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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Stable inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a p-doped optical spacer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We report inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a doped window layer as an optical spacer. The optical spacer was used to shift the optical field distribution inside the active layers, generating more charge carriers from sunlight. In this report, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD) was doped with 2,2-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ), a p-type dopant material. P-doped MeO-TPD was adopted as an optical spacer because it has a large energy band gap, and its conductivity can be increased by several orders of magnitude through a doping process. As a result, a power conversion efficiency of 4.15% was achieved with the doped window layer of optimized thickness. Lastly, we present significantly improved stability of the inverted devices with the MeO-TPD layer.
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DEPLETION OF AUTOPHAGY-RELATED GENES ATG3 AND ATG5 IN Tenebrio molitor LEADS TO DECREASED SURVIVABILITY AGAINST AN INTRACELLULAR PATHOGEN, Listeria monocytogenes.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in physiological and developmental processes including cell survival, death, and innate immunity. Homologues of most of 36 originally discovered autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast have been characterized in higher eukaryotes including insects. In this study, the homologues of ATG3 (TmATG3) and ATG5 (TmATG5) were isolated from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor by expressed sequence tag and RNAseq approaches. The cDNA of TmATG3 and TmATG5 comprise open-reading frame sizes of 963 and 792 bp encoding polypeptides of 320 and 263 amino acid residues, respectively. TmATG3 and TmATG5 mRNA are expressed in all developmental stages, and mainly in fat body and hemocytes of larvae. TmATG3 and TmATG5 showed an overall sequence identity of 58-95% to other insect Atg proteins. There exist clear one-to-one orthologs of TmATG3 and TmATG5 in Tribolium and that they clustered together in the gene tree. Depletion of TmATG3 and TmATG5 by RNA interference led to a significant reduction in survival ability of T. molitor larvae against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Six days post-Listeria challenge, the survival rate in the dsEGFP-injected (where EGFP is enhanced green fluorescent protein) control larvae was significantly higher (55%) compared to 4 and 3% for TmATG3 and TmATG5 double-stranded RNA injected larvae, respectively. These data suggested that TmATG3 and TmATG5 may play putative role in mediating autophagy-based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor model.
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Risk Factors Associated With Abscess Formation in Children 5 Years of Age and Younger.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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From 1997 to 2009, hospitalization rates have doubled for pediatric patients with soft tissue abscesses requiring incision and drainage. Despite this increasing national burden, few studies have been conducted to identify the risk factors associated with abscess formation. Our study evaluates a collection of physiological and lifestyle parameters that may serve as risk factors for abscess formation among pediatric patients 5 years of age or younger. Our results indicate family history and age 2 years and younger are associated with higher risk of abscess formation. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were prevalent pathogens associated with abscess in our study group. Pediatricians may employ these novel parameters to educate parents and/or guardians of high-risk groups on preventing abscess formation to alleviate the burden of incision & dragining requiring abscess on health care costs.
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Intermittent Antibiotic Therapy for Nodular Bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Rationale: Although intermittent, three-times-weekly therapy is recommended for the initial treatment of non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, supporting data are limited. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intermittent therapy compared with daily therapy for nodular bronchiectatic MAC lung disease. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 217 patients with treatment-naïve non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic MAC lung disease. All patients received either daily (n = 99) or intermittent therapy (n = 118) that included clarithromycin or azithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol. Measurements and Results: Modification of the initial antibiotic therapy occurred more frequently in the daily therapy group than in the intermittent therapy group (46% vs. 21%, P < 0.001); in particular, ethambutol was more frequently discontinued in the daily therapy group than in the intermittent therapy group (24% vs. 1%, P < 0.001). However, the rates of symptomatic improvement, radiographic improvement, and sputum culture conversion were not different between the two groups (daily therapy vs. intermittent therapy; 75% vs. 82%, P = 0.181; 68% vs. 73%, P = 0.402; 76% vs. 67%, P = 0.154; respectively). In addition, the adjusted proportion of sputum culture conversion was similar between the daily therapy (71.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 59.1-81.1%) and the intermittent therapy groups (73.6%, 95% CI 62.9-82.2%, P = 0.785). Conclusions: These results suggest that intermittent three-times-weekly therapy with a macrolide, rifampin, and ethambutol is a reasonable initial treatment regimen for patients with non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic MAC lung disease. Clinical trial registration can be found at www. clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT00970801.
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Imidazopyridine- and purine-thioacetamide derivatives: potent inhibitors of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1).
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) belongs to the family of ecto-nucleotidases, which control extracellular nucleotide, nucleoside and (di)phosphate levels. In order to study the (patho)physiological roles of NPP1 potent and selective inhibitors with drug-like properties are required. Therefore, a compound library was screened for NPP1 inhibitors using a colorimetric assay with p-nitrophenyl 5'-thymidine monophosphate (p-Nph-5'-TMP) as an artificial substrate. This led to the discovery of 2-(3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acetamide (5a) as a hit compound with a Ki value of 217 nM. Subsequent structure-activity relationship studies led to the development of purine and imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine analogues with high inhibitory potency (Ki values of 5.00 nM and 29.6 nM, respectively), when assayed with p-Nph-5'-TMP as a substrate. Surprisingly, the compounds were significantly less potent when tested versus ATP as a substrate, with Ki values in the low micromolar range. A prototypic inhibitor was investigated for its mechanism of inhibition and found to be competitive versus both substrates.
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Cardiac myocyte-secreted cAMP exerts paracrine action via adenosine receptor activation.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Acute stimulation of cardiac ?-adrenoceptors is crucial to increasing cardiac function under stress; however, sustained ?-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in pathological myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Here, we have demonstrated that export of cAMP from cardiac myocytes is an intrinsic cardioprotective mechanism in response to cardiac stress. We report that infusion of cAMP into mice averted myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in a disease model of cardiac pressure overload. The protective effect of exogenous cAMP required adenosine receptor signaling. This observation led to the identification of a potent paracrine mechanism that is dependent on secreted cAMP. Specifically, FRET-based imaging of cAMP formation in primary cells and in myocardial tissue from murine hearts revealed that cardiomyocytes depend on the transporter ABCC4 to export cAMP as an extracellular signal. Extracellular cAMP, through its metabolite adenosine, reduced cardiomyocyte cAMP formation and hypertrophy by activating A1 adenosine receptors while delivering an antifibrotic signal to cardiac fibroblasts by A2 adenosine receptor activation. Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues.
