Autotaxin (ENPP2/ATX) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors represent two key players in regulating cancer progression. The present study sought to understand the mechanistic role of LPA G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), not only in the tumor cells but also in stromal cells of the tumor microenvironment. B16F10 melanoma cells predominantly express LPA5 and LPA2 receptors but lack LPA1. LPA dose-dependently inhibited invasion of cells across a Matrigel layer. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LPA5 relieved the inhibitory effect of LPA on invasion without affecting basal invasion. This suggests that LPA5 exerts an anti-invasive action in melanoma cells in response to LPA. In addition, both siRNA-mediated knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of LPA2 reduced the basal rate invasion. Unexpectedly, when probing the role of this GPCR in host tissues, it was found that the incidence of melanoma-derived lung metastasis was greatly reduced in LPA5 knockout (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. LPA1- but not LPA2-KO mice also showed diminished melanoma-derived lung metastasis, suggesting that host LPA1 and LPA5 receptors play critical roles in the seeding of metastasis. The decrease in tumor cell residence in the lungs of LPA1- and LPA5-KO animals was apparent 24 h after injection. However, KO of LPA1, LPA2 or LPA5 did not affect the subcutaneous growth of melanoma tumors. Implications: These findings suggest that tumor- and stromal-LPA receptors, in particular LPA1 and LPA5, play different roles in invasion and the seeding of metastasis.
Itching and infiltration of immune cells are important hallmarks of atopic dermatitis (AD). Although various studies have focused on peripheral mediator-mediated mechanisms, systemic mediator-mediated mechanisms are also important in the pathogenesis and development of AD. Herein, we found that intradermal injection of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, induces scratching responses by Institute of Cancer Research mice through LPA1 receptor- and opioid ? receptor-mediating mechanisms, indicating its potential as a pruritogen. The circulating level of LPA in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice, a systemic AD model, with severe scratching was found to be higher than that of control BALB/c mice, probably because of the increased lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin (ATX) in the blood (mainly membrane associated) rather than in plasma (soluble). Heparan sulfate proteoglycan was shown to be involved in the association of ATX with blood cells. The sequestration of ATX protein on the blood cells by heparan sulfate proteoglycan may accelerate the transport of LPA to the local apical surface of vascular endothelium with LPA receptors, promoting the hyperpermeability of venules and the pathological uptake of immune cells, aggravating lesion progression and itching in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice.
The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced oxidation contained nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), in addition to cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PtdCho-OOH). A platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor suppressed formation of FFA-OOH and lysoPtdCho in oxidized LDL. Among LOOH species, FFA-OOH was preferentially reduced by incubating oxidized LDL with HDL. HDL exhibited selective FFA-OOH reducing ability if it was mixed with a liposomal solution containing FFA-OOH, CE-OOH and PtdCho-OOH. Two-electron reduction of the hydroperoxy group to the hydroxy group was confirmed by the formation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid in HPLC analyses. This reducing effect was also found in apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). FFA-OOH released from PtdCho-OOH due to PAF-AH activity in oxidized LDL undergo two-electron reduction by the reducing ability of apoA1 in HDL. This preferential reduction of FFA-OOH may participate in the mechanism of the antioxidant property of HDL.
Although lysophospholipids have attracted much attention due to their diverse physiological activities through their specific receptors, little is known about their metabolic fates in mammalian digestive systems after their ingestion as a minor food component. In this study, we analyzed five lysophospholipids in lipid extracts of a standard rat chow and feces of rats fed the chow by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The most abundant lysophospholipid in the rat chow was lysophosphatidylcholine followed by lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), lysophosphatidylinositol and lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) in an increasing order, but their concentrations were very low in rat feces. Among the molecular species of LPS in the chow, only saturated species were detected in the feces in significant amounts. In addition, several molecular species of LPA remained in the feces in variable portions (saturated > monounsaturated > polyunsaturated). These results suggest that a portion of ingested LPA and LPS reach the rat large intestine, affecting physiological colon functions.
