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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nonvolatile resistance switching on two-dimensional electron gas.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the complex oxide interfaces have brought about considerable interest for the application of the next-generation multifunctional oxide electronics due to the exotic properties that do not exist in the bulk. In this study, we report the integration of 2DEG into the nonvolatile resistance switching cell as a bottom electrode, where the metal-insulator transition of 2DEG by an external field serves to significantly reduce the OFF-state leakage current while enhancing the on/off ratio. Using the Pt/Ta2O5-y/Ta2O5-x/SrTiO3 heterostructure as a model system, we demonstrate the nonvolatile resistance switching memory cell with a large on/off ratio (>10(6)) and a low leakage current at the OFF state (?10(-13) A). Beyond exploring nonvolatile memory, our work also provides an excellent framework for exploring the fundamental understanding of novel physics in which electronic and ionic processes are coupled in the complex heterostructures.
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Modified Transtibial Versus Anteromedial Portal Technique in Anatomic Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Comparison of Femoral Tunnel Position and Clinical Results.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Although several studies have compared a conventional transtibial technique with an anteromedial (AM) portal technique for single-bundle (SB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, no study to date has investigated whether the modified transtibial technique results in the femoral tunnel being in a similar anatomic position and produces similar clinical outcomes with those of the AM portal technique.
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Dietary pattern and nutrient intake of korean children with atopic dermatitis.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by itching and eczema-like skin lesions, and its symptoms alleviate with age. Recently, the prevalence of AD has increased among adolescents and adults. The increasing prevalence of AD seems to be related to westernized lifestyles and dietary patterns.
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A [NiFe]hydrogenase model that catalyses the release of hydrogen from formic acid.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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We report the decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide, catalysed by a NiRu complex originally developed as a [NiFe]hydrogenase model. This is the first example of H2 evolution, catalysed by a [NiFe]hydrogenase model, which does not require additional energy.
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Synthesis and crystal structure of a dinuclear, monomeric Mn(II) p-semiquinonato complex.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Herein, we report the first crystal structure of a monomeric p-semiquinonato d-block complex and its reactivity toward dioxygen, closely associated with a biological system of an oxygen evolving centre of photosystem II.
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Fabrication of novel oxygen-releasing alginate beads as an efficient oxygen carrier for the enhancement of aerobic bioremediation of 1,4-dioxane contaminated groundwater.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Oxygen-releasing alginate beads (ORABs), a new concept of oxygen-releasing compounds (ORCs) designed to overcome some limitations regarding the fast oxygen release rate and the high pH equilibrium of ORCs, were fabricated to promote the stimulation of aerobic biodegradation in anaerobic groundwater. Slow oxygen-releasing rate and maintenance of constant pH were achieved by changing the parameters (ionic radius and valence) related to the cross-linking ions composing ORABs, and the best results were obtained for ORABs cross-linked with Al (Al-ORABs). Furthermore, the mechanism of the improved aerobic biodegradation using Al-ORABs under oxygen-limiting groundwater conditions was elucidated in batch and column studies with 1,4-dioxane and Mycrobacterium sp. PH-06 as a model contaminant and aerobic microbes, respectively. Maximum 1,4-dioxane degradations of 99% and 68.1% were achieved when Al-ORABs were applied in batch and column conditions, respectively, whereas 34.3% and 18% of 1,4-dioxane were degraded without Al-ORABs in batch and column conditions, respectively.
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Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid, a Bile Acid, Promotes Blood Vessel Repair by Recruiting Vasculogenic Progenitor Cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Although serum bile acid concentrations are ~10 ?M in healthy subjects, the cross-talk between the biliary system and vascular repair has never been investigated. In this study, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) induced dissociation of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from stromal cells by reducing adhesion molecule expression. TUDCA increased CD34(+) /Sca1(+) progenitors in mice peripheral blood (PB), and CD34(+) , CD31(+) , and c-kit(+) progenitors in human PB. In addition, TUDCA increased differentiation of CD34(+) HSCs into EPC lineage cells via Akt activation. EPC invasion was increased by TUDCA, which was mediated by fibroblast activating protein (FAP) via Akt activation. Interestingly, TUDCA induced integration of EPCs into human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by increasing adhesion molecule expression. In the mouse hindlimb ischemia model, TUDCA promoted blood perfusion by enhancing angiogenesis through recruitment of Flk-1(+) /CD34(+) and Sca-1(+) /c-kit(+) progenitors into damaged tissue. In GFP(+) bone marrow-transplanted hindlimb ischemia, TUDCA induced recruitment of GFP(+) /c-kit(+) progenitors to the ischemic area, resulting in an increased blood perfusion ratio. Histological analysis suggested that GFP(+) progenitors mobilized from bone marrow, integrated into blood vessels, and differentiated into VEGFR(+) cells. In addition, TUDCA decreased cellular senescence by reducing levels of p53, p21, and reactive oxygen species and increased nitric oxide. Transplantation of TUDCA-primed senescent EPCs in hindlimb ischemia significantly improved blood vessel regeneration, as compared with senescent EPCs. Our results suggested that TUDCA promoted neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow, their differentiation into EPCs, and their integration with preexisting endothelial cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A novel self-assembling nanoparticle of Ag-Bi with high reactive efficiency.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A novel Ag-Bi nanoparticle has been prepared via a facile precipitation approach. The nanoparticle could achieve purification of contaminated water without supplements and exhibited much higher activity compared to other popular nanoparticles (e.g. nZVI). The excellent performance of Ag-Bi was due in part to a large production of ?OH radicals.
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Exposure of general population to PBDEs: A Progressive Total Diet Study in South Korea.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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This study assessed the level of 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Korean foods following a Progressive Total Diet Study (TDS). The experiments comprised 96 types of dietetically representative foods, all were either cooked or edible raw. PBDEs were widely encountered in foodstuffs with the highest concentration in plant oils, fishes and shellfishes. Of all congeners tested for, BDE-47 was the most predominant and encountered in almost all food items except meats. The presence of nona-BDEs at significant levels indicated that Korean environments are still contaminated by deca-BDE. The daily dietary intake of PBDEs was estimated to be 63 ng d(-1). The highest PBDEs intake was observed in the 19-39 year old group and gradually decreased as age increased. Our study suggests that the TDS approach using foods in the table-ready form should be used for a better estimation of dietary exposure to PBDEs.
