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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gelation of the Solution of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Greatly Retards Its Crystallization Rate in the Subsequently Cast Film.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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We compared the crystallization rate of P3HT in the film cast from the gel (called "gel-cast film") with that in the film cast from the liquid solution (called "solution-cast film") to understand the effect of solution structure on the structural development in the subsequently cast film of conjugated polymer. P3HT was found to form homogeneous liquid solution with xylene at elevated temperature. When the fresly-prepared semidilute solution was allowed to age at room temperature, the solution transformed into gel in which a significant amount of nanowhiskers formed. The nanowhiskers in the gel were effectively transferred to the corresponding cast film, while the film as cast from the freshly-prepared solution only contained a small amount of such a morphologuical entity. The in-situ SAXS measurement and thermal analysis revealed that both the cold and melt crystallization of P3HT in the gel-cast film were much slower than those in the solution-cast counterpart. The retardation of crystallization rate in the gel-cast film was attributed to the abundance of the nanowhiskers. In this case, the the crystallization of P3HT occurred predominantly within the individual nanowhiskers and the mesh regions in the networks of the whiskers, where their limited sizes in at least one dimension imposed a strong spatial constraint to the crystal growth and chain motion for crystallization.
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Risk of oral antifungal agent-induced liver injury in Taiwanese.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Oral antifungal agent-induced liver injury is a common safety concern that may lead to patients' hesitation in treating fungal infections such as onychomycosis. This study evaluated risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by oral antifungal agents in Taiwanese populations.
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MCPIP1 suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and negatively regulates virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Human MCP-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1, also known as ZC3H12A and Regnase-1) plays important roles in negatively regulating the cellular inflammatory response. Recently, we found that as an RNase, MCPIP1 has broad-spectrum antiviral effects by targeting viral RNA. In this study, we demonstrated that MCPIP1 expression was induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. MCPIP1 expression was higher in liver tissue from patients with chronic HCV infection compared with those without chronic HCV infection. Knockdown of MCPIP1 increased HCV replication and HCV-mediated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-?, IL-6, and MCP-1. However, overexpression of MCPIP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication and HCV-mediated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Various mutants of functional domains of MCPIP1 showed disruption of the RNA binding and oligomerization abilities, as well as RNase activity, but not deubiquitinase activity, which impaired the inhibitory activity against HCV replication. On immunocytochemistry, MCPIP1 colocalized with HCV RNA. Use of a replication-defective HCV John Cunningham 1/AAG mutant and in vitro RNA cleavage assay demonstrated that MCPIP1 could directly degrade HCV RNA. MCPIP1 may suppress HCV replication and HCV-mediated proinflammatory responses with infection, which might contribute to the regulation of host defense against the infection and virus-induced inflammation.
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Internalized Stigma and Stigma Resistance Among Patients with Mental Illness in Han Chinese Population.
Psychiatr Q
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Research suggests that accurate measurement is essential in evaluating internalized stigma and abilities to combat with stigma for treatment compliances and outcomes in individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS-C), which is one of the few tools available to measure internalized stigma and stigma resistance (SR) simultaneously. A total of 160 outpatients with (n = 103) and without (n = 57) psychotic disorders were administrated with the ISMIS-C, and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Overall, the 29-item ISMIS-C was presented to be internal reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90), and reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.36-0.73). The construct validity of the ISMIS-C derived from the factor analysis was nearly identical to the original version. ISMIS-C dimension scores were well correlated with each other and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Our data also demonstrated that psychotic patients experienced higher internalized stigma scores than those without psychotic diagnoses, but endorsed indifferently on SR scores. This scale can be used as an informative device when investigating "internalized stigma" and "SR" among individuals with or without psychotic disorders.
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[The effects of multimedia-assisted instruction on the skin care learning of nurse aides in long-term care facilities].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Skin care is an important responsibility of nurse aides in long-term care facilities, and the nursing knowledge, attitudes, and skills of these aides significantly affects quality of care. However, the work schedule of nurse aides often limits their ability to obtain further education and training. Therefore, developing appropriate and effective training programs for nurse aides is critical to maintaining and improving quality of care in long-term care facilities.
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Androgen attenuates cardiac fibroblasts activations through modulations of transforming growth factor-? and angiotensin II signaling.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Androgen deficiency produces heart failure, which can be ameliorated by testosterone supplementation. Cardiac fibrosis plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate whether testosterone can attenuate cardiac fibroblast activity through modulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and angiotensin (Ang) II signaling.
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CCL5/RANTES is important for inducing osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells and is regulated by dexamethasone.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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In this study, we examine the effect of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)/Regulated on Activation Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES), a pro-inflammatory cytokine on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We found CCL5 expression was increased during osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and CCL5 expression is dependent on the presence of dexamethasone. Knocking down endogenous CCL5 expression blocked osteogenesis, as revealed by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and a reduction in the expression levels of ALP, bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteopontin (OPN). Of note, the overexpression of CCL5 was sufficient to increase ALP expression and activity. Moreover, the down-regulation of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 (CCR1), one of the CCL5 receptors, significantly decreased the osteogenesis of hMSCs. Interestingly, the down-regulation of CCR1, but not CCL5, was sufficient to affect the cell numbers during the process of osteogenesis. Our findings reveal that both CCL5 and CCR1 are required for osteogenesis of human MSCs, CCL5 is sufficient for the osteogenesis, and provide a novel link between dexamethasone and CCL5 in human osteogenesis.