Bioactive N-acylethanolamines include anandamide (an endocannabinoid), N-palmitoylethanolamine (an anti-inflammatory), and N-oleoylethanolamine (an anorexic). In the brain, these molecules are formed from N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) by a specific phospholipase D, called NAPE-PLD, or through NAPE-PLD-independent multi-step pathways, as illustrated in the current study employing NAPE-PLD-deficient mice. Although N-acylethanolamine plasmalogen (1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycero-3-phospho(N-acyl)ethanolamine, pNAPE) is presumably a major class of N-acylethanolamine phospholipids in the brain, its enzymatic conversion to N-acylethanolamines is poorly understood. In the present study, we focused on the formation of N-acylethanolamines from pNAPEs. While recombinant NAPE-PLD catalyzed direct release of N-palmitoylethanolamine from N-palmitoylethanolamine plasmalogen, the same reaction occurred in the brain homogenate of NAPE-PLD-deficient mice, suggesting that this reaction occurs through both the NAPE-PLD-dependent and -independent pathways. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a remarkable accumulation of 1-alkenyl-2-hydroxy-glycero-3-phospho(N-acyl)ethanolamines (lyso pNAPEs) in the brain of NAPE-PLD-deficient mice. We also found that brain homogenate formed N-palmitoylethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamine, and anandamide from their corresponding lyso pNAPEs by a Mg(2+)-dependent "lysophospholipase D". Moreover, the brain levels of alkenyl-type lysophosphatidic acids, the other products from lyso pNAPEs by lysophospholipase D, also increased in NAPE-PLD-deficient mice. Glycerophosphodiesterase GDE1 can hydrolyze glycerophospho-N-acylethanolamines to N-acylethanolamines in the brain. In addition, we discovered that recombinant GDE1 has a weak activity to generate N-palmitoylethanolamine from its corresponding lyso pNAPE, suggesting that this enzyme is at least in part responsible for the lysophospholipase D activity. These results strongly suggest that brain tissue N-acylethanolamines, including anandamide, can be formed from N-acylated plasmalogen through an NAPE-PLD-independent pathway as well as by their direct release via NAPE-PLD.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fasting on in vivo plasma levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a physiologically important lysophospholipid mediator. We assayed to measure activities of an LPA-producing enzyme (lysophospholipase D) and LPA-degrading enzyme activities (lysophspholipase A, lipid phosphate phosphatase) in rat plasma or blood, by measuring choline, fatty acid and inorganic phosphate, respectively. Both LPA and its precursor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fasting of rats for 24 h decreased plasma concentrations of oleoyl-, linoleoyl-, arachidonoyl- and docosahexaenoyl-LPAs, but not palmitoyl- and stearoyl-LPAs, possibly due to decreased levels of corresponding LPCs in the plasma and elevated lipid phosphate phosphatase activity for LPAs in the blood. Our results indicate that the in vivo circulating levels of LPAs in rats are affected by fasting.
We previously found that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-like activity eliciting Cl(-) currents in Xenopus oocytes is increased in rabbit aqueous humor (AH) following corneal freeze wounds. The purpose of this study was to examine whether actual levels of LPA in AH from wounded eyes are higher than those from control eyes, and to determine the sources and enzymatic pathways of AH LPA in control and wounded conditions. Lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity was measured by the enzymatic determination of choline following incubation of AH samples with exogenous lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs). The molecular species compositions of LPA and LPC in fresh and incubated AH were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A high, but similar activity of lysoPLD in the samples from both control and freeze-wounded eyes was detected. Its enzymatic properties resemble those of plasma lysoPLD, identified as autotaxin. Levels of LPCs, predominant substrates of lysoPLD in AH, were several times higher in the AH samples from injured eyes than those from the control eyes. Our results suggest that lysoPLD is constitutively released from corneal tissues and/or ciliary body into the AH, with no injury-induced increase in release following freeze-wounding. They also suggest that wound-induced increases in LPA-like biological activity are due to linoleoyl species-rich molecular composition in AH from wounded eyes. A possible mechanism of the altered molecular composition is an increase in the AH concentrations of LPCs, linoleoyl species of which are preferentially converted to corresponding unsaturated LPA by the constitutively active lysoPLD.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.