largely unknown.ResultsWe found that TWIK-1 proteins were expressed and localized mainly in the soma and proximal dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs) rather than in distal dendrites or mossy fibers. Gene silencing demonstrates that the outwardly rectifying K+ current density was reduced in TWIK-1-deficient granule cells. TWIK-1 deficiency caused a depolarizing shift in the resting membrane potential (RMP) of DGGCs and enhanced their firing rate in response to depolarizing current injections. Through perforant path stimulation, TWIK-1 deficient granule cells showed altered signal input-output properties with larger EPSP amplitude values and increased spiking compared to control DGGCs. In addition, supra-maximal perforant path stimulation evoked a graded burst discharge in 44% of TWIK-1-deficient cells, which implies impairment of EPSP-spike coupling.ConclusionsThese results showed that TWIK-1 is functionally expressed in DGGCs and contributes to the intrinsic excitability of these cells. The TWIK-1 channel is involved in establishing the RMP of DGGCs; it attenuates sub-threshold depolarization of the cells during neuronal activity, and contributes to EPSP-spike coupling in perforant path-to-granule cell synaptic transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Biocatalytic properties and substrate-binding ability of a modular GH10 ?-1,4-xylanase from an insect-symbiotic bacterium, Streptomyces mexicanus HY-14.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The gene (1350-bp) encoding a modular ?-1,4-xylanase (XylU), which consists of an N-terminal catalytic GH10 domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module 2 (CBM 2), from Streptomyces mexicanus HY-14 was cloned and functionally characterized. The purified His-tagged recombinant enzyme (rXylU, 44.0 kDa) was capable of efficiently hydrolyze diverse xylosidic compounds, p-nitrophenyl-cellobioside, and p-nitrophenyl-xylopyranoside when incubated at pH 5.5 and 65°C. Especially, the specific activities (649.8 U/mg and 587.0 U/mg, respectively) of rXylU toward oat spelts xylan and beechwood xylan were relatively higher than those (<500.0 U/mg) of many other GH10 homologs toward the same substrates. The results of enzymatic degradation of birchwood xylan and xylooligosaccharides (xylotriose to xylohexaose) revealed that rXylU preferentially hydrolyzed the substrates to xylobiose (>75%) as the primary degradation product. Moreover, a small amount (4%<) of xylose was detected as the degradation product of the evaluated xylosidic substrates, indicating that rXylU was a peculiar GH10 ?-1,4-xylanase with substrate specificity, which was different from its retaining homologs. A significant reduction of the binding ability of rXylU caused by deletion of the C-terminal CBM 2 to various insoluble substrates strongly suggested that the additional domain might considerably contribute to the enzyme-substrate interaction.
Related JoVE Video
A Novel Cytosolic Isoform of Mitochondrial Trans-2-Enoyl-CoA Reductase Enhances Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Activity.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (MECR) is involved in mitochondrial synthesis of fatty acids and is highly expressed in mitochondria. MECR is also known as nuclear receptor binding factor-1, which was originally reported with yeast two-hybrid screening as a binding protein of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). However, MECR and PPAR? are localized at different compartment, mitochondria, and the nucleus, respectively. Therefore, the presence of a cytosolic or nuclear isoform of MECR is necessary for functional interaction between MECR and PPAR?.
Related JoVE Video
Central emboli rather than saddle emboli predict adverse outcomes in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the prognostic implications of saddle or central emboli, as observed on computed tomography (CT), remain to be established. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the presence of saddle and central emboli could be used to predict clinical outcomes in patients with PE.
Related JoVE Video
Novel alkali-tolerant GH10 endo-?-1,4-xylanase with broad substrate specificity from Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gut bacterium of the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The XylH gene (1,167-bp) encoding a novel hemicellulase (41,584 Da) was identified from the genome of Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gastrointestinal bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis. The enzyme consisted of a single catalytic domain, which is 74% identical to that of an endo-?-1,4-xylanase (GH10) from Isoptericola variabilis 225. Unlike other endo-?- 1,4-xylanases from invertebrate-symbiotic bacteria, rXylH was an alkali-tolerant multifunctional enzyme possessing endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity together with ?-1,3/?-1,4- glucanase activity, which exhibited its highest xylanolytic activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C, and was relatively stable within a broad pH range of 5.0-10.0. The susceptibilities of different xylosebased polysaccharides to the XylH were assessed to be as follows: oat spelts xylan > beechwood xylan > birchwood xylan > wheat arabinoxylan. rXylH was also able to readily cleave p-nitrophenyl (pNP) cellobioside and pNP-xylopyranoside, but did not hydrolyze other pNP-sugar derivatives, xylobiose, or hexose-based materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of birchwood xylan resulted in the product composition of xylobiose (71.2%) and xylotriose (28.8%) as end products.