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Au@Polymer core-shell nanoparticles for simultaneously enhancing efficiency and ambient stability of organic optoelectronic devices.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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In this paper, we report and discuss our successful synthesis of monodispersed, polystyrene-coated gold core-shell nanoparticles (Au@PS NPs) for use in highly efficient, air-stable, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). These core-shell NPs retain the dual functions of (1) the plasmonic effect of the Au core and (2) the stability and solvent resistance of the cross-linked PS shell. The monodispersed Au@PS NPs were incorporated into a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film that was located between the ITO substrate and the emitting layer (or active layer) in the devices. The incorporation of the Au@PS NPs provided remarkable improvements in the performances of both OLEDs and OPVs, which benefitted from the plasmonic effect of the Au@PS NPs. The OLED device with the Au@PS NPs achieved an enhancement of the current efficiency that was 42% greater than that of the control device. In addition, the power conversion efficiency was increased from 7.6% to 8.4% in PTB7:PC71BM-based OPVs when the Au@PS NPs were embedded. Direct evidence of the plasmonic effect on optical enhancement of the device was provided by near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements. More importantly, the Au@PS NPs induced a remarkable and simultaneous improvement in the stabilities of the OLED and OPV devices by reducing the acidic and hygroscopic properties of the PEDOT:PSS layer.
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Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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We report a flexible high-performance conducting film using an embedded copper nanowire transparent conducting electrode; this material can be used as a transparent electrode platform for typical flexible optoelectronic devices. The monolithic composite structure of our transparent conducting film enables simultaneously an outstanding oxidation stability of the copper nanowire network (14 d at 80 °C), an exceptionally smooth surface topography (Rrms < 2 nm), and an excellent opto-electrical performances (Rsh = 25 ? sq(-1) and T = 82%). A flexible organic light emitting diode device is fabricated on the transparent conducting film to demonstrate its potential as a flexible copper nanowire electrode platform.
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Evaluation of Performance of the Real-Q NTM-ID Kit for Rapid Identification of Eight Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Species.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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We evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis assay (Real-Q NTM-ID kit; Biosewoom, Seoul, South Korea) for the identification of eight common nontuberculous mycobacterial species, using 30 type strains and 230 consecutive clinical isolates. The concordance rate of this assay with multigene sequence-based typing was 97.0% (223/230 isolates).
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Surgical resolution of obstructive dyspareunia after traumatic pelvic injury.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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As more of the patients with traumatic pelvic injuries survive, they desire an optimal quality of life, including normal sexual function, even after the most severe injuries. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who had dyspareunia due to impaired vaginal penetration after severe pelvic injury. After excision of a disunited fragment of pelvic bone and an adhesion band at the vaginal wall, dyspareunia was considerably resolved and the patient resumed sexual function. In cases of severe pelvic injury, physicians used to be satisfied with the patient's survival alone, and tended to regard sexual dysfunction as a trivial outcome. However, restoration of sexual function is an important part of management of these patients. In selected cases, obstructive dyspareunia resulting from traumatic pelvic injury can be managed by planned surgical intervention.
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Clinical features and risk factors for development of Bacillus bacteremia among adult patients with cancer: a case-control study.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Bacillus species have been frequently reported in recent decades as true pathogens among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and risk factors of Bacillus bacteremia among adult patients with cancer.
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Highly transparent Au-coated Ag nanowire transparent electrode with reduction in haze.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Ag nanowire transparent electrode has excellent transmittance and sheet resistance, yet its optical haze still needs to be improved in order for it to be suitable for display applications. Ag nanowires are known to have high haze because of the geometry of the nanowire and the high light scattering characteristic of the Ag. In this study, a Au-coated Ag nanowire structure was proposed to reduce the haze, where a thin layer of Au was coated on the surface of the Ag nanowires using a mild [Au(en)2]Cl3 galvanic displacement reaction. The mild galvanic exchange allowed for a thin layer of Au coating on the Ag nanowires with minimal truncation of the nanowire, where the average length and the diameter were 13.0 ?m and 60 nm, respectively. The Au-coated Ag nanowires were suspended in methanol and then electrostatically sprayed on a flexible polycarbonate substrate that revealed a clear reduction in haze with a 2-4% increase in total transmittance, sheet resistance ranges of 80-90%, and 8.8-36.8 Ohm/sq. Finite difference time domain simulations were conducted for Au-coated Ag nanowires that indicated a significant reduction in the average scattering from 1 to 0.69 for Au layer thicknesses of 0-10 nm.
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Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30-50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications.
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Delta-Like 1 Homologue (DLK1) Protein in Neurons of the Arcuate Nucleus that Control Weight Homeostasis and Role of Fasting on Hypothalamic DLK1 mRNA.
Neuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Delta-like 1 homologue (DLK1; also called preadipocyte factor 1; Pref1) is an epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat-containing transmembrane protein that is cleaved by tumour necrosis factor-?-converting enzyme to generate a biologically active soluble form. DLK1 is involved in the differentiation of several cell types, including adipocytes. Lack of the dlk1 gene results in adiposity and polymorphism within the gene encoding DLK1 is associated with human obesity. The dlk1 gene is expressed in restricted areas of the adult brain, with an enrichment of cell bodies expressing DLK1 mRNA in the hypothalamus. Antibodies to DLK1 were used to study the cellular localization and chemical identity of DLK1-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies in rat hypothalamus. DLK1 immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the cell soma and dendrites of cell bodies in the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic, paraventricular, dorsomedial, arcuate nuclei and in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamic area. In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), DLK1 immunoreactivity was mainly seen in many neurons of the ventromedial and to lesser extent in its ventrolateral division. Double-labeling showed that 93.7% of orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and 94.1% of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons located in the ventromedial part of the Arc were DLK1-positive, whereas 36.1% of anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and 34.6% of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons of the Arc contained DLK1 immunoreactivity. DLK1 mRNA was down-regulated in the hypothalamus of fasted animals. Presence of DLK1 in the majority of orexigenic Arc NPY/AgRP neurons and regulation of DLK1 mRNA by nutritional challenge, suggests that DLK1 has a role in hypothalamic regulation of body weight control. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Enhancement of growth and lipid production from microalgae using fluorescent paint under the solar radiation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Solar radiation has intensity that is too high to inhibit microalgae activity and is composed of wide light spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. For these reasons, the modification of solar radiation is required for effective microalgae cultivation, and to do that, fluorescent paint was used for not only blocking excessive solar energy but also converting UV to visible light. With fluorescent aqueous layer, microalgae was protected from photoinhibition and could grow well, but there was difference in growth and lipid accumulation efficiencies depending on the color; maximum dry weight of 1.7g/L was achieved in red paint, whereas best lipid content of 30% was obtained in blue one. This phenomenon was due to the different light spectrum made by colors. With simple process using fluorescent paint, modification of light was successfully done and allowing microalgae to grow under strong radiation such as solar radiation.
