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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Nationwide surveillance of parenteral antibiotics containing meropenem activities against clinically isolated strains in 2012].
Jpn J Antibiot
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The nationwide surveillance of antibacterial susceptibility to meropenem (MEPM) and other parenteral antibiotics against clinical isolates during 2012 in Japan was conducted. A total of 2985 strains including 955 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 1782 strains of Gram-negative bacteria, and 248 strains of anaerobic bacteria obtained from 31 medical institutions were examined. The results were as follows; 1. MEPM was more active than the other carbapenem antibiotics tested against Gram-negative bacteria, especially against enterobacteriaceae and Haemophilus influenzae. MEPM was also active against most of the species tested in Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria, except for multi-drug resistant strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). 2. Of all species tested, there were no species, which MIC90 of MEPM was more than 4-fold higher than those in our previous studies in 2009 or 2006. Therefore, the tendency to increase in antimicrobial resistance rates was not observed. 3. MEPM resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 17.8% (56/315 strains). Compared to our previous results, it was the lowest than that in 2006 and 2009. 4. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter species, which emerged in worldwide, were not observed. 5. The proportion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) strains was 6.2% (59/951 strains) in enterobacteriaceae, which increased compared with that of our previous studies in 2009 or before. Whereas, the proportion of metallo-beta-lactamase strains was 1.6% (5/315 strains) in P. aeruginosa, which was stable. In conclusion, the results from this surveillance suggest that MEPM retains its potent and broad antibacterial activity and therefore is a clinically useful carbapenem for serious infections treatment at present, 17 years passed after available for commercial use in Japan.
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Stereochemical assignment of C-24 and C-25 of amarasterone A, a putative biosynthetic intermediate of cyasterone.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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A C29 phytoecdysteroid named amarasterone A (1) has been isolated from Cyathula capitata (Amaranthaceae), Leuzea carthamoides (Asteraceae), and Microsorum scolopendria (Polypodiaceae). We recently isolated amarasterone A from C. officinalis. Amarasterone A has been postulated as a biosynthetic intermediate of cyasterone in Cyathula sp. The stereochemistry at the C-24 and C-25 positions of these amarasterone A samples was investigated by comparing the NMR spectroscopic data with those of stereodefined model compounds, (24R,25S)-, (24R,25R)-, (24S,25S)-, and (24S,25R)-isomers of (20R,22R)-3?-methoxystigmast-5-ene-20,22,26-triol (2a-d), which were synthesized in the present study. Amarasterone A isolated from Cyathula officinalis was determined to be the (24R,25S)-isomer (1a), while amarasterone A from L. carthamoides was found to be the (24R,25R)-isomer (1b). Amarasterone A from M. scolopendria was found to be a mixture of 1a and 1b. The biosynthesis of cyasterone in Cyathula sp. is discussed on the basis of the identical C-24 configuration of sitosterol and amarasterone A.
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Transcriptional control of steroid biosynthesis genes in the Drosophila prothoracic gland by ventral veins lacking and knirps.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Specialized endocrine cells produce and release steroid hormones that govern development, metabolism and reproduction. In order to synthesize steroids, all the genes in the biosynthetic pathway must be coordinately turned on in steroidogenic cells. In Drosophila, the steroid producing endocrine cells are located in the prothoracic gland (PG) that releases the steroid hormone ecdysone. The transcriptional regulatory network that specifies the unique PG specific expression pattern of the ecdysone biosynthetic genes remains unknown. Here, we show that two transcription factors, the POU-domain Ventral veins lacking (Vvl) and the nuclear receptor Knirps (Kni), have essential roles in the PG during larval development. Vvl is highly expressed in the PG during embryogenesis and is enriched in the gland during larval development, suggesting that Vvl might function as a master transcriptional regulator in this tissue. Vvl and Kni bind to PG specific cis-regulatory elements that are required for expression of the ecdysone biosynthetic genes. Knock down of either vvl or kni in the PG results in a larval developmental arrest due to failure in ecdysone production. Furthermore, Vvl and Kni are also required for maintenance of TOR/S6K and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) signaling in the PG, two major pathways that control ecdysone biosynthesis and PG cell growth. We also show that the transcriptional regulator, Molting defective (Mld), controls early biosynthetic pathway steps. Our data show that Vvl and Kni directly regulate ecdysone biosynthesis by transcriptional control of biosynthetic gene expression and indirectly by affecting PTTH and TOR/S6K signaling. This provides new insight into the regulatory network of transcription factors involved in the coordinated regulation of steroidogenic cell specific transcription, and identifies a new function of Vvl and Knirps in endocrine cells during post-embryonic development.