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A prospective two-center study on the associations between microalbuminuria, coronary atherosclerosis and long-term clinical outcome in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: evaluation by coronary CT angiography.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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This study assessed the associations between microalbuminuria in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and the presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and the long-term clinical outcomes. In total, the study enrolled 284 consecutive eligible asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and without known coronary artery disease (CAD), who then underwent CCTA and 24 h urine albumin measurements. Microalbuminuria was defined as 30-300 mg/day urinary albumin excretion. Obstructive CAD, as measured by CCTA, was defined as maximum intra-luminal stenosis ?50 %. Patients with and without microalbuminuria were compared in terms of obstructive CAD prevalence, and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. They were evaluated using the following data: coronary artery calcium score (CACS), atheroma burden obstructive score (ABOS), segment involvement score (SIS) and segment stenosis score (SSS). All-cause mortality within a follow-up period of 5 years was also compared. Compared to patients without microalbuminuria, patients with microalbuminuria were more likely to have obstructive CAD (p = 0.004). Microalbuminuria was associated with higher ABOS (p = 0.010), SIS (p = 0.029), and SSS (p = 0.011), except for CACS (p = 0.058). Multivariable analyses adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors revealed that microalbuminuria was an independent predictor of obstructive CAD [odds ratio 2.255, confidence intervals (CI) 1.121-4.538, p = 0.023] and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.469, CI 1.319-9.121, p = 0.012). In asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria was associated with increased risk of CAD and poorer clinical outcomes.
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Reference ranges for induced sputum eosinophil counts in Korean adult population.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Induced sputum analyses are widely utilized to evaluate airway inflammation in asthmatics. However, the values have not been examined in Korean adults.
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Clinical features and course of ocular toxocariasis in adults.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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To investigate the clinical features, clinical course of granuloma, serologic findings, treatment outcome, and probable infection sources in adult patients with ocular toxocariasis (OT).
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Thromboembolic event detected by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging after coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence rate of diffusion positive lesions (DPLs), and to assess the peri-procedural risk factors for the occurrence of DPLs in patients who underwent coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms.
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The basic facts of korean breast cancer in 2011: results of a nationwide survey and breast cancer registry database.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Breast cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in Korean women, with a continuously increasing incidence. The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through an online registration program. The aim of the present study was to report the fundamental facts on Korean breast cancer in 2011, and to analyze the changing patterns in clinical characteristics and breast cancer management in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, including the total number of cases, age, stage, and type of surgery, for the year 2011 were collected from 84 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey. Additional data relating to the changing patterns of breast cancer in Korea were collected from the online breast cancer registry database and analyzed. According to nationwide survey data, a total of 16,967 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2011. The crude incidence of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 67 cases per 100,000 women. Analysis of the survey and registry data gave equivalent results in terms of age distribution, stage, and type of surgery. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women (51.3%) was higher than that of premenopausal women (48.7%) with breast cancer. The incidence of stage 0 and stage I breast cancer increased continuously over the last 10 years (56.3% in 2011), and breast conserving surgery (65.7%) was performed more frequently than total mastectomy (33.8%). The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 8-fold. We conclude that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past 10 years in Korea, and surgical management has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.
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Clinical Significance of Chronic Kidney Disease and Atrial Fibrillation on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Background/Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexists with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk for AMI. However, the combined impact of CKD and AF on the mortality and morbidity in AMI population has not been determined. Methods: Between January 2004 and December 2009, a total of 4,738 AMI patients were enrolled prospectively. Patients were divided into four groups according to the combined status of CKD and AF. The primary endpoint was a combination of 5-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results: The prevalence of AF was significantly higher in CKD patients than in non-CKD patients (6.76 vs. 3.31%, p < 0.001). The highest cumulative event rate of MACCE and death was observed in patients with both CKD and AF (68.5 and 64.0%), respectively. In multivariable analyses, compared with patients with neither AF nor CKD, hazard ratios (HR) for composite of MACCE were 1.66 (95% CI, 1.14-2.41), 1.24 (95% CI, 1.06-1.46), and 2.10 (95% CI, 1.42-3.13) for patients with AF only, those with CKD only, and those with both CKD and AF, respectively (p for interaction = 0.935). Patients with both CKD and AF had a greatest risk for all-cause mortality (HR 2.54; 95% CI, 1.60-4.53), and the significant synergistic interaction was observed between CKD and AF (p for interaction = 0.015). Conclusion: The combined effect of AF and CKD on the risk of MACCE after an AMI is stronger than any separate condition, and it confers a synergistic effect on the all-cause mortality risk. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Sorption behavior of heavy metals on poorly crystalline manganese oxides: roles of water conditions and light.
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of solution properties and light on the metal uptake and release in a nanosized, poorly crystalline manganese oxide (?-MnO2) system. The results from synthetic water matrices revealed that the aggregation state was strongly affected by ionic strength, Ca(2+), and humic acid, and the particle aggregation subsequently changed the ability of ?-MnO2 to adsorb and sequester heavy metal ions (Cu(ii)). The extent of Cu(ii) uptake onto ?-MnO2 exhibited a negative correlation with the attachment efficiency value, which suggested that a lower sorption capacity could be achieved under aggregation-inducing conditions. Upon exposure to light, the adsorbed Cu(ii) was released from the ?-MnO2 surface via photoinduced dissolution of MnO2. The concentration of Cu(ii) desorbed was substantially higher when the humic acid was present together with Ca(2+). The present investigation enables us to better understand the adsorption-desorption processes of heavy metals occurring at the MnO2-solution interface in response to common environmental stimuli.
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[NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 surpasses platinum as an electrode for H2 oxidation reaction.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Reported herein is an electrode for dihydrogen (H2) oxidation, and it is based on [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 ([NiFe]S77). It has a 637 times higher mass activity than Pt (calculated based on 1?mg of [NiFe]S77 or Pt) at 50?mV in a hydrogen half-cell. The [NiFe]S77 electrode is also stable in air and, unlike Pt, can be recovered 100?% after poisoning by carbon monoxide. Following characterization of the [NiFe]S77 electrode, a fuel cell comprising a [NiFe]S77 anode and Pt cathode was constructed and shown to have a a higher power density than that achievable by Pt.
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Short-term outcomes of immediate breast reconstruction using an implant or tissue expander after mastectomy in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Mastectomy is an optional surgical management of breast cancer, but it can cause significant adverse reactions. Breast reconstruction is a concern in post-mastectomy recovery. We assessed the oncologic safety and patient satisfaction following immediate breast reconstruction using an implant or tissue expander.