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Anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of novel 5-hydroxy-4-acetyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Novel 5-hydroxy-4-acetyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans (7a-k) were synthesized using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN)-catalyzed formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for their tyrosinase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. A modified spectrophotometric method using l-DOPA as substrate was used to determine tyrosinase inhibitory activities, and a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to evaluate antioxidant properties. Antibacterial activities against gram-negative Escherichia coli (KCTC-1924) and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (KCTC-1916) were evaluated using the disc diffusion technique. Of the synthesized compounds, 7b with a 4-acetyl and an electron-enriched dihydronaphthofuran ring showed the highest tyrosinase-inhibition activity (IC50 = 8.91 ?g/mL), which was comparable with that of standard kojic acid (IC50 = 10.16 ?g/mL), potent antioxidant activity (IC50 = 3.33 ?g/mL), which was comparable with that of BHT (IC50 = 34.67 ?g/mL), and excellent antibacterial activities (MICs: 0.50 ?g/mL against E. coli and S. aureus strains). A mechanistic analysis of 7b demonstrated that its tyrosinase inhibitory activity was reversible and competitive. Compounds 7c and 7d showed potent antioxidant activities (IC50: 6.30 and 5.01 ?g/mL), and compound 7d also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against E. coli with a MIC of 0.5 ?g/mL. Furthermore, compounds 7a, 7e, 7f, and 7i showed potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus with MICs of 0.5 ?g/mL, which was comparable to that of ampicillin (MIC = 0.5 ?g/mL).
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Efficient [Formula: see text]-catalyzed synthesis of novel and diverse 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1[Formula: see text])-ones.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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An efficient one-pot synthesis of various 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-[Formula: see text]-one derivatives was accomplished using [Formula: see text]-catalyzed multi-component reactions between isatoic anhydride, ketones, and amines. The method has several significant advantages; mild reaction conditions, easy handling, and efficiency of catalyst.
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Organic semiconductor wastewater treatment using a four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Electronic wastewater from a semiconductor plant was treated with a pilot-scale four-stage Bardenpho process with membrane system. The system was operated over a 14-month period with an overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 9.5 to 30 h. With a few exceptions, the pilot plant consistently treated the electronic wastewater with an average removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen of 97% and 93%, respectively, and achieving effluent quality of COD<15 mg/L, turbidity<1, and silt density index<1. Based on removal efficiencies of the pilot plant, it is possible to lower the HRT to less than 9.5 h to achieve comparable removal efficiencies. An energy-saving configuration where an internal recycle line was omitted and the biomass recycle was rerouted to the pre-anoxic tank, can reduce energy consumption by 8.6% and gave removal efficiencies that were similar to the Bardenpho process. The system achieved pre-anoxic and post-anoxic specific denitrification rate values with a 95% confidence interval of 0.091±0.011 g NO3-N/g MLVSS d and 0.087±0.016 g NO3-N/g MLVSS d, respectively. The effluent from the four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system can be paired with a reverse osmosis system to provide further treatment for reuse purposes.
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Resveratrol and clofarabine induces a preferential apoptosis-activating effect on malignant mesothelioma cells by Mcl-1 down-regulation and caspase-3 activation.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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We previously demonstrated that resveratrol and clofarabine elicited a marked cytotoxicity on malignant mesothelioma (MM) MSTO-211H cells but not on the corresponding normal mesothelial MeT-5A cells. Little is known of the possible molecules that could be used to predict preferential chemosensitivity on MSTO-211H cells. Resveratrol and clofarabine induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein level in MSTO-211H cells. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132 suggested that Mcl-1 protein levels were regulated at the post-translational step. The siRNA-based knockdown of Mcl-1 in MSTO-211H cells triggered more growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects with the resultant cleavages of procaspase-3 and its substrate PARP, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and increased percentage of apoptotic propensities. However, the majority of the observed changes were not shown in MeT-5A cells. Collectively, these studies indicate that the preferential activation of caspase cascade in malignant cells might have important applications as a therapeutic target for MM.
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Gynecomastia surgery is associated with improved nipple location in young korean patients.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Gynecomastia is benign enlargement of breast tissue in males and is fairly common. Mastectomy not only helps in improving the shape of anterior chest, but can also improve the location of nipple. Therefore, a principle element of mastectomy design is defining the normal location of nipple based on major anatomical reference points. Here, the nipple location was compared for before and after gynecomastia surgery. In addition, the same was also compared between male patients undergoing gynecomastia surgery and control group of subjects without gynecomastia.
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Evaluation of the illumigene C. difficile assay for toxigenic Clostridium difficile detection: a prospective study of 302 consecutive clinical fecal samples.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is a major pathogen causing nosocomial diarrhea. Consequently, rapid detection of toxigenic C. difficile is very important in clinical laboratories. The illumigene C. difficile DNA amplification assay (illumigene; Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) is a rapid method that detects the toxin A gene (tcdA) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the illumigene assay using 302 consecutive stool specimens in comparison with the VIDAS C. difficile A&B enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (VIDAS-CDAB; bioMérieux). Toxigenic culture was used as the reference method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the illumigene assay were 88.1%, 96.7%, 86.7%, and 97.1%, respectively, while those of the VIDAS-CDAB assay were 40.4%, 98.8%, 87.5%, and 88.5%, respectively. It is of note that use of a combination of the illumigene and VIDAS-CDAB assays did not improve any of the 4 evaluated parameters (88.1%, 95.5%, 82.5%, and 97.1%, respectively). The illumigene assay showed limits of detection of 250 and 11,467 CFU/mL for ATCC 9688 (tcdA+, tcdB+, cdtB-) and ATCC 43598 (tcdA-, tcdB+, cdtB-) reference strains, respectively, and there was no cross-reactivity with 8 frequently isolated bacterial species. In conclusion, the illumigene assay might be a useful method for rapid detection of toxigenic C. difficile in clinical laboratories. Additionally, the VIDAS-CDAB assay seems unnecessary if the illumigene assay is used.
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Synthesis of novel and diverse naphtho[1,2-b]furans by phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] annulation of activated 1,4-naphthoquinones and acetylenecarboxylates.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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A new phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] annulation reaction between activated 1,4-naphthoquinones and acetylenecarboxylates is described. This reaction provides a facile and efficient route to a variety of biologically promising and novel naphtho[1,2-[Formula: see text]]furans. This devised method provides a first example for the synthesis of diverse naphtho[1,2-[Formula: see text]]furan derivatives from 1,4-naphthoquinones via phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] annulation. A variety of novel naphtho[1,2-[Formula: see text]]furans were synthesized via the phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] annulation of activated 1,4-naphthoquinones and electron-deficient acetylenecarboxylates. In some reactions, both furannulation adducts and reductive/nucleophilic conjugate addition products were produced.
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Catalyst-controlled regio- and stereoselective synthesis of diverse 12H-6,12-methanodibenzo[d,g][1,3]dioxocines.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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We describe an efficient one-pot regio- and stereoselective method for synthesizing diverse 1-hydroxy-12H-6,12-methanodibenzo[d,g][1,3]dioxocines and 3-hydroxy-12H-6,12-methanodibenzo[d,g][1,3]dioxocines using ethylenediammonium diacetate (EDDA) or p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) catalyzed reactions between various resorcinols and a number of 2-hydroxychalcones. These reactions involve a catalyst-controlled cascade Michael-type reaction/double cyclization process. Importantly, these reactions provide a rapid synthetic route to the production of biologically interesting complex molecules that are generally prepared using multi-step reactions.