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Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: incorporation of 3?-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-al into tomatine with tomato seedlings.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The C-26 amino group of tomatine, a representative Solanaceae steroidal alkaloid, is introduced in an early step of its biosynthesis from cholesterol. We recently proposed a transamination mechanism for the C-26 amination as opposed to the previously proposed mechanism involving a nitrogen nucleophilic displacement. In the present study, a deuterium labeled C-26 aldehyde, (24,24,27,27,27-(2)H5)-3?-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-al, was synthesized and fed to a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling. LC-MS analysis of the biosynthesized tomatine indicated that the labeled aldehyde was incorporated into tomatine. The finding strongly supports the intermediacy of the aldehyde and the transamination mechanism during C-26 amination.
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Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial cyclic dipeptides from Pseudomonas fluorescens and their efficacy on sorghum grain mold fungi.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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This study was aimed at isolation and characterization of natural antifungal compounds for grain mold, a key parasitic fungal disease of sorghum. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from rhizosphere of groundnut crop was selected as a source. Its biocontrolling ability was assessed by testing some biochemical attributes such as phosphate-solubilization, and HCN, NH3 , indole-3-acetic acid, and siderophore production. The strain showed positive result for all except indole-3-acetic acid, revealing its suitability for a further study. The antibiotic-sensitivity pattern of the strain against 43 antibiotics was also established, which showed resistance to 15 antibiotics. The efficacy of P. fluorescens strain against grain mold was identified by dual culture technique. Hundred percent inhibition was found against Fusarium moniliforme, an important causative agent of this disease. The strain was fermented for secondary metabolites and extracted with AcOEt. Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded four known compounds, cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) (1), cyclo(trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Leu) (2), cyclo(trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe) (3), and cyclo(Gly-L-Pro) (4), which were characterized by spectral analysis and optical rotation. The crude extract, a mixture of 2 and 3, and isolated 1 were proved to be significantly effective against grain mold fungi. This is the first report on production of these cyclic dipeptides by P. fluorescens and their antagonistic properties.
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Reminiscences of research on the chemistry and biology of natural sterols in insects, plants and humans.
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Natural sterols often occur as a heterogeneous mixture of homologs, which had disturbed the progress of steroid research. Development and application of GC methodology overcame this difficulty and enabled us to obtain detailed sterol profiles. Together, fine synthesis of stereo-defined isomers and homologs of steroids having oxygenated side chains allowed us to compare them with natural samples as well as to investigate structure-activity relationship. Advance of HPLC technology also facilitated the determination of the stereochemical structure of naturally occurring steroidal compounds, which were obtained only in minute amounts. This review highlights three topics out of our steroid research that have been performed mainly at Tokyo Institute of Technology around 1970-1990. These are sterol metabolism in insects focusing on the mechanism of the conversion of plant sterols to cholesterol and ecdysone biosynthesis, the synthesis and biochemical research of active forms of vitamin D3 derivatives, and the synthesis and microanalysis of plant hormone brassinosteroids.
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Dodecyl ?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-fucopyranoside derivatives from the glandular trichome exudate of Erodium pelargoniflorum.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate of Erodium pelargoniflorum (Geraniaceae) led to the isolation of two dodecyl disaccharide derivatives, named pelargoside A1 and pelargoside B1 (1 and 2, resp.). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined as dodecyl 4-O-acetyl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-4-O-acetyl-?-D-fucopyranoside and dodecyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-4-O-acetyl-?-D-fucopyranoside, respectively, by spectroscopic studies, including 2D-NMR, and chemical transformations. In addition, undecyl, tridecyl, and tetradecyl homologs of 1 and 2, named pelargosides A2-A4 and pelargosides B2-B4, were also characterized as minor constituents of the exudate.
