JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Immunogenicity study of Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end of the tumor antigen.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Globo H-based therapeutic cancer vaccines have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of late stage breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study, we explored Globo H analogue antigens with an attempt to enhance the antigenic properties in vaccine design. The Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end were synthesized using chemoenzymatic methods, and these modified Globo H antigens were then conjugated with the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid cross-reactive material (CRM) 197 (DT), and combined with a glycolipid C34 as an adjuvant designed to induce a class switch to form the vaccine candidates. After Balb/c mice injection, the immune response was studied by a glycan array and the results showed that modification at the C-6 position of reducing end glucose of Globo H with the fluoro, azido or phenyl group elicited IgG antibody response to specifically recognize Globo H (GH) and the GH-related epitopes, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3) (also called Gb5) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA4). However, only the modification of Globo H with the azido group at the C-6 position of the non-reducing end fucose could elicit a strong IgG immune response. Moreover, the antibodies induced by these vaccines were shown to recognize GH expressing tumor cells (MCF-7) and mediate the complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Our data suggest a new potential approach to cancer vaccine development.
Related JoVE Video
Benzydamine hydrochloride on postoperative sore throat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Can J Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sore throat is a common postoperative complaint. The etiology of postoperative sore throat (POST) is considered the result of damage to airway mucosa after insertion of a laryngeal mask airway device or endotracheal tube. This paper proposes benzydamine hydrochloride (BH), a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with additional analgesic and local anesthetic properties, for POST prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequences of Four Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Three of Which Cause Early Mortality Syndrome/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp in China and Thailand.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sequenced four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, three of which caused serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Sequence analysis of the virulent strains revealed not only genes related to cholera toxin and the type IV pilus/type IV secretion system but also a unique, previously unreported, large extrachromosomal plasmid that encodes a homolog to the insecticidal Photorhabdus insect-related binary toxin PirAB.
Related JoVE Video
Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices utilizing the connecting structure based on n-doped electron-transport layer/HATCN/hole-transport layer.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this work, we conducted studies of tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the connecting structure consisting of n-doped electron-transport layer (n-ETL)/1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN)/hole-transport layer. We investigated effects of different n-ETL materials and different HATCN thicknesses on characteristics of tandem OLEDs. Results show that the tandem OLEDs with n-BPhen and a 20 nm layer of HATCN in the connecting structure exhibited the best performance. With these, highly efficient and bright green phosphorescent two-emitting-unit tandem OLEDs, with drive voltages significantly lower than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device and current efficiencies higher than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device, were demonstrated.
Related JoVE Video
?-Phellandrene alters expression of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle, and apoptosis in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-phellandrene (?-PA) is a cyclic monoterpene, present in natural plants such as Schinus molle L. ?-PA promotes immune responses in mice in vivo. However, there is no available information on whether ?-PA affects gene expression in leukemia cells. The present study determined effects of ?-PA on expression levels of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptotic cell death in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells. WEHI-3 cells were treated with 10 ?M ?-PA for 24 h, cells were harvested and total RNA was extracted, and gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results indicated that ?-PA up-regulated 10 genes 4-fold, 13 by over 3-fold and 175 by over 2-fold; 21 genes were down-regulated by over 4-fold, 26 genes by over 3-fold and expression of 204 genes was altered by at leas 2-fold compared with the untreated control cells. DNA damage-associated genes such as DNA damage-inducer transcript 4 and DNA fragmentation factor were up-regulated by 4-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; cell-cycle check point genes such as cyclin G2 and cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor 2D and IA (p21) were up-regulated by over 3-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; apoptosis-associated genes such as BCL2/adenovirus EIB interacting protein 3, XIAP-associated factor 1, BCL2 modifying factor, caspase-8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator were over 2-fold up-regulated. Furthermore, DNA damage-associated gene TATA box binding protein was over 4-fold down-regulated, and D19Ertd652c (DNA segment) over 2-fold down-regulated; cell cycle-associated gene cyclin E2 was over 2-fold down-regulated; apoptosis associated gene growth arrest-specific 5 was over 9-fold down-regulated, Gm5426 (ATP synthase) was over 3-fold down-regulated, and death box polypeptide 33 was over 2-fold down-regulated. Based on these observations, ?-PA altered gene expression in WEHI-3 cells in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of four B-chromosome-specific RAPDs and the development of SCAR markers on the maize B-chromosome.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the molecular organization of the maize B-chromosome is hindered by its high homology with A-chromosomes. Recently, various approaches have been employed to overcome this hindrance, and several B-chromosome-specific sequences have been identified. Here, we cloned and characterized four previously published B-chromosome-specific RAPD fragments in detail. The results of sequence analysis, Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the four RAPD fragments are repetitive and present on both the B- and A-chromosomes, which supports an A-chromosome origin of the B-chromosome. We further developed four sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers derived from the four B-chromosome-specific RAPDs. These markers amplified PCR products exclusively in plants with B-chromosomes and were further mapped to definite distal heterochromatic regions of the B-chromosome by 15 B-A translocations. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that two of the four B-chromosome-specific RAPD fragments are transcriptionally active. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using B-chromosome-specific RAPD sequences to generate SCAR markers specific to the B-chromosome and might apply to other sequences of the maize B-chromosome.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of temperature shock and inventory surprises on natural gas and heating oil futures returns.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of maize B-chromosome-related transcripts isolated via cDNA-AFLP.
