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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We describe a technique for dynamic quantum optical arbitrary-waveform generation and manipulation, which is capable of mode selectively operating on quantum signals without inducing significant loss or decoherence. It is built upon combining the developed tools of quantum frequency conversion and optical arbitrary waveform generation. Considering realistic parameters, we propose and analyze applications such as programmable reshaping of picosecond-scale temporal modes, selective frequency conversion of any one or superposition of those modes, and mode-resolved photon counting. We also report on experimental progress to distinguish two overlapping, orthogonal temporal modes, demonstrating over 8 dB extinction between picosecond-scale time-frequency modes, which agrees well with our theory. Our theoretical and experimental progress, as a whole, points to an enabling optical technique for various applications such as ultradense quantum coding, unity-efficiency cavity-atom quantum memories, and high-speed quantum computing.
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A short-range ordered-disordered transition of a NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair induces switchable wettability.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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By virtue of its amorphous structure with a short-range order feature, the inorganic nanoporous nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) can reversibly and rapidly switch wettability by alternate treatments of environmental chamber (superhydrophobic) and UV/ozone (superhydrophilic). The switchable mechanism of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair arising from its exceptional intrinsic short-range order-disorder transition together with chemical composition change is highlighted for the first time, which significantly differs from the current stimuli-responsive materials. This distinct multifunctional thin film not only possesses reversible wettability but also is optically patternable/repairable and electrically conductive, which could be applicable in the manufacturing of various micro- and nanostructures. We demonstrate this potential in the rewritable two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic channels and wetting-contrast enhanced selective electroplating.
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Protective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on endothelial function in hypertension.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Vascular endothelial cells play a major role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by reduced endothelium-dependent relaxations (EDRs) or accompanied by enhanced endothelium-dependent contractions (EDCs), is a hallmark of, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension has been linked to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, reflecting the impaired generation of NO and/or the enhanced inactivation of NO by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many of these conditions can be improved by glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a proglucagon-derived hormone secreted by intestinal endocrine L-type cells, which is rapidly inactivated by an enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) in circulation. On one hand, GLP-1 analogues or DPP-4inhibitors up-regulate eNOS expression and increase eNOS phosphorylation, resulting in improved production of NO and thus EDRs. On the other hand, GLP-1 and related agents attenuate EDCs by reducing ROSgeneration and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. GLP-1 elevating agents and GLP-1 receptor agonists improve endothelial function in hypertension, suggesting that GLP-1 signaling could be a therapeutic target in hypertension-related vascular events.
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FGFR1 mediates recombinant thrombomodulin domain-induced angiogenesis.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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The recombinant epidermal growth factor-like domain plus the serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin (rTMD23) promotes angiogenesis and accelerates the generation of activated protein C (APC), which facilitates angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the angiogenic activity of rTMD23.
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Infrared absorption of gaseous CH2BrOO detected with a step-scan Fourier-transform absorption spectrometer.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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CH2BrOO radicals were produced upon irradiation, with an excimer laser at 248 nm, of a flowing mixture of CH2Br2 and O2. A step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell was employed to record temporally resolved infrared (IR) absorption spectra of reaction intermediates. Transient absorption with origins at 1276.1, 1088.3, 961.0, and 884.9 cm(-1) are assigned to ?4 (CH2-wagging), ?6 (O-O stretching), ?7 (CH2-rocking mixed with C-O stretching), and ?8 (C-O stretching mixed with CH2-rocking) modes of syn-CH2BrOO, respectively. The assignments were made according to the expected photochemistry and a comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers, relative IR intensities, and rotational contours with those predicted with the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ method. The rotational contours of ?7 and ?8 indicate that hot bands involving the torsional (?12) mode are also present, with transitions 70 (1)12v (v) and 80 (1)12v (v), v = 1-10. The most intense band (?4) of anti-CH2BrOO near 1277 cm(-1) might have a small contribution to the observed spectra. Our work provides information for directly probing gaseous CH2BrOO with IR spectroscopy, in either the atmosphere or laboratory experiments.