Related JoVE Video
Sigma-1 Receptor Stimulation Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells from Ischemia-Like Insult through the Activation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinases1/2.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sigma-1 receptor (?-1) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine if ?-1 receptor stimulation with pentazocine could promote neuroprotection under conditions of an ischemia-like insult (oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)) through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK)1/2. Primary RGCs were isolated from P3-P7 Sprague-Dawley rats and purified by sequential immunopanning using Thy 1.1 antibodies. RGCs were cultured for 7 days before subjecting the cells to an OGD insult (0.5% oxygen in glucose-free medium) for 6 hours. During the OGD, RGCs were treated with pentazocine (?-1 receptor agonist) with or without BD 1047 (?-1 receptor antagonist). In other experiments, primary RGCs were treated with pentazocine in the presence or absence of an MEK1/2 inhibitor, PD098059. Cell survival/death was assessed by staining with the calcein-AM/ethidium homodimer reagent. Levels of pERK1/2, total ERK1/2, and beta tubulin expression were determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining. RGCs subjected to OGD for 6 hours induced 50% cell death in primary RGCs (p<0.001) and inhibited pERK1/2 expression by 65% (p<0.001). Cell death was attenuated when RGCs were treated with pentazocine under OGD (p<0.001) and pERK1/2 expression was increased by 1.6 fold (p<0.05) compared to OGD treated RGCs without pentazocine treatment. The co-treatment of PD098059 (MEK 1/2 inhibitor) with pentazocine significantly abolished the protective effects of pentazocine on the RGCs during this OGD insult. Activation of the ?-1 receptor is a neuroprotective target that can protect RGCs from an ischemia-like insult. These results also established a direct relationship between ?-1 receptor stimulation and the neuroprotective effects of the ERK1/2 pathway in purified RGCs subjected to OGD. These findings suggest that activation of the ?-1 receptor may be a therapeutic target for neuroprotection particularly relevant to ocular neurodegenerative diseases that effect RGCs..
Related JoVE Video
Light-inducible receptor tyrosine kinases that regulate neurotrophin signalling.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell-surface receptors that have a key role in regulating critical cellular processes. Here, to understand and precisely control RTK signalling, we report the development of a genetically encoded, photoactivatable Trk (tropomyosin-related kinase) family of RTKs using a light-responsive module based on Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2. Blue-light stimulation (488 nm) of mammalian cells harbouring these receptors robustly upregulates canonical Trk signalling. A single light stimulus triggers transient signalling activation, which is reversibly tuned by repetitive delivery of blue-light pulses. In addition, the light-provoked process is induced in a spatially restricted and cell-specific manner. A prolonged patterned illumination causes sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and promotes neurite outgrowth in a neuronal cell line, and induces filopodia formation in rat hippocampal neurons. These light-controllable receptors are expected to create experimental opportunities to spatiotemporally manipulate many biological processes both in vitro and in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Liver X receptors alpha gene (NR1H3) promoter polymorphisms are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Koreans.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Liver X receptors are established sensors of lipid and cholesterol homeostasis. Recent studies have reported that these receptors are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. We attempted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NR1H3 gene associated with the susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Related JoVE Video
Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 suppresses inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was performed to investigate the effect of secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5), a novel anti-inflammatory adipokine that competes with the frizzled proteins for Wnt binding, on inflammatory response and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling pathway in RA.
Related JoVE Video
Depletion of 14-3-3? reduces the surface expression of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4b (TRPM4b) channels and attenuates TRPM4b-mediated glutamate-induced neuronal cell death.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TRPM4 channels are Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channels which are deeply involved in physiological and pathological conditions. However, their trafficking mechanism and binding partners are still elusive.
Related JoVE Video
Delta neutrophil index as an early marker for differential diagnosis of adult-onset Still's disease and sepsis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate clinical implications of delta neutrophil index (DNI) to discriminate adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) from sepsis.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of the efficacy and safety profiles of a pelubiprofen versus celecoxib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority clinical trial.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pelubiprofen is a prodrug of 2-arylpropionic acid with relatively selective effects on cyclooxygenase-2 activity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety profiles of pelubiprofen with those of celecoxib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Related JoVE Video
A detached arthroscopic lens within the shoulder joint: a case report.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shoulder arthroscopy has become a common procedure in today's orthopedic practice. The safety of this procedure has been well established, but there are some complications associated with every surgical procedure both minor and major. In the present era, with advanced arthroscopic instruments, it is rare to encounter the problem of instrument breakage during arthroscopic surgery. Here, we report an unusual case in which we found a detached arthroscopic lens within the shoulder joint. A 58-year-old male patient who was previously operated for shoulder arthroscopy for the treatment of impingement syndrome combined with shoulder stiffness. We performed shoulder arthroscopy again and removed the detached lens arthroscopically. This case warrants the need for the surgeon and the operating room staff to be well acquainted with the arthroscopic instruments and to check the instruments properly before and after the completion of the procedure. If the operating room staff would have identified the damage to the scope, encountered during the primary operation, we could have avoided the second procedure to remove the lens.
Related JoVE Video
Muscle involvement in Dent disease 2.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dent disease, an X-linked recessive renal tubulopathy, is caused by mutations in either CLCN5 (Dent disease 1) or OCRL (Dent disease 2). OCRL mutations can also cause Lowe syndrome. In some cases it is difficult to differentiate Dent disease 1 and 2 on the basis of clinical features only without genetic tests. Several studies have shown differences in serum levels of muscle enzymes between these diseases. The aim of our study was to test the validity of these findings.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of articular cartilage repair with different hydrogel-human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell composites in a rat model.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present work was designed to explore the feasibility and efficacy of articular cartilage repair using composites of human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) and four different hydrogels in a rat model.
Related JoVE Video
CDK5-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1 during neuronal maturation.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial functions are essential for the survival and function of neurons. Recently, it has been demonstrated that mitochondrial functions are highly associated with mitochondrial morphology, which is dynamically changed by the balance between fusion and fission. Mitochondrial morphology is primarily controlled by the activation of dynamin-related proteins including dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which promotes mitochondrial fission. Drp1 activity is regulated by several post-translational modifications, thereby modifying mitochondrial morphology. Here, we found that phosphorylation of Drp1 at serine 616 (S616) is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in post-mitotic rat neurons. Perturbation of CDK5 activity modified the level of Drp1S616 phosphorylation and mitochondrial morphology in neurons. In addition, phosphorylated Drp1S616 preferentially localized as a cytosolic monomer compared with total Drp1. Furthermore, roscovitine, a chemical inhibitor of CDKs, increased oligomerization and mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, suggesting that CDK5-dependent phosphorylation of Drp1 serves to reduce Drp1's fission-promoting activity. Taken together, we propose that CDK5 has a significant role in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology via inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1S616 in post-mitotic neurons.