Chromosoma
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The maize B-chromosome consists mainly of heterochromatin and is considered to be genetically inert. However, the B-chromosome contains euchromatin that carries control elements that direct its behaviors during cell division, such as nondisjunction during the second pollen mitosis. To determine the transcriptional activity of the B-chromosome, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was applied to five inbred maize lines with and without B-chromosomes. Six putative B-chromosome-related transcripts were identified, four of which were cloned and characterized via Southern hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and sequence comparison to further confirm their B-chromosome origin. All the analyzed B-chromosome-related transcript sequences were repetitive and showed homology to A-chromosomes. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the B-chromosome-specific transcribed sequences B3547-179 and B3849-212 were transcribed in a B-chromosome-dosage-dependent manner. Expression of B3849-189 and B3849-147 was not specific to the B-chromosome; however, the former showed a transcriptional pattern with B-chromosome dosage compensation, and the latter displayed down-regulation of transcription due to higher B-chromosome numbers. Using four B-10L translocations, B3849-212 was mapped to the B-chromosome region that contains the nondisjunction control elements of the B-chromosome. Taken together, our results suggested that the maize B-chromosome harbors few transcriptionally active sequences and might influence the transcription of A-chromosomes.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of cucurbitacins and assembly of a draft genome for Aquilaria agallocha.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Agarwood is derived from Aquilaria trees, the trade of which has come under strict control with a listing in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Many secondary metabolites of agarwood are known to have medicinal value to humans, including compounds that have been shown to elicit sedative effects and exhibit anti-cancer properties. However, little is known about the genome, transcriptome, and the biosynthetic pathways responsible for producing such secondary metabolites in agarwood.
Related JoVE Video
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx and oropharynx.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin concomitantly with radiotherapy for patients with advanced, non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx and hypopharynx.
Related JoVE Video
Association study between macrophage migration inhibitory factor-173 polymorphism and acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in pathogenesis and autoimmune diseases. The major function of MIF is to promote the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The aim of the present study is to identify the association between MIF-173 (rs755662) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and AML in Taiwanese population. DNA samples extracted from 256 AML patients and 256 healthy controls were investigated using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The association between MIF-173 SNP genotype and AML patients were assessed with SPSS software. The results show that the GC genotype of MIF-173 SNP is significantly higher in AML patients than in the healthy controls (OR 1.58, 95 % CI 1.06, P = 0.034). Carrier genotypes GC and CC may be a causative factor for AML cancer (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 0.95, P = 0.085). White blood cell count (10(3)/µl) were significantly associated with AML MIF-173 polymorphism patients (P = 0.002). Our results in this study provide the first evidence that the MIF-173 polymorphism is associated with AML. MIF is a potential biomarker for development of AML cancer in male adult in Taiwanese population. Further validations in other populations are warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Nitric oxide production and blood pressure reduction during haemodialysis.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A decrease of systolic blood pressure in excess of 20 mmHg during haemodialysis treatment (IDD) is common for haemodialysis patients. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is symptomatic IDD by definition. Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) is a possible cause of IDD. Dialysate nitrate and nitrite amount can be used as an indicator of intradialysis NO production. Our aim was to find the predictor of NO production in IDD patients.
Related JoVE Video
Differential activation of sporamin expression in response to abiotic mechanical wounding and biotic herbivore attack in the sweet potato.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plants respond differently to mechanical wounding and herbivore attack, using distinct pathways for defense. The versatile sweet potato sporamin possesses multiple biological functions in response to stress. However, the regulation of sporamin gene expression that is activated upon mechanical damage or herbivore attack has not been well studied.
Related JoVE Video
Design and evaluation of a computerized test for hand motor skills.
Percept Mot Skills
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purposes of this study are to design and develop a computerized test to measure junior high school students' motor skills, specifically their abilities in hand-eye motor coordination and hand motor skills, using the Wii Remote. The hand motor skills computerized test, which is based on the operational examinations in the General Aptitude Test Battery, examines hand and finger dexterity (i.e., motion, rotation, fabrication, and disassembly tests). 55 students participated in the experiment to assess the reliability and validity of the computerized test, which were supported. Information literacy and experience in the use of Wii devices did not affect the reliability.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity cancer in a betel quid chewing area.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to investigate whether there is evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) enrolled in a betel quid chewing area. We also assessed whether betel quid chewing is an independent risk factor for field cancerization in OSCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Increase in physical activities in kindergarten children with cerebral palsy by employing MaKey-MaKey-based task systems.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Concomitant genotyping revealed diverse spreading between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in central Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile bacterium, which can lead to various infectious diseases. Various molecular typing methods are applied to the evolution and epidemiology surveys of S. aureus, mostly for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) is still an important pathogen, but their molecular typing is evaluated infrequently.
Related JoVE Video
Combined mutational analysis of RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 genes in Taiwanese patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many genetic factors have been implicated in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although mutations associated with OSCC have been well documented, the rate of these mutations is known to vary by location. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations in OSCC within the Taiwanese population.
Related JoVE Video
Skin rash related to once-daily boosted darunavir-containing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Taiwanese: incidence and associated factor.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the incidence of and associated factors with skin rashes among HIV-infected Taiwanese patients who received once-daily darunavir (DRV) boosted by ritonavir (RTV) (800/100 mg) plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Negative association between serum perfluorooctane sulfate concentration and bone mineral density in US premenopausal women: NHANES, 2005-2008.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfate (PFOS) are used in a variety of products worldwide. However, the relationship among serum PFOA, PFOS concentration, bone mineral density (BMD), and the risk of fractures has never been addressed.