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[Clinical consideration of percutaneous renal biopsy for renal tumor].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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We performed ultrasound-guided biopsies on 14 patients having tumors that were difficult to distinguish as benign or malignant on computed tomography. The study took place from January 2004 to December 2011. Of the 14 tumors biopsied, 12 were malignant, 1 was benign, and 1 was a sampling error. Of the 12 malignant tumors, 7 were primary kidney carcinomas. Six patients received radical or partial nephrectomies, and all had a good prognosis. Three patients with metastatic kidney cancers died of the primary disease. Eleven patients (85.5%) were diagnosed pathologically by biopsies, allowing us to decide the course of treatment. However, because our tests also revealed one sampling error and one unspecified cancer, we determined that there are limitations to a renal biopsy.
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Establishment of benzodioxazine core structure for sarcodonin class of natural products by X-ray analysis.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Sarcodonin ? (2), isolated from Sarcodon scabrosus, was treated with trimethylsilyldiazomethane to yield a crystalline methylated derivative 6. The structure of 6 was determined by X-ray analysis, which confirmed the presence of an unprecedented N(1b)-OMe group, the configuration at N(1b) and the 1,3,4-substituted phenyl ring structure of 2. More importantly, the structures of 6 and 2 have answered the intriguing problem of solving the core structure of the sarcodonin class of natural products, establishing that sarcodonins have a benzodioxazine core structure, rather than the recently proposed benzodioxane aminal core structure.
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Long-term clinical results of microsurgical transdural discectomy with laminoplasty: follow-up results over 10 years.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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In this retrospective analysis the authors describe the long-term clinical results of microsurgical transdural discectomy with laminoplasty (MTDL) in patients with cervical disc herniation (CDH).
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Prothoracicotropic hormone acts as a neuroendocrine switch between pupal diapause and adult development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Diapause is a programmed developmental arrest that has evolved in a wide variety of organisms and allows them survive unfavorable seasons. This developmental state is particularly common in insects. Based on circumstantial evidence, pupal diapause has been hypothesized to result from a cessation of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secretion from the brain. Here, we provide direct evidence for this classical hypothesis by determining both the PTTH titer in the hemolymph and the PTTH content in the brain of diapause pupae in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae. For this purpose, we cloned the PTTH gene, produced PTTH-specific antibodies, and developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for PTTH. While the hemolymph PTTH titer in non-diapause pupae was maintained at high levels after pupation, the titer in diapause pupae dropped to an undetectable level. In contrast, the PTTH content of the post-pupation brain was higher in diapause animals than in non-diapause animals. These results clearly demonstrate that diapause pupae have sufficient PTTH in their brain, but they do not release it into the hemolymph. Injecting PTTH into diapause pupae immediately after pupation induced adult development, showing that a lack of PTTH is a necessary and sufficient condition for inducing pupal diapause. Most interestingly, in diapause-destined larvae, lower hemolymph titers of PTTH and reduced PTTH gene expression were observed for 4 and 2 days, respectively, prior to pupation. This discovery demonstrates that the diapause program is already manifested in the PTTH neurons as early as the mid final instar stage.
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Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: involvement of an aldehyde intermediate during C-26 amination.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The C-26 amino group of steroidal alkaloids, such as tomatine, is introduced during an early step of their biosynthesis from cholesterol. In the present study, the mechanism of C-26 amination was reinvestigated by administering stable isotope labeled compounds, such as (26,26,26,27,27,27-(2)H6)cholesterol during biosynthesis of tomatine, solanine and solasonine. The chemical compositions of tomatine and solanine so obtained were analyzed by LC-MS after administering the d6-cholesterol to a tomato seedling and a potato shoot, respectively. The resulting spectra indicated that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during biosynthesis. Furthermore, administration of (6-(13)C(2)H3)mevalonate in combination with lovastatin to an eggplant seedling, followed by GC-MS analysis of solasodine after TMS derivatization established that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during solasonine biosynthesis. These findings are in contrast to an earlier observation that one hydrogen atom was lost from C-26 during tomatidine biosynthesis, and suggest that C-26 nitrogen atom addition involves an aldehyde intermediate. Thus, it is proposed that the C-26 amination reaction that occurs during steroidal alkaloid biosynthesis proceeds by way of a transamination mechanism.