Related JoVE Video
Active tuberculosis risk with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors after treating latent tuberculosis.
J Clin Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Active tuberculosis (TB) risk increases during anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy; therefore, latent TB infection (LTBI) screening is recommended in potential TNF inhibitor users. It is unclear whether anti-TNF therapy increases the risk of active TB infection even after standard LTBI treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Two-stage approach to primary TKA in infected arthritic knees using intraoperatively molded articulating cement spacers.
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The treatment of knee arthritis with coexistent bone or joint sepsis is challenging. Despite the condition causing considerable morbidity, there is no generally agreed-upon approach to its treatment.
Related JoVE Video
A Web-based nomogram predicting para-aortic nodal metastasis in incompletely staged patients with endometrial cancer: a Korean Multicenter Study.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study is to develop a Web-based nomogram for predicting the individualized risk of para-aortic nodal metastasis in incompletely staged patients with endometrial cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of mortality attributable to Clostridium difficile infection in patients with underlying malignancy.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the clinical severity and treatment outcomes of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and identifying predictors associated with mortality in patients with malignancy.
Related JoVE Video
Arthroscopic debridement for acutely infected prosthetic knee: any role for infection control and prosthesis salvage?
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate of arthroscopic debridement guided by C-reactive protein (CRP) levels for acutely infected total knee prostheses.
Related JoVE Video
Differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes between adult and child patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to investigate differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes between adult and child patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), and to analyze the factors associated with poor prognosis for HSP nephritis. This retrospective 10-yr study enrolled 160 patients with HSP who visited Severance Hospital. Purpura was mostly detected in lower extremities, but purpura in upper extremities was more frequently observed in adults than children (41.7% vs 19.3%). Children had a greater frequency of arthralgia (55.4% vs 27.1%), while adults had a greater frequency of diarrhea (20% vs 1.6%). Anemia, elevated C-reactive protein, and level of IgA were more frequently observed in adults (25% vs 7.1%, 65.6% vs 38.4%, 26.3% vs 3.5%). Renal involvement in adults was more severe than in children (79.2% vs 30.4%). Chronic renal failure showed a significant difference in outcomes of HSP between adults (10.4%) and children (1.8%) after a follow up period of an average of 27 months. Furthermore, renal insufficiency at diagnosis was significantly related to the progression to chronic renal failure. Our results showed several differences in the clinical features of HSP between adults and children. Adults with HSP had a higher frequency of renal insufficiency and worse renal outcomes than children. Renal insufficiency at diagnosis might be of predictive value for the progression to chronic renal failure in HSP patients.
Related JoVE Video
Adaptive skills and somatization in children with epilepsy.
Epilepsy Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective. Children with epilepsy are at risk for less than optimum long-term outcomes. The type and severity of their epilepsy may contribute to educational, psychological, and social outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between somatization and adaptive skills based on seizure type that could impact on those outcomes. Methods. This study examined adaptive functioning and somatization in 87 children with epilepsy using archival data from a tertiary care facility. Results. No significant differences in adaptive skills emerged between groups of children diagnosed with complex partial (CP) as compared to CP-secondary generalized (SG) seizures; however, deficits in adaptive behavior were found for both groups. The number of medications, possibly reflecting the severity of the epilepsy, was highly correlated to adaptive function. Conclusions. Identification of deficits in adaptive behavior may represent an opportunity for tailored prevention and intervention programming for children with epilepsy. Addressing functional deficits may lead to improved outcomes for these children.
Related JoVE Video
Concurrent use of methotrexate and celecoxib increases risk of silent liver fibrosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with subclinical reduced kidney function.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the effects of concurrent use of methotrexate and celecoxib on silent liver and kidney damages in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We enrolled 92 RA patients with normal laboratory results related to liver and kidney functions, who had received methotrexate and celecoxib concurrently over 6 months. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using transient elastography and ultrasonography were performed along with blood and urine tests. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by both the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. Initial eGFR represented kidney function at the time of the initiation of celecoxib. The cutoff for abnormal LSM values was adopted as 5.3 kPa. The optimal cutoff of each eGFR for abnormal LSM values was also calculated. The median age of patients was 55 years old (74 women). The median LSM was 4.4 kPa and the median eGFRs and median initial eGFRs ranged from 89 to 99 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The cumulative doses of methotrexate and celecoxib and their concurrent administration duration did not affect LSM values and eGFRs. Both eGFRs were significantly associated with LSM values. Patients with initial eGFR(CKD-EPI), initial eGFR(MDRD), and eGFR(CKD-EPI) below each optimal cutoff had significantly high risks for silent liver fibrosis (RR 9.4, 10.3, and 4.4, p?
Related JoVE Video
Effect of arazyme on the lipopolysaccharide?induced inflammatory response in human endothelial cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arazyme is a novel extracellular metalloprotease secreted by Aranicola proteolyticus. Endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases, induce uncontrolled cell viability and express various inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the current study, human umbilical vein endothelilal cells (HUVECs) were used to investigate the anti?inflammatory effects of arazyme following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Apoptosis of HUVECs due to LPS was inhibited by arazyme. In various inflammatory responses induced by LPS, arazyme inhibited the secretion of the monocyte chemoattractant protein?1 and interleukin?6, and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule?1 and intercellular adhesion molecule?1. Arazyme also suppressed ROS production in HUVECs. The action of arazyme was not associated with NF??B activity in HUVECs. These results indicate that arazyme has anti?inflammatory properties in inflamed endothelial cells and may be useful as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases associated with endothelial cells.