Related JoVE Video
Cantharidin induces apoptosis of H460 human lung cancer cells through mitochondria-dependent pathways.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in cancer-related diseases. Cantharidin (CTD) is one of the components of natural mylabris (Mylabris phalerata Pallas). Numerous studies have shown that CTD induced cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. However, there is no report to demonstrate that CTD induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the effect of CTD on the cell death via the induction of apoptosis in H460 human lung cancer cells. Flow cytometry assay was used for examining the percentage of cell viability, sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca²? productions and the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Annexin V/PI staining and DNA gel electrophoresis were also used for examining cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to examine the changes of apoptosis associated protein expression and confocal microscopy for examining the translocation apoptosis associated protein. Results indicated that CTD significantly induced cell morphological changes and decreased the percentage of viable H460 cells. CTD induced apoptosis based on the occurrence of sub-G1 phase and DNA fragmentation. We found that CTD increased gene expression (mRNA) of caspase-3 and -8. Moreover, CTD increased ROS and Ca2+ production and decreased the levels of ??m. Western blot analysis results showed that CTD increased the expression of cleavage caspase-3 and -8, cytochrome c, Bax and AIF but inhibited the levels of Bcl-xL. CTD promoted ER stress associated protein expression such as GRP78, IRE1?, IRE1?, ATF6? and caspase-4 and it also promoted the expression of calpain 2 and XBP-1, but inhibited calpain 1 that is associated with apoptosis pathways. Based on those observations, we suggest that CTD may be used as a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of lung cancer in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness of tigecycline-based versus colistin- based therapy for treatment of pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a critical setting: a matched cohort analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colistin and tigecycline have both been shown good in vitro activity among multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). A comparative study of colistin versus tigecycline for MDRAB pneumonia is lacking.
Related JoVE Video
Development and evaluation of an open-source software package "CGITA" for quantifying tumor heterogeneity with molecular images.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The quantification of tumor heterogeneity with molecular images, by analyzing the local or global variation in the spatial arrangements of pixel intensity with texture analysis, possesses a great clinical potential for treatment planning and prognosis. To address the lack of available software for computing the tumor heterogeneity on the public domain, we develop a software package, namely, Chang-Gung Image Texture Analysis (CGITA) toolbox, and provide it to the research community as a free, open-source project.
Related JoVE Video
Asymptomatic ratio for seasonal H1N1 influenza infection among schoolchildren in Taiwan.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies indicate that asymptomatic infections do indeed occur frequently for both seasonal and pandemic influenza, accounting for about one-third of influenza infections. Studies carried out during the 2009 pH1N1 pandemic have found significant antibody response against seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 vaccine strains in schoolchildren receiving only pandemic H1N1 monovalent vaccine, yet reported either no symptoms or only mild symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of diallyl trisulfide on induction of apoptotic death in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro and alterations of the immune responses in normal and leukemic mice in vivo.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a chemopreventive dietary constituent and extracted from garlic, has been shown to against cultured many types of human cancer cell liens but the fate of apoptosis in murine leukemia cells in vitro and immune responses in leukemic mice remain elusive. Herein, we clarified the actions of DATS on growth inhibition of murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro and used WEHI-3 cells to generate leukemic mice in vivo, following to investigate the effects of DATS in animal model. In in vitro study, DATS induced apoptosis of WEHI-3 cells through the G0/G1 phase arrest and induction of caspase-3 activation. In in vivo study DATS decreased the weight of spleen of leukemia mice but did not affect the spleen weight of normal mice. DATS promoted the immune responses such as promotions of the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell activities in WEHI-3 leukemic and normal mice. However, DATS only promotes NK cell activities in normal mice. DATS increases the surface markers of CD11b and Mac-3 in leukemia mice but only promoted CD3 in normal mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that DATS induces cell death through induction of apoptosis in mice leukemia WHEI-3 cells. DATS also promotes immune responses in leukemia and normal mice in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
Related JoVE Video
Dexamethasone, ondansetron, and their combination and postoperative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Paediatr Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after pediatric strabismus surgery. Steroids and ondansetron (a 5-HT3 antagonist) can effectively reduce nausea, vomiting, and pain and thus might be useful agents for the prevention of PONV in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the prophylactic effects of dexamethasone and ondansetron on PONV after strabismus surgery in pediatric patients.
Related JoVE Video
Fast multipoint immobilized MOF bioreactor.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An enzyme-NBD@MOF bioreactor with exemplary proteolytic performance, even after successive reuse and storage, was produced through a novel, rapid and simple multipoint immobilization technique without chemical modification of the solid support. Enzyme loading and distribution could be directly monitored from the fluorescence emission of the bioreactor. The dye molecular dimension plays a role in its overall performance.