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Relationships of perceived public stigma of mental illness and psychosis-like experiences in a non-clinical population sample.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Studies on the association between psychopathology, perceived public stigma, and labeling in mental illness have focused primarily on severe but rare mental disorders, especially schizophrenia, or other clinically defined psychotic disorders. Although evidence is mounting that psychosis-like experiences show high prevalence in the general population and lead to an increased risk of psychotic disorders, little is known about how psychosis-like experiences independently affect perceived public stigma in the non-clinical population. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between psychosis-like experiences and perceived public stigma in a non-clinical sample.
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The over-optimistic portrayal of life-supporting treatments in newspapers and on the Internet: a cross-sectional study using extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.
BMC Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation has been introduced to clinical practice for several decades. It is unclear how internet and newspapers portray the use of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. This study were: (1) to quantify the coverage of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation use in newspapers and on the Internet; (2) to describe the characteristics of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation users presented in newspaper articles and the Internet web pages in comparison with those shown in extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation studies in Taiwan; and (3) to examine the survival rates of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation users presented in newspaper articles and the Internet web pages in comparison with those in Taiwan and in the Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary for January 2014.
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Genealogical-based method for multiple ontology self-extension in MeSH.
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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During the last decade, the advent of Ontologies used for biomedical annotation has had a deep impact on life science. MeSH is a well-known Ontology for the purpose of indexing journal articles in PubMed, improving literature searching on multi-domain topics. Since the explosion of data growth in recent years, there are new terms, concepts that weed through the old and bring forth the new. Automatically extending sets of existing terms will enable bio-curators to systematically improve text-based ontologies level by level. However, most of the related techniques which apply symbolic patterns based on a literature corpus tend to focus on more general but not specific parts of the ontology. Therefore, in this work, we present a novel method for utilizing genealogical information from Ontology itself to find suitable siblings for ontology extension. Based on the breadth and depth dimensions, the sibling generation stage and pruning strategy are proposed in our approach. As a result, on the average, the precision of the genealogical-based method achieved 0.5, with the best 0.83 performance of category "Organisms." We also achieve average precision 0.69 of 229 new terms in MeSH 2013 version.
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In vitro evaluation of aerosol delivery by different nebulization modes in pediatric and adult mechanical ventilators.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Aerosol delivery through mechanical ventilation is influenced by the type of aerosol generator, pattern of nebulization, and a patient's breathing pattern. This study compares the efficiency of pneumatic nebulization modes provided by a ventilator with adult and pediatric in vitro lung models.
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The Uremic Toxin Indoxyl Sulfate Increases Pulmonary Vein and Atrial Arrhythmogenesis.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) with unclear mechanisms. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) accumulates in CKD patients. IS increases oxidative stress, which contributes to the genesis of AF. The arrhythmogenic effect of IS is unclear.
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Imaging neurovascular function and functional recovery after stroke in the rat striatum using forepaw stimulation.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Negative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response in the striatum has been observed in several studies during peripheral sensory stimulation, but its relationship between local field potential (LFP) remains to be elucidated. We performed cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI and LFP recordings in normal rats during graded noxious forepaw stimulation at nine stimulus pulse widths. Albeit high LFP-CBV correlation was found in the ipsilateral and contralateral sensory cortices (r=0.89 and 0.95, respectively), the striatal CBV responses were neither positively, nor negatively correlated with LFP (r=0.04), demonstrating that the negative striatal CBV response is not originated from net regional inhibition. To further identify whether this negative CBV response can serve as a marker for striatal functional recovery, two groups of rats (n=5 each) underwent 20- and 45-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were studied. No CBV response was found in the ipsilateral striatum in both groups immediately after stroke. Improved striatal CBV response was observed on day 28 in the 20-minute MCAO group compared with the 45-minute MCAO group (P<0.05). This study shows that fMRI signals could differ significantly from LFP and that the observed negative CBV response has potential to serve as a marker for striatal functional integrity in rats.
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Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in acquired gemcitabine-resistant human urothelial carcinoma sublines.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the major challenges in the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of how resistance arises and what molecular alterations correlate with resistance is the key to developing novel effective therapeutic strategies. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of gemcitabine (Gem) resistance and provide possible therapeutic options, three Gem-resistant urothelial carcinoma sublines were established (NG0.6, NG0.8, and NG1.0). These cells were cross-resistant to arabinofuranosyl cytidine and cisplatin, but sensitive to 5-fluorouracil. The resistant cells expressed lower values of [hENT1 × dCK/RRM1 × RRM2] mRNA ratio. Two adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins ABCD1 as well as multidrug resistance protein 1 were elevated. Moreover, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 were upregulated, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity were repressed significantly. Administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the Gem sensitivity in NTUB1 cells, whereas that of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK inhibitor did not. Furthermore, the Gem-resistant sublines also exhibited higher migration ability. Forced expression of p38 MAPK impaired the cell migration activity and augmented Gem sensitivity in NG1.0 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that complex mechanisms were merged in acquiring Gem resistance and provide information that can be important for developing therapeutic targets for treating Gem-resistant tumors.
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Diacylglycerol lipase regulates lifespan and oxidative stress response by inversely modulating TOR signaling in Drosophila and C. elegans.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a nutrient-sensing pathway controlling metabolism and lifespan. Although TOR signaling can be activated by a metabolite of diacylglycerol (DAG), phosphatidic acid (PA), the precise genetic mechanism through which DAG metabolism influences lifespan remains unknown. DAG is metabolized to either PA via the action of DAG kinase or 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). Here, we report that in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, overexpression of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL/inaE/dagl-1) or knockdown of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK/rdgA/dgk-5) extends lifespan and enhances response to oxidative stress. Phosphorylated S6 kinase (p-S6K) levels are reduced following these manipulations, implying the involvement of TOR signaling. Conversely, DAGL/inaE/dagl-1 mutants exhibit shortened lifespan, reduced tolerance to oxidative stress, and elevated levels of p-S6K. Additional results from genetic interaction studies are consistent with the hypothesis that DAG metabolism interacts with TOR and S6K signaling to affect longevity and oxidative stress resistance. These findings highlight conserved metabolic and genetic pathways that regulate aging.