Related JoVE Video
A disulphide-linked heterodimer of TWIK-1 and TREK-1 mediates passive conductance in astrocytes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TWIK-1 is a member of the two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channel family that plays an essential part in the regulation of resting membrane potential and cellular excitability. The physiological role of TWIK-1 has remained enigmatic because functional expression of TWIK-1 channels is elusive. Here we report that native TWIK-1 forms a functional channel at the plasma membrane of astrocytes. A search for TWIK-1-binding proteins led to the identification of TREK-1, another member of the K2P family. The TWIK-1/TREK-1 heterodimeric channel is formed via a disulphide bridge between residue C69 in TWIK-1 and C93 in TREK-1. Gene silencing demonstrates that surface expression of TWIK-1 and TREK-1 are interdependent. TWIK-1/TREK-1 heterodimers mediate astrocytic passive conductance and cannabinoid-induced glutamate release from astrocytes. Our study sheds new light on the diversity of K2P channels.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of scoliosis angle on center of gravity sway.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of idiopathic scoliosis on the human body by comparing the postural balance of adolescents with and without idiopathic scoliosis, to provide basic data for the optimal desirable growth and development of adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects were 128 adolescents diagnosed with scoliosis on X-ray by orthopedists. The subjects were divided into a 10 to 19 degree group, 20 to 29 degree group, and 30 degree and over group according to the degree of scoliosis. For comparison, 15 normal adolescents without orthopedic injury within the last 6 months were selected as a control group. [Methods] As measurement tools, DK2 525R (Dongkang Medical: Korea) was used to measure the Cobb angle and a multifunktional traininggeraete device (MFT, Germany) was used to measure balance. One-way variance of analysis was conducted in order to examine differences among the four groups in left and right balance, forward and backward balance, and overall postural balance, and when there were differences, they were compared in detail using Duncan's post-hoc test. [Results] The results of scoliosis angle and body mass index (BMI) showed significant differences between the normal group (NG) and the scoliosis groups (GI, G II, G III), but there were no significant differences among the scoliosis groups. The scoliosis groups showed a significantly lower BMI than that of the normal group. In addition, the results of the left/right and the front/rear balance abilities showed significant differences between the normal group and the scoliosis groups. Furthermore, the results of whole body balance ability were showed significant differences between the normal group and the scoliosis groups.
Related JoVE Video
The necessity of clinical application of tibial reduction for detection of underestimated posterolateral rotatory instability in combined posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner deficient knee.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of tibial reduction during dial test for clinical detection of underestimated posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI) in combined posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-posterolateral corner (PLC) deficient knee in terms of external rotation laxity and clinical outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Usefulness of serum leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein as a disease activity biomarker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our study aimed to investigate whether serum leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) levels are elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we assessed their correlation with disease activity parameters and pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Our study included 69 patients with RA and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Serum concentrations of TNF-? and LRG were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum LRG concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with RA compared with those in healthy controls (30.8 ± 14.4 vs. 22.2 ± 6.1 ng/mL; P<0.001). In patients with RA, serum LRG levels were found to be correlated with disease activity score 28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels (?=0.671; ?=0.612; and ?=0.601, P<0.001, respectively), but not with serum TNF-? levels. Serum LRG levels in patients with an active disease status (DAS28?2.6) were significantly higher than those in remission (DAS28<2.6) (36.45 ± 14.36 vs. 24.63 ± 8.81 ng/mL; P<0.001). Our findings suggest that serum LRG could contribute to the inflammatory process independent of TNF-? and it may be a novel biomarker for assessing inflammatory activity in patients with RA.
Related JoVE Video
Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.
Related JoVE Video
Soluble CD93 levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction and its implication on clinical outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is unclear whether marker of immune activation will provide prognostic information in these patients. We hypothesized that circulating levels of soluble CD93 (sCD93), a soluble form of transmembrane glycoprotein CD93, is increased in acute MI patients and its level would be associated with clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI.
Related JoVE Video
Allelic heterogeneity in NCF2 associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility across four ethnic populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent reports have associated NCF2, encoding a core component of the multi-protein NADPH oxidase (NADPHO), with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in individuals of European ancestry. To identify ethnicity-specific and -robust variants within NCF2, we assessed 145 SNPs in and around the NCF2 gene in 5325 cases and 21 866 controls of European-American (EA), African-American (AA), Hispanic (HS) and Korean (KR) ancestry. Subsequent imputation, conditional, haplotype and bioinformatic analyses identified seven potentially functional SLE-predisposing variants. Association with non-synonymous rs17849502, previously reported in EA, was detected in EA, HS and AA (PEA = 1.01 × 10(-54), PHS = 3.68 × 10(-10), PAA = 0.03); synonymous rs17849501 was similarly significant. These SNPs were monomorphic in KR. Novel associations were detected with coding variants at rs35937854 in AA (PAA = 1.49 × 10(-9)), and rs13306575 in HS and KR (PHS = 7.04 × 10(-7), PKR = 3.30 × 10(-3)). In KR, a 3-SNP haplotype was significantly associated (P = 4.20 × 10(-7)), implying that SLE predisposing variants were tagged. Significant SNP-SNP interaction (P = 0.02) was detected between rs13306575 and rs17849502 in HS, and a dramatically increased risk (OR = 6.55) with a risk allele at each locus. Molecular modeling predicts that these non-synonymous mutations could disrupt NADPHO complex assembly. The risk allele of rs17849501, located in a conserved transcriptional regulatory region, increased reporter gene activity, suggesting in vivo enhancer function. Our results not only establish allelic heterogeneity within NCF2 associated with SLE, but also emphasize the utility of multi-ethnic cohorts to identify predisposing variants explaining additional phenotypic variance (missing heritability) of complex diseases like SLE.
