The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro method for evaluating the effect of supersaturation on oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs in vivo. Albendazole, dipyridamole, gefitinib, and ketoconazole were used as model drugs. Supersaturation of each drug was induced by diluting its stock solution by fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) (solvent-shift method), then dissolution and precipitation profile of the drug was observed in vitro. The crystalline form of the precipitate was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, control suspension was prepared by suspending a drug powder directly into FaSSIF (powder-suspending method). In vivo intestinal absorption of the drug was observed in rats by determined the plasma concentration after intraduodenal administration of drug suspensions. For all drugs, suspensions prepared by solvent-shift method showed significantly higher dissolved concentration in vitro than that prepared by powder-suspending method, clearly indicated the induction of supersaturation. DSC analysis revealed that crystalline form of the precipitate profoundly affects the extent and the duration of supersaturation. A rat in vivo study confirmed that the supersaturation of these drugs increased the fraction absorbed from the intestine, which corresponded well to the in vitro dissolution and precipitation profile of drugs except for ketoconazole. For ketoconazole, an in vivo absorption study was performed in rats pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP mediated metabolism. CYP inhibition study suggested that the high luminal concentration of ketoconazole caused by supersaturation saturated the metabolic enzymes and further increased the systemic exposure of the absorbed drug. The additional effects of supersaturation on the absorption of ketoconazole are consistent with previous studies in humans under differing gastric pH conditions. In conclusion, effects of supersaturation on the intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs could be predicted from in vitro dissolution and a precipitation study. However if supersaturation affects the pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs, such as a first-pass metabolism, a combination with in vivo study should be required to evaluate its impact on oral bioavailability.
The aim of this present study was to establish a new in vitro assay, double artificial membrane permeation assay (DAMPA), to evaluate the human intestinal permeability of drugs. A double artificial membrane with an intracellular compartment was constructed in side-by-side chambers by sandwiching a filter containing buffer solution with impregnated lipophilic filters with dodecane containing 2w/v% phosphatidylcholine. Permeation data of ionic compounds clearly indicated that not only the pH value of the apical solution but also that of the intracellular compartment affected the permeability across the double artificial membrane. DAMPA was performed with 20 compounds at physiological pH (apical; 6.5, intracellular and basal; 7.4). Paracellular and transcellular permeabilities of compounds in human epithelium were estimated based on the characteristics of the paracellular pathway using physicochemical properties of compounds with the Renkin function and the area factor i.e. the difference in the effective surface area between human epithelium and the double artificial membrane, respectively. The human intestinal permeability of each compound was predicted by the sum of estimated transcellular and paracellular permeabilities. Predicted human intestinal permeability was significantly correlated with the fraction of absorbed dose in humans, indicating that DAMPA has the potential to predict oral absorption of drugs in humans.
This study aims to assess the absorption potential of oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs by using the dissolution/permeation system (D/P system). The D/P system can be used to perform analysis of drug permeation under dissolution process and can predict the fraction of absorbed dose in humans. When celecoxib at 1/100 of a clinical dose was applied to the D/P system, percentage of dose dissolved and permeated significantly decreased with an increase in the applied amount, resulting in the oral absorption being predicted to be 22-55%. Whereas similar dissolution and permeation profiles of montelukast sodium were observed, estimated absorption (69-85%) was slightly affected. Zafirlukast absorption (33-36%) was not significantly affected by the dose, although zafirlukast did not show complete dissolution. The relationship between clinical dose and predicted oral absorption of drugs corresponded well to clinical observations. The limiting step of the oral absorption of celecoxib and montelukast sodium was solubility, while that of zafirlukast was dissolution rate. However, due to high permeability of montelukast, oral absorption was not affected by dose. Therefore, the D/P system is a useful tool to assess the absorption potential of poorly water-soluble drugs for oral use.
A coaxial electrospray technique was applied to a poorly soluble drug, fenofibrate (FEN), to increase its bioavailability. A particulate core-shell solid dispersion was designed using poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (Eudragit L-100) as a shell material and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) K12-17 as a dispersant for FEN in the core phase. Although 58% of FEN remained in the crystalline state in the electrosprayed formulation, the dissolution behavior was significantly improved due to decrease in particle size, decrease in crystallinity, and increase in dispersion efficiency. The formulation was subjected to post-heating at 100 °C for 30 s to transform the remaining crystals into the amorphous state to further improve the dissolution behavior. Oral bioavailability was also on the order of: heated formulation>intact formulation>crystalline FEN. Instantaneous heating significantly improved the performance of the formulation despite its simple procedure, and thus can be a powerful step to be incorporated in the formulation manufacturing process.