Related JoVE Video
The role of elective neck dissection in early stage buccal cancer.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefits of elective neck dissection (END) in early-stage tongue cancer have been widely discussed but are still controversial regarding early-stage buccal cancer. In this study, we evaluate the role of END and the treatment outcome in early-stage buccal cancer in an areca-quid endemic area.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Anhedonic Depressive-like Behavior in Male Rats.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior. Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression, defined as a loss of the capacity to experience pleasure. The present study used the sucrose preference test to investigate the influence of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on LPS-induced anhedonia in male rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: (I) vehicle?+?saline, (II) vehicle?+?LPS, (III) EGb 761?+?saline, and (IV) EGb 761?+?LPS. Saline or LPS (100?µg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 2?h before the sucrose preference test. Sucrose consumption was recorded 2, 4, 6, 13, and 24?h after 100?µg/kg of LPS or saline injection in the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. Dopamine and serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens were measured. Our results indicated that the vehicle?+?LPS group exhibited a significant decrease in sucrose intake compared with the vehicle?+?saline group. The EGb 761?+?LPS group showed more sucrose and food consumption than the vehicle?+?LPS group. Additionally, compared with the EGb 761?+?LPS group, the vehicle?+?LPS group had less dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Treatment with EGb 761 had no effect on water intake. Our results suggest that EGb 761 may be useful for reducing anhedonic depressive-like behavior. © 2014 TheAuthors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate the plasticity of lung cancer stemness via paracrine signalling.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a promising target for treating cancer, yet how CSC plasticity is maintained in vivo is unclear and is difficult to study in vitro. Here we establish a sustainable primary culture of Oct3/4(+)/Nanog(+) lung CSCs fed with CD90(+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to further advance our knowledge of preserving stem cells in the tumour microenvironment. Using transcriptomics we identify the paracrine network by which CAFs enrich CSCs through de-differentiation and reacquisition of stem cell-like properties. Specifically, we find that IGF1R signalling activation in cancer cells in the presence of CAFs expressing IGF-II can induce Nanog expression and promote stemness. Moreover, this paracrine signalling predicts overall and relapse-free survival in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. IGF-II/IGF1R signalling blockade inhibits Nanog expression and attenuates cancer stem cell features. Our data demonstrate that CAFs constitute a supporting niche for cancer stemness, and targeting this paracrine signalling may present a new therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of MSH2 expression by an Hsp90 inhibitor enhances pemetrexed-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression has been linked to poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The multitargeted antifolate pemetrexed has demonstrated certain clinical activities against NSCLC. However, the efficacy of the combination of pemtrexed and Hsp90 inhibitor to prolong the survival of patients with NSCLC still remains unclear. Human MutS homolog 2 (MSH2), a crucial element of the highly conserved DNA mismatch repair system, and defects or polymorphisms of MSH2 have been found in lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pemetrexed on NSCLC cell lines (H520 and H1703) and found that treatment with this drug at 20-50 µM increased the MSH2 mRNA and protein levels in a MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signal activation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the knockdown of MSH2 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of MSH2 or the blockage of p38 MAPK activation by SB202190 enhanced the cytotoxicity of pemetrexed. Combining the drug treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in an enhanced pemetrexed-induced cytotoxic effect, accompanied with the reduction of MSH2 protein and mRNA levels. The expression of constitutively active MKK6 (MKK6E) or HA-p38 MAPK vectors significantly rescued the decreased p38 MAPK activity, and restored the MSH2 protein levels and cell survival in NSCLC cells co-treated with pemetrexed and Hsp90 inhibitor. In this study, we have demonstrated that down-regulation of the MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signal with the subsequent reduction of MSH2 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of pemetrexed in H520 and H1703 cells. The results suggest a potential future benefit of combining pemetrexed and the Hsp90 inhibitor to treat lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Tamoxifen enhances erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity through down-regulating AKT-mediated thymidine phosphorylase expression in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tamoxifen is a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist used worldwide as an adjuvant hormone therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of tamoxifen-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is an enzyme of the pyrimidine salvage pathway which is upregulated in cancers. In this study, tamoxifen treatment inhibited cell survival in two NSCLC cells, H520 and H1975. Treatment with tamoxifen decreased TP mRNA and protein levels through AKT inactivation. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vectors significantly rescued the decreased TP protein and mRNA levels in tamoxifen-treated NSCLC cells. In contrast, combination treatment with PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) and tamoxifen further decreased the TP expression and cell viability of NSCLC cells. Knocking down TP expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of TP enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of tamoxifen. Erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI-774), an orally available small molecular inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, is approved for clinical treatment of NSCLC. Compared to a single agent alone, tamoxifen combined with erlotinib resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, and reduced TP protein levels. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating tamoxifen and erlotinib for the treatment of NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Unmet supportive care needs and characteristics of family caregivers of patients with oral cancer after surgery.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with unmet supportive care needs in family caregivers of patients with oral cancer after surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Diallyl trisulfide inhibits migration, invasion and angiogenesis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells, and suppresses murine xenograft tumour growth.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angiogenesis inhibitors are beneficial for the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases including cancer. We examined the cytotoxic, anti-metastatic, anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In HT29 cells, DATS inhibited migration and invasion through the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 which was associated with inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases-2, -7 and -9 and VEGF. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), DATS inhibited the migration and angiogenesis through FAK, Src and Ras. DATS also inhibited the secretion of VEGF. The capillary-like tube structure formation and migration by HUVEC was inhibited by DATS. The chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay indicated that DATS treatment inhibited ex-vivo angiogenesis. We investigated the anti-tumour effects of DATS against human colon cancer xenografts in BALB/c(nu/nu) mice and its anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. In this in-vivo study, DATS also inhibited the tumour growth, tumour weight and angiogenesis (decreased the levels of haemoglobin) in HT29 cells. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the inhibition of angiogenesis may be an important mechanism in colon cancer chemotherapy by DATS.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic value of prepontine cistern invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prognostic value of prepontine cistern invasion (PPCI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
Related JoVE Video
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) management of Low-Level Viremia in Taiwan (ALLEVIATE).