Related JoVE Video
Serum adipokine levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients and their contributions to the resistance to treatment.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether disease activity and the type of therapy differentially modulate serum adipokine levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and whether pre-therapy adipokine levels contribute to resistance to treatment. Fasting blood samples from 40 RA patients were obtained at baseline and six months following therapeutic treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? blockers. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Baseline adipokine levels did not exhibit a statistically significant difference when comparing patients with moderate and high disease activity, based on the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28). Of all the adipokines, only adiponectin was significantly increased in patients responding to DMARDs and/or TNF-? blocker therapy, based on the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) at six months (2,964±1,237 to 3,683±1,511 ng/ml, P<0.01). However, adiponectin levels in non-responders did not significantly increase (3,192±2,090 to 3,222±1,150 ng/ml). By contrast, there were no statistically significant changes in leptin, resistin or visfatin levels in either the responders or non-responders. Serum adipokine (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and resistin) levels in RA patients did not significantly change following therapy, with the exception of adiponectin. Adipokine levels may not contribute to therapeutic resistance to DMARDs and/or TNF-? blocking agents.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic implications of computed tomographic right ventricular dilation in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether right ventricular (RV) dilation on computerized tomography (RVD-CT) is a useful predictor for clinical outcomes of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains debatable. Furthermore, data regarding the best combination of prognostic markers for predicting the adverse outcome of PE are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target: recommendations assessment questionnaire in Korea.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to target (T2T) is an international initiative to provide the rheumatology community with clear direction on treatment targets for RA. We performed a nationwide survey in Korea among rheumatologists to measure the levels of agreement with international T2T recommendations and to assess their practical application in Korea. A questionnaire was administered to 111 physicians. Responses were assessed using a 10-point Likert scale for the level of agreement with each of 10 recommendations and a 4-point Likert scale for the degree to which each recommendation was being applied in current daily practice. Respondents were also asked whether these recommendations would result in a change in their practice. This report outlines the consensus reached for T2T in Korea and compares those results with data obtained internationally. Agreement with T2T recommendations was high with average response scores above 8.3. The majority of respondents indicated they applied the recommendations "always" and "very often" in daily practice. More than half of the participants not currently applying these recommendations were willing to change their practice, but the percentage of Korean physicians willing to change was consistently more than the international average. The results of this survey of T2T recommendations in Korean rheumatologists revealed a good correlation with the views of the international rheumatology community. These results could be utilized to define key issues for better disease control in daily practice and used as a reference to improve the treatment environment.
Related JoVE Video
Primary amyloid goiter mimicking rapid growing thyroid malignancy.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amyloid accumulation in the thyroid gland leading to a clinically detectable mass, known as amyloid goiter, is a rare condition associated with primary amyloidosis. Moreover, a localized primary amyloid goiter involving only the thyroid gland is rarer still. Here, we report a patient with a localized primary amyloid goiter that had grown rapidly, causing dysphagia and dyspnea on exercise, and confused us with malignancy such as anaplastic carcinoma. After surgery, no further symptoms occurred. A diagnosis of amyloid goiter was established on microscopic examination. In patients with a rapidly enlarging thyroid gland presenting with dysphagia, dyspnea, or hoarseness, amyloid goiter and malignancy should both be suspected, even when systemic amyloidosis is not suspected.
Related JoVE Video
The molecular mechanism of NELL2 movement and secretion in hippocampal progenitor HiB5 cells.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neural epidermal growth factor-like protein-like 2 (NELL2) is a secreted glycoprotein that is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, but little is known about the intracellular movement and secretion mechanism of this protein. By monitoring the localization and movements of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled NELL2 in living cultured hippocampal neuroprogenitor HiB5 cells, we determined the subcellular localization of NELL2 and its intracellular movement and secretion mechanism. Cterminal EGFP-fused NELL2 showed a typical expression pattern of secreted proteins, especially with respect to its localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and punctate structures. Vesicles containing NELL2 exhibited bidirectional movement in HiB5 cells. The majority of the vesicles (70.1%) moved in an anterograde direction with an average velocity of 0.454 ?m/s, whereas some vesicles (28.7%) showed retrograde movement with an average velocity of 0.302 ?m/s. The movement patterns of NELL2 vesicles were dependent upon the presence of microtubules in HiB5 cells. Anterograde movement of NELL2 did not lead to a detectable accumulation of NELL2 in the peripheral region of the cell, indicating that it was secreted into the culture medium. We also showed that the N-terminal 29 amino acids of NELL2 were important for secretion of this protein. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the N-terminal region of NELL2 determines both the pattern of its intracellular expression and transport of NELL2 vesicles by high-velocity movement. Therefore, NELL2 may affect the cellular activity of cells in a paracrine or autocrine manner.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? suppresses inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes and collagen-induced arthritis.