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Novel one-pot synthesis of diverse ?,?-unsaturated ?-ketoesters by thermal cascade reactions of diazodicarbonyl compounds and enol ethers: transformation into substituted 3,5-diketoesters.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Sequential Wolff rearrangement of ?-diazo-?-ketoesters followed by trapping of the ketene intermediates with enol ethers generated a variety of ?,?-unsaturated ?-ketoesters. This method involves a novel thermal cascade reaction and allows the synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated ?-ketoesters with trans-stereochemistry under catalyst-free conditions. The synthesized compounds were further transformed into novel 3,5-diketoesters, which were used for the synthesis of naturally occurring 2-pyrone and 1-naphthoic acid ester.
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Microwave-assisted synthesis of diverse pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones and their antibacterial activities.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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With the aim of developing a general and practical method for library production, a novel and efficient two-phase microwave-assisted cascade reaction between isatins and ?-ketoamides in [Bmim]BF4/toluene was developed for the synthesis of pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones. The features of this methodology are, the use of microwave-assisted rapid synthesis, mild reaction conditions, high yields, operational simplicity, facile product separation, and recyclability. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of the pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-dione derivatives produced were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter aerogenes) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). These derivatives showed antibacterial activities against Gram-positive strains that were at least equivalent to that against Gram-negative strains. Compound 7{3,5} displayed the most potent antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (MIC = 0.5 ?g/mL) and greater activity than standard ampicillin (MIC = 1 ?g/mL). Compound 7{4,7} exhibited the best inhibitory activity against E. coli and E. aerogenes (MIC = 1 and 0.5 ?g/mL), compared with the standard ampicillin (both MICs = 1 ?g/mL). The synthesized pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones are expected to be widely used as lead compounds for the development of new antibacterial agents.
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Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Perilla frutescens--a biogenic approach.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The present investigation demonstrates a rapid biogenic approach for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using biologically active and medicinal important Perilla frutescens leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent under ambient conditions. Gold and silver nanoparticles were first synthesized from Perilla frutescens leaf extract which was used as a vegetable and in traditional medicines for a long time in Korea, Japan, and China. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface plasmon resonance spectra of gold and silver nanoparticles were obtained at 540 and 430 nm and triangular and spherical shape respectively. TEM studies showed that the particle sizes of gold and silver nanoparticles ranges -50 nm and -40 nm respectively. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the biosynthesized nanoparticles were crystalline gold and silver. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of the nanoparticles produced. XRD and EDX confirmed the formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. This is a simple, efficient and rapid method to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles at room temperature without use of toxic chemicals. Obtained gold and silver nanoparticles can be used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications.
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Knockdown of Bcl-xL Enhances Growth-Inhibiting and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Resveratrol and Clofarabine in Malignant Mesothelioma H-2452 Cells.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, key anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family, have attracted attention as important molecules in the cell survival and drug resistance. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of Bcl-xL influences cell growth and apoptosis against simultaneous treatment of resveratrol and clofarabine in the human malignant mesothelioma H-2452 cells. Resveratrol and clofarabine decreased Mcl-1 protein levels but had little effect on Bcl-xL levels. In the presence of two compounds, any detectable change in the Mcl-1 mRNA levels was not observed in RT-PCR analysis, whereas pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 led to its accumulation to levels far above basal levels. The knockdown of Bcl-xL inhibited cell proliferation with cell accumulation at G2/M phase and the appearance of sub-G0/G1 peak in DNA flow cytometric assay. The suppression of cell growth was accompanied by an increase in the caspase-3/7 activity with the resultant cleavages of procaspase-3 and its substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and increased percentage of apoptotic propensities in annexin V binding assay. Collectively, our data represent that the efficacy of resveratrol and clofarabine for apoptosis induction was substantially enhanced by Bcl-xL-lowering strategy in which the simultaneous targeting of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL could be a more effective strategy for treating malignant mesothelioma.
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Ag@Ni core-shell nanowire network for robust transparent electrodes against oxidation and sulfurization.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Silver nanowire (Ag NW) based transparent electrodes are inherently unstable to moist and chemically reactive environment. A remarkable stability improvement of the Ag NW network film against oxidizing and sulfurizing environment by local electrodeposition of Ni along Ag NWs is reported. The optical transmittance and electrical resistance of the Ni deposited Ag NW network film can be easily controlled by adjusting the morphology and thickness of the Ni shell layer. The electrical conductivity of the Ag NW network film is increased by the Ni coating via welding between Ag NWs as well as additional conductive area for the electron transport by electrodeposited Ni layer. Moreover, the chemical resistance of Ag NWs against oxidation and sulfurization can be dramatically enhanced by the Ni shell layer electrodeposited along the Ag NWs, which provides the physical barrier against chemical reaction and diffusion as well as the cathodic protection from galvanic corrosion.
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Risk acceptance and expectations of laryngeal allotransplantation.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Laryngeal allotransplantation (LA) is a technique involving transplantation of a deceased donor's larynx into a recipient, and it may be substituted for conventional laryngeal reconstruction. There are widely different views on LA, as the recipient is administered continuous, potentially life-threatening, immunosuppressive therapy for a functional or aesthetic result, which is not directly related to life extension. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in risk acceptance and expectations of LA between four population groups.
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Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes for efficient plasmonic light scattering effect in low bandgap organic solar cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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In this report, we propose a metal-metal core-shell nanocube (NC) as an advanced plasmonic material for highly efficient organic solar cells (OSCs). We covered an Au core with a thin Ag shell as a scattering enhancer to build Au@Ag NCs, which showed stronger scattering efficiency than Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) throughout the visible range. Highly efficient plasmonic organic solar cells were fabricated by embedding Au@Ag NCs into an anodic buffer layer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and the power conversion efficiency was enhanced to 6.3% from 5.3% in poly[N-9-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) based OSCs and 9.2% from 7.9% in polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):PC70BM based OSCs. The Au@Ag NC plasmonic PCDTBT:PC70BM-based organic solar cells showed 2.2-fold higher external quantum efficiency enhancement compared to AuNPs devices at a wavelength of 450-700 nm due to the amplified plasmonic scattering effect. Finally, we proved the strongly enhanced plasmonic scattering efficiency of Au@Ag NCs embedded in organic solar cells via theoretical calculations and detailed optical measurements.
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Coupled near- and far-field scattering in silver nanoparticles for high-efficiency, stable, and thin plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Here, we report plasmonically enhanced thin dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in an imidazolium-dicyanamide based ionic liquid, in which size-controlled metal (silver) nanoparticles (AgNPs) with passivation layers of a few nanometers are arranged into the electrolyte and photo-electrodes. It was revealed that the AgNPs in the electrolyte and the photo-electrode have distinct effects on device performance via different coupling mechanisms. Strong far-field scattering is critical in the electrolyte while near-field scattering is efficient in the photo-electrode. Indeed, we find that the power conversion efficiency of the DSSC can be substantially improved by a synergistic arrangement of the AgNPs in the electrolyte and the photo-electrode. Furthermore, an imidazolium-dicyanamide based nonvolatile ionic liquid electrolyte for MNPs is demonstrated to provide thin plasmonic DSSCs with good stability.