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Radiocontrast media hypersensitivity in the Asia Pacific region.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Radiocontrast media (RCM) is a major cause of drug hypersensitivity reactions as the medical application of RCM is increasing recently. RCM induced hypersensitivity reactions are considered as unpredictable type B reactions. Underlying mechanism of RCM induced hypersensitivity was previously regarded as nonimmunological mechanisms but recent studies suggest that immunological mechanisms could also be involved. As a result, the roles of skin tests and premedication are revisiting. As there has been no report that comprehensively summarized and analyzed the results of the studies on RCM hypersensitivity in the Asia Pacific region, we aimed to review the literatures on hypersensitivity reactions to RCM in terms of prevalence clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and preventive measures in the Asia Pacific region.
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Epidemiology of adult asthma in Asia: toward a better understanding.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Asia is the world's most dynamic area. Asthma is a major chronic disease in Asia, like other continents. However, unlike childhood asthma, the epidemiological burden of asthma in Asian adults has been unclear. Here we reviewed the currently available literatures on the epidemiology of adult asthma in the Asian community populations. Adult asthma prevalence was generally lower in Asian than in Europe, but the increasing trends suggested the disease burden to rise in the near future. However, for better understanding, it may be essential to prepare for the Asian multinational network for the standardization and collaboration of research.
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Assessment of Dechlorane compounds in foodstuffs obtained from retail markets and estimates of dietary intake in Korean population.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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A total of 175 samples, composed of 35 different foodstuffs, were obtained from retail markets in Korea and analyzed to investigate the contamination status and dietary intake of Dechlorane compounds. The concentrations of Dechlorane Plus (DP), mirex, Dechlorane (Dec) 602 and 603 ranged from ND to 169.85 pg/g wet weight (ww), 107.30 pg/g ww, 20.81 pg/g ww, 0.41 pg/g ww, respectively, while Dechlorane (Dec) 604 was not detected in any samples. Strong correlations between anti- and syn-DP and between mirex and Dec 602 were observed. The average anti-isomer fractional abundance (fanti) was 0.78±0.11 which was larger than the technical DP value (fanti=0.75). The estimated dietary daily intake of DP, 11.2×10(3) pg/day, was one to three orders of magnitude higher than other Dechloranes. Grain was the most contributed food group to dietary daily intake of DP for Korean population.
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Increased Expression of Three Types of Transient Receptor Potential Channels (TRPA1, TRPV4 and TRPV3) in Burn Scars with Post-burn Pruritus.
Acta Derm. Venereol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Post-burn pruritus is a common distressing consequence of burn wounds. Empirical treatment often fails to have a satisfactory outcome on post-burn pruritus, as the mechanism of post-burn pruritus has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the manifestation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in post-burn pruritus. Fifty-one burn patients with (n?=?33 or without (n?=?18) pruritus were investigated, including skin biopsies. Not unexpectedly, the scarred body area was larger in the former group. In immunohistochemistry, TPRV3 was significantly elevated in the epidermis of burn scars with pruritus. Furthermore, real time- PCR showed that mRNA of TRPA1 and TRPV4 was increased in itching burn scars. Staining for substance P and CGRP did not differ between the 2 grouped, but the former neuropeptide was increased in burn scars. These results may help determine a specific therapeutic approach for post-burn pruritus.
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Structural differences of oxidized iron-sulfur and nickel-iron cofactors in O2-tolerant and O2-sensitive hydrogenases studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The class of [NiFe]-hydrogenases comprises oxygen-sensitive periplasmic (PH) and oxygen-tolerant membrane-bound (MBH) enzymes. For three PHs and four MBHs from six bacterial species, structural features of the nickel-iron active site of hydrogen turnover and of the iron-sulfur clusters functioning in electron transfer were determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Fe-XAS indicated surplus oxidized iron and a lower number of ~2.7Å Fe-Fe distances plus additional shorter and longer distances in the oxidized MBHs compared to the oxidized PHs. This supported a double-oxidized and modified proximal FeS cluster in all MBHs with an apparent trimer-plus-monomer arrangement of its four iron atoms, in agreement with crystal data showing a [4Fe3S] cluster instead of a [4Fe4S] cubane as in the PHs. Ni-XAS indicated coordination of the nickel by the thiol group sulfurs of four conserved cysteines and at least one iron-oxygen bond in both MBH and PH proteins. Structural differences of the oxidized inactive [NiFe] cofactor of MBHs in the Ni-B state compared to PHs in the Ni-A state included a ~0.05Å longer Ni-O bond, a two times larger spread of the Ni-S bond lengths, and a ~0.1Å shorter Ni-Fe distance. The modified proximal [4Fe3S] cluster, weaker binding of the Ni-Fe bridging oxygen species, and an altered localization of reduced oxygen species at the active site may each contribute to O2 tolerance.
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Reference ranges and determinant factors for exhaled nitric oxide in a healthy korean elderly population.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a useful non-invasive biomarker for asthma diagnosis; however, the literature suggests that exhaled NO levels may be affected by demographic factors. The present analysis investigated determinant factors that present exhaled NO reference levels for Korean elderly adults.
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Standards for endovascular neurosurgical training and certification of the society of korean endovascular neurosurgeons 2013.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The need for standard endovascular neurosurgical (ENS) training programs and certification in Korea cannot be overlooked due to the increasing number of ENS specialists and the expanding ENS field. The Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons (SKEN) Certification Committee has prepared training programs and certification since 2010, and the first certificates were issued in 2013. A task force team (TFT) was organized in August 2010 to develop training programs and certification. TFT members researched programs and systems in other countries to develop a program that best suited Korea. After 2 years, a rough draft of the ENS training and certification regulations were prepared, and the standard training program title was decided. The SKEN Certification Committee made an official announcement about the certification program in March 2013. The final certification regulations comprised three major parts: certified endovascular neurosurgeons (EN), certified ENS institutions, and certified ENS training institutions. Applications have been evaluated and the results were announced in June 2013 as follows: 126 members received EN certification and 55 hospitals became ENS-certified institutions. The SKEN has established standard ENS training programs together with a certification system, and it is expected that they will advance the field of ENS to enhance public health and safety in Korea.
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Capsaicin cough sensitivity is related to the older female predominant feature in chronic cough patients.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The present study aimed to examine the age and gender distributions among chronic cough patients referred to a tertiary cough clinic in Korea, and to investigate clinical factors related to the demographic findings.