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SLAM-SAP Signaling Promotes Differentiation of IL-17-Producing T Cells and Progression of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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IL-17 plays critical roles in host defenses, combating bacterial and fungal infections, as well as the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The signaling adaptor SAP is essential for normal immune homeostasis and mutations within SH2D1A, the locus encoding this protein, result in serious and sometimes fatal syndromes, including X-linked lymphoproliferative disease and severe cases of common variable immunodeficiency. However, the precise cellular basis of how SAP deficiency contributes to immune dysfunction remains incompletely understood. In this study, we found that CD4 and CD8 T cells lacking SAP had a diminished capacity to differentiate into IL-17-producing Th17 and T cytotoxic (Tc17) cells relative to wild-type lymphocytes. The use of costimulating SLAM Abs was found to augment the differentiation of IL-17-secreting effectors in wild-type but not Sh2d1a(-/-) splenic T cells under IL-17-polarizing conditions. In addition, SAP's regulation of IL-17-secreting T cells was shown to be a T cell-intrinsic role, as purified naive Sh2d1a(-/-) CD4 and CD8 T cells were inherently defective at converting into Th17 and Tc17 cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Sh2d1a(-/-) mice were protected from EAE and exhibited greatly decreased numbers of CNS-infiltrating Th17 and Tc17 effector T cells and reduced disease severity. Collectively, these results suggest that SLAM-SAP signaling drives the differentiation and function of Th17 and Tc17 cells in vitro and in vivo and contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity in EAE.
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18F-FDG PET/CT as a semiquantitative imaging marker in HPV-p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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There is evidence that the status of human papilloma virus subtype 16 (HPV-p16) alters the prognosis of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OSCC). We sought to establish whether there is a relationship between HPV-p16 status and F-FDG uptake in the prognosis of OSCC.
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Proteomic Analysis in Serum of Rat Hind-limb Allograft Tolerance Induced by Immunosuppressive Therapy with Adipose-derived Stem Cells.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Multi-rounds of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in combination with transient immunosuppression demonstrated prolongation of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant (VCA) survival and induced immune tolerance in a rodent hind-limb model. In this study, the serum proteins were investigated between the ASC-tolerance group and control group using proteomic study.
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The application of flow cytometry for evaluating biological aggressiveness of intracranial meningiomas.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Meningiomas have classically been considered to include benign and atypical/anaplastic tumors. Despite the availability of clinical and pathologic parameters for prognostic prediction prognosis, the behavior of each meningioma may be difficult to predict. Here, we used DNA flow-cytometric studies to predict biological tumor behaviors of intracranial meningiomas.
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Seasonal variation of Legionella in Taiwan's reservoir and its relationships with environmental factors.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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In this study, the presence of Legionella in major water reservoirs of Taiwan was examined with respect to seasonal variation, geographical variation, and water quality parameters using TaqMan real-time qPCR. Water samples were collected quarterly at 19 reservoirs in Taiwan between November 2012 and August 2013. The detection rate for Legionella was 35.5 % (27/76), and Legionella was detected in all seasons. The Legionella concentration was relatively high in spring and summer, reaching 3.86?×?10(8) and 7.35?×?10(8) cells/L, respectively. By sampling the area, Legionella was detected at a higher proportion in reservoirs in the northern and southern areas, and the difference was consistent in all seasons. Significant association was found between detection of Legionella and various water quality parameters, including conductivity, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen (Mann-Whitney U test, P?
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Surveillance and evaluation of the infection risk of free-living amoebae and Legionella in different aquatic environments.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous in various aquatic environments. Several amoebae species are pathogenic and host other pathogens such as Legionella, but the presence of FLA and its parasites as well as the related infection risk are not well known. In this study, the presence of pathogenic FLA and Legionella in various water bodies was investigated. Water samples were collected from a river, intake areas of drinking water treatment plants, and recreational hot spring complexes in central and southern Taiwan. A total of 140 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, and Legionella. In addition, phylogenetic characteristics and water quality parameters were also assessed. The pathogenic genotypes of FLA included Acanthamoeba T4 and Naegleria australiensis, and both were abundant in the hot spring water. In contrast, Legionella pneumophila was detected in different aquatic environments. Among the FLA assessed, V. vermiformis was most likely to coexist with Legionella spp. The total bacteria level was associated with the presence of FLA and Legionella especially in hot spring water. Taken together, FLA contamination in recreational hot springs and drinking water source warrants more attention on potential legionellosis and amoebae infections.