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Cardiac metabolism, inflammation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors modulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in diabetic rats.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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High free fatty acid with reduced glucose utilization in diabetes mellitus (DM) impairs cardiac function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) modulate myocardial lipid and glucose homeostasis. The active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates oxidative stress and inflammation, which may play a key role in the modulation of PPARs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 can modulate the cardiac PPARs and fatty acid metabolism.
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Malignant transformation in 5071 southern Taiwanese patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Oral cancers can be preceded by clinically evident oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). The current study evaluated the rate and the time of malignant transformation in the various OPMDs in a cohort of patients from southern Taiwan. Parameters possibly indicative for malignant transformation of OPMDs, such as epidemiological and etiological factors, and clinical and histopathological features were also described.
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Do nurses have worse pregnancy outcomes than non-nurses?
Birth
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Nurses encounter multiple occupational exposures at work which may harm their reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to compare pregnancy complications and outcomes including cesarean deliveries, tocolysis, miscarriage, and preterm labor between female nurses and comparable women who were not nurses in Taiwan.
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Minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for lumbar infectious spondylitis: a retrospective study in a tertiary referral center.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Spinal infections remain a challenge for clinicians because of their variable presentation and complicated course. Common management approaches include conservative administration of antibiotics or aggressive surgical debridement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic debridement with dilute betadine solution irrigation (PEDI) for treating patients with lumbar infectious spondylitis.
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Dynamic perfusion and diffusion MRI of cortical spreading depolarization in photothrombotic ischemia.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is known to exacerbate ischemic damage, as the number of CSDs correlates with the final infarct volumes and suppressing CSDs improves functional outcomes. To investigate the role of CSD in ischemic damage, we developed a novel rat model of photothrombotic ischemia using a miniature implantable optic fiber that allows lesion induction inside the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We were able to precisely control the location and the size of the ischemic lesion, and continuously monitor dynamic perfusion and diffusion MRI signal changes at high temporal resolution before, during and after the onset of focal ischemia. Our model showed that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the ischemic core dropped immediately after lesion onset by 20±6 and 41±23%, respectively, and continually declined over the next 5h. Meanwhile, CSDs were observed in all animals (n=36) and displayed either a transient decrease of ADC by 17±3% or an increase of CBF by 104±15%. All CSDs were initiated from the rim of the ischemic core, propagated outward, and confined to the ipsilesional cortex. Additionally, we demonstrated that by controlling the size of perfusion-diffusion mismatch (which approximates the penumbra) in our model, the number of CSDs correlated with the mismatch area rather than the final infarct volume. This study introduces a novel platform to study CSDs in real-time with high reproducibility using MRI.
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Effects of a 12-Week Pilates Course on Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Trunk Flexibility in Women Living in the Community.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™  method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30±9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23±9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.
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Testosterone replacement increases aged pulmonary vein and left atrium arrhythmogenesis with enhanced adrenergic activity.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Aging and testosterone deficiency contribute to the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). We determine the effects of testosterone replacement on the electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis of pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrium (LA) in aged rabbits.
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Modulating chemotaxis of lung cancer cells by using electric fields in a microfluidic device.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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We employed direct-current electric fields (dcEFs) to modulate the chemotaxis of lung cancer cells in a microfluidic cell culture device that incorporates both stable concentration gradients and dcEFs. We found that the chemotaxis induced by a 0.5??M/mm concentration gradient of epidermal growth factor can be nearly compensated by a 360?mV/mm dcEF. When the effect of chemical stimulation was balanced by the electrical drive, the cells migrated randomly, and the path lengths were largely reduced. We also demonstrated electrically modulated chemotaxis of two types of lung cancer cells with opposite directions of electrotaxis in this device.
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Robust deep brain stimulation functional MRI procedures in rats and mice using an MR-compatible tungsten microwire electrode.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To develop a series of robust and readily adoptable protocols for the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS)-functional MRI (fMRI) in rodents.
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FGF-23 dysregulates calcium homeostasis and electrophysiological properties in HL-1 atrial cells.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 is a key regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Higher FGF-23 levels are correlated with poor outcomes in cardiovascular diseases. FGF-23 can produce cardiac hypertrophy and increase intracellular calcium, which can change cardiac electrical activity. However, it is not clear whether FGF-23 possesses arrhythmogenic potential through calcium dysregulation. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate the electrophysiological effects of FGF-23 and identify the underlying mechanisms.
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Distinctive electrophysiological characteristics of right ventricular out-flow tract cardiomyocytes.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Ventricular arrhythmias commonly originate from the right ventricular out-flow tract (RVOT). However, the electrophysiological characteristics and Ca(2+) homoeostasis of RVOT cardiomyocytes remain unclear. Whole-cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorometric ratio techniques were used to investigate action potentials, Ca(2+) homoeostasis and ionic currents in isolated cardiomyocytes from the rabbit RVOT and right ventricular apex (RVA). Conventional microelectrodes were used to record the electrical activity before and after (KN-93, a Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase II inhibitor, or ranolazine, a late sodium current inhibitor) treatment in RVOT and RVA tissue preparations under electrical pacing and ouabain (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase inhibitor) administration. In contrast to RVA cardiomyocytes, RVOT cardiomyocytes were characterized by longer action potential duration measured at 90% and 50% repolarization, larger Ca(2+) transients, higher Ca(2+) stores, higher late Na(+) and transient outward K(+) currents, but smaller delayed rectifier K(+) , L-type Ca(2+) currents and Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger currents. RVOT cardiomyocytes showed significantly more pacing-induced delayed afterdepolarizations (22% versus 0%, P < 0.05) and ouabain-induced ventricular arrhythmias (94% versus 61%, P < 0.05) than RVA cardiomyocytes. Consistently, it took longer time (9 ± 1 versus 4 ± 1 min., P < 0.05) to eliminate ouabain-induced ventricular arrhythmias after application of KN-93 (but not ranolazine) in the RVOT in comparison with the RVA. These results indicate that RVOT cardiomyocytes have distinct electrophysiological characteristics with longer AP duration and greater Ca(2+) content, which could contribute to the high RVOT arrhythmogenic activity.