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Association of insulin resistance with bronchial hyperreactivity.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Several epidemiologic studies showed the significant association of insulin resistance with asthma.
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Lamotrigine-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis confirmed by in vitro granulysin and cytokine assays.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Lamotrigine is a recent medication which is prescribed for various neuropsychiatric conditions. It is generally well-tolerated, but recent pharmacoepidemiological evidence suggests that lamotrigine is associated with risks of developing severe cutaneous drug reactions like toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). However, there still remains the diagnostic challenge regarding how to confirm the drug causality in suspected cases. In most cases so far, lamotrigine causality has not been objectively demonstrated, which was possibly due to high risk of oral challenge tests or the lack of useful in vitro drug assays. Here we report a case of lamotrigine-induced TEN, of which the drug causality was confirmed by in vitro granulysin and cytokine assays.
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Effects of inorganic nanoparticles on viability and catabolic activities of Agrobacterium sp. PH-08 during biodegradation of dibenzofuran.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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This study investigated the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and growth inhibition effects of four different inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) such as aluminum (nAl), iron (nFe), nickel (nNi), and zinc (nZn) on a dibenzofuran (DF) degrading bacterium Agrobacterium sp. PH-08. NP (0-1,000 mg L(-1)) -treated bacterial cells were assessed for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, growth and biodegradation activities at biochemical and molecular levels. In an aqueous system, the bacterial cells treated with nAl, nZn and nNi at 500 mg L(-1) showed significant reduction in cell viability (30-93.6 %, p < 0.05), while nFe had no significant inhibition on bacterial cell viability. In the presence of nAl, nZn and nNi, the cells exhibited elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and cell death. Furthermore, NP exposure showed significant (p < 0.05) impairment in DF and catechol biodegradation activities. The reduction in DF biodegradation was ranged about 71.7-91.6 % with single NPs treatments while reached up to 96.3 % with a mixture of NPs. Molecular and biochemical investigations also clearly revealed that NP exposure drastically affected the catechol-2,3-dioxygenase activities and its gene (c23o) expression. However, no significant inhibition was observed in nFe treatment. The bacterial extracellular polymeric materials and by-products from DF degradation can be assumed as key factors in diminishing the toxic effects of NPs, especially for nFe. This study clearly demonstrates the impact of single and mixed NPs on the microbial catabolism of xenobiotic-degrading bacteria at biochemical and molecular levels. This is the first study on estimating the impact of mixed NPs on microbial biodegradation.
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Evaluation of the INNOVANCE PFA P2Y assay and its association with CYP2C19 genotypes.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between INNOVANCE PFA P2Y (PFA P2Y) test results and CYP2C19 genotypes and provide baseline data for PFA P2Y testing to establish a therapeutic monitoring strategy for clopidogrel. A total of 75 new patients with acute coronary syndrome with planned percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled between June 2012 and September 2012. All patients received clopidogrel at an initial loading dose of 600?mg followed by a 75-mg daily maintenance dose. Blood samples were obtained on the third morning after clopidogrel loading. PFA P2Y, VerifyNow P2Y12 and VASP assays were used to determine platelet inhibition due to clopidogrel, and the Verigene CYP2C19 test was used for CYP2C19 genotyping. The genotype frequency of 75 patients was as follows: CYP2C19 *1/*1 (wild type), 28 (37.3%); *1/*2, 31 (41.3%); *1/*3, 4 (5.3%); *2/*2, 5 (6.7%); *2/*3, 5 (6.7%); *1/*17, 1 (1.3%); and *2/*17, 1 (1.3%). Classified according to CYP2C19 genotypes, there were 29 (38.7%) extensive metabolizers (EM) or ultra rapid metabolizers (UM), 35 (46.7%) intermediate metabolizers (IM), and 10 (13.3%) poor metabolizers (PM). Median (interquartile range) PFA P2Y closure times (seconds) were 119 (101-260), 300 (130-300) and 300 (300-300) in the PM, IM and EM or UM groups, respectively (p??0.05). Compared with non-carriers, carriers of reduced function CYP2C19 alleles tended to have higher platelet reactivity after clopidogrel treatment. The cut-off for PM versus other groups (IM and EM or UM) was ?141 seconds (AUC 0.704, sensitivity 70%, specificity 76.6%) on the ROC curve. A statistically significant correlation between PFA P2Y (seconds) and VerifyNow (PRU) was found (??=?-0.47, p?
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Effects of metal ions on the reactivity and corrosion electrochemistry of Fe/FeS nanoparticles.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI) formed under sulfidic conditions results in a biphasic material (Fe/FeS) that reduces trichloroethene (TCE) more rapidly than nZVI associated only with iron oxides (Fe/FeO). Exposing Fe/FeS to dissolved metals (Pd(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Mn(2+)) results in their sequestration by coprecipitation as dopants into FeS and FeO and/or by electroless precipitation as zerovalent metals that are hydrogenation catalysts. Using TCE reduction rates to probe the effect of metal amendments on the reactivity of Fe/FeS, it was found that Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) decreased TCE reduction rates, while Pd(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) increased them. Electrochemical characterization of metal-amended Fe/FeS showed that aging caused passivation by growth of FeO and FeS phases and poisoning of catalytic metal deposits by sulfide. Correlation of rate constants for TCE reduction (kobs) with electrochemical parameters (corrosion potentials and currents, Tafel slopes, and polarization resistance) and descriptors of hydrogen activation by metals (exchange current density for hydrogen reduction and enthalpy of solution into metals) showed the controlling process changed with aging. For fresh Fe/FeS, kobs was best described by the exchange current density for activation of hydrogen, whereas kobs for aged Fe/FeS correlated with electrochemical descriptors of electron transfer.
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Exposure of iron nanoparticles to Arabidopsis thaliana enhances root elongation by triggering cell wall loosening.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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In this study, we investigated the effect of nZVI on plant root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana and showed, for the first time, that nZVI enhanced root elongation by inducing OH radical-induced cell wall loosening. Exposure of plants to 0.5 g/L nZVI enhanced root elongation by 150-200% over that in the control, and further mechanistic studies showed that this occurred via nZVI-mediated OH radical-induced cell wall loosening. The oxidation capacity of nZVI, leading to release of H2O2, allowed it to cause OH radical-induced cell wall loosening in roots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MALDI-TOFMS)-based analysis clearly revealed that pectin-polysaccharides in roots were degraded; they are one of the main matrix-polysaccharide-connecting and load-bearing polymers in cell walls. Rapid root elongation led to structural changes in root cell walls: reduction of cell wall thickness and a bias on the orientation of cellulose microfibrils. Additionally, the asymmetrical distribution of tensional strength resulted from the OH radical-induced cell wall loosening enhanced endocytosis. These findings emphasize that OH radical-induced cell wall loosening is important for mechanical regulation of the cell wall and provide new insights into the cellular responses of plants exposed to reactive metal nanoparticles.