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Percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with intravertebral cleft associated with delayed neurologic deficit.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The number of cases of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) with intravertebral cleft (IVC) with delayed neurologic deficit (DND) is increasing as the population ages. However, the cause of DND is poorly understood, and no definitive treatment of the disease has been established. The purpose of this study was to clarify the radiographic parameters contributing to the occurrence of DND, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty for this pathology.
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Phenolic constituents from the fruit juice of Flacourtia inermis.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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A chemical investigation of the fruit juice of Flacourtia inermis furnished five caffeoylquinic acid derivatives: methyl chlorogenate (1), methyl 5-O-caffeoylquinate (2), methyl 4-O-caffeoylquinate (3), n-butyl chlorogenate (4), n-butyl 5-O-caffeoylquinate (5) and a rare phenolic glucoside (rel)-6?-benzoyloxy-1?,2?-dihydroxy-5-oxocyclohex-3-enecarboxylic acid 2-(6-O-benzoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxybenzyl ester (6), together with quinic acid (7) and malic acid (8). Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong radical scavenging properties towards the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical.
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Antioxidant flavonol glycosides from Elaeocarpus serratus and Filicium decipiens.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Chemical investigation of the leaves of Elaeocarpus serratus yielded myricitrin (1), mearnsetin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), mearnsitrin (3), tamarixetin 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (4) and the fruits of Filicium decipiens yielded three flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside (6) and trifolin (7). Compound 1 showed strong antioxidant activity against DPPH.
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n-Octyl ?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside derivatives from the glandular trichome exudate of Geranium carolinianum.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate from Geranium carolinianum L. (Geraniaceae) led to the characterization of unique disaccharide derivatives, n-octyl 4-O-isobutyryl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-6-O-isobutyryl-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), n-octyl 4-O-isobutyryl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-6-O-(2-methylbutyryl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (2) and n-octyl 4-O-(2-methylbutyryl)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-6-O-isobutyryl-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), named caroliniasides A-C, respectively. These structures were determined by spectral means. n-Alkyl glycoside derivatives have been isolated from the glandular trichome exudates for the first time. This rare type of secondary metabolites could be applicable to chemotaxonomic perspective because they are found in glandular trichome exudates of plants belonging to the genus Geranium, according to our studies.
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Identification of antioxidative flavonols and anthocyanins in Sicana odorifera fruit peel.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Ten flavonols and three anthocyanins were identified in the fruit peel of melo?n de olor (Sicana odorifera), and their structures were established by spectrometric and spectroscopic (ESI-MS and NMR) techniques. One of the identified flavonols, quercetin 3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, has not been reported before in the plant kingdom. Although quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside-4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside had been reported before in literature and structure elucidation was done by comparison of NMR data with published data, to the best of our knowledge complete 1D and 2D NMR data have not been not delineated so far. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of pure compounds was measured by ABTS assay. It was established that quercetin 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(6-malonyl)-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranoside-4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the fruit peel methanolic extract.
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[Disseminated nocardiosis presenting as retroperitoneal abscess: a case report].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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A 64-year-old man presented to our emergency room with right back pain on July 10, 2009. At the emergency room, abdominal enhanced computed tomography revealed a cystic lesion in the retroperitoneum. Then he was referred to our department. We performed percutaneous drainage of the retroperitoneal lesion and aspirated white pus. The retroperitoneal cystic lesion proved to be an abscess. Microscopic examination of a Gram stained specimen of the abscess revealed gram-positive bacillary fragments ; therefore, we suspected the pathogen to be Nocardia. He had a history of chronic glomerulonephritis and had received treatment consisting of 20 mg prednisolone, and 75 mg cyclosporine per day. He was regularly visiting the department of cardiovascular for follow-up of chronic heart failure. On the day before his visit to our emergency room, his chest X-ray medicine had revealed a nodular shadow. Then he was referred to the department of respiratory medicine and was scheduled to receive a bronchoscopy later. We suspected the nodule of the lung also to be an abscess of Nocardia. Later, head computed tomography (CT) revealed a brain abscess the pathogen of which was Nocardia. Nocardia is a filamentous, gram-positive, branched bacterium and classified as an aerobic actinobacteria. Nocardia species are difficult to diagnose due to non-specific clinical and histological manifestation. We report this case of disseminated nocardiosis presenting as retroperitoneal abscess. The disseminated nocardiosis was diagnosed without delay by percutaneous drainage and appropriate treatment was provided.