We have designed a novel colonoscopic imaging agent that is composed of submicron-sized fluorescent polystyrene nanospheres with two functional groups - peanut agglutinin (PNA) and poly(N-vinylaceamide) (PNVA) - on their surfaces. PNA is a targeting moiety that binds to ?-d-galactosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Gal-?(1-3)GalNAc), which is the terminal sugar of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen that is specifically expressed on the mucosal side of colorectal cancer cells; it is anchored on the nanosphere surface via a poly(methacrylic) acid (PMAA) linker. PNVA is immobilized to enhance the specificity of PNA by reducing nonspecific interactions between the imaging agent and normal tissues. The essential nature of both functional groups was evaluated through in vivo experiments using PNA-free and PNVA-free nanospheres. The imaging agent recognized specifically tumors on the cecal mucosa of immune-deficient mice in which human colorectal cancer cells had been implanted; however, the recognition capability disappeared when PNA was replaced with wheat germ agglutinin, which has no affinity for Gal-?(1-3)GalNAc. PNA-free nanospheres with exclusively surface PNVA chains rarely adhered to the cecal mucosa of normal mice that did not undergo the cancer cell implantation. In contrast, there were strong nonspecific interactions between normal tissues and PNA-free nanospheres with exclusively surface PMAA chains. In vivo data proved that PNA and PNVA were essential for biorecognition for tumor tissues and a reduction of nonspecific interactions with normal tissues, respectively.
Development of oral dosage forms containing poorly water-soluble drugs is a major challenge in the pharmaceutical industry. This paper describes the use of coaxial electrospray deposition as a promising formulation technology for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The technology produced core-shell particles composed of griseofulvin and poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (Eudragit L-100), with a diameter of around 1 ?m. The drug phase was in an amorphous state when the griseofulvin core was coated with the Eudragit L-100 shell. The in vitro dissolution and in vivo oral absorption studies revealed that the core-shell formulation significantly improved dissolution and absorption behaviors, presumably because of a reduction in particle size, improvement in dispersity, and amorphization. Results demonstrated that coaxial electrospray deposition possesses great potential as novel formulation technology for enhancing oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs.
The aim of the present work was to confirm the usefulness of the dissolution/permeation system (D/P system) in the estimation of human oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The D/P system, which can simultaneously evaluate drug absorption processes, dissolution and permeation, can predict the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs in fasted and fed humans, with a correlation between in vivo oral absorption (% of absorbed) and in vitro permeated amount (% of dose/2 h) in the D/P system. The oral absorption (fraction of absorbed dose, %) of poorly water-soluble drugs in the fasted and fed states was predicted using the D/P system. The effect of food on the oral absorption of various drugs estimated by the D/P system significantly correlated with clinical data (correlation coefficient: r(2)=0.924). Moreover, the proportion of oral absorption of cilostazol was predicted to decrease with an increase in its dose strength, which significantly correlated with in vivo human absorption. Consequently, the D/P system was demonstrated to be a useful in vitro system for prediction of the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs.
The purpose of this study was to establish an in vitro system that evaluates the effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux on the oral absorption of P-gp substrates. An in vitro system (dissolution/permeation system, D/P system) was developed that consisted of apical and basal chambers and a Caco-2 cell monolayer mounted between the chambers. Both sides of the monolayer were filled with physiological solution and were stirred at 200rpm. The dissolution in the apical medium and permeation to the basal medium were monitored for 2h after P-gp substrates were applied to the apical side of the system. When erythromycin existed in the apical medium, the permeations of fexofenadine and talinolol were significantly enhanced without change in their dissolution. The prediction of oral absorptions of fexofenadine and talinolol from in vitro data indicated that co-administration of erythromycin results in 2.1- and 1.9-fold higher oral absorptions, respectively. Moreover, the D/P system could estimate the effect of cremophor EL on the oral absorption of saquinavir. These estimations corresponded well to in vivo human observations. Our in vitro system is useful in assessment of the effect of P-gp-mediated efflux on in vivo oral absorption of P-gp substrates.
The aim of this study is to establish a theoretical method for the prediction of human intestinal permeability from in vitro permeation assay. Pore radius and porosity/length and ion selectivity of the paracellular pathway were calculated using the Renkin function using permeabilities of mannitol and urea and potential difference study to evaluate paracellular permeability in Caco-2 cell monolayer; they were calculated to be 5.91 ?, 7.51 cm(-1) and 2.75, respectively. These values in the human epithelium were calculated from the reported intestinal permeability. The area factor, which can correct the difference in the transcellular permeability between Caco-2 cell monolayer and human epithelium, was obtained using the ratio of permeability of high lipophilicity compounds (human/Caco-2) and was calculated to be 13.3. Paracellular and transcellular permeabilities of 9 compounds in human epithelium were estimated on the basis of the characteristics of the paracellular pathway using physicochemical properties of compounds and the area factor, respectively. Human intestinal permeabilities were predicted by the sum of estimated transcellular and paracellular permeabilities. A linear correlation whose slope and intercept were nearly 1 and 0, respectively, was observed between predicted and reported human intestinal permeabilities. We successfully predicted human intestinal permeability from in vitro data.