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to investigate that if switch of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would result in viral suppression (<40 copies/mL) at 48 weeks for patients with persistent low-level viremia after having received cART for six months or more at two hospitals designated for HIV care in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Safety of rilpivirine plus nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected Taiwanese with a higher prevalence of hepatitis virus infection.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing rilpivirine plus 2 NRTIs are effective antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for ARV-naive HIV-infected patients who had baseline plasma HIV RNA load (PVL) <5 log10 copies/mL and as switch therapy for those with viral suppression. In this study, we aimed to assess the short-term safety of rilpivirine-containing regimens among HIV-infected patients who initiated or switched to rilpivirine plus two NRTIs in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Lipid-lowering agents for dyslipidemia in patients who were infected with HIV in Taoyuan, Taiwan.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is no doubt that highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased the total mortality of HIV-infected populations drastically, and HIV has become a chronic and manageable condition. However, complications after long-term treatment of ART tarnished the great efforts. We aimed to study the effects of add-on lipid-lowering agents on ART for patients who developed hyperlipidemia after HIV treatment. The risk factors for failure to normalize lipid profile were analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
Priority of fibular reconstruction in patients with oral cavity cancer undergoing segmental mandibulectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fibula osteoseptocutaneous free flap is generally used for segmental mandibular reconstructions following resection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, less complex reconstructions may be feasible for patients with predicted poor survival. Herein, we sought to identify the main risk factors (RFs) associated with poor prognosis in OSCC patients undergoing segmental mandibulectomy to help decide between fibular and non-fibular reconstructions.
Related JoVE Video
Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among adults at high risk for HIV transmission two decades after implementation of nationwide hepatitis B virus vaccination program in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) after implementation of universal neonatal HBV vaccination and catch-up vaccination programs remains rarely investigated among the adults who were born in the vaccination era (in or after 1986) and engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved treatment outcomes of patients with oral cavity cancer with multiple-node metastases but no other major risk factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for the treatment of pathologic N2b/c squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC).
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of feature selection methods for cross-laboratory microarray analysis.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The amount of gene expression data of microarray has grown exponentially. To apply them for extensive studies, integrated analysis of cross-laboratory (cross-lab) data becomes a trend, and thus, choosing an appropriate feature selection method is an essential issue. This paper focuses on feature selection for Affymetrix (Affy) microarray studies across different labs. We investigate four feature selection methods: $(t)$-test, significance analysis of microarrays (SAM), rank products (RP), and random forest (RF). The four methods are applied to acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, and lung cancer Affy data which consist of three cross-lab data sets each. We utilize a rank-based normalization method to reduce the bias from cross-lab data sets. Training on one data set or two combined data sets to test the remaining data set(s) are both considered. Balanced accuracy is used for prediction evaluation. This study provides comprehensive comparisons of the four feature selection methods in cross-lab microarray analysis. Results show that SAM has the best classification performance. RF also gets high classification accuracy, but it is not as stable as SAM. The most naive method is $(t)$-test, but its performance is the worst among the four methods. In this study, we further discuss the influence from the number of training samples, the number of selected genes, and the issue of unbalanced data sets.
Related JoVE Video
Depression and predictors in Taiwanese survivors with oral cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Depression is a comorbid disabling problem and potentially affects patient likelihood of survival. The aims of this study were to recognize the characteristics of depression and investigate associated predictor factors in patients with oral cancers.
Related JoVE Video
High-resolution melting analyses for genetic variants in ARID5B and IKZF1 with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility loci in Taiwan.
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a heterogeneous disease that includes multiple subtypes is defined by cell lineage and chromosome anomalies. Previous genome-wide association studies have reported several ARID5B and IKZF1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the incidence of ALL. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid and convenient technique to detect SNPs; we thereby detected SNPs in ARID5B and IKZF1 genes.
Related JoVE Video
Textural features of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT images: prognostic significance in patients with advanced T-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have shown that total lesion glycolysis (TLG) may serve as a prognostic indicator in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We sought to investigate whether the textural features of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images can provide any additional prognostic information over TLG and clinical staging in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Association of the variations in the HSD3? gene with primary aldosteronism.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In mice, a lack of cryptochrome results in up-regulation of aldosterone production due to high expression of the 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD3?) gene. The HSD3? pathway might play a pivotal role in aldosterone synthesis. This study aimed to determine the association of HSD3? and HSD3?2 gene variations with primary aldosteronism in a Taiwanese population.
Related JoVE Video
Association between serum perfluorinated chemicals and thyroid function in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used in a variety of products worldwide for years. The relationship between serum PFCs and thyroid function has never been addressed in a nationally representative survey.
Related JoVE Video
Positive association between urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and the acrylamide metabolite N-acetyl-S-(propionamide)-cysteine in adolescents and young adults.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acrylamide is present in mainstream cigarette smoke and in some foods prepared at high temperatures. Animal studies have shown that acrylamide exposure increases oxidative stress; however, it is not known if this also occurs in humans. We recruited 800 subjects (mean age, 21.3 years, range, 12-30 years) from a population-based sample of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults to determine if urinary levels of the acrylamide metabolite N-acetyl-S-(propionamide)-cysteine (AAMA) and the oxidative stress product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) are associated. The mean (SD) AAMA and 8-OHdG were 76.54 (76.42)?g/L and 3.48 (2.37)?g/L, respectively. In linear regression analyses, a 1-unit increase in natural log AAMA was significantly associated with an increase in natural log 8-OHdG (?g/g creatinine) (?=0.044, SE=0.019, P=0.020) after controlling for covariates. Subpopulation analyses showed AAMA and 8-OHdG were significantly associated with males, adolescents, non-current smokers, without alcohol consumption, subjects, body mass index ? 24, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score ? 0.9. In conclusion, higher urinary AAMA concentrations were associated with increased levels of urinary 8-OHdG in this cohort. Further studies are warranted to determine if there is a causal relationship between acrylamide exposure and oxidative stress.