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Cross-reactivity to Acetaminophen and Celecoxib According to the Type of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Identification of tolerable alternative analgesics is crucial for management in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-sensitive patients. We investigated cross-reactivity of acetaminophen and celecoxib according to the type of aspirin/NSAID hypersensitivity and aimed to determine the risk factors for cross-intolerance.
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Endovascular treatment for ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment.
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Iliocaval fistula presenting with paradoxical pulmonary embolism combined with high-output heart failure successfully treated by endovascular stent-graft repair: case report.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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A 51-yr-old man presented exertional dyspnea as a consequence of iliocaval fistula combined with paradoxical pulmonary embolism and high-output heart failure. Endovascular stent-graft repair was performed to cover iliocaval fistula and restore the heart function. After the procedure, dyspnea was improved and procedure related complication was not seen. A 6-month follow-up computed tomography showed regression of pulmonary thromboembolism and well-positioned stent-graft without graft migration, aortacaval communication or endoleak. Stent graft implantation should be considered an alternative of open repair surgery for treament of abdominal arteriovenous fisula, especially in patient with high risk for surgery.
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Total Knee Arthroplasty Using a Posterior Cruciate Ligament Sacrificing Medial Pivot Knee: Minimum 5-year Follow-up Results.
Knee Surg Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To evaluate minimum 5-year follow-up clinical and radiological results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a posterior cruciate ligament sacrificing (PS), non-substituting Advance Medial Pivot Knee.
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Purification and characterization of an oxygen-evolving photosystem II from Leptolyngbya sp. strain O-77.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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A new cyanobacterium of strain O-77 was isolated from a hot spring at Aso-Kuju National Park, Kumamoto, Japan. According to the phylogenetic analysis determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain O-77 belongs to the genus Leptolyngbya, classifying into filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. The strain O-77 showed the thermophilic behavior with optimal growth temperature of 55°C. Moreover, we have purified and characterized the oxygen-evolving photosystem II (PSII) from the strain O-77. The O2-evolving activity of the purified PSII from strain O-77 (PSIIO77) was 1275 ± 255 ?mol O2 (mg Chl a)(-1) h(-1). Based on the results of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and urea-SDS-PAGE analysis, the purified PSIIO77 was composite of the typical PSII components of CP47, CP43, PsbO, D2, D1, PsbV, PsbQ, PsbU, and several low molecular mass subunits. Visible absorption and 77 K fluorescence spectra of the purified PSIIO77 were almost identical to those of other purified PSIIs from cyanobacteria. This report provides the successful example for the purification and characterization of an active PSII from thermophilic, filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacteria.
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Biochemical characterization of psychrophilic Mn-superoxide dismutase from newly isolated Exiguobacterium sp. OS-77.
Extremophiles
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Many types of superoxide dismutases have been purified and characterized from various bacteria, however, a psychrophilic Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has not yet been reported. Here, we describe the purification and the biochemical characterization of the psychrophilic MnSOD from Exiguobacterium sp. strain OS-77 (EgMnSOD). According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis, a newly isolated bacterium strain OS-77 belongs to the genus Exiguobacterium. The optimum growth temperature of the strain OS-77 is 20 °C. The EgMnSOD is a homodimer of 23.5 kDa polypeptides determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration analysis. UV-Vis spectrum and ICP-MS analysis clearly indicated that the homogeneously purified enzyme contains only a Mn ion as a metal cofactor. The optimal reaction pH and temperature of the enzyme were pH 9.0 and 5 °C, respectively. Notably, the purified EgMnSOD was thermostable up to 45 °C and retained 50% activity after 21.2 min at 60 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry also indicated that the EgMnSOD is thermostable, exhibiting two protein denaturation peaks at 65 and 84 °C. The statistical analysis of amino acid sequence and composition of the EgMnSOD suggests that the enzyme retains psychrophilic characteristics.
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Eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness according to aeroallergen sensitization pattern in patients with lower airway symptoms.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Sensitization to specific allergens may be important in the development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We evaluated the effect of specific aeroallergen sensitization on eosinophilic airway inflammation and AHR.
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Preoperative Localization and Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Assay in Korean Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) assay is widely used in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We investigated the usefulness of the IOPTH assay in Korean patients with PHPT.
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Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.
Clin Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.
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Changing the paradigm for cough: does 'cough hypersensitivity' aid our understanding?
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Chronic cough is a common reason for patients to seek medication attention. Over the last few decades, we have experienced significant clinical success by applying the paradigm of 'evaluating and treating the causes for chronic cough'. However, we still ask ourselves 'what underlies chronic cough. Indeed in a considerable proportion of patients cough is idiopathic, or unexplained despite vigorous evaluation. Commonly associated conditions such as rhinitis, eosinophilic bronchitis, asthma, or gastroesophageal acidic reflux may not be fundamental to cough, and thus may be triggers rather than causes. The cardinal feature of chronic cough is persistent upregulation the cough reflex, which may be driven by complex interactions between biologic, neurologic, immunologic, genetic, comorbid, and environmental factors. We suggest the new paradigm 'cough hypersensitivity syndrome' should finally bring us further advances in understanding and management of chronic cough.
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Status of hypertension and coronary stenosis in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients: analysis from Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Registry.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Limited data exist regarding the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as clinical outcomes in asymptomatic diabetic patients with normotension, controlled hypertension, and uncontrolled hypertension.