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Decreased expression of organic cation transporters, Oct1 and Oct2, in brain microvessels and its implication to MPTP-induced dopaminergic toxicity in aged mice.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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This study was to investigate the influence of age on the expression of organic cation transporters (OCTs) that belong to the SLC22 family in brain microvessels (BMVs) and its implications for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity in mice. Here, we showed that Oct1 and Oct2, but not Oct3, mRNAs were detected and enriched (compared with cerebral cortex) in BMVs of C57BL/6 (B6) mice using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and immunofluorescence analysis further revealed that Oct1 and Oct2 proteins were colocalized with endothelial markers. Both the mRNA and protein levels of Oct1 and Oct2 were reduced in aged mice. After an intraperitoneal administration of MPTP, brain extracellular levels of MPTP and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP(+)) were much lower in aged mice and in Oct1/2(-/-) mice compared with younger mice and wild-type control mice, respectively. Knockout of Oct1/Oct2 protected Oct1/2(-/-) mice from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, whereas the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons was slightly greater in aged than in younger mice. However, intrastriatal infusion of low-dose MPTP caused more severe dopaminergic toxicity in the substantia nigra of both aged mice and Oct1/2(-/-) mice. These findings show that age-dependent downregulation or knockout of Oct1/Oct2 in BMVs may reduce the transport of MPTP, which, in part, affects its dopaminergic toxicity.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 24 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.162.
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A monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) modulates electrical activity in atrial myocytes with calcium and sodium dysregulation.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Obesity and metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for atrial fibrillation. High plasma concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid (OLA), are frequently noted in obese individuals and patients with metabolic syndrome. However, it is not clear whether monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) can directly modulate the electrophysiological characteristics of atrial myocytes.
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Calcitriol modulates receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in diabetic hearts.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling pathway plays a vital role in diabetic cardiovascular complications. Calcitriol has been shown to exert various beneficial cardiovascular effects. The purpose of this study is to determine whether calcitriol can modulate RAGE expression, and study the potential mechanisms in diabetic hearts.
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Epidemiological profile of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in a general population younger than 50 years of age in an era of radiofrequency catheter ablation.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The prevalence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome varies between 0.68 and 1.7/1000. The epidemiological profile may be modified after the introduction of transcatheter interventions.
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Predictors of virologic response in persons who start antiretroviral therapy during recent HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Despite evidence supporting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in recent HIV infection, little is known about factors that are associated with successful ART. We assessed demographic, virologic, and immunologic parameters to identify predictors of virologic response.
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Epidemiological profile of Marfan syndrome in a general population: a national database study.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To explore the current epidemiological profile of Marfan syndrome in a general population.
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Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for nonobese type II diabetes mellitus in Asian patients.
Surg Obes Relat Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The beneficial role of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) in morbidly obese patients has been established; however, there is scant evidence supporting its effectiveness in nonobese T2 DM Asian patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LRYGB in nonobese T2 DM patients and elucidate the predictors of DM remission after one year follow-up.
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To evaluate the effectiveness of health care ethics consultation based on the goals of health care ethics consultation: a prospective cohort study with randomization.
BMC Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The growing prevalence of health care ethics consultation (HCEC) services in the U.S. has been accompanied by an increase in calls for accountability and quality assurance, and for the debates surrounding why and how HCEC is evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of HCEC as indicated by several novel outcome measurements in East Asian medical encounters.
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Functional analysis of an orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon gene and characterisation of its expression in response to nodavirus infection.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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We cloned and sequenced 2C I-IFN, a two-cysteine containing type I interferon (I-IFN) gene, in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA has 769 base pairs, the protein has 172 amino acids, and the predicted signal peptide has 18 amino acids with two cysteines. This gene is similar to I-FNs from sea bass and other teleosts. 2C I-IFN has 5 exons and 4 introns, also similar to other teleost I-IFNs. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis indicated that expression is predominantly membrane-localized in healthy grouper, but has a zonal distribution in nodavirus-infected grouper. Grouper infected with nodavirus had elevated levels of 2C I-IFN at 72 h and Mx at days 6-7. Recombinant 2C I-IFN activated grouper Mx, leading to upregulated antiviral activity. The grouper Mx promoter was highly induced after treatment with recombinant 2C I-IFN. The present results suggest that expression of grouper 2C I-IFN may participate in the immunologic barrier function against nodavirus.
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A novel multi-alignment pipeline for high-throughput sequencing data.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mapping reads to a reference sequence is a common step when analyzing allele effects in high-throughput sequencing data. The choice of reference is critical because its effect on quantitative sequence analysis is non-negligible. Recent studies suggest aligning to a single standard reference sequence, as is common practice, can lead to an underlying bias depending on the genetic distances of the target sequences from the reference. To avoid this bias, researchers have resorted to using modified reference sequences. Even with this improvement, various limitations and problems remain unsolved, which include reduced mapping ratios, shifts in read mappings and the selection of which variants to include to remove biases. To address these issues, we propose a novel and generic multi-alignment pipeline. Our pipeline integrates the genomic variations from known or suspected founders into separate reference sequences and performs alignments to each one. By mapping reads to multiple reference sequences and merging them afterward, we are able to rescue more reads and diminish the bias caused by using a single common reference. Moreover, the genomic origin of each read is determined and annotated during the merging process, providing a better source of information to assess differential expression than simple allele queries at known variant positions. Using RNA-seq of a diallel cross, we compare our pipeline with the single-reference pipeline and demonstrate our advantages of more aligned reads and a higher percentage of reads with assigned origins. Database URL: http://csbio.unc.edu/CCstatus/index.py?run=Pseudo.