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Evaluation of liquid and solid culture media for the recovery and enrichment of Burkholderia cenocepacia from distilled water.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) presence has been the cause of recalls of both sterile and non-sterile pharmaceutical products since these opportunistic pathogens have been implicated to cause infections to susceptible individuals. BCC are ubiquitous in nature, but in pharmaceutical settings the most common source is contaminated water systems. Some strains of BCC, previously described as Pseudomonas cepacia, were not readily detected by standard culture methods. We have explored different strategies to recover and enrich Burkholderia cenocepacia previously cultured in distilled water for 40 days. Enrichment media of varied nutrient concentrations and composition were used, including modified Tryptic Soy Agar or Broth (TSA or TSB), Reasoner's 2nd Agar or Broth (R2A or R2AB), Brain-Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB), Mueller-Hinton Broth (MHB), and Ashdown's (ASH) medium. Of the various broth media tested, cell growth was significantly greater in TSB and R2AB than in BHIB, MHB, or ASH broth. TSB and R2AB were also compared for their recovery efficiency. Generally, there was no significant difference between the numbers of B. cenocepacia grown on 15 differently modified TSA and five modified R2A solid media. Overall, however, diluted TSA and TSB media, and R2A and R2AB showed better recovery efficiency than TSA and TSB for inocula containing small numbers of cells. All strains persisted in distilled water for 40 days. Broth media were more effective than solid media for recovery of B. cenocepacia from distilled water. These results may assist in improving detection assays with recovery and enrichment strategies to maximize recovery of these fastidious organisms.
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Comparison of the digene HPV genotyping LQ test and the PANArray HPV genotyping chip for detection of high-risk or probable high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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We evaluated the performance of two different array-based techniques, a bead-based multiplex genotyping method (LQ; digene HPV Genotyping LQ Test, QIAGEN, Germany) and a DNA chip-based method using peptide nucleic acid probes (PANArray; PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip, Panagene, Korea), for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) and genotyping of high-risk (HR) or probable high-risk (PHR) HPVs in healthy patients who visited a health-promotion center.
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GeoChip 4: a functional gene-array-based high-throughput environmental technology for microbial community analysis.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Micro-organisms play critical roles in many important biogeochemical processes in the Earth's biosphere. However, understanding and characterizing the functional capacity of microbial communities are still difficult due to the extremely diverse and often uncultivable nature of most micro-organisms. In this study, we developed a new functional gene array, GeoChip 4, for analysing the functional diversity, composition, structure, metabolic potential/activity and dynamics of microbial communities. GeoChip 4 contained approximately 82 000 probes covering 141 995 coding sequences from 410 functional gene families related to microbial carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), and phosphorus (P) cycling, energy metabolism, antibiotic resistance, metal resistance/reduction, organic remediation, stress responses, bacteriophage and virulence. A total of 173 archaeal, 4138 bacterial, 404 eukaryotic and 252 viral strains were targeted, providing the ability to analyse targeted functional gene families of micro-organisms included in all four domains. Experimental assessment using different amounts of DNA suggested that as little as 500 ng environmental DNA was required for good hybridization, and the signal intensities detected were well correlated with the DNA amount used. GeoChip 4 was then applied to study the effect of long-term warming on soil microbial communities at a Central Oklahoma site, with results indicating that microbial communities respond to long-term warming by enriching carbon degradation, nutrient cycling (nitrogen and phosphorous) and stress response gene families. To the best of our knowledge, GeoChip 4 is the most comprehensive functional gene array for microbial community analysis.
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Comparison of the Anyplex(TM) II RV16 and Seeplex(®) RV12 ACE assays for the detection of respiratory viruses.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The Anyplex(TM) II RV16 detection kit (RV16; Seegene, Seoul, South Korea) is a multiplex real-time PCR assay based on tagging oligonucleotide cleavage extension. In this prospective study, we evaluated the RV16 assay by comparing with the Seeplex(®) RV12 ACE detection kit (RV12; Seegene), a multiplex end-point PCR kit. A total of 365 consecutive respiratory specimens were tested with both RV16 and RV12 assays in parallel and detected 140 (38.4%) and 89 (24.4%) positive cases, respectively. The positive percent agreement, negative percent agreement, and kappa values for the 2 assays were 95.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.4-98.3%), 80.4% (95% CI, 75.3-84.6%), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.56-0.72), respectively. The monoplex PCR and sequencing for the samples with discrepant results revealed that majority of the results were concordant with the results from RV16 assays. In conclusion, the RV16 assay produces results comparable to the RV12 assay.
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Large-volume sample stacking with polarity switching for monitoring of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) reactions by capillary electrophoresis.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) is a membrane glycoprotein involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides. Its main substrate is ATP yielding AMP and pyrophosphate. NPP1 has been proposed as a novel drug target, for diabetes type 2 and the treatment of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease leading to inflammatory arthritis. The monitoring of NPP1 reactions is difficult because its velocity is very slow requiring highly sensitive analytical procedures. In this study, a method of large-volume sample stacking with polarity switching was developed, and separations were optimized. Large sample volumes were loaded by hydrodynamic injection (5 psi, 13 s) followed by removal of a large plug of sample matrix from the capillary using polarity switching (-10 kV). The stacked analytes were subsequently separated in phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 9.2) at 20 kV. The validated method was found to be linear (R(2) = 0.9927) in the concentration range of 0.05-50 ?M of AMP, with high accuracy and precision. The determined LOD and LOQ of AMP were 18 nM and 60 nM, respectively. Compared to a previously reported CE procedure using sweeping technique, a fivefold improvement of sensitivity was achieved. Moreover, the new technique was faster, and reproducibility of migration times was improved (RSD value = 1.2%). Importantly, adenine nucleotide analogs and derivatives tested as NPP1 inhibitors could be completely separated from the substrate ATP and the enzymatic product AMP. The method was applied to NPP1 inhibition assays investigating nucleotide-derived inhibitors in the presence of ATP.
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Efficient and novel one-pot synthesis of polycycles bearing cyclols by FeCl3-promoted [2 + 2] cycloaddition: application to cannabicyclol, cannabicyclovarin, and ranhuadujuanine A.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Simple and facile synthetic routes for the preparation of biologically interesting cyclol bearing polycycles were developed using FeCl3-promoted [2 + 2] cycloaddition from readily available benzopyrans possessing a variety of substituents. As examples of this methodology, one-step syntheses of cannabicyclol, cannabicyclovarin, and ranhuadujuanine A were accomplished in good yield.