Related JoVE Video
De novo transcriptome sequencing of axolotl blastema for identification of differentially expressed genes during limb regeneration.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salamanders are unique among vertebrates in their ability to completely regenerate amputated limbs through the mediation of blastema cells located at the stump ends. This regeneration is nerve-dependent because blastema formation and regeneration does not occur after limb denervation. To obtain the genomic information of blastema tissues, de novo transcriptomes from both blastema tissues and denervated stump ends of Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotls) 14 days post-amputation were sequenced and compared using Solexa DNA sequencing.
Related JoVE Video
Neonatal orbital abscess.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Orbital abscess is life-threatening and rare in children. Reported herein is a term male neonate who had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital abscess, and a literature review of this disease. A total of 16 neonates diagnosed with neonatal orbital abscess are reported in the literature. There is a mild male predilection and two neonates were delivered prematurely. Leukocytosis, fever, ethmoiditis and associated upper respiratory tract infection were found in approximately half of them. Eight neonates had sepsis and 14 patients underwent surgical intervention. One patient died. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 14 out of 17 patients. Neonatal orbital abscess is rarely encountered but may be fatal. Although streptococci are prevalent in childhood orbital infection, S. aureus was predominant in neonatal orbital abscess in the present series. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy against S. aureus is essential in treating neonatal orbital abs ess. This case suggests that a higher initial dose of vancomycin may be an effective and safe strategy for severe S. aureus infection in neonates.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of Feature Selection Methods for Cross-Laboratory Microarray Analysis.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The amount of gene expression data of microarray has grown exponentially. To apply them for extensive studies, integrated analysis of cross-laboratory (cross-lab) data becomes a trend and thus choosing an appropriate feature selection method is an essential issue. This paper focuses on feature selection for Affymetrix (Affy) microarray studies across different labs. We investigate four feature selection methods: t-test, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), Rank Products (RP) and Random Forest (RF). The four methods are conducted in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer and lung cancer Affy data which consists of three cross-lab data sets individually. We utilize a ranked-based normalization method to reduce the bias from cross-lab data sets. Balanced accuracy and true positive rate are used for prediction evaluation. This study provides comprehensive comparisons of four feature selection methods in cross-lab microarray analysis. Results show that SAM has the best classification performance. RF also gets high classification accuracy, but it is not as stable as SAM. The most naive method is t-test but its performance is the worst among the four methods. In this study, we further discuss the influence of the number of samples and selected genes and the issue of unbalanced data sets.
Related JoVE Video
PiDNA: Predicting protein-DNA interactions with structural models.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Predicting binding sites of a transcription factor in the genome is an important, but challenging, issue in studying gene regulation. In the past decade, a large number of protein-DNA co-crystallized structures available in the Protein Data Bank have facilitated the understanding of interacting mechanisms between transcription factors and their binding sites. Recent studies have shown that both physics-based and knowledge-based potential functions can be applied to protein-DNA complex structures to deliver position weight matrices (PWMs) that are consistent with the experimental data. To further use the available structural models, the proposed Web server, PiDNA, aims at first constructing reliable PWMs by applying an atomic-level knowledge-based scoring function on numerous in silico mutated complex structures, and then using the PWM constructed by the structure models with small energy changes to predict the interaction between proteins and DNA sequences. With PiDNA, the users can easily predict the relative preference of all the DNA sequences with limited mutations from the native sequence co-crystallized in the model in a single run. More predictions on sequences with unlimited mutations can be realized by additional requests or file uploading. Three types of information can be downloaded after prediction: (i) the ranked list of mutated sequences, (ii) the PWM constructed by the favourable mutated structures, and (iii) any mutated protein-DNA complex structure models specified by the user. This study first shows that the constructed PWMs are similar to the annotated PWMs collected from databases or literature. Second, the prediction accuracy of PiDNA in detecting relatively high-specificity sites is evaluated by comparing the ranked lists against in vitro experiments from protein-binding microarrays. Finally, PiDNA is shown to be able to select the experimentally validated binding sites from 10,000 random sites with high accuracy. With PiDNA, the users can design biological experiments based on the predicted sequence specificity and/or request mutated structure models for further protein design. As well, it is expected that PiDNA can be incorporated with chromatin immunoprecipitation data to refine large-scale inference of in vivo protein-DNA interactions. PiDNA is available at: http://dna.bime.ntu.edu.tw/pidna.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of p38 MAPK-dependent MutS homologue-2 (MSH2) expression by metformin enhances gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human squamous lung cancer cells.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gefitinib, a quinazoline-derived tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has anti-tumor activity in vivo and in vitro. Human MutS homologue-2 (MSH2) plays a central role in promoting genetic stability by correcting DNA replication errors. The present study investigated the effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal on gefitinib-induced MSH2 expression in two human non-small cell lung squamous cancer cell lines.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of indeno[1, 2 - c] quinoline derivatives as dual topoisomerases I/II inhibitors: part 3.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
(E) -6-Hydroxy-9-methoxy-6-(piperazin-1-yl)-11H -indeno[1,2-c ]quinolin-11-one O-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl oxime (2c) was identified as a potential dual topo I/II inhibitor in our previous paper. In continuation for the search of more potent compounds, we describe herein the preparation of certain indeno[1,2-c ]quinoline derivatives and evaluation of their antiproliferation, DNA binding affinity, and topoisomerases (topo I and topo II) inhibitory activities. Among them, (E) -9-[3-(dimethylamino)propoxy]-11H -indeno[1,2-c ]quinolin-11-one O-3-(dimethylamino)propyl oxime (11b) and its analog 11c exhibited approximately equal activity to the lead compound 2c against the growth of HeLa and A549 cancer cells. Both compounds 11b and 11c were more active than 2c in the inhibition of topo I and topo II. However, none of them exhibited significant DNA binding affinity while 2c was a very strong DNA binding agent. Compound 11b exhibited a high oral bioavailability of 39.8 % while the oral bioavailability of 2c and 11c was only 10.9 and 8.6 %, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor evaluation of 11b in nude mice bearing subcutaneous breast cancer tumors revealed that treatment with low (10 mg/kg) or high (30 mg/kg) doses of 11b dramatically diminished tumor growth. Therefore, compound 11b is identified as a potential non-DNA intercalating dual topo I/II inhibitor.