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Non-molting glossy/shroud encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that functions in the Black Box of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway.
Development
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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In insects, the precise timing of molting and metamorphosis is strictly guided by a principal steroid hormone, ecdysone. Among the multiple conversion steps for synthesizing ecdysone from dietary cholesterol, the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to 5beta-ketodiol, the so-called Black Box, is thought to be the important rate-limiting step. Although a number of genes essential for ecdysone synthesis have recently been revealed, much less is known about the genes that are crucial for functioning in the Black Box. Here we report on a novel ecdysteroidgenic gene, non-molting glossy (nm-g)/shroud (sro), which encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. This gene was first isolated by positional cloning of the nm-g mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori, which exhibits a low ecdysteroid titer and consequently causes a larval arrest phenotype. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the closest gene to nm-g is encoded by the sro locus, one of the Halloween mutant members that are characterized by embryonic ecdysone deficiency. The lethality of the sro mutant is rescued by the overexpression of either sro or nm-g genes, indicating that these two genes are orthologous. Both the nm-g and the sro genes are predominantly expressed in tissues producing ecdysone, such as the prothoracic glands and the ovaries. Furthermore, the phenotypes caused by the loss of function of these genes are restored by the application of ecdysteroids and their precursor 5beta-ketodiol, but not by cholesterol or 7-dehydrocholesterol. Altogether, we conclude that the Nm-g/Sro family protein is an essential enzyme for ecdysteroidogenesis working in the Black Box.
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[A case of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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We report a case of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) of the kidney. A 68-years old female consulted a primary hospital with a chief complaint of back pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor of the left kidney, so she was referred to our department. The tumor, 45 x 42 mm in length, was slightly enhanced, and that had well-defined margins. We performed radical nephrectomy. Pathological findings suggested MTSCC. MTSCC is a rare type of renal cell carcinoma composed of a combination of low-grade tubular cuboidal cells and spindle cells in a mucinous stroma. The immunohistochemistry is effective in its diagnosis.
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Cyclic fatty acyl glycosides in the glandular trichome exudate of Silene gallica.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate from Silene gallica L. (Caryophyllaceae) resulted in isolation of 10 cyclic fatty acyl glycosides (gallicasides A-J). The cyclic structures were characterized by a glycosidic linkage of the glucose moiety to either the C-12 or the C-13 position of the octadecanoyl moiety, and by an ester linkage between the C-2 hydroxy group of the glucose moiety and the carboxyl group of the oxygenated octadecanoic acid. The structures of the cyclic fatty acyl glycosides were further distinguished from one another by acetylation and/or malonylation on the glucose moiety. Of these compounds, the 1,2-cyclic ester of 12(R)-(6-O-acetyl-3-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)octadecanoic acid (gallicaside J) was the most abundant (30.7%). These secondary metabolites were found specifically in the glandular trichome exudate rather than in other aerial parts.
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The nationwide study of bacterial pathogens associated with urinary tract infections conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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This study was conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and is the first nationwide study on bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with urinary tract infections at 28 hospitals throughout Japan between January 2008 and June 2008. A total of 688 bacterial strains were isolated from adult patients with urinary tract infections. The strains investigated in this study are as follows: Enterococcus faecalis (n = 140), Escherichia coli (n = 255), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 93), Proteus mirabilis (n = 42), Serratia marcescens (n = 44), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 114). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 39 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) manual. All Enterococcus faecalis strains were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Although a majority of the E. faecalis strains were susceptible to linezolid, 11 strains (7.8%) were found to be intermediately resistant. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and S. marcescens strains were 35.7%, 29.3%, 18.3%, and 15.2%, respectively. The proportions of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and S. marcescens strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase were 5.1%, 11.9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The proportions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones were 9.2%, 4.4%, and 34.8%, respectively, and among them, 2 strains (1.8%) were found to be multidrug resistant. These data present important information for the proper treatment of urinary tract infections and will serve as a useful reference for periodic surveillance studies in the future.