We designed peanut agglutinin (PNA)-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres as a non-absorbable endoscopic imaging agent capable of being administered intracolonically. Following our previous researches with evidence that the imaging agent recognized small-sized colorectal tumors on the mucosal surface with high affinity and specificity in animal experiments, a potential of this nanoprobe as a drug candidate was evaluated from a safety perspective. The imaging agent detects colorectal tumors through recognition of the tumor-specific antigen by PNA immobilized on the nanosphere surface, and the detection is made via the fluorescent signal derived from coumarin 6 encapsulated into the nanosphere core. The stability studies revealed that the high activity of PNA was maintained and there was no significant leakage of coumarin 6 after intracolonic administration of the imaging agent. Cytotoxicity studies indicated that no local damage to the large intestinal membrane was induced by the imaging agent. Further, in vitro and in vivo permeation studies demonstrated that there was no significant permeation of the imaging agent through the monolayer of cultured cells and that the imaging agent administered locally to the luminal side of the large intestine was almost completely recovered from the administration site. Therefore, we concluded that the imaging agent is a safe and stable probe which remains in the large intestine without systemic exposure.
We are investigating non-absorbable polymeric conjugates bearing glucosides via a omega-amino triethylene glycol linker as oral anti-diabetic drugs that suppress an increase in the blood glucose level after meals through inhibition of Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1). When the linker was bound to phloridzin, which is a SGLT1 inhibitor, to yield a precursor of the conjugate, the in vitro inhibitory effect on SGLT1-mediated d-glucose uptake was reduced to about one-tenth that of phloridzin. The inhibitory effect was recovered completely when the precursor was immobilized on the surface of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (generation: 3.0) by coupling with one-eighth or less of the terminal carboxyl groups. We considered that the phloridzin-derived glucose moiety on the dendrimer surface was prerequisite for SGLT1 inhibition but that the aglycon part was not always required for the inhibition. Commercially used arbutin, a SGLT1 substrate, was substituted for phloridzin whose aglycon is composed of toxic phloretin. The in vitro inhibitory effect of arbutin was about one-thirtieth that of intact phloridzin; however, the inhibitory effect of the PAMAM dendrimer-arbutin conjugates was as strong as that of the PAMAM dendrimer-phloridzin conjugates. Rat experiments further showed that the PAMAM dendrimer-arbutin conjugates significantly suppressed d-glucose-induced hyperglycemic effects. The dendritic conjugate bearing arbutin appears to be a good candidate as an oral anti-diabetic drug.
Oligoarginines, which are known as cell-penetrating peptides, enhance the cellular uptake of poorly membrane-permeable bioactive molecules that are chemically conjugated to them. We designed a novel polymer: oligoarginine-linked poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid), with the expectation that the polymers will enhance the cellular uptake of the bioactive molecules that are physically mixed with them. Oligoarginines were grafted onto the polymer backbone through the chemical reaction with acrylic acid functional groups. The changes in the blood glucose concentration after nasal administration of insulin with and without the polymer were monitored in mice. The blood glucose concentration was slightly reduced when insulin was given solely at a dose of 10IU/kg. A D-octaarginine-linked poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) with a grafting degree of 2% significantly enhanced the insulin-induced hypoglycemic effect. A similar enhancement was not observed when the polymer was substituted with intact D-octaarginine. The penetration-enhancing function of D-octaarginine-linked poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) increased dramatically with an increase in the grafting degree of D-octaarginine. Substitution of D-octaarginine with the corresponding optical isomer and an increase in the number of arginine residues rather reduced the penetration-enhancing function. In vitro cell studies also indicated that a D-octaarginine-linked poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) with a grafting degree of 17% enabled fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to effectively penetrate the cell membrane. Results demonstrated that our oligoarginine-linked polymer has a potential to provide a new class of penetration enhancers.