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Substrate stiffness regulates filopodial activities in lung cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Microenvironment stiffening plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. While filopodia are generally thought to be one of the cellular mechanosensors for probing environmental stiffness, the effects of environmental stiffness on filopodial activities of cancer cells remain unclear. In this work, we investigated the filopodial activities of human lung adenocarcinoma cells CL1-5 cultured on substrates of tunable stiffness using a novel platform. The platform consists of an optical system called structured illumination nano-profilometry, which allows time-lapsed visualization of filopodial activities without fluorescence labeling. The culturing substrates were composed of polyvinyl chloride mixed with an environmentally friendly plasticizer to yield Young's modulus ranging from 20 to 60 kPa. Cell viability studies showed that the viability of cells cultured on the substrates was similar to those cultured on commonly used elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane. Time-lapsed live cell images were acquired and the filopodial activities in response to substrates with varying degrees of stiffness were analyzed. Statistical analyses revealed that lung cancer cells cultured on softer substrates appeared to have longer filopodia, higher filopodial densities with respect to the cellular perimeter, and slower filopodial retraction rates. Nonetheless, the temporal analysis of filopodial activities revealed that whether a filopodium decides to extend or retract is purely a stochastic process without dependency on substrate stiffness. The discrepancy of the filopodial activities between lung cancer cells cultured on substrates with different degrees of stiffness vanished when the myosin II activities were inhibited by treating the cells with blebbistatin, which suggests that the filopodial activities are closely modulated by the adhesion strength of the cells. Our data quantitatively relate filopodial activities of lung cancer cells with environmental stiffness and should shed light on the understanding and treatment of cancer progression and metastasis.
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Psychological morbidity, quality of life, and self-rated health in the military personnel.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The mental health of military personnel varies as a result of different cultural, political, and administrative factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological morbidity and quality of life of military personnel in Taiwan.
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Pulsed laser deposition of hexagonal GaN-on-Si(100) template for MOCVD applications.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Growth of hexagonal GaN on Si(100) templates via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was investigated for the further development of GaN-on-Si technology. The evolution of the GaN growth mechanism at various growth times was monitored by SEM and TEM, which indicated that the GaN growth mode changes gradually from island growth to layer growth as the growth time increases up to 2 hours. Moreover, the high-temperature operation (1000 °C) of the PLD meant no significant GaN meltback occurred on the GaN template surface. The completed GaN templates were subjected to MOCVD treatment to regrow a GaN layer. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis and photoluminescence measurements show not only the reliability of the GaN template, but also the promise of the PLD technique for the development of GaN-on-Si technology.
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ZnO nanorod arrays for various low-bandgap polymers in inverted organic solar cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Due to the limited diffusion length of carriers in polymer solar cells (PSCs), the path of carriers is a crucial factor that determines the device performance. Zinc oxide nanorods (NRs) as the electron transport channel can reduce electron-hole recombination and transport the electron to the electrode efficiently for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), but have been seldom demonstrated for low-bandgap polymers. Here we successfully applied ZnO NRs, which were grown via the hydrothermal method, as a platform to enhance PSC efficiency for various low-bandgap polymers. In order to assure that the nanorod morphology functioned properly for PSCs, the growth time, the concentration, and the resulting morphology were systematically investigated in depths. Such ZnO NRs were applied to different organic systems, resulting in the increase of the PCE for PBDTTT-C/PC71BM from 4.76% to 6.07% and PBDTTT-C-T/PC71BM from 5.40% to 7.34%. Through those experiments, we established a potentially universal and efficient ZnO NRs platform for various low-bandgap polymers to achieve high efficiency of inverted PSCs.
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A NEW SIMPLIFIED ONE-PORT LAPAROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR PERITONEAL DIALYSIS CATHETER PLACEMENT.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Various techniques for laparoscopic insertion of a peritoneal dialysis catheter have been described. Usually 2 - 3 ports are required, and complications related to the port sites (such as abdominal wall hernia, leakage, and hemorrhage) cannot be avoided. To minimize the potential complications, we designed a simplified 1-port laparoscopic technique for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement.
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Assessing anomalous perceptual experiences in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis in Taiwan: an investigation using the cardiff anomalous perceptions scale (CAPS).
Psychiatr Q
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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The Cardiff anomalous perceptions scale (CAPS) has been recently designed for the assessment of anomalous perceptual experiences in the general population, and includes dimensions that measure distress, intrusiveness, and frequency. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a Taiwanese version of the CAPS. The English version of the CAPS was translated into Taiwanese (CAPS-T) and the latter was applied to this study. We administered the questionnaire to a consecutive sample of 192 participants with (n = 106; clinical group including schizophrenia and affective psychosis) or without psychotic disorders (n = 86; non-clinical group). In addition to the CAPS-T, the Taiwanese version of the brief psychiatric symptom rating scale (BSRS) measured the severity of the psychopathology. We also tested the psychometric properties of the CAPS-T including construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminative validity. Overall, the CAPS-T showed good construct validity, internal consistency, and stability over time and correlated significantly with the psychoticism subscale of the BSRS. As predicted, the mean differences in CAPS-T scores between participants with or without a psychotic disorder were significant. Convergent and discriminative validity were satisfactory. A score of 5 was found to the best threshold in discriminating between clinical and non-clinical samples. Our findings indicate that the Taiwanese version of the CAPS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the multidimensionality of perceptual anomalies in general and appears to complement the clinical measures of psychosis proneness in Taiwan.