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Investigating Dechlorane Plus (DP) distribution and isomer specific adsorption behavior in size fractionated marine sediments.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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In this study, Dechlorane Plus (DP) concentrations were analyzed in marine sediments (depth: ~10 cm) from two Korean industrial bays. Two sediments were fractionated into 5 sizes by using gravitational split-flow thin fractionation technique and DP distribution was investigated in different particle size fractions. Elevated DP levels in surface sediments were observed at the site closest to land and industrial area. The highest concentrations of DP were detected in the finest grain-size (<10 ?m, 451.2 and 149.9 pg/g dry weight for the two bays). The fraction of anti-DP to the total DP (fanti) in the two fractionated samples increased with reduced grain-size and significantly correlated with organic carbon content (OC), which can be caused by preferential adsorption of anti-DP or higher biodegradation rates of syn-DP in the fine particles. To provide insight into such mechanism, simulated experiments were conducted using activated charcarbon (ACC) to adsorb DP dissolved in methanol and molecular descriptors of both isomers were estimated using Gaussian 03. The adsorption results revealed that syn-DP was preferentially adsorbed by ACC, suggesting syn-DP is more hydrophobic than anti-DP. The preferential adsorption of syn-DP by ACC also supported the hypothesis that the enrichment of anti-DP was more likely due to preferential biodegradation of syn-DP in the sediment. Molecular characterization of anti-DP and syn-DP showed that syn-DP had a higher dipole moment, slightly larger Van der Waals volume, but smaller maximal diameter, which might explain its higher uptake rate in biota.
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Molybdenum-containing membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase isolated from Citrobacter sp. S-77 having high stability against oxygen, pH, and temperature.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase (FDH) was purified to homogeneity from a facultative anaerobic bacterium Citrobacter sp. S-77. The FDH from Citrobacter sp. S-77 (FDHS77) was a monomer with molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. On SDS-PAGE, the purified FDHS77 showed as three different protein bands with molecular mass of approximately 95, 87, and 32 kDa, respectively. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the sequence alignments observed for the 87 kDa protein band were identical to that of the large subunit of 95 kDa, indicating that the purified FDHS77 consisted of two subunits; a 95 kDa large subunit and a 32 kDa small subunit. The purified FDHS77 in this purification did not contain a heme b subunit, but the FDHS77 showed significant activity for formate oxidation, determined by the Vmax of 30.4 U/mg using benzyl viologen as an electron acceptor. The EPR and ICP-MS spectra indicate that the FDHS77 is a molybdenum-containing enzyme, displaying a remarkable O2-stability along with thermostability and pH resistance. This is the first report of the purification and characterization of a FDH from Citrobacter species.
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Risk Factors for Asthma-Related Healthcare Use: Longitudinal Analysis Using the NHI Claims Database in a Korean Asthma Cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Though insurance claims data are useful for researching asthma, they have important limitations, such as a diagnostic inaccuracy and a lack of clinical information. To overcome these drawbacks, we used the novel method by merging the clinical data from our asthma cohort with the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data.
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Impact of Occluded Culprit Arteries on Long-Term Clinical Outcome in Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: 48-Month Follow-Up Results in the COREA-AMI Registry.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The prognostic impact of occluded culprit arteries in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients beyond 12 months has not been investigated.
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Extremely sensitive and selective NO probe based on villi-like WO3 nanostructures for application to exhaled breath analyzers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Self-assembled WO3 thin film nanostructures with 1-dimensional villi-like nanofingers (VLNF) have been synthesized on the SiO2/Si substrate with Pt interdigitated electrodes using glancing angle deposition (GAD). Room-temperature deposition of WO3 by GAD resulted in anisotropic nanostructures with large aspect ratio and porosity having a relative surface area, which is about 32 times larger than that of a plain WO3 film. A WO3 VLNF sensor shows extremely high response to nitric oxide (NO) at 200 °C in 80% of relative humidity atmosphere, while responses of the sensor to ethanol, acetone, ammonia, and carbon monoxide are negligible. Such high sensitivity and selectivity to NO are attributed to the highly efficient modualtion of potential barriers at narrow necks between individual WO3 VLNF and the intrinsically high sensitivity of WO3 to NO. The theoretical detection limit of the sensor for NO is expected to be as low as 88 parts per trillion (ppt). Since NO is an approved biomarker of chronic airway inflammation in asthma, unprecedentedly high response and selectivity, and ppt-level detection limit to NO under highly humid environment demonstrate the great potential of the WO3 VLNF for use in high performance breath analyzers.
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Hierarchically structured manganese oxide-coated magnetic nanocomposites for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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In this study, hierarchical MnO2-coated magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4/MnO2) was synthesized by a mild hydrothermal process, and its application for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water systems was examined. Structural characterization showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticle core was coated with amorphous MnO2 shell with flowerlike morphology. The as-prepared nanocomposite had a large surface area and high magnetic saturation value, which ensured its good sorption ability and convenience of separation. Fe3O4/MnO2 exhibited a greatly improved removal capacity toward four different heavy metals (Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)) compared to unmodified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The adsorption property of Fe3O4/MnO2 was studied with Cd(II) in more detail. The sorption equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) was 53.2 mg g(-1). Fe3O4/MnO2 retained over 80% of its adsorption capacity under various solution conditions that are typically encountered in natural waters. This nanocomposite was easily recovered and reused through consecutive adsorption-desorption experiments with the assistance of an external magnetic field. Overall, the findings propose that Fe3O4/MnO2 could be used as an effective recyclable adsorbent for heavy metal ions.
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Recent applications of basophil activation tests in the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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Immediate-type drug hypersensitivity is an increasingly significant clinical issue; however, the diagnosis is frequently hindered due to lack of safe and precise diagnostic tests. Flow cytometry-assisted basophil activation test is a safe in vitro diagnostic tool for assessing basophil activation upon allergen stimulation. In this review, we have summarized current literature on the diagnostic utilities, new indications, and methodological aspects of the basophil activation test for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity.
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CYP2C19 poor metabolizer is associated with clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in acute myocardial infarction but not stable angina.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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More intensive platelet suppression is required in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than in those with stable angina because of differential platelet activation between AMI and stable angina. In this context, CYP2C19 genotype leading to reduced active metabolite formation may profoundly affect the clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in patients with AMI compared with those with stable angina.
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Influence of the Adjuvants and Genetic Background on the Asthma Model Using Recombinant Der f 2 in Mice.