Related JoVE Video
Genotyping and molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus in liver disease patients in Kenya.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes are important in both the clinical manifestation of disease and treatment response. Although Kenya belongs to the African Region (AFR-E) characterized by high mortality and hyperendemicity of HBV, there is a paucity of HBV genotyping data. The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize the basic core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and complete surface (S) regions of HBV isolated from 61 HBsAg-positive liver disease patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. HBsAg, HBeAg and viral loads were determined. HBV DNA was amplified and sequenced from 58/61 patients. In addition to the complete genome of two isolates, the BCP/PC and the complete S regions of 43 and 38 isolates, respectively were sequenced. Following phylogenetic analysis of the S region, 38 isolates clustered with subgenotype A1, whereas two isolates clustered with genotype D, one with subgenotype D1 and another as an outlier of the clade containing subgenotype D6 and the D/E recombinant. When the complete genome of the latter isolate was sequenced it clustered with D6. The majority of isolates belonged to serological subtype adw2 and only four to ayw2. Three distinct groups of subgenotype A1, distinguished by different amino acid motifs, circulate in Kenya: two in the African cluster and a monophyletic clade in the "Asian" cluster. HBeAg-negativity was a result of G1896A in genotype D isolates, whereas in subgenotype A1, the HBeAg-negativity was a result of mutations in the Kozak region (1809-1812) or precore start codon (1814-1816). Mutations at positions 1762 and 1764 occurred more frequently in HCC patients (p<0.05). In conclusion, subgenotypes A1, D1 and D6 circulate in liver disease patients in Kenya, with A1 predominating.
Related JoVE Video
Association between levels of serum perfluorooctane sulfate and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adolescents and young adults.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used for years in a variety of products worldwide. Although epidemiological findings have shown that PFC levels are positively associated with cholesterol and uric acid levels, it is unknown whether PFCs are associated with atherosclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells by Solanum lyratum extracts.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This research focused on a Chinese herb medicine, Solanum lyratum Thunb (Solanaceae) by ethanol extracts (SLE) for investigating the molecular anticancer mechanism in vitro for exploring the means of cell death through the effects on mitochondrial function. We found that SLE induced cytotoxic effects in human osteosacroma U-2 OS cells, and these effects include cell morphological changes, a decrease of the percentage of viable cells and induction of apoptosis. The results suggest that cell death induced by SLE is closely related to apoptosis based on the observations of DAPI staining and sub-G1 phase in U-2 OS cells. Flow cytometric assays also showed that SLE promoted the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide but decreased the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and promoted the activations of caspase-8 and -9 in U-2 OS cells. SLE inhibited the level of Bcl-2 but promoted the Bax level, and both proteins led to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspase-9 and -3, resulting in the apoptotic death which is mediated through the mitochondrial pathway. Taken together, SLE was demonstrated to be effective in killing U-2 OS osteosacroma cells via the ROS-promoted and mitochondria- and caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of thalassemias and associated hemoglobinopathies identified by prenatal diagnosis in Taiwan.
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemoglobin (Hb) gene disorders are common hereditary disorders in Taiwan, and ?- and ?-thalassemias are among the well-known Hb disorders here. Our study provides a primary reference for designing a locally relevant antenatal diagnostic test to control the spread of thalassemia.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic implications of post-therapy (18)F-FDG PET in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reliable prognostic factors that serve as a guide to follow-up of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have not yet been identified. We sought to investigate the prognostic implications of post-therapy PET in patients with NPC treated with chemoradiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Neonatal-maternal factors and perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can cross the placenta, enter fetal circulation, and were found to correlate with adverse fetal growth. However, determinants of cord blood PFASs are not fully characterized. The study aimed to explore the association between PFASs and neonatal-maternal factors within a Taiwanese birth cohort. We selected subjects from Taiwan Birth Panel Study, which enrolled 486 infant-mother pairs in 2004-2005. We collected cord blood and analyzed perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) using a simple protein precipitation and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We retrieved information pertaining to maternal socio-demographics, lifestyle- and dietary-related factors through structured questionnaires during the postpartum hospital stay. A total of 439 subjects, with 90% response rate, have completed serum analysis and questionnaire survey. The median concentrations for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood were 1.86, 5.67, 3.00, and 13.5ngmL(-1), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, multiple linear regression models revealed that log10-PFOA was positively associated with maternal age (?=0.011) and negatively associated with multiparity (?=-0.044). Log10-PFOS was negatively correlated with birth weight (?=-0.011) and higher maternal education (senior high school: ?=-0.067; university: ?=-0.088). Log10-PFUA tended to negatively associate with gender, male infants (?=-0.075), and using cosmetics during pregnancy (?=-0.065). Interestingly, presence of cockroaches in the home was positively associated with log10-PFOA (?=0.041) and 1og10-PFNA (?=0.123). In conclusion, this study demonstrated several factors to correlate with cord blood PFASs and further investigation are still needed for confirmation of exposure routes.