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Using positive and negative patterns to extract information from journal articles regarding the regulation of a target gene by a transcription factor.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Gene regulation research concerns the regulatory relationship between transcription factors (TFs) and their target genes (TGenes). Due to the rapid acceleration of biological research, it is impractical for biologists to read all of the relevant literature and manually extract all of the information about the regulatory relationships between a TF and its TGenes. This paper proposes a method utilizing negative and positive textual patterns to extract regulatory information regarding certain TF-TGene pairs, which provides insightful information to biologists and saves them time from excessive literature reading. We hypothesized that the negative patterns could be used for filtering and that the system would mainly rely on the positive patterns to mine the regulatory TF-TGene relationships from the text. We also examined whether WordNet could be utilized to improve the pattern recognition performance. The results show that the negative pattern should be used for initial filtering, and then the positive patterns can extract information related to gene regulation. Moreover, WordNet seems to have little effect on the performance when extracting gene regulations.
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Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: clinicopathological and molecular characterisation with emphasis on variant histomorphology.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is histologically typified by nodules of histiocytoid spindle cells with pseudoangiomatoid spaces, fibrous pseudocapsules and lymphocytic cuffs. The principal goal was to expand the spectrum of AFHs through clinicopathological and molecular characterisation.
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[Self-directed learning in nursing students with different background factors].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Fostering self-directed learning skills in nursing students may provide a foundation for improving the specialty knowledge of these nurses.
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Differences of left ventricular systolic deformation in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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We tested the hypothesis that the apical myocardial mechanics differ from those of other ventricular segments in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM).
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Electromechanical Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D with Antiatrial Fibrillation Activities.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) has several cardiovascular benefits. 1,25[OH]2 D has direct cellular effects, but its effects on the atrium are not clear. We evaluated the effects of 1,25[OH]2 D on the atrial electrophysiology and atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Expression of E-cadherin, Twist, and p53 and their prognostic value in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and p53 play important roles in controlling cancer invasion and metastasis. However, discrepancies still exist in the relationship between the expression of an epithelial marker E-cadherin and predicting short survival of patients in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels of E-cadherin, Twist, and p53 in tumor tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their clinical significances.
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Apamin modulates electrophysiological characteristics of the pulmonary vein and the Sinoatrial Node.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels play an important role in atrial electrophysiology. Blocking SK channels prolongs action potential (AP) duration and attenuate electrical remodelling. The effects of SK blocking on the pulmonary vein (PV) and the sinoatrial node (SAN) remain unclear.
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Ablation of the androgen receptor gene modulates atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis with calcium protein dysregulation.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Androgen deficiency is important in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Androgen regulates cardiac electrophysiology and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) can modulate atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis with modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis proteins. We used conventional microelectrodes to study the action potential (AP) in left atrium (LA) tissues prepared from wild-type (WT) and ARKO mice (aged 6-10 months) before and after the administration of isoproterenol, hypocalcemic/hypercalcemic solutions, and ouabain. Echocardiography and Western blots were used to evaluate the cardiac function and expression levels of ionic channel proteins in WT and ARKO LAs. ARKO LAs had larger LA diameter with decreased LA fractional shortening than did WT LAs. In the current study, we found that ARKO LAs had a lower negative resting membrane potential and a greater 90% AP duration (APD) than did WT LAs. Isoproterenol increased the incidence and amplitude of delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) in ARKO LAs but not in WT LAs. Hypocalcemic solutions prolonged APD in WT and ARKO LAs but increased DAD amplitude only in ARKO LAs. Hypercalcemic solutions shortened APD in ARKO LAs but not in WT LAs. Ouabain increased DAD amplitude in ARKO LAs but not in WT LAs. ARKO LAs expressed higher amounts of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and phosphorylated phospholamban (Ser-16/Thr-17 site) and less Cav1.2, Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kv7.1 than WT LAs. These observations indicate that ARKO alters atrial electrophysiology with increased atrial arrhythmogenesis.
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PubTator: a web-based text mining tool for assisting biocuration.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Manually curating knowledge from biomedical literature into structured databases is highly expensive and time-consuming, making it difficult to keep pace with the rapid growth of the literature. There is therefore a pressing need to assist biocuration with automated text mining tools. Here, we describe PubTator, a web-based system for assisting biocuration. PubTator is different from the few existing tools by featuring a PubMed-like interface, which many biocurators find familiar, and being equipped with multiple challenge-winning text mining algorithms to ensure the quality of its automatic results. Through a formal evaluation with two external user groups, PubTator was shown to be capable of improving both the efficiency and accuracy of manual curation. PubTator is publicly available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/PubTator/.
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Distinctive sodium and calcium regulation associated with sex differences in atrial electrophysiology of rabbits.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Sex and sodium/calcium regulation play critical roles in cardiac electrophysiology and atrial arrhythmogenesis. We investigated whether sodium and calcium contributed to sex differences in atrial electrophysiology.