Immune Netw
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Der f 2 is the group 2 major allergen of a house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) and its function has been recently suggested. To determine the optimal condition of sensitization to recombinant Der f 2 (rDer f 2) in murine model of asthma, we compared the effectiveness with different adjuvants in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Mice from both strains sensitized with rDer f 2 by intraperitoneal injection or subcutaneous injection on days 1 and 14. The dosage was 20 µg. Freunds adjuvants with pertussis toxin (FP) or alum alone were used as adjuvants. On days 28, 29, and 30, mice were challenged intranasally with 0.1% rDer f 2. We evaluated airway hyperresponsivenss, eosinophil proportion in lung lavage, airway inflammation, and serum allergen specific antibody responses. Naive mice were used as controls. Airway hyperresponsiveness was increased in C57BL/6 with FP, and BALB/c with alum (PC200: 13.5±6.3, 13.2±6.7 vs. >50 mg/ml, p<0.05). The eosinophil proportion was increased in all groups; C57BL/6 with FP, BALB/c with FP, C57BL/6 with alum, BALB/c with alum (24.8±3.6, 20.3±10.3, 11.0±6.9, 5.7±2.8, vs. 0.0±0.0%, p<0.05). The serum allergen specific IgE levels were increased in C57BL/6 with FP or alum (OD: 0.8±1.4, 1.1±0.8, vs. 0.0±0.0). C57BL/6 mice were better responders to rDer f 2 and as for adjuvants, Freunds adjuvant with pertussis toxin was better.
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Impact of the Stent Length on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes Following Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Stent length has been considered an important predictor of adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention, even with the first-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs). The introduction of newer-generation DES has further reduced the rates of adverse clinical events such as restenosis, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of stent length on the long-term clinical outcomes between first- and newer-generation DESs. The effects of stent length (?32 vs <32 mm) on the clinical outcomes were evaluated in 8,445 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using either a first-generation DES (sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents, n = 6,334) or a newer-generation DES (everolimus- and zotarolimus-eluting stents, n = 2,111) from January 2004 to December 2009. The 3-year adverse outcomes (composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and stent thrombosis) were compared using the inverse probability of treatment-weighted method according to the stent length. After adjustment for differences in the baseline risk factors, a stent length of ?32 mm was significantly associated with higher cumulative rates of target vessel revascularization and stent thrombosis in the patients treated with a first-generation DES (adjusted hazard ratio 1.875, 95% confidence interval 1.531 to 2.297, p <0.001; adjusted hazard ratio 2.964, 95% confidence interval 1.270 to 6.917, p = 0.012), but it was not associated with the clinical outcomes in patients treated with a newer-generation DES. In conclusion, stent length might not be associated with long-term clinical outcomes in newer-generation DES era, whereas stent length might be associated with long-term clinical outcomes in the first-generation DESs.
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Carboxymethyl cellulose coating decreases toxicity and oxidizing capacity of nanoscale zerovalent iron.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) with modified surface via coating with organic stabilizers has been documented with enhanced colloidal stability and dispersity. Therefore, the expanded application potential and accompanying intrinsic exposure of such nanoparticle can be anticipated. In our study, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized NZVI (CNZVI) exerted minimized oxidative stress response and slower disruption of cell membrane integrity, resulting in mitigated cytotoxicity towards bacteria Agrobacterium sp. PH-08 as compared with the uncoated counterpart. The corrosive oxidation of both nanoparticles in oxygenic water provided a better understanding of coating effect. The decreased oxidative degradation of probe 4-chlorophenol with CNZVI than NZVI implicated a weaker oxidizing capacity, which might overweight massive adhesion-mediated redox damage and explain the different exposure outcome. However, enhanced evolution of iron oxide as well as the promoted production of hydrogen peroxide adversely demonstrated CMC-coating facilitated iron corrosion by oxygen, suggesting CMC was most likely to act as a radical scavenger and compete with organics or bacteria for oxidants. Moreover, XRD, XPS and TEM results showed that the spherical NZVI was oxidized to form needle-shaped iron oxide-hydroxide (?FeOOH) with no detectable oxidative stress for PH-08, alleviating worries regarding exotoxicological impact of iron nanotechnology.
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Impact of the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism on the clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in Asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The impact of the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism on the clinical outcome in Asians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We sought to assess the long-term impact of CYP2C19*17 on the risk for adverse clinical events in 2188 Korean patients taking clopidogrel after PCI. The prevalence of the CYP2C19*17 allele [*wt/*17: 2.4% (n = 53), *17/*17: 0%] was very low. The 2-year cumulative event rates for bleeding [*wt/*17 vs. *wt/*wt: 2 vs. 2.3%; adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-9.45], stent thrombosis (2 vs. 1.1%; HR, 3.98; 95% CI, 0.49-31.6) or composite of any death, and myocardial infarction or stroke (5.4 vs. 7.1%; HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.32-5.73) did not differ on the basis of the presence of CYP2C19*17. In conclusion, in our study population of Asian patients, the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes after PCI because of its low prevalence, the rarity of homozygotes, and the relatively low rate of adverse clinical events.
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Highly Stretchable Piezoelectric-Pyroelectric Hybrid Nanogenerator.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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A highly stretchable hybrid nanogenerator has been developed using a micro-patterned piezoelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE), PDMS-CNT composite, and graphene nanosheets. Mechanical and thermal energies were simultaneously harvested from single cell of device. The hybrid nanogenerator exhibited high robustness behavior even after 30% stretching and generated very stable piezoelectric and pyroelectric power outputs due to micro-pattern designing.
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Characteristics associated with the occurrence of adverse events: a retrospective medical record review using the Global Trigger Tool in a fully digitalized tertiary teaching hospital in Korea.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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This study aimed to examine the performance of the Global Trigger Tool and to investigate characteristics associated with the occurrence of adverse events (AEs).
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Allergic diseases and air pollution.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.
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Rhinitis in a community elderly population: relationships with age, atopy, and asthma.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Rhinitis is one of the most frequent medical conditions. However, there is sparse epidemiologic evidence for rhinitis in the elderly population.
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Exposure assessment and health risk of poly-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in the indoor environment of elementary school students in Korea.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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This study assessed the health risks of elementary school students exposure to PBDEs via different possible pathways in childrens facilities. After PBDE contamination was measured, exposure was demonstrated to occur through multiple routes, including inhalation of indoor dust, dermal contact with products surfaces and childrens hands, and incidental dust ingestion. Samples were collected from various childrens facilities (30 elementary schools, 31 private academies, 12 living rooms and bedrooms in houses, 5 public libraries of childrens literature, and 3 large hypermalls) in summer (Jul-Sep, 2008) and winter (Jan-Feb, 2009). The hazard index (HI) was estimated for non-carcinogens and PBDEs, such as TeBDE, PeBDE, HxBDE, OcBDE, and DeBDE. PBDEs were detected in all floor dust samples, 99% of indoor air samples, 94% of product-wipe samples, and 86% of hand wipe samples. The average levels of PBDEs ranged from 0.19 to 1.06ng/m(3) in indoor air, 4623 to 6650ng/g-dust in floor dust, 0.012 to 0.103ng/cm(2) on product surfaces, and 7.89 to 25.38ng/hand on the surface of childrens hands. The HI for school children via multimedia and multipathway exposure to PBDEs did not exceed 1.0. The exposure to PBDEs at home (approximately 80%) was dominant. The contribution rates of PBDE risk were 77% and 15% via dust ingestion at home and at elementary school, respectively; thus, intake of floor dust was determined to be the primary route of exposure.