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Gene structure, cDNA characterization and RNAi-based functional analysis of a myeloid differentiation factor 88 homolog in Tenebrio molitor larvae exposed to Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), an intracellular adaptor protein involved in Toll/Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal processing, triggers activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) transcription factors. In the present study, we analyzed the gene structure and biological function of MyD88 in a coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor (TmMyD88). The TmMyD88 gene was 1380 bp in length and consisted of five exons and four introns. The 5'-flanking sequence revealed several putative transcription factor binding sites, such as STAT-4, AP-1, cJun, cfos, NF-1 and many heat shock factor binding elements. The cDNA contained a typical death domain, a conservative Toll-like interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, and a C-terminal extension (CTE). The TmMyD88 TIR domain showed three significantly conserved motifs for interacting with the TIR domain of TLRs. TmMyD88 was grouped within the invertebrate cluster of the phylogenetic tree and shared 75% sequence identity with the TIR domain of Tribolium castaneum MyD88. Homology modeling of the TmMyD88 TIR domain revealed five parallel ?-strands surrounded by five ?-helices that adopted loop conformations to function as an adaptor. TmMyD88 expression was upregulated 7.3- and 4.79-fold after 12 and 6h, respectively, of challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and fungal ?-1,3 glucan. Silencing of the TmMyD88 transcript by RNA interference led to reduced resistance of the host to infection by S. aureus. These results indicate that TmMyD88 is required for survival against Staphylococcus infection.
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Synthesis of novel and diverse mollugin analogues and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
Bioorg. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Novel and diverse mollugin analogues (1-12) were synthesized using PhB(OH)2/AcOH-mediated electrocyclization reaction as a key step. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-12 showed high antioxidant activities in DPPH inhibition (IC50=0.52-1.11 ?M) compared with BHT (IC50=9.67 ?M). Compounds 3 exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (KCTC-1916) bacterial strain at 100 ?g/mL. Structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR data and high-resolution mass spectrometry.
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A case of nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap for below-knee amputation stump wound: treatment option for compartment syndrome after fibular free flap surgery.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Despite the frequent use of the fibular free flap, there have been no reports of severe compartment syndrome of the donor leg that necessitated limb amputation. A 66-yr-old man had a fibular osseous free flap transfer from the left leg to the mandible that was complicated by postoperative compartment syndrome. An extensive chronic leg wound resulted, which was treated with multiple debridements and finally with below-knee amputation. Successful coverage of the below-knee amputation stump was accomplished with a nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap. Various foot fillet flaps may be used acutely as a free or an island pedicled flap, but dissection of the vascular pedicle may be difficult in a chronically inflamed wound because of inflammation and adhesions to surrounding tissue. The nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap may be considered as a useful option for treatment of a chronically inflamed stump wound after below-knee amputation.
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Clinical significance of Mycobacterium szulgai isolates from respiratory specimens.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Background: The clinical relevance of Mycobacterium szulgai respiratory isolates has been controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of M. szulgai isolates from respiratory specimens and to identify the clinical features and outcomes of M. szulgai lung disease. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 30 patients from whom M. szulgai was isolated between 2001 and 2010 at the Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). Results: Of the 30 patients, 13 (43%) met the American Thoracic Society diagnostic criteria and were thus likely to have true M. szulgai lung disease. Approximately 57% (17/30) of M. szulgai isolates were recovered only once from patients with other pulmonary diseases, such as pulmonary tuberculosis and other non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases. The 13 patients with M. szulgai lung disease included 12 men (92%), and the median age was 63 y. Among them, 7 (54%) were current smokers and 7 (54%) had a history of previous treatment for tuberculosis. Eight (62%) patients had the fibrocavitary form of M. szulgai lung disease. Nine (69%) patients received anti-mycobacterial treatment for a median duration of 8 months. Conversion to negative cultures was documented in all patients. There was no recurrence or disease-related mortality. Conclusions: Because the isolated M. szulgai from respiratory specimens could be regarded as pathogenic in less than 50% of cases, strict adherence to the recommended diagnostic criteria of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is essential.
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Electrical activation of ion mass doped phosphorous.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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In this study, three different crystalline states of silicon were prepared to be doped with phosphorous by IMD, amorphous, poly crystalline and single crystalline silicon. The dose was controlled by IMD duration time and heat treatment for electrical activation was done in RTA and Furnace. In case of RTA, annealing temperature was controlled by the duration time of power application. In case of a single crystal substrate, the resistance was measured to be 20-50 omega/square depending on the dose and annealing temperature. In case of poly crystal, we could observe segregation of the dopant at grain boundaries, which caused increase of the resistance with increase of annealing temperature. In case of amorphous silicon thin film, this phenomenon could not be observed due to lack of the grain boundaries and the minimum resistance of this work was about 300 omega/square, which was about the same to that in a poly silicon thin film.
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Mycobacterium Chelonae Infections Associated With Bee Venom Acupuncture.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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We report 3 cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections after bee venom acupuncture. All were treated with antibiotics and surgery. Mycobacterium chelonae infections should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin and soft tissue infections following bee venom acupuncture.
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Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.
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Can Levofloxacin Be a Useful Alternative to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for Treating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteremia?
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rates were similar between the trimerthoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and levofloxacin treatment groups. Adverse events related to antibiotics occurred more frequently in patients receiving TMP-SMX, and recurrent bacteremia due to levofloxacin-resistant S. maltophilia strains developed in patients treated with levofloxacin. Our data suggest that levofloxacin can be a useful alternative option for treating S. maltophilia infections.
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Cloning, characterization and effect of TmPGRP-LE gene silencing on survival of Tenebrio molitor against Listeria monocytogenes infection.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of innate immune molecules that recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. PGRP-LE, a member of the PGRP family, selectively binds to diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan to activate both the immune deficiency (Imd) and proPhenoloxidase (proPO) pathways in insects. A PGRP-LE-dependent induction of autophagy to control Listeria monocytogenes has also been reported. We identified and partially characterized a novel PGRP-LE homologue, from Tenebrio molitor and analyzed its functional role in the survival of the insect against infection by a DAP-type PGN containing intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame (ORF) of 990 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 329 residues. TmPGRP-LE contains one PGRP domain, but lacks critical residues for amidase activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a broad constitutive expression of the transcript at various stages of development spanning from larva to adult. RNAi mediated knockdown of the transcripts, followed by a challenge with L. monocytogenes, showed a significant reduction in survival rate of the larvae, suggesting a putative role of TmPGRP-LE in sensing and control of L. monocytogenes infection in T. molitor. These results implicate PGRP-LE as a defense protein necessary for survival of T. molitor against infection by L. monocytogenes.