Joint Bone Spine
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, a serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated as a regulator of the inflammatory response. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of selective GSK-3? inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes of ovarian preservation in a cohort of premenopausal women with early-stage endometrial cancer: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ovarian preservation on the recurrence and survival rates of premenopausal women with early-stage endometrial cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Arazyme inhibits cytokine expression and upregulates skin barrier protein expression.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, the inhibitory effect of arazyme on allergic inflammation was investigated by evaluating the alteration of cytokine production and expression of skin barrier proteins in immune and HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. THP?1 human monocytic and EoL?1 human eosinophilic cells were treated with Dermatophagoides pteronissinus extract (DpE). Monocyte chemotactic protein?1 (MCP?1)/CCL2, interleukin (IL)?6 and IL?8 increased following DpE treatment and arazyme significantly blocked the increase of MCP?1, IL?6 and IL?8 expression in cell types. Secretion of MCP?1, IL?6 and IL?8 induced by lipopolysaccharide in THP?1 cells was also inhibited by arazyme treatment. Arazyme inhibited the secretion of IL?6 and IL?8 due to phorbol 12?myristate 13?acetate and calcium ionophores in human mast cells. Arazyme blocked the secretion of thymus and activation?regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17, MCP?1, IL?6 and IL?8 due to tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and interferon?? (IFN??) in HaCaT cells. TNF?? and IFN?? suppressed the expression of skin barrier proteins, including filaggrin, involucrin and loricrin. By contrast, arazyme increased the expression of filaggrin, involucrin and loricrin. These results may contribute to the development of a therapeutic drug for the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.
Related JoVE Video
Ethnic specificity of lupus-associated loci identified in a genome-wide association study in Korean women.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To identify novel genetic candidates for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the Korean population, and to validate the risk loci for SLE identified in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). METHODS: We performed a GWAS in 400 Korean female SLE patients and 445 controls. Selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were then replicated in an independent cohort of 385 SLE patients and 583 controls (replication cohort 1), and in a further 811 SLE patients and 1502 controls (replication cohort 2). RESULTS: In the GWAS phase, rs9275428 located near HLA-DQB1 showed the strongest association with SLE (OR 0.50, false discovery rate (FDR) p=3.07×10(-6)). Although no loci reached genome-wide significance outside major histocompatibility complex (MHC), C8orf13-BLK, STAT4, CSMD1, DIAPH3, GLDC and TNFSF4 showed FDR p?
Related JoVE Video
Adipokines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation is thought to be an important factor in accelerated atherosclerosis in RA, whereas insulin resistance is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis in RA. We hypothesised that adipokines could be a link between inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis in RA.
Related JoVE Video
Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
The concomitant use of meloxicam and methotrexate does not clearly increase the risk of silent kidney and liver damages in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated whether the concomitant use of meloxicam and methotrexate might induce kidney and liver damages in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We enrolled 101 RA patients with normal kidney and liver functions taking meloxicam and methotrexate concomitantly for more than 6 months. Blood and urine tests were performed. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were used for evaluating silent kidney and liver damages. Ultrasonography was also performed to exclude structural abnormalities. We adopted 90 mL/min/1.73 mm(2) and 5.3 kPa as the cutoff for an abnormal eGFR and LSM. The mean age (85 women) was 51.9 years. The mean eGFR was 97.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and the mean LSM was 4.7 kPa. The mean weekly dose of methotrexate was 13.4 mg. The mean weekly dose of methotrexate did not correlate with eGFR or LSM. Neither the cumulative dose of meloxicam or methotrexate nor the mean weekly dose of methotrexate showed the significant odds ratio or relative risk for abnormal eGFR and LSM values. The use of higher-dose MTX, above 15 mg per week, with meloxicam did not significantly increase the risk for abnormal LSM and eGFR (RR = 2.042, p = 0.185; RR = 0.473, p = 0.218). The concomitant use of meloxicam and MTX did not clearly increase the risk of silent kidney or liver damage in RA patients with normal laboratory results taking MTX and meloxicam concurrently for over 6 months.
Related JoVE Video
Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products alleviates nephritis in (NZB/NZW)F1 mice.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the efficacy of different doses of the soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) (conjugated to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin) in the treatment of nephritis in lupus-prone mice, in comparison with the efficacy of combination therapy with mycophenolate mofetil plus prednisolone.
Related JoVE Video
Synchronous activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene transcription and secretion by pulsatile kisspeptin stimulation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pulsatile release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential for pituitary gonadotrope function. Although the importance of pulsatile GnRH secretion has been recognized for several decades, the mechanisms underlying GnRH pulse generation in hypothalamic neural networks remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the ultradian rhythm of GnRH gene transcription in single GnRH neurons using cultured hypothalamic slices prepared from transgenic mice expressing a GnRH promoter-driven destabilized luciferase reporter. Although GnRH promoter activity in each GnRH neuron exhibited an ultradian pattern of oscillations with a period of ?10 h, GnRH neuronal cultures exhibited partially synchronized bursts of GnRH transcriptional activity at ?2-h intervals. Surprisingly, pulsatile administration of kisspeptin, a potent GnRH secretagogue, evoked dramatic synchronous activation of GnRH gene transcription with robust stimulation of pulsatile GnRH secretion. We also addressed the issue of hierarchical interaction between the circadian and ultradian rhythms by using Bmal1-deficient mice with defective circadian clocks. The circadian molecular oscillator barely affected basal ultradian oscillation of GnRH transcription but was heavily involved in kisspeptin-evoked responses of GnRH neurons. In conclusion, we have clearly shown synchronous bursts of GnRH gene transcription in the hypothalamic GnRH neuronal population in association with episodic neurohormone secretion, thereby providing insight into GnRH pulse generation.