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Functional MRI reveals frequency-dependent responses during deep brain stimulation at the subthalamic nucleus or internal globus pallidus.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a widely used therapeutic tool for the symptomatic treatment of movement disorders, most commonly Parkinsons disease (PD). High frequency stimulation at both the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi) has been used with great success for the symptomatic treatment of PD, although the therapeutic mechanisms of action remain elusive. To better understand how DBS at these target sites modulates neural circuitry, the present study used functional blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map global brain responses to DBS at the STN and GPi of the rat. Robust activation centered in the ipsilateral motor cortex was observed during high frequency stimulation at either target site, with peak responses observed at a stimulation frequency of 100Hz. Of note, frequency tuning curves were generated, demonstrating that cortical activation was maximal at clinically-relevant stimulation frequencies. Divergent responses to stimulation were noted in the contralateral hemisphere, with strong cortical and striatal negative BOLD signal during stimulation of the GPi, but not STN. The frequency-dependence of the observed motor cortex activation at both targets suggests a relationship with the therapeutic effects of STN and GPi DBS, with both DBS targets being functionally connected with motor cortex at therapeutic stimulation frequencies.
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tmVar: a text mining approach for extracting sequence variants in biomedical literature.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Text-mining mutation information from the literature becomes a critical part of the bioinformatics approach for the analysis and interpretation of sequence variations in complex diseases in the post-genomic era. It has also been used for assisting the creation of disease-related mutation databases. Most of existing approaches are rule-based and focus on limited types of sequence variations, such as protein point mutations. Thus, extending their extraction scope requires significant manual efforts in examining new instances and developing corresponding rules. As such, new automatic approaches are greatly needed for extracting different kinds of mutations with high accuracy.
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The emerging role of SOX2 in cell proliferation and survival and its crosstalk with oncogenic signaling in lung cancer.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Tumor cells have long been observed to share several biological characteristics with normal stem/progenitor cells; however, the oncogenic mechanisms underlying the lung stem/progenitor cell signaling remain elusive. Here we report that SOX2, a self-renewal factor in lung stem/progenitor cells, is highly expressed in a subclass of lung cancer cells, the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of which are dependent on SOX2 signaling. Overexpression of SOX2 promotes oncogenic phenotypes in lung cancer cells; knockdown of SOX2 attenuated cell proliferation. We observed that SOX2 increased the expression of EGFR, and EGFR activation further upregulated SOX2 levels, forming a positive feedback loop. SOX2 expression promoted chemoresistance, and silencing of SOX2 perturbed mitochondrial function, causing marked apoptosis and autophagy. SOX2 induced BCL2L1, the ectopic expression of which rescued the effects of SOX2 silencing on apoptosis, autophagy, and mitochondrial function. SOX2 promoted tumor formation, along with increased cell proliferation in a xenograft mouse model. SOX2 expression is associated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients; moreover, SOX2, EGFR and BCL2L1 expression levels were significantly correlated in lung tumors. Our findings support the emerging role of SOX2 in cell proliferation and survival by eliciting oncogenic EGFR and BCL2L1 signaling with potential applications as a prognosis marker and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. Stem Cells 2013.
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Dynamic FDG PET/CT imaging with diuresis demonstrates an enterovesical fistula in a lymphoma patient with repeated colon diverticulitis.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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A 43-year-old male patient with follicular B-cell lymphoma was referred for a FDG PET/CT scan due to severe left lower abdominal pain to rule out recurrent cancer. These FDG PET/CT images and previous FDG PET/CT images 5 months ago both revealed an air bubble in the urinary bladder on the CT images. He had a recurrent urinary tract infection history for 6 months. A list-mode dynamic data acquisition with diuresis intravenous injection revealed linear FDG activity extending from the upper-left portion of the bladder to a soft tissue mass in the lower-left pelvic region. An enterovesical fistula was confirmed by surgery.
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Effective mode selector for tunable terahertz wire lasers.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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We demonstrate an effective mode selector design that enables a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser to have a robust single-mode operation at frequencies much lower than the gain peak. This is achieved by selectively guiding the undesired modes into a lossy session while keeping the desired lasing mode largely unperturbed. The large mode discrimination obtained by this mode selector is necessary to further extend the tuning range to the lower half of the gain curve. Additionally, the connectors of this mode selector conveniently provide electrical bias to the wire lasers without degrading the lasing performance.
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Inverse association between body mass index and chronic kidney disease in older diabetic adults.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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To identify associations among body mass index (BMI), diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in older adults in Taiwan.
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Comparison of prognosis by viral etiology in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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BACKGROUND; Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been performed as a first line curative treatment modality for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria currently. However, prognosis of hepatitis B- and hepatitis C-related HCC after RFA remains debatable. This study aimed to assess the impact of viral etiology on the prognosis of HCC patients undergoing RFA.
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Histone deacetylase inhibition improved cardiac functions with direct antifibrotic activity in heart failure.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs), important epigenetic regulatory enzymes, can reduce cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the antifibrotic activity of HDAC inhibitors remain unclear. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of an HDAC inhibitor on systolic heart failure (HF) and investigate the potential mechanisms.
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Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques.
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Heat shock protein inducer modifies arrhythmogenic substrate and inhibits atrial fibrillation in the failing heart.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been reported up-regulating heat shock protein (HSP) expression, and protecting against atrial remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GGA on atrial electrophysiology and inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) model.
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Extracellular matrix of collagen modulates arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary veins through p38 MAPK activation.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Cardiac fibrosis with enhanced extracellular collagen plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of AF through structural and electrical remodeling. Pulmonary veins (PVs) are important foci for AF genesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether collagen can directly modulate PV arrhythmogenesis. Action potentials and ionic currents were investigated in isolated male New Zealand rabbit PV cardiomyocytes with and without collagen incubation (10?g/ml, 5-7h) using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Compared to control PV cardiomyocytes (n=25), collagen-treated PV cardiomyocytes (n=22) had a faster beating rate (3.2±04 vs. 1.9±0.2Hz, p<0.005) and a larger amplitude of delayed afterdepolarization (16±2 vs. 10±1mV, p<0.01). Moreover, collagen-treated PV cardiomyocytes showed a larger transient outward potassium current, small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current, inward rectifier potassium current, pacemaker current, and late sodium current than control PV cardiomyocytes, but amplitudes of the sodium current, sustained outward potassium current, and L-type calcium current were similar. Collagen increased the p38 MAPK phosphorylation in PV cardiomyocytes as compared to control. The change of the spontaneous activity and action potential morphology were ameliorated by SB203580 (the p38 MAPK catalytic activity inhibitor), indicating that collagen can directly increase PV cardiomyocyte arrhythmogenesis through p38 MAPK activation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of AF.