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Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the glandular trichome exudate of I. lutea, whereas the dammarane triterpenes 11-23 (47%) and the glucosyloxy-fatty acids (4A, 4B and 2B) (38%) were the most abundant constituents in the glandular trichome exudate of P. louisiana.
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Clinical results of cervical myelopathy in patients older than 80 years of age: evaluation of spinal function with motor evoked potentials.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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In this prospective analysis the authors describe the clinical results of surgical treatment in patients > 80 years of age in whom spinal function was evaluated with motor evoked potential (MEPs) monitoring.
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[In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,919 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2007].
Keizo Yamaguchi, Akira Ohno, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Morihiro Iwata, Makoto Kanda, Kouji Akizawa, Chikara Shimizu, Shinichirou Kon, Kastushi Nakamura, Keiko Matsuda, Makoto Tominaga, Takuo Nakagawa, Akihiro Sugita, Tatsumi Ito, Jun Kato, Akira Suwabe, Kumiko Yamahata, Chizuko Kawamura, Hiromi Tashiro, Hiroko Horiuchi, Yosei Katayama, Shigemi Kondou, Shigeki Misawa, Misturu Murata, Yoshio Kobayashi, Hideyuki Okamoto, Kenichiro Yamazaki, Motoi Okada, Kosuke Haruki, Harushige Kanno, Masanori Aihara, Shigefumi Maesaki, Giichi Hashikita, Eiji Miyajima, Midori Sumitomo, Takefumi Saito, Nobuo Yamane, Chieko Kawashima, Takahisa Akiyama, Tamio Ieiri, Yoshitaka Yamamoto, Yuki Okamoto, Hidetoshi Okabe, Kunihiko Moro, Masayo Shigeta, Haruyoshi Yoshida, Masanobu Yamashita, Yukio Hida, Takayuki Takubo, Tadashi Kusakabe, Hiroya Masaki, Hitoshi Heijyou, Hideo Nakaya, Kunimitsu Kawahara, Reiko Sano, Syuji Matsuo, Hisashi Kono, Yosuke Yuzuki, Norio Ikeda, Masayo Idomuki, Masayuki Soma, Go Yamamoto, Syohiro Kinoshita, Seiji Kawano, Mikio Oka, Nobuchika Kusano, Dongchon Kang, Junko Ono, Minoru Yasujima, Makoto Miki, Masato Hayashi, Syunji Okubo, Syunkou Toyoshima, Mitsuo Kaku, Imao Sekine, Joji Shiotani, Hajime Horiuchi, Yoko Tazawa, Akiko Yoneyama, Kazunari Kumasaka, Kazuhiko Koike, Nobuyuki Taniguchi, Yukio Ozaki, Takashi Uchida, Masami Murakami, Kazuhisa Inuzuka, Hideo Gonda, Ikuo Yamaguchi, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Junji Iriyama, Yuko Asano, Hitoshi Genma, Masato Maekawa, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Kaname Nakatani, Hisashi Baba, Satoshi Ichiyama, Shinichi Fujita, Masao Kuwabara, Toshiro Okazaki, Hiromitsu Fujiwara, Hiromi Ota, Astushi Nagai, Jun Fujita, Kiyoshi Negayama, Tetsuro Sugiura, Mikio Kamioka, Mitsuharu Murase, Nobuhisa Yamane, Isamu Nakasone, Akihiko Okayama, Yosuke Aoki, Koji Kusaba, Yukari Nakashima, Hiroaki Miyanohara, Kazufumi Hiramatsu, Tetsunori Saikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Junichi Matsuda, Shigeru Kohno, Koichi Mashiba.