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Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression analysis of a CD63 homologue from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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CD63, a member of the tetraspanin membrane protein family, plays a pivotal role in cell growth, motility, signal transduction, host-pathogen interactions and cancer. In this work, the cDNA encoding CD63 homologue (TmCD63) was cloned from larvae of a coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame of 705 bp, encoding putative protein of 235 amino acid residues. In silico analysis shows that the protein has four putative transmembrane domains and one large extracellular loop. The characteristic "Cys-Cys-Gly" motif and "Cys188" residues are highly conserved in the large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis of TmCD63 revealed that they belong to the insect cluster with 50%-56% identity. Analysis of spatial expression patterns demonstrated that TmCD63 mRNA is mainly expressed in gut and Malphigian tubules of larvae and the testis of the adult. Developmental expression patterns of CD63 mRNA showed that TmCD63 transcripts are detected in late larval, pupal and adult stages. Interestingly, TmCD63 transcripts are upregulated to the maximum level of 4.5 fold, in response to DAP-type peptidoglycan during the first 6 h, although other immune elicitors also caused significant increase to the transcript level at later time-points. These results suggest that CD63 might contribute to T. molitor immune response against various microbial pathogens.
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Resveratrol contributes to chemosensitivity of malignant mesothelioma cells with activation of p53.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic phytoalexin with chemopreventive properties. We previously reported a synergistic anti-proliferative effect of resveratrol and clofarabine against malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells. Here, we further investigated molecular mechanisms involved in the synergistic interaction of these compounds in MM MSTO-211H cells. Resveratrol, in combination with clofarabine, time-dependently induced a strong cytotoxic effect with the nuclear accumulation of phospho-p53 (p-p53) in MSTO-211H cells, but not in normal mesothelial MeT-5A cells. Combination treatment up-regulated the levels of p-p53, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP proteins. Gene silencing with p53-targeting siRNA attenuated the sensitivity of cells to the combined treatment of two compounds. Analyses of p53 DNA binding assay, p53 reporter gene assay, and RTP-CR toward p53-regulated genes, including Bax, PUMA, Noxa and p21, demonstrated that induced p-p53 is transcriptionally active. These results were further confirmed by the siRNA-mediated knockdown of p53 gene. Combination treatment significantly caused the accumulation of cells at G1 phase with the increases in the sub-G0/G1 peak, DNA ladder, nuclear fragmentation, and caspase-3/7 activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that resveratrol and clofarabine synergistically elicit apoptotic signal via a p53-dependent pathway, and provide a scientific rationale for clinical evaluation of resveratrol as a promising chemopotentiator in MM.
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A novel and efficient synthesis of diverse dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans using the ceric ammonium nitrate-catalyzed formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of 1,4-naphthoquinones to olefins and its application to furomollugin.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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A novel approach was developed for the synthesis of diverse dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans from 1,4-naphthoquinones and olefins in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate. This reaction provides a rapid route for the synthesis of a variety of dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans and naphtho[1,2-b]furans bearing different substituents. This methodology was also used to synthesize the biologically important natural product furomollugin in only 2 steps.
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Synthesis of diverse indene derivatives from 1-diazonaphthalen-2(1H)-ones via thermal cascade reactions.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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A sequential Wolff rearrangement of 1-diazonaphthalen-2(1H)-ones followed by trapping of the ketene intermediate with primary and aromatic amines or alcohols and phenols in the presence of various aldehydes generates 1H-indene-3-carboxamides or 1H-indene-3-carboxylates. This constitutes an unprecedented three-component coupling reaction that allows for the synthesis of functionalized indene derivatives under catalyst-free thermal conditions.
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Highly Efficient Top-Illuminated Flexible Polymer Solar Cells with a Nanopatterned 3D Microresonant Cavity.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Top-illuminated flexible polymer solar cells with 3D micoresonant cavity provide not only powerful light-trapping but also electrical enhancement, resulting in significant enhancement of power efficiency (26.4%). Capping layer (CL) enhanced the transmittance of the transparent electrodes, increasing electric field intensity in the photoactive layer by forming microresonant cavity, and the nano-pattern on the rear electrodes caused significant enhancement to the Jsc by improving light absorption and charge collection.
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Broadband energy transfer to sensitizing dyes by mobile quantum dot mediators in solar cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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The efficiency of solar cells depends on absorption intensity of the photon collectors. Herein, mobile quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with thiol ligands in electrolyte are utilized into dye-sensitized solar cells. The QDs serve as mediators to receive and re-transmit energy to sensitized dyes, thus amplifying photon collection of sensitizing dyes in the visible range and enabling up-conversion of low-energy photons to higher-energy photons for dye absorption. The cell efficiency is boosted by dispersing QDs in electrolyte, thereby obviating the need for light scattering or plasmonic structures. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy and external quantum efficiency data reveal that resonance energy transfer due to the overlap between QD emission and dye absorption spectra becomes dominant when the QD bandgap is higher than the first excitonic peak of the dye, while co-sensitization resulting in a fast reduction of oxidized dyes is pronounced in the case of lower QD band gaps.
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Internal mammary artery perforator-based V-Y advancement flap for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the sternal region.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Abstract We successfully reconstructed a large defect that had been created by resection of an unstable, contracted, and hypertrophic scar with a chronic ulcer on the lower sternal area of a 67-year-old man. We used bilateral V-Y advancement flaps based on internal mammary artery perforators.
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Genomic organization, sequence characterization and expression analysis of Tenebrio molitor apolipophorin-III in response to an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is a well-known hemolymph protein having a functional role in lipid transport and immune response of insects. We cloned full-length cDNA encoding putative apoLp-III from larvae of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmapoLp-III), by identification of clones corresponding to the partial sequence of TmapoLp-III, subsequently followed with full length sequencing by a clone-by-clone primer walking method. The complete cDNA consists of 890 nucleotides, including an ORF encoding 196 amino acid residues. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 20 amino acid residues, the 176-residue mature apoLp-III has a calculated molecular mass of 19,146Da. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that TmapoLp-III was organized into four exons interrupted by three introns. Several immune-related transcription factor binding sites were discovered in the putative 5-flanking region. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses reveal that TmapoLp-III has high sequence identity (88%) with Tribolium castaneum apoLp-III but shares little sequence homologies (<26%) with other apoLp-IIIs. Homology modeling of Tm apoLp-III shows a bundle of five amphipathic alpha helices, including a short helix 3. The helix-short helix-helix motif was predicted to be implicated in lipid binding interactions, through reversible conformational changes and accommodating the hydrophobic residues to the exterior for stability. Highest level of TmapoLp-III mRNA was detected at late pupal stages, albeit it is expressed in the larval and adult stages at lower levels. The tissue specific expression of the transcripts showed significantly higher numbers in larval fat body and adult integument. In addition, TmapoLp-III mRNA was found to be highly upregulated in late stages of L. monocytogenes or E. coli challenge. These results indicate that TmapoLp-III may play an important role in innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens in T. molitor.