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Androgen modulates cardiac fibrosis contributing to gender differences on heart failure.
Aging Male
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Chronic heart failure (HF) is a major health problem throughout the world. Gender has significant effects on the pathophysiology of HF. Low levels of free testosterone are independently associated with increased chronic HF symptoms and mortality. Cardiac fibrosis plays a pivotal role in structural remodeling in HF. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, angiotensin II and oxidative stress contribute to the activity/extent of cardiac fibrosis. Androgen deficiency can up-regulate TGF-? expression under angiotensin II stimulation in vivo. In this review, we summarized the potential mechanisms accounting for the effects of androgen on cardiac fibrosis through regulating fibrocytes activity under TGF, which can explain wound healing and cardiac fibrosis in male with acute myocardial injury and chronic HF.
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The influence of sex on cognitive insight and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Both impaired insight and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are core features of this disorder. Previous studies have demonstrated the complex relationships between neurocognition and cognitive insight, as well as the contribution of neurocognition in explaining cognitive insight. However, there is lack of research regarding the influences of sex on the relation of neurocognition and cognitive insight. The present study sought to elucidate sex differences in cognitive insight and neurocognition in schizophrenia. Seventy three outpatients (male=39) with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. The participants were assessed with cognitive insight using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, executive functions using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, sustained attention using the Conners Continuous Performance Test (Second Edition), and intelligence using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third version, respectively. Sex differences in demographic and clinical variables were small; nevertheless, female patients had significantly later age of illness onset and higher levels of formal education than males (p<0.05). Poor cognitive insight was attributed to impairment in performance of executive function and sustained attention. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated sex as a moderator only in the association between cognitive insight and executive function. Our findings support an association between poor cognitive insight and neurocognitive impairment in outpatients with schizophrenia and suggest that the relationship may be sex-specific. This study highlights potential targets for effective intervention and rehabilitation in improving patients insight toward mental illness.
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Heart failure and angiotensin II modulate atrial Pitx2c promotor methylation.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Heart failure (HF) can increase atrial fibrillation and induce cardiac hypermethylation. The homeobox gene Pitx2c plays important roles in the genesis of atrial fibrillation and the promoter region of Pitx2c contains cytosine-phosphate-guanine islands. Therefore, epigenetic modification by hypermethylation may reduce Pitx2c expression in atrial myocytes. The aim of the present study were to evaluate whether HF can modulate DNA methylation of Pitx2c and the potential mechanisms involved. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and pyrosequencing to investigate RNA and protein expression, as well as the methylation of Pitx2c, in isoproterenol-induced HF, healthy rat left atria and in HL-1 cells with and without (control) exposure to angiotensin (Ang) II (0.1 and 1 ?mol/L) or isoproterenol (1 or 10 ?mol/L) for 24 h. The HF atrium exhibited increased Pitx2c promoter methylation with increased DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and decreased Pitx2c protein levels compared with the normal atrium. Angiotensin II (0.1 and 1 ?mol/L), increased Pitx2c promoter methylation in HL-1 cells with increased DNMT1 and decreased Pitx2c and Kir2.1 protein levels compared with control cells. These effects were attenuated by the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (0.1 ?mol/L) and by the AngII receptor blocker losartan (10 ?mol/L). However, isoproterenol (1 and 10 ?mol/L) did not change the expression of the Pitx2c, DNMT1 and Kir2.1 proteins. In conclusion, HF induces Pitx2c promoter hypermethylation and AngII may contribute to the hypermethylation in HF.
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Second primary cancers in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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There has been no large-scale population-based study on the incidence and clinical manifestations of second primary cancer (SPC) after diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Electrophysiological characteristics of complex fractionated electrograms and high frequency activity in atrial fibrillation.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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It is unclear whether atrial substrate with complex fractionated electrograms (CFAEs) is related to arrhythmogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the electrophysiology in CFAE and high dominant frequency (DF) areas.
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Ultra high-resolution fMRI and electrophysiology of the rat primary somatosensory cortex.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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High-resolution functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain functions at increasingly finer scale, but whether fMRI can accurately reflect layer-specific neuronal activities is less well understood. The present study investigated layer-specific cerebral-blood-volume (CBV) fMRI and electrophysiological responses in the rat cortex. CBV fMRI at 40×40 ?m in-plane resolution was performed on an 11.7-T scanner. Electrophysiology used a 32-channel electrode array that spanned the entire cortical depth. Graded electrical stimulation was used to study activations in different cortical layers, exploiting the notion that most of the sensory-specific neurons are in layers II-V and most of the nociceptive-specific neurons are in layers V-VI. CBV response was strongest in layer IV of all stimulus amplitudes. Current source density analysis showed strong sink currents at cortical layers IV and VI. Multi-unit activities mainly appeared at layers IV-VI and peaked at layer V. Although our measures showed scaled activation profiles during modulation of stimulus amplitude and failed to detect specific recruitment at layers V and VI during noxious electrical stimuli, there appears to be discordance between CBV fMRI and electrophysiological peak responses, suggesting neurovascular uncoupling at laminar resolution. The technique implemented in the present study offers a means to investigate intracortical neurovascular function in the normal and diseased animal models at laminar resolution.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.