Jpn J Antibiot
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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We have reported in this journal in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibiotics every year since 1992. In this paper, we report the results of an analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of 12,919 clinical isolates from 72 centers in Japan to selected antibiotics in 2007 compared with the results from previous years. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae maintained a high susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs). The resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been increasing every year and this was especially clear this year. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae except for Escherichia coli showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Almost 30% of E. coli strains were resistant to FQs and the resistance increased further this year. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was approximately 95% with the exception of 45% for sitafloxacin (STFX). FQs resistance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was low at about 10%. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), but it was lower than that of MRSA. However, FQs resistance of MSCNS was higher than that of MSSA. FQs resistance of Enterococcus faecalis was 22.5% to 29.6%, while that of Enterococcusfaecium was more than 85% except for STFX (58.3%). In clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from urinary tract infections, FQs resistance was 21-27%, which was higher than that of P. aeruginosa from respiratory tract infections at 13-21%, which was the same trend as in past years. Multidrug resistant strains accounted for 5.6% in the urinary tract and 1.8% in the respiratory tract. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. The carbapenem resistant strains, which present a problem at present, accounted for 2.7%. Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed high resistance of 86-88% to FQs. The results of the present survey indicated that although methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, Enterococci, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and N. gonorrhoeae showed resistance tendencies, and other species maintained high susceptibility rates more than 90% against FQs, which have been used clinically for over 15 years.
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[Clinical usefulness of chlormadinone acetate as an alternative antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer relapse after combined androgen blockade therapy].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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We prospectively studied the usefulness of chlormadinone acetate (CMA) as an alternative therapy for prostate cancer relapse after combined androgen blockade (CAB) therapy. Sixteen patients with relapsed prostate cancer after treatment with CAB, including surgical or medical castration and nonsteroidal antiandrogens, 80 mg bicalutamide daily or 375 mg flutamide daily, were enrolled. After discontinuing the antiandrogen for evaluating the patient for the antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome, we administered 100 mg CMA daily as alternative antiandrogen and estimated its effect. Four patients showed a > or = 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and another 4 patients showed a < 50% decline in PSA levels but residual 8 patients showed no decline in PSA levels. In 8 patients with a decline in PSA levels, the median duration of alternative CMA therapy was 11.4 months. Patients with a PSA level of < 1 ng/ml at the start of CMA therapy showed the tendency of decline in PSA levels. In contrast, patients with a nadir PSA level of > or = 0.2 ng/ml during pretreatment showed no effectiveness of the alternative CMA therapy. The alternative CMA therapy may be useful in a part of patients with prostate cancer relapse after CAB therapy.
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Quantitative assessment of myelopathy patients using motor evoked potentials produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) study using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may give a functional assessment of corticospinal conduction. But there are no large studies on MEPs using TMS in myelopathy patients. The purpose of this study is to confirm the usefulness of MEPs for the assessment of the myelopathy and to investigate the use of MEPs using TMS as a screening tool for myelopathy. We measured the MEPs of 831 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of myelopathy using TMS. The MEPs from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and abductor hallucis (AH) muscles were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) is calculated by subtracting the peripheral conduction time from the MEP latency. Later, 349 patients had surgery for myelopathy (operative group) and 482 patients were treated conservatively (nonoperative group). CMCTs in the operative group and nonoperative group were assessed. MEPs were prolonged in 711 patients (86%) and CMCTs were prolonged in 493 patients (59%) compared with the control patients. CMCTs from the ADM and AH in the operative group were significantly more prolonged than that in the nonoperative group. All patients in the operative group showed prolongation of MEPs or CMCTs or multiphase of the MEP wave. MEP abnormalities are useful for an electrophysiological evaluation of myelopathy patients. Moreover, MEPs may be effective parameters in spinal pathology for deciding the operative treatment.
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Enzymatic synthesis of gentiooligosaccharides by transglycosylation with beta-glycosidases from Penicillium multicolor.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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A crude enzyme preparation from Penicillium multicolor efficiently produced mainly gentiotriose to gentiopentaose (d.p. 3-5) by transglycosylation using a high concentration of gentiobiose as the substrate. The resulting gentiotriose was examined in a gustatory sensation test using human volunteers, and was determined to have one-fifth of the bitterness of gentiobiose. The crude enzyme preparation was analyzed by chromatography to determine the enzyme responsible for formation of the gentiooligosaccharides. The transglycosylation was shown to take place in two stages by a combination of beta-glucosidase and beta-(1-->6)-glucanase. In the initial stage, which was the rate-limiting step in the overall process, beta-glucosidase produced mainly gentiotriose from gentiobiose. In the second step, beta-(1-->6)-glucanase acted on the resulting gentiotriose, which served as both donor and acceptor, to produce a series of gentiooligosaccharides (d.p. 4-9) by transglycosylation.