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Dynamic observation of phase transformation behaviors in indium(III) selenide nanowire based phase change memory.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) has been extensively investigated for its potential applications in next-generation nonvolatile memory. In this study, indium(III) selenide (In2Se3) was selected due to its high resistivity ratio and lower programming current. Au/In2Se3-nanowire/Au phase change memory devices were fabricated and measured systematically in an in situ transmission electron microscope to perform a RESET/SET process under pulsed and dc voltage swept mode, respectively. During the switching, we observed the dynamic evolution of the phase transformation process. The switching behavior resulted from crystalline/amorphous change and revealed that a long pulse width would induce the amorphous or polycrystalline state by different pulse amplitudes, supporting the improvement of the writing speed, retention, and endurance of PCRAM.
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Experience of nurses caring for child with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in general pediatric ward: a descriptive phenomenological approach.
Cancer Nurs
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Most studies on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have focused on patients, survivors, or their family members, such as siblings and parents. Little attention has been paid to nurses caring for HSCT pediatric patients and in particular in a Taiwanese context.
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Seasonal distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba species from drinking water reservoirs in Taiwan.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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In order to detect the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba along with geographical variations, water quality variations and seasonal change of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan was investigated by 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected quarterly at 19 drinking water reservoir sites from November 2012 to August 2013. Acanthamoeba was detected in 39.5 % (30/76) of the water sample, and the detection rate was 63.2 % (12/19) from samples collected in autumn. The average concentration of Acanthamoeba was 3.59?×?10(4) copies/L. For geographic distribution, the detection rate for Acanthamoeba at the northern region was higher than the central and southern regions in all seasons. Results of Spearman rank test revealed that heterotrophic plate count (HPC) had a negative correlation (R?=?-0.502), while dissolved oxygen (DO) had a positive correlation (R?=?0.463) in summer. Significant differences were found only between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and HPC in summer (Mann-Whitney U test, P?
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PRISE2: software for designing sequence-selective PCR primers and probes.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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PRISE2 is a new software tool for designing sequence-selective PCR primers and probes. To achieve high level of selectivity, PRISE2 allows the user to specify a collection of target sequences that the primers are supposed to amplify, as well as non-target sequences that should not be amplified. The program emphasizes primer selectivity on the 3' end, which is crucial for selective amplification of conserved sequences such as rRNA genes. In PRISE2, users can specify desired properties of primers, including length, GC content, and others. They can interactively manipulate the list of candidate primers, to choose primer pairs that are best suited for their needs. A similar process is used to add probes to selected primer pairs. More advanced features include, for example, the capability to define a custom mismatch penalty function. PRISE2 is equipped with a graphical, user-friendly interface, and it runs on Windows, Macintosh or Linux machines.
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Clinical features and surgical outcomes of sporadic cerebellar hemangioblastomas.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Sporadic hemangioblastomas show a strong preference for the cerebellum. We clarify the clinical characteristics and role of surgery in sporadic cerebellar hemangioblastomas.
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Highly efficient transformation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia S21, an environmental isolate from soil, by electroporation.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, which also exhibits potential of wide applications in industry, environment and agriculture. An efficient transformation method for S. maltophilia would be convenient to its genetic studies. In this report, we focused on developing an efficient transformation protocol for S. maltophilia. Gene transfer by three different methods (chemical transformation, conjugation and electroporation) indicated that electroporation was the most efficient method to transform S. maltophilia S21. Then, the entire electroporation process from competent-cell preparation to post-pulse incubation was optimized to get higher efficiencies. Utilizing competent cells prepared at optical density (600 nm) of 1.0, the maximal transformation efficiency of S. maltophilia S21 reached 1.53×10(8) transformants/?g of pBBR1MCS DNA at a field strength of 18 kV/cm, a time constant of 4.8 ms (200 ?), a DNA amount of 100 ng and a cell concentration of 2.4×10(8) CFU/ml after 3 h incubation. Moreover, we successfully transformed the other four isolates of S. maltophilia using this protocol. To date, this is the first report about electroporation of S. maltophilia and it will facilitate the further study of this species.
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Magnetic resonance imaging predictors for respiratory failure after cervical spinal cord injury.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Patients after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) may experience ventilator-dependent respiratory failure during the acute hospitalization period. The aim of the study is to identify imaging factors that predict respiratory failure after acute CSCI.
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Surgical strategies and outcomes of spinal ependymomas of different lengths: analysis of 210 patients: clinical article.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical strategies and outcomes for spinal ependymomas of different lengths.