Peanut agglutinin (PNA)-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres were designed as a novel imaging agent for colonoscopy. PNA is a targeting moiety that binds to beta-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, which is the terminal sugar of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen that is specifically expressed on the mucosal side of colorectal cancer cells. The in vivo performance of the imaging agent was evaluated using a human colorectal cancer orthotopic animal model. Human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, HCT-116, and LS174T, were implanted on the cecal serosa of immune-deficient mice. A loop of the tumor-bearing cecum was made, and the luminal side was treated with the imaging agent. Strong fluorescence was observed at several sites of the cecal mucosa, irrespective of cancer cell type. Microscopic histological evaluation of the cecal mucosa revealed that bright areas with fluorescence derived from the imaging agent and dark areas without the fluorescence well denoted the presence and absence, respectively, of the invasion of implanted cancer cells on the mucosal side. This good correlation showed that PNA-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres recognized millimeter-sized tumors on the cecal mucosa with high affinity and specificity.
Peanut agglutinin (PNA)-immobilized polystyrene nanospheres with surface poly(N-vinylacetamide) (PNVA) chains encapsulating coumarin 6 were designed as a novel colonoscopic imaging agent. PNA was a targeting moiety that binds to beta-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, which is the terminal sugar of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen that is specifically expressed on the mucosal side of colorectal cancer cells. PNVA was immobilized with the aim of reducing nonspecific interactions between imaging agents and normal tissues. Coumarin 6 was encapsulated into nanosphere cores to provide endoscopically detectable fluorescence intensity. After incubation of imaging agents with human cells, the fluorescence intensity of imaging agent-bound cells was estimated quantitatively. The average fluorescence intensity of any type of colorectal cancer cell used in this study was higher than that of small intestinal epithelial cells that had not exposed the carbohydrate. The in vivo performance of imaging agents was subsequently evaluated using a human colorectal cancer orthotopic animal model. Imaging agent-derived strong fluorescence was observed at several sites of the large intestinal mucosa in the tumor-implanted nude mice after the luminal side of the colonic loop was contacted with imaging agents. In contrast, when mice that did not undergo tumor implantation were used, the fluorescence intensity on the mucosal surface was extremely low. Data indicated that imaging agents bound to colorectal cancer cells and the cancer cell-derived tumors with high affinity and specificity.
We examined the in vitro dissolution-in vivo absorption correlation (IVIVC) for enteric-coated granules containing theophylline, antipyrine or acetaminophen as model drugs with high solubility and high permeability. More than 85% of each drug was released from granules coated with hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) (AS-LG grade, which dissolves at pH above 5.5) at a mean dissolution rate of more than 5 %/min after a lag time of less than 4 min in simulated intestinal fluid of pH 6.8. The lag time and the dissolution rate were significantly extended and reduced, respectively, when AS-LG was replaced with AS-HG (a grade of HPMCAS that dissolves at pH above 6.8). Enteric-coated granules were administered intraduodenally to anesthetized rats. Statistical significances of differences of in vitro lag time between AS-LG- and AS-HG-coated granules were consistent with those in vivo, for all drugs. Significant differences in dissolution rates between granules also corresponded to those in absorption rates calculated using a deconvolution method, and both parameters had comparable absolute values, except in the case of antipyrine-containing granules with relatively fast dissolution rates. Thus, a good IVIVC was generally obtained; however, the exception suggests the importance of developing a dissolution test that fully reflects the in vivo situation.
We designed and prepared poly(gamma-glutamic acid)s (gamma-PGA) bearing phloridzin, which is an inhibitor of Na(+)/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), via a non-biodegradable omega-amino triethylene glycol linker. Properties of gamma-PGA-phloridzin conjugates (PGA-PRZ) were examined because our previous research revealed that PGA-PRZ with a 15% phloridzin content suppressed an increase in the blood glucose level after oral administration of D-glucose in rats, even though intact phloridzin scarcely affected the glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect. In uptake experiments using rat small intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), the conjugation resulted in a 10-fold increase in the inhibitor concentration giving half-maximum inhibition of SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake, indicating that the inhibitory effect on the uptake was considerably reduced. On the other hand, beta-glucosidase-susceptible glucoside bonds of phloridzin were stabilized through conjugation with gamma-PGA. D-glucose, which is essential for the inhibition of SGLT1, was not released from PGA-PRZ with a phloridzin content of greater than 15% incubated with BBMVs, despite the immediate release of D-glucose from intact phloridzin. It was strongly indicated that the improved stability resulted in the difference in pharmacological activities between the conjugate and phloridzin. We also concluded that the toxic phloretin was not released from the conjugates. These results suggest that gamma-PGA-phloridzin conjugates have potential as oral anti-diabetic drugs with high safety.