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Efficient one-step synthesis of pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-dione derivatives by organocatalytic cascade reactions of isatins and ?-ketoamides.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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We describe an efficient one-step synthesis of pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinolinedione derivatives using ethylenediamine diacetate (EDDA)-catalyzed cascade reactions of isatins and ?-ketoamides. It is the first direct conversion of isatins to pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinolinedione derivatives via C-N bond cleavage and isatin ring expansion. Furthermore, this reaction provides a one-step synthetic route for the production of biologically interesting complex molecules that are generally prepared using multi-step reactions.
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Efficient one-pot synthesis of novel and diverse tetrahydroquinolines bearing pyranopyrazoles using organocatalyzed domino Knoevenagel/hetero Diels-Alder reactions.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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A new synthetic route to biologically interesting diverse tetrahydroquinolines bearing pyranopyrazoles was developed by reacting pyrazolones and [Formula: see text],[Formula: see text]-dialkylated aminobenzaldehydes in the presence of EDDA. The key strategy underlying the methodology used was the domino Knoevenagel/hetero Diels-Alder reaction. This synthetic method provides a variety of novel tetrahydroquinolines in good yields.
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Reconstruction of the medial canthus using an ipsilateral paramedian forehead flap.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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The medial canthus is an important area in determining the impression of a persons facial appearance. It is composed of various structures, including canthal tendons, lacrimal canaliculi, conjunctiva, the tarsal plate, and skin tissues. Due to its complexity, medial canthal defect reconstruction has been a challenging procedure to perform. The contralateral paramedian forehead flap is usually used for large defects; however, the bulkiness of the glabella and splitting at the distal end of the flap are factors that can reduce the rate of flap survival. We reconstructed medial canthal defects using ipsilateral paramedian forehead flaps, minimizing glabellar bulkiness.
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Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea.
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Efficient one-pot synthesis of novel and diverse furo[2,3-d] pyrimidinediones and thioxofuro[2,3-d] pyrimidineones by the rhodium (II) pivalate-catalyzed reactions of cyclic diazo compounds.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of cyclic diazo compounds derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid with arylacetylenes and styrenes were examined. These reactions provide a rapid synthetic route to the preparation of a variety of novel and diverse furo [2,3-d pyrimidine-2,4-diones, 2-thioxodihydrofuro [2,3-d pyrimidin-4-ones, dihydrofuro [2,3-d] pyrimidine-2,4-diones, and 2-thioxotetrahydrofuro [2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-ones.
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Additional role of second washing specimen obtained during single bronchoscopy session in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchial washing is a useful procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), when a patient cannot produce sputum spontaneously or when sputum smears are negative. However, the benefit of gaining serial bronchial washing specimens for diagnosis of TB has not yet been studied. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to determine the diagnostic utility of additional bronchial washing specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in suspected patients.
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Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in patients with cancer.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Patients with cancer can be vulnerable to infection with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens such as extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A cohort study was performed to evaluate the epidemiology and impact of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) bacteraemia on the outcomes of adult patients with cancer. During the 2.5-year study period, a total of 350 cases of E. coli bacteraemia were documented in cancer patients, of which 95 (27.1%) were due to ESBL-EC. Significant factors associated with ESBL-EC bacteraemia were liver disease, immunosuppressant use, recent surgery, and prior use of cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 14.9% (52/350), and the mortality rate was higher in patients with ESBL-EC than in those without ESBL-EC (22.1% vs.12.2%; P=0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that ESBL-EC was an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio=3.01, 95% confidence interval 1.45-6.28; P=0.003), along with the presence of septic shock, mechanical ventilation, the severity of underlying diseases, and pneumonia as a source of bacteraemia. Of the 69 isolates in which ESBLs and their molecular relationships were studied, 68 (98.6%) produced CTX-M-type and 51 (73.9%) produced CTX-M-14 and/or CTX-M-15. Twenty-four sequence types (STs) were identified among CTX-M-14- and CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates, with ST131 being the most prevalent (12/51; 23.5%). In conclusion, this study confirms that CTX-M-producing E. coli and ST131, which have been shown to be an emerging public health threat, are widely prevalent in cancer patients and can adversely affect the outcome of E. coli bacteraemia in these patients.
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Sunitinib-CLIO Conjugate: A VEGFR/PDGFR-Targeting Active MR Probe.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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This study was conducted to evaluate feasibility of sunitinib-CLIO conjugate as a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (VEGFR/PDGFR)-specific magnetic resonance (MR) probe.
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Fingertip reconstruction using the hypothenar perforator free flap.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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The purpose of this study was to present the results of using the hypothenar perforator free flap for fingertip reconstruction.
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Cloning and characterization of a new broadspecific ?-glucosidase from Lactococcus sp. FSJ4.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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A ?-glucosidase gene bglX was cloned from Lactococcus sp. FSJ4 by the method of shotgun. The bglX open reading frame consisted of 1,437 bp, encoding 478 amino acids. SDS-PAGE showed a recombinant bglX monomer of 54 kDa. Substrate specificity study revealed that the enzyme exhibited multifunctional catalysis activity against pNPG, pNPX and pNPGal. This enzyme shows higher activity against aryl glycosides of xylose than those of glucose or galactose. The enzyme exhibited the maximal activity at 40 °C, and the optimal pH was 6.0 with pNPG and 6.5 with pNPX as the substrates. Molecular modeling and substrate docking showed that there should be one active center responsible for the mutifuntional activity in this enzyme, since the active site pocket was substantially wide to allow the entry of pNPG, pNPX and pNPGal, which elucidated the structure-function relationship in substrate specificities. Substrate docking results indicated that Glu180 and Glu377 were the essential catalytic residues of the enzyme. The CDOCKER_ENERGY values obtained by substrate docking indicated that the enzyme has higher activity against pNPX than those of pNPG and pNPGal. These observations are in conformity with the results obtained from experimental investigation. Therefore, such substrate specificity makes this ?-glucosidase of great interest for further study on physiological and catalytic reaction processes.
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Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of a white spot syndrome virus isolated from Pacific white shrimp.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The fourth complete genome sequence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) isolated from Korea (WSSV-KR) was determined. The genome is composed of 295,884 bp encompassing 515 open reading frames (ORFs) among which 90 showed no sequence homology with any known protein in BLAST searches. The remaining 425 ORFs encode functional proteins including enzymes for nucleic acid metabolism, DNA replication and transcription, and several major structural proteins. Dot plot and linear comparisons of WSSV Korean strain with other WSSV isolates showed overall similarity but with some areas of sequence difference and one large deletion area.
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The functionality of facial appearance and its importance to a korean population.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Many people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea.
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Identification and expression analysis of a novel R-type lectin from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We have identified novel ricin-type (R-type) lectin by sequencing of random clones from cDNA library of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA sequence is comprised of 495 bp encoding a protein of 164 amino acid residues and shows 49% identity with galectin of Tribolium castaneum. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the amino acid residues from 35 to 162 belong to ricin-type beta-trefoil structure. The transcript was significantly upregulated after early hours of injection with peptidoglycans derived from Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, beta-1, 3 glucan from fungi and an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes suggesting putative function in innate immunity.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.