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Increased serum 2-oxoglutarate associated with high myocardial energy expenditure and poor prognosis in chronic heart failure patients.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Myocardial energy expenditure (MEE) and 2-oxoglutarate are elevated in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients compared with healthy controls. To explore whether 2-oxoglutarate could reflect the levels of MEE and predict the prognosis of CHF, 219 CHF patients and 66 healthy controls were enrolled. 2-Oxoglutarate was assayed with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CHF patients were divided into 4 groups according to interquartile range of MEE and followed for death or recurrent hospital admission due to CHF for the mean follow-up time 6.64±0.16months. 2-Oxoglutarate was increased in CHF patients compared with controls (P<0.01) and correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=0.142, P=0.036), age (r=-0.269, P<0.01) and MEE levels (r=0.307, P<0.01) in a multiple linear correlation analysis in CHF patients. Furthermore, 2-oxoglutarate (OR=3.470, 95% CI=1.557 to 7.730, P=0.002), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (OR=4.013, 95% CI=1.553 to 10.365, P=0.004), age (OR=1.611, 95% CI=1.136 to 2.283, P=0.007) and left ventricular ejection fraction (OR=7.272, 95% CI=3.110 to 17.000, P<0.001) were independently associated with MEE on multiple logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier event curves showed that high 2-oxoglutarate levels were associated with adverse outcomes (Log Rank, Chi(2)=4.026, P=0.045). This study showed that serum 2-oxoglutarate is associated with MEE levels, which can be used as potential biomarkers for MEE, and it can reflect the clinical severity and short-term outcome of CHF.
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Iron-catalyzed synthesis of thioesters from thiols and aldehydes in water.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The preparation of thioesters through the iron-catalyzed coupling reaction of thiols with aldehydes is described. The reactions were carried out by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidant and water as a solvent in most cases. This system is compatible with a variety of functional groups.
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Association of miRNA-related Genetic Polymorphisms and Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a deadly disease with a poor prognosis. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in microRNA (miRNA) functions are potential biomarkers for prognosis of various human cancers. We investigated the association of the miRNA-related SNPs with the prognosis of ESCC.
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Application of TaqMan fluorescent probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for the environmental survey of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water reservoirs in Taiwan.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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In this study, TaqMan fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR was performed to quantify Legionella species in reservoirs. Water samples were collected from 19 main reservoirs in Taiwan, and 12 (63.2%) were found to contain Legionella spp. The identified species included uncultured Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii. The concentrations of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in the water samples were in the range of 1.8×10(2)-2.6×10(3) and 1.6×10(2)-2.4×10(2) cells/L, respectively. The presence and absence of Legionella spp. in the reservoir differed significantly in pH values. These results highlight the importance that L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii are potential pathogens in the reservoirs. The presence of L. pneumophila in reservoirs may be a potential public health concern that must be further examined.
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Dual channel sensitive detection of hsa-miR-21 based on rolling circle amplification and quantum dots tagging.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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An isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of hsa-miR-21 with the integration of QDs tagging and rolling circle amplification was offered. In addition, a dual channel strategy for miRNA detection was proposed: anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and fluorescent method were both performed for the final Cd2+ signal readout. The designed strategy exhibited good specificity to hsa-miR-21 and presented comparable detection results by detection methods.
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Real time observation of the formation of hollow nanostructures through solid state reactions.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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We demonstrate the formation of hollow nickel germanide nanostructures of Ni-Ge core-shell nanoparticles by solid state reactions. The structural evolutions of nickel germanide hollow nanostructures have been investigated in real-time ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM). Annealed above 450 °C, the nonequilibrium interdiffusion of core and shell species occurred at the interface; thus, Ni germanide hollow nanostructures were formed by solid state reactions involving the Kirkendall effect. In addition, the different hollow nanostructures formed from different core diameters of Ni-Ge core-shell nanoparticles have been studied. Also, we propose the mechanism with effects of the size and annealing duration on the solid state reactions based on the Kirkendall effect.
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An investigation of indomethacin-nicotinamide cocrystal formation induced by thermal stress in the solid or liquid state.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The impact of thermal stress on indomethacin (IMC)-nicotinamide (NIC) cocrystal formation with or without neat cogrinding was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, and simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy in the solid or liquid state. Different evaporation methods for preparing IMC-NIC cocrystals were also compared. The results indicated that even after cogrinding for 40 min, the FTIR spectra for all IMC-NIC ground mixtures were superimposable on the FTIR spectra of IMC and NIC components, suggesting there was no cocrystal formation between IMC and NIC after cogrinding. However, these IMC-NIC ground mixtures appear to easily undergo cocrystal formation after the application of DSC determination. Under thermal stress induced by DSC, the amount of cocrystal formation increased with increasing cogrinding time. Moreover, simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy was a useful one-step technique to induce and clarify the thermal-induced stepwise mechanism of IMC-NIC cocrystal formation from the ground mixture in real time. Different solvent evaporation rates induced by thermal stress significantly influenced IMC-NIC cocrystal formation in the liquid state. In particular, microwave heating may promote IMC-NIC cocrystal formation in a short time.