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Simultaneous quantification of individual intermediate steroids in silkworm ecdysone biosynthesis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
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The concentration changes of endogenous ecdysteroids are closely related to the regulation of insect growth and development. Although they are frequently measured by immunoassays with anti-steroid antibodies, the separate estimations of the individual concentrations of ecdysone and other ecdysteroids with similar chemical structures are quite difficult to accomplish. In this study, an efficient method for the simultaneous, individual quantification of intermediate steroids in ecdysone biosynthesis was developed, using LC-MS/MS. By employing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the MS detection, the selectivity and sensitivity of the method were greatly enhanced, allowing the estimation of trace amounts of steroids in biological samples from silkworm prothoracic glands and hemolymph.
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2-O-(3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl)glycerol and 2-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)glycerol and their 1-O-acetyl derivatives from the glandular trichome exudate of Verbascum blattaria f. erubescens.
Nat. Prod. Res.
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Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate of Verbascum blattaria f. erubescens (Scrophulariaceae) led to the isolation of four new glycerides, 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-sn-glycerol, 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-sn-glycerol, 2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]glycerol and 2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]glycerol. Their structures, including the configurations at the stereogenic centres, were elucidated from spectral evidence and chemical transformations.
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Malonylated glycerolipids from the glandular trichome exudate of Ceratotheca triloba.
Chem. Biodivers.
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Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate from Ceratotheca triloba (Pedaliaceae) led to the identification of nine 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-acetyloxy-fatty acyl]-3-O-malonylglycerols. Among these, 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-acetyloxyicosanoyl]-3-O-malonylglycerol (7) was the most abundant constituent (41%), followed by 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-(3-acetyloxyoctadecanoyl)-3-O-malonylglycerol (2; 21%). Compounds having iso- and anteiso-type structures in the 3-acetyloxy-fatty acyl groups in the fatty acyl moiety were also characterized as minor constituents. This is the first report of the isolation of malonylated glycerolipids as natural products.
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Cyclic glycolipids from glandular trichome exudates of Cerastium glomeratum.
Phytochemistry
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Fourteen cyclic glycolipids, named glomerasides A-N, have been isolated from the glandular trichome exudate of Cerastium glomeratum (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis of the glycolipids, as well as by application of the Ohrui-Akasaka method to the fatty acid methyl esters derived from the glycolipids and GCMS studies of trimethylsilyl ether derivatives of the methyl esters. The various glomerasides have a glycosidic linkage between the anomeric hydroxy group of the glucose and the C-11, C-10 or C-9 positions of the docosanoyl moiety. They also contained an ester linkage between the C-6 hydroxy group of the glucose ring and the carboxyl group of the oxygenated fatty acid to form their macrocyclic structures. The glucose moiety was optionally acetylated and/or malonylated at the C-2 or C-3 hydroxy groups. Among these compounds, the 1,6-cyclic ester of 11(R)-(2-O-acetyl-?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)docosanoic acid (glomeraside D) was the most abundant (25%).
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Revision of the stereochemistry of elisabethatriene, a putative biosynthetic intermediate of pseudopterosins.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
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In the past, we have questioned the accuracy of the stereochemistry of elisabethatriene, a putative biosynthetic intermediate of pseudopterosins, in light of the configuration of elisabethatrienol isolated from Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, which was represented as 1S,4R,9S,11S. We have reinvestigated the stereochemistry of elisabethatriene. Elisabethatriene with the reported 1S,4R,9R,11S configuration was synthesized starting from (-)-isopulegol in its enantiomeric form. The (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data of the synthesized compound differed from those reported for elisabethatriene. In addition to the fact that elisabethatriene is converted into pseudopterosins, this finding has allowed us to propose that elisabethatriene should have the 1S,4R,9S,11S stereochemistry, which is identical to that of elisabethatrienol.
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