Related JoVE Video
Microscopic augmented-reality indicators for long-term live cell time-lapsed imaging.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microscopic observations of cultured cells in many lab-on-a-chip applications mostly utilize digital image acquisition using CCD sensors connected to a personal computer. The functionalities of this digital imaging can be enhanced by implementing computer-vision based augmented reality technologies. In this study, we present a new method for precisely relocating biological specimens under microscopic inspections by using augmented reality patterns, called microscopic augmented reality indicators (?-ARIs). Since the method only requires sticky films attached under sample containers of any shape, long-term live cell observations can be conducted at much less extra cost than with conventional methods. On these sticky films, multiple arrays of position-indicating patterns were imprinted to provide a reference coordinate system for recording and relocating the accurate position and rotation of the specimen under inspection. This approach can be useful for obtaining the exact locations of individual cells inside biological samples using ?-ARI imprinted transparent films in a rapid and controlled manner.
Related JoVE Video
Two cases of refractory thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus that responded to intravenous low-dose cyclophosphamide.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treatment of thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered in cases of current bleeding, severe bruising, or a platelet count below 50,000/µL. Corticosteroid is the first choice of medication for inducing remission, and immunosuppressive agents can be added when thrombocytopenia is refractory to corticosteroid or recurs despite it. We presented two SLE patients with thrombocytopenia who successfully induced remission after intravenous administration of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CYC) (500 mg fixed dose, biweekly for 3 months), followed by azathioprine (AZA) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Both patients developed severe thrombocytopenia in SLE that did not respond to pulsed methylprednisolone therapy, and started the intravenous low-dose CYC therapy. In case 1, the platelet count increased to 50,000/µL after the first CYC infusion, and remission was maintained with low dose prednisolone and AZA. The case 2 achieved remission after three cycles of CYC, and the remission continued with low dose prednisolone and MMF.
Related JoVE Video
Acute Hypoxia Activates an ENaC-like Channel in Rat Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cells can resist and even recover from stress induced by acute hypoxia, whereas chronic hypoxia often leads to irreversible damage and eventually death. Although little is known about the response(s) to acute hypoxia in neuronal cells, alterations in ion channel activity could be preferential. This study aimed to elucidate which channel type is involved in the response to acute hypoxia in rat pheochromocytomal (PC12) cells as a neuronal cell model. Using perfusing solution saturated with 95% N(2) and 5% CO(2), induction of cell hypoxia was confirmed based on increased intracellular Ca(2+) with diminished oxygen content in the perfusate. During acute hypoxia, one channel type with a conductance of about 30 pS (2.5 pA at -80 mV) was activated within the first 2~3 min following onset of hypoxia and was long-lived for more than 300 ms with high open probability (P(o), up to 0.8). This channel was permeable to Na(+) ions, but not to K(+), Ca(+), and Cl(-) ions, and was sensitively blocked by amiloride (200 nM). These characteristics and behaviors were quite similar to those of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ENaC channel was endogenously expressed in PC12 cells. Taken together, a 30-pS ENaC-like channel was activated in response to acute hypoxia in PC12 cells. This is the first evidence of an acute hypoxia-activated Na(+) channel that can contribute to depolarization of the cell.
Related JoVE Video
Focal necrotizing pneumonia is a distinct entity from lung abscess.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: "Focal necrotizing pneumonia" was defined as a localized type of necrotizing pneumonia characterized by a single or few cavities of low density without rim enhancement on computed tomography (CT) scan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and course of patients with focal necrotizing pneumonia, thereby elucidating its clinical relevance. METHODS: The present study was conducted retrospectively in patients who had been interpreted as having lung abscess or necrotizing pneumonia on CT scan. Clinical and radiologic characteristics were compared between the focal necrotizing pneumonia and lung abscess groups. RESULTS: Overall, 68 patients with focal necrotizing pneumonia (n=35) or lung abscess (n=33) were included in the present study. The frequency of risk factors for aspiration was significantly lower in the focal necrotizing group, compared with the lung abscess group (14.3% versus 45.5%, p=0.005). Compared with lung abscess, focal necrotizing pneumonia was observed more commonly in non-gravity-dependent segments (66% versus 36%, p< 0.001). In addition, a trend toward more common isolation of aerobes as potential pathogens was observed in the focal necrotizing pneumonia group, compared with the lung abscess group (31% versus 12%, p=0.08). However, in terms of treatment outcomes, a similar high rate of success was observed in both groups: 97%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to lung abscess, focal necrotizing pneumonia occurs more commonly in non-gravity-dependent segments with lower incidence of risk factors for aspiration. Similar to lung abscess, the rate of success for treatment of focal necrotizing pneumonia was high.
Related JoVE Video
SYT14L, especially its C2 domain, is involved in regulating melanocyte differentiation.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The formation of dendrites by melanocytes is highly analogous to that process in neural cells. We previously reported that a C2 domain-containing protein, copine-1, is involved in the extension of dendrites by neural cells. However, the effect of C2 domain-containing proteins in dendrite formation by melanocytes has not yet been elucidated.