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Ten-year time trend of dioxins in human serum obtained from metropolitan populations in Seoul, Korea.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were measured in 954 and 539 human serum samples obtained, respectively, from incinerator workers and residents living near and far from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) during a 10-year period from 2001 to 2011 in Seoul, Korea. The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 9.29 and 5.39pgTEQ/g lipid, respectively. All populations exhibited similar concentrations and profiles, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, and PCB126 were identified as major contributors to TEQs. However, the levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were found to have positive associations with age when considering stratified age groups and showed a slight trend toward reduction. Differences in concentrations of these compounds among age groups slightly but continuously decreased from 2001 to 2011. The measured PCDD/F levels were compared to the predicted concentrations by using a single-compartment pharmacokinetic model on the basis of the daily intake of PCDD/Fs. The predicted concentration was 5.24pgTEQ/g lipid, which was approximately half of the measured concentration, reflecting the present exposures. These results suggest that current data on the levels of PCDD/Fs in foodstuffs might be useful to predict the future levels of dioxins in humans, which are expected to decline with time.
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Rhinitis patients with sputum eosinophilia show decreased lung function in the absence of airway hyperresponsiveness.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Sputum eosinophilia is observed frequently in patients with rhinitis. Sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic allergic rhinitis has been suggested to be related to nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, the clinical significance of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR has not been determined. We conducted a retrospective study examining the influence of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR on pulmonary function and expression of fibrosis-related mediators.
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Impact of atopy on asthma and allergic rhinitis in the cohort for reality and evolution of adult asthma in Korea.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Atopy is an important cause of asthma. Few data on the prevalence of atopy or comparisons with clinical characteristics of asthma in Korean patients have been published. We evaluated the effects of atopy on clinical profiles and airway inflammation in Korean asthmatics.
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Predicting reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by nanoscale zerovalent iron and its implications for environmental risk assessment.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has proven to be a successful remediation approach. This study simulates the congener profiles and overall ecotoxicological impact of PBDE debromination by nZVI. The relationship between the calculated redox potential values and PBDE debromination rates was sufficiently strong to generate a satisfactory predictive capacity, which was further used to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for the determination of the PBDE debromination patterns and dominant pathways. The predicted results of deca-BDE debromination showed that it would completely disappear within 30days, but its lower brominated products, particularly tri- to penta-homologues, could exist in the environment even after 5years. Formation and accumulation of more toxic, low brominated congeners through deca-BDE debromination suggest that deca-BDE may pose prolonged environmental risks. Changes in the toxic equivalent (TEQ) values during deca-BDE debromination parallel the occurrence and transformation of specific low brominated congeners with dioxin-like potency.
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Differences between asthma in young and elderly: results from the COREA study.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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There has been no large-scale and comprehensive study of the differences between asthma in elderly asthmatics (EA) and non-elderly (i.e. young) asthmatics (NEA).
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A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient.
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The effects of ankle mobilization and active stretching on the difference of weight-bearing distribution, low back pain and flexibility in pronated-foots subjects.
J Exerc Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The purpose of this study was designed to analyze the effects mobilization and active stretching on the difference of weight-bearing distribution, low back pain, and flexibility in pronated-foot subjects. The subjects of this study were 16 chronic low back pain patients. They were randomly divided into the control and experimental group. The experimental group had used the model of ankle mobilization and calf muscle active stretching three times per week, for 4 weeks. The control group did same method without an ankle mobilization. The range of flexion and extension motion of the lumbar vertebrae and low back pain degree and difference of weight-bearing were measured before and after the experiment. The model of ankle mobilization and calf muscle stretching of pronated-foot significantly improved the range of flexion and extension motion of the vertebrae. And the visual analogue scale and distribution of weight-bearing were decreased in both of two groups. In other word, the exercise of this study showed that the model of ankle mobilization and calf muscle stretching of pronated-foot had positive effects on improving the range of flexion and extension motion of the vertebrae. The calf muscle stretching was easy and it is effective in therapy that patients by themselves and helped to recover the balance of the vertebrae to combine ankle mobilization and muscle stretching.
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Staphylococcal enterotoxin specific IgE and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Recent literature suggests that Staphylococcal enterotoxin specific IgE may be a risk factor for asthma.
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Feasibility of a microarray-based point-of-care CYP2C19 genotyping test for predicting clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Clopidogrel is a prodrug which is converted into active metabolite by cytochrome P450 isoenzyme, CYP2C19. Numerous polymorphisms of CYP2C19 are reported, and a strong link exists between loss-of-function (LOF) or gain-of-function polymorphisms, clopidogrel metabolism, and clinical outcome. Hence, a fully automated point-of-care CYP2C19 genotyping assay is more likely to bring personalized antiplatelet therapy into real practice. We assessed the feasibility of the Verigene 2C19/CBS Nucleic Acid Test, a fully automated microarray-based assay, compared to bidirectional sequencing, and performed VerifyNow P2Y12 assay to evaluate the effect of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on on-treatment platelet reactivity in 57 Korean patients treated with clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention. The Verigene 2C19/CBS assay identified ?2, ?3, and ?17 polymorphisms with 100% concordance to bidirectional sequencing in 180 minutes with little hands-on time. Patients were classified into 4 groups: extensive (?1/?1; n = 12, 21.1%), intermediate (?1/?2, ?1/?3; n = 33, 57.9%), poor (?2/?2, ?2/?3, and ?3/?3; n = 11, 19.3%), and ultrarapid metabolizers (?1/?17; n = 1, 1.8%). The prevalence of the CYP2C19???2, ?3, and ?17 alleles was 36.0%, 12.3%, and 0.9%. Platelet reactivity showed gene dose response according to the number of CYP2C19 LOF allele. In conclusion, the Verigene 2C19/CBS assay gave accurate CYP2C19 genotype results which were in well match with the differing on-treatment platelet reactivity.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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