We evaluated the potential of poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) modified with d-octaarginine, which is a typical cell-penetrating peptide, as a carrier for mucosal vaccine delivery. Mice were nasally inoculated four times every seventh day with PBS containing ovalbumin with or without the d-octaarginine-linked polymer. The polymer enhanced the production of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secreted immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the serum and the nasal cavity, respectively. Ovalbumin internalized into nasal epithelial cells appeared to stimulate IgA production. Ovalbumin transferred to systemic circulation possibly enhanced IgG production. An equivalent dose of the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), which was used as a positive control, was superior to the polymer in enhancing antibody production; however, dose escalation of the polymer overcame this disadvantage. A similar immunization profile was also observed when ovalbumin was replaced with influenza virus HA vaccines. The polymer induced a vaccine-specific immune response identical to that induced by CTB, irrespective of the antibody type, when its dose was 10 times that of CTB. Our cell-penetrating peptide-linked polymer is a potential candidate for antigen carriers that induce humoral immunity on the mucosal surface and in systemic circulation when nasally coadministered with antigens.
This study aims to establish an in vitro system that can assess intestinal first-pass metabolism of CYP3A4 substrate drugs using adenoviral transduction. Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells were used as a model of intestinal epithelial cells. Recombinant adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) and CYP3A4 (AdCYP3A4) was used as vectors. On day 2 after seeding MDCKII cells onto a semipermeable membrane, cells were infected with each adenovirus vector at various MOIs (multiplicities of infection) ranging from 0 to 200. On day 5, cell monolayers were used for drug transport study. The expression of GFP in monolayers of MDCKII cells transduced with AdGFP increased MOI-dependently and adenoviral infection showed no effect on the membrane permeability of drugs. The metabolite formation rate of midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, in the permeation process of a monolayer linearly increased with an increase in the MOI of AdCYP3A4. When the period that vectors and cells were located adjacent to each other was prolonged, the rate increased 2-fold compared with that calculated from a result with a monolayer obtained from a shorter period of adjacency. This study indicates that monolayers of MDCKII cells transduced with AdCYP3A4 have the potential to enable estimation of the first-pass metabolism by CYP3A4 in the intestinal absorption process.
A carboxyl group-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer (generation: 3.0) bearing arbutin, which is a substrate of Na?/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), via a nonbiodegradable ?-amino triethylene glycol linker (PAMAM-ARB), inhibits SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake, as does phloridzin, which is a typical SGLT1 inhibitor. Here, since our previous research revealed that the activity of arbutin was dramatically improved through conjugation with the dendrimer, we examined the involvement of functional groups on the dendrimer surface in inhibition of SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake. PAMAM-ARB, with a 6.25% arbutin content, inhibited in vitro D-glucose uptake most strongly; the inhibitory effect decreased as the arbutin content increased. In vitro experiments using arbutin-free original dendrimers indicated that dendrimer-derived carboxyl groups actively participated in SGLT1 inhibition. However, the inhibitory effect was much less than that of PAMAM-ARB and was equal to that of glucose moiety-free PAMAM-ARB. Data supported that the glucose moiety of arbutin was essential for the high activity of PAMAM-ARB in SGLT1 inhibition. Analysis of the balance of each domain further suggested that carboxyl groups anchored PAMAM-ARB to SGLT1, and the subsequent binding of arbutin-derived glucose moieties to the target sites on SGLT1 resulted in strong inhibition of SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake.
We are investigating a new class of penetration enhancers that enable poorly membrane-permeable molecules physically mixed with them to effectively penetrate cell membranes without their concomitant cellular uptake. Since we previously revealed that poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) modified with d-octaarginine, which is a typical cell-penetrating peptide, significantly enhanced the nasal absorption of insulin, we examined the performance of the polymers on cell membranes. When Caco-2 cells were incubated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) for 30 min, approximately 0.1% of applied CF was internalized into the cells. This poor membrane permeability was dramatically enhanced by d-octaarginine-linked polymers; a 25-fold increase in the cellular uptake of CF was observed when the polymer concentration was adjusted to 0.2mg/mL. None of the individual components, for example, d-octaarginine, had any influence on CF uptake, demonstrating that only d-octaarginine anchored chemically to the polymeric platform enhanced the membrane permeation of CF. The polymer-induced CF uptake was consistently high even when the incubation time was extended to 120 min. Confocal laser scanning microphotographs of cells incubated with d-octaarginine-linked polymers bearing rhodamine red demonstrated that the cell outline was stained with red fluorescence. The polymer-induced CF uptake was significantly suppressed by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride, which is an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Results indicated that d-octaarginine-linked polymers remained on the cell membrane and poorly membrane-permeable CF was continuously internalized into cells mainly via macropinocytosis repeated for the individual peptidyl branches in the polymer backbone.
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