Related JoVE Video
Serum level of osteopontin as an inflammatory marker does not indicate disease activity or responsiveness to therapeutic treatments in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteopontin (OPN) is known to be significantly involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to evaluate if the serum concentration of OPN in patients with RA before and after therapeutic treatments was correlated to disease activity and response to therapy. Blood samples from 40 patients with RA were collected at baseline and six months after starting treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? blockers. Serum levels of OPN were measured by ELISA. At baseline, the serum OPN level in RA patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy group. The OPN level at baseline in RA patients with severe disease activity as evaluated by DAS28 was slightly higher than that of those with moderate disease activity. The serum OPN level in RA patients was not significantly correlated with the DAS28 level. The serum OPN level in both responders and non-responders after therapy was significantly decreased regardless of responsiveness to therapy. Also, the OPN level at baseline did not affect the responsiveness to therapeutic treatments. In conclusion, serum OPN level was not correlated with disease activity or responsiveness of RA patients to therapeutic treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and evaluation of nicotinamide derivative as anti-angiogenic agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we have found that BRN-103, a nicotinamide derivative, inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis signaling in human endothelial cells. During our continuous efforts to identify more potent anti-angiogenic agents, we synthesized various nicotinamide derivatives and evaluated their anti-angiogenic effects. We found that 2-{1-[1-(6-chloro-5-fluoropyrimidin-4-yl)ethyl]piperidin-4-ylamino}-N-(3-chlorophenyl) pyridine-3-carboxamide (BRN-250) significantly inhibited human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation, migration, tube formation, and microvessel growth in a concentration range of 10-100 nM. Furthermore, BRN-250 inhibited the VEGF-induced phosphorylation and intracellular tyrosine kinase activity of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the activation of its downstream AKT pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that BRN-250 be considered a potential lead compound for cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative analysis between azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of azacitidine and decitabine in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We compared the overall response rate (ORR) (complete responses, partial responses, marrow complete responses, and haematological improvements), overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), time to leukaemic transformation, and adverse outcomes between azacitidine and decitabine. To minimize the effects of treatment selection bias in this observational study, adjustments were made using the propensity-score matching method. Among 300 patients, 203 were treated with azacitidine and 97 with decitabine. Propensity-score matching yielded 97 patient pairs. In the propensity-matched cohort, there were no significant differences between the azacitidine and decitabine groups regarding ORR (44% vs. 52%), OS (26 vs. 22.9 months), EFS (7.7 vs. 7.0 months), and rate of leukaemic transformation (16% vs. 22% at 1 year). In patients ? 65 years of age, survival was significantly better in the azacitidine group (P = 0.017). Patients who received decitabine experienced more frequent episodes of grade 3 or 4 cytopenia and infectious episodes. We found that azacitidine and decitabine showed comparable efficacy. Among patients ? 65 years of age, survival was significantly better in the azacitidine group (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01409070).
Related JoVE Video
Identification of HnRNP-A2/B1 as a target antigen of anti-endothelial cell IgA antibody in Behçets disease.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Behçets disease (BD) is a chronic, multisystemic vasculitis that theoretically affects all sizes and types of blood vessels. Although pathogenesis remains enigmatic, endothelial cells are believed to be the primary target in this disease. We detected the target protein using western blotting and immunoprecipitation and determined the amino-acid sequence of the peptide by liquid chromatography-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight analysis (LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF). Serum reactivity against the recombinant target protein was analyzed by immunoblotting. Serum reactivity against streptococcal 65-kD heat shock protein (hsp-65) and the recombinant target protein was investigated by ELISA. The 36-40-kD protein band that was obtained from immunoprecipitation, which was analyzed by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF, exhibited the amino-acid sequences of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP-A2/B1). Reactivity of serum IgA against human recombinant hnRNP-A2/B1 was detected in 25 of 30 BD patients (83.3%), 4 of 30 systemic lupus erythematosus patients (13.3%), 8 of 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients (26.7%), 9 of 30 Takayasus arteritis patients (30%), 6 of 30 healthy controls (20%), and none of 30 IgA nephropathy patients. Optical densities obtained from ELISAs against the recombinant human hnRNP-A2/B1 were correlated with those against the recombinant streptococcal hsp-65.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://www.nature.com/jid/journalclub.
Related JoVE Video
Intraoperative incidence of hallux valgus interphalangeus following basilar first metatarsal osteotomy and distal soft tissue realignment.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The premise of this study was that after the correction of hallux-metatarsophalangeal pronation, the intraoperative interphalangeal angle (HIA) increases significantly, and that an additional Akin osteotomy (AO) is often needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIAs in hallux valgus (HV) feet were underestimated, and to assess the need for AO during HV correction.
Related JoVE Video
The comparison of clinicopathological characteristics in primary malignant mixed m?llerian tumour with epithelial endometrial carcinoma.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed an age-matched case-control study to compare the clinical and pathology outcomes between histologically diagnosed primary malignant mixed m?llerian tumour (MMMT) of the uterus and endometrial carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Gryllotalpicola gen. nov., with descriptions of Gryllotalpicola koreensis sp. nov., Gryllotalpicola daejeonensis sp. nov. and Gryllotalpicola kribbensis sp. nov. from the gut of the African mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana, and reclassification of Curto
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Strains RU-16(T), RU-28, RU-04(T) and PU-02(T) were isolated from the gut of the African mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains belonged to the family Microbacteriaceae. All four strains were most closely related to Curtobacterium ginsengisoli DCY26(T) (below 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These isolates were Gram-stain-positive, motile (by gliding), rod-shaped and exhibited ivory-coloured colonies. Their chemotaxonomic properties included MK-11 as the major respiratory quinone, ornithine as the cell-wall diamino acid, acetyl as the acyl type of the peptidoglycan, cyclohexyl-C(17:0) as the major fatty acid and phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we propose a new genus in the family Microbacteriaceae, Gryllotalpicola gen. nov., with three novel species, Gryllotalpicola daejeonensis sp. nov. (type strain RU-04(T) ?=KCTC 13809(T) ?=JCM 17590(T)), Gryllotalpicola koreensis sp. nov. (type strain RU-16(T) ?=?KCTC 13810(T) ?=JCM 17591(T)) and Gryllotalpicola kribbensis sp. nov. (type strain PU-02(T) ?=KCTC 13808(T) ?=JCM 17593(T)). Gryllotalpicola koreensis is the type species of the genus. Additionally, we propose that Curtobacterium ginsengisoli should be reclassified in the genus as Gryllotalpicola ginsengisoli comb. nov. (type strain DCY26(T) ?=KCTC 13163(T) ?=?JCM 14773(T)).
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.