Related JoVE Video
Simple aspiration and drainage and intrapleural minocycline pleurodesis versus simple aspiration and drainage for the initial treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: an open-label, parallel-group, prospective, randomised, controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Simple aspiration and drainage is a standard initial treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax, but the rate of pneumothorax recurrence is substantial. We investigated whether additional minocycline pleurodesis after simple aspiration and drainage reduces the rate of recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical scenario of EBV DNA follow-up in patients of treated localized nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we investigated the usefulness and limitations of EBV-DNA follow-up in patients who had treated localized nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
The crude extract of Corni Fructus inhibits the migration and invasion of U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 by MAPK signaling.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of the bone cancers. In the Chinese population, the crude extract of Corni Fructus (CECF) has been used as Traditional Chinese medicine to treat several different diseases for hundreds of years. In the present study, effects of CECF on inhibition of migration and invasion in U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cells were examined. CECF significantly inhibited migration and invasion of U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cells. We also found that CECF inhibited activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9). CECF decreased protein levels of FAK, PKC, SOS1, MKK7, MEKK3, GRB2, NF-?B p65, COX-2, HIF-1?, PI3K, Rho A, ROCK-1, IRE-1?, p-JNK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, Ras, p-PERK, MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF in U-2 OS cells. Results of this study indicate that CECF may have potential as a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of osteosarcoma by inhibiting migration and invasion of cancer cells © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
Related JoVE Video
Increasing rates of low-risk human papillomavirus infections in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: association with clinical outcomes.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been causally linked to oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the potential role of low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types in the pathogenesis of this malignancy remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Crude extract of rheum palmatum L induced cell death in LS1034 human colon cancer cells acts through the caspase-dependent and -independent pathways.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Crude extract of Rheum palmatum L (CERP) has been used to treat different diseases in the Chinese population for decades. In this study, we investigated the effects of CERP on LS1034 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and also examined possible mechanisms of cell death. Flow cytometric assays were used to measure the percentage of viable cells, cell cycle distribution including the sub-G1 phase (apoptosis), the activities of caspase-8, -9, and -3, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m) ). DNA damage, nuclei condensation, protein expression, and translocation were examined by Comet assay, 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Western blotting, and confocal laser system microscope, respectively. CERP induced apoptosis as seen by DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cancer cells. CERP was associated with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and CERP promoted the activities of caspase-8, -9, and -3. Both ROS and Ca(2+) levels were increased by CERP but the compound decreased levels of ??(m) in LS1034 cells. Laser confocal microscope also confirmed that CERP promoted the expressions of AIF, Endo G, cytochrome c, and GADD153 to induce apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Retropharyngeal Lymph Node Metastasis Identified by FDG PET/CT.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) metastasis is an uncommon finding in patients with oral cavity squamous carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the clinical outcomes, clinicopathological characteristics, and the priority of treatment with curative intent in OSCC patients with RPLN involvement.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging predicts local control in oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of pretreatment dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DCE-PWI) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in predicting the treatment response of oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OHSCC) to chemoradiation remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the ability of pharmacokinetic parameters derived from pretreatment DCE-PWI and DWI to predict the local control of OHSCC patients treated with chemoradiation. Between August, 2010 and March, 2012, patients with untreated OHSCC scheduled for chemoradiation were eligible for this prospective study. DCE-PWI and DWI were performed in addition to conventional MRI. The relationship of local control with the following clinical and imaging variables was analyzed: the hemoglobin level, T-stage, tumor location, gross tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis on FDG PET/CT, transfer constant (K (trans) ), volume of blood plasma and volume of extracellular extravascular space on DCE-PWI, and apparent diffusion coefficient on DWI of the primary tumor. The patients were also divided into a local control group and a local failure group, and their clinical and imaging parameters were compared. There were 58 patients (29 with oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and 29 with hypopharynx SCC) with successful pretreatment DCE-PWI and DWI available for analysis. After a median follow-up of 18.2 months, 17 (29.3%) participants had local failure, whereas the remaining 41 patients achieved local control. Univariate analysis revealed that only the K (trans) value was significantly associated with local control (P = 0.03). When the local control and local failure groups were compared, significant differences were observed in K (trans) and the tumor location (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, only K (trans) was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Our results suggest that pretreatment K (trans) may help predict the local control in OHSCC patients treated with chemoradiation.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between levels of serum perfluorinated chemicals and adiponectin in a young hypertension cohort in Taiwan.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In animals, perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), specifically perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfate (PFOS), function as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonists. However, the relevance of animal (primarily rodent) data to humans is unresolved. While plasma adiponectin level is very responsive to PPAR gamma agonist drugs, it has not been determined whether adiponectin level is related to serum PFCs concentrations. In the present study, 287 subjects (12-30 years of age) were recruited to determine the relationship between serum level of PFCs and serum level of adiponectin. The results showed males had higher serum PFOS concentrations than females and that those with metabolic syndrome had lower serum PFOA than controls. Besides, it showed regional elevations of the perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) (median concentration: 7.11 ng/mL) in the study subjects. No relationship of PFOA, PFOS, PFUA, and the sum of all four PFCs was found to glucose homeostasis, adiponectin level, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers. The median and the range of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) concentration (in ng/mL; for four categories corresponding to the <50, 50-74, 75-89, and ?90th percentiles) were 0.38 (0.38-1.68), 3.22 (1.73-4.65), 5.85 (4.75-8.29), 10.56 (8.40-25.40), respectively. After controlling for confounding factors, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the mean natural log-transformed level of adiponectin increased significantly across categories of PFNA (in ng/mL; 8.78, 8.73, 9.06, 9.36; P for trend = 0.010 in the full model). In conclusion, higher serum PFNA concentration is associated with elevated serum adiponectin concentration.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.