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Highly conductive and low cost Ni-PET flexible substrate for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The highly conductive and flexible nickel-polyethylene terephthalate (Ni-PET) substrate was prepared by a facile way including electrodeposition and hot-press transferring. The effectiveness was demonstrated in the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The Ni film electrodeposition mechanism, microstructure, and DSSC performance for the Ni-PET flexible substrate were investigated. The uniform and continuous Ni film was first fabricated by electroplating metallic Ni on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and then intactly transferred onto PET via hot-pressing using Surlyn as the joint adhesive. The obtained flexible Ni-PET substrate shows low sheet resistance of 0.18?/? and good chemical stability for the I(-)/I(3-) electrolyte. A high light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 7.89% was demonstrated in DSSCs system based on this flexible electrode substrate due to its high conductivity, which presents an improvement of 10.4% as compared with the general ITO-PEN flexible substrate. This method paves a facile and cost-effective way to manufacture various metals on a plastic nonconducive substrate beneficial for the devices toward flexible and rollable.
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Characterization of pituitary tumor transforming gene in meningiomas.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene and has been detected in several tumors of unrelated histological origin. However, its role in meningiomas is unknown so far. We aim to investigate PTTG expression in intracranial meningiomas, and clarify the relationship between PTTG and the histopathological types of tumors.
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The role of betel-quid chewing in smoking cessation among workers in Taiwan.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Current smokers exhibit a higher rate of betel-quid chewing than non-smokers. However, little is known regarding the extent to which betel-quid chewing may affect attempts to quit smoking and smoking cessation. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between betel-quid chewing and patterns of quitting smoking. Specifically, we explore whether betel-quid chewing is associated with (1) current smokers who have never attempted to quit versus those who have attempted to quit and have failed, those who are in the process of quitting, and successful cessation smokers, and (2) current smokers who have attempted to quit and have failed versus those who have successfully quit smoking.
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Immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Many immunohistochemical markers have been studied for differentiating papillary lesions. However, their differentiating power has not been evaluated comprehensively. Additionally, assessment of some markers will require the difficult task of identifying different cell types. In the current study, we aimed to devise a simple papillary panel which can aid in diagnosis irrespective of architectural pattern and cell type differentiation.
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Behaviors of Biomass and Kinetic Parameter for Nitrifying Species in A(2)O Process at Different Sludge Retention Time.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on biomass, kinetic parameters, and stoichiometric parameters of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)O) process were explored in this study. The results showed that the growth rate constants were 1.52, 1.22, and 0.85 day(-1), respectively, for AOB, those were 1.59, 1.19, and 0.87 day(-1), respectively, for NOB when SRT was 20, 10, and 5 days. The lysis rate constants of AOB and NOB were 0.14 and 0.09 day(-1), respectively. The yield coefficients were 0.23 and 0.22, respectively, for AOB and NOB. They did not change with SRT obviously. The biomass of AOB was 50.94, 26.35, and 14.68 mg L(-1), respectively, and the biomass of NOB was 116.77, 60.00, and 44.25 mg L(-1), respectively, at SRT of 20, 10, and 5 days. When SRT diminished from 20 to 5 days, the biomass of AOB and NOB diminished by 36.26 and 75.52 mg L(-1), respectively. The removal efficiency of NH4 (+)-N diminished by 68.9 %. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen diminished by 42.9 %.
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Evaluation of five antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment systems of swine farms by real-time PCR.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Antibiotics are widely used in livestock for infection treatment and growth promotion. Wastes from animal husbandry are a potential environmental source of antibiotic-insensitive pathogens, and the removal efficiency of the resistance genotypes in current wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is unknown. In this study, quantitative PCR was used for evaluating antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes. Six wastewater treatment plants in different swine farms were included in this study, and five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were tested for each treatment procedure. All of the tested ARGs including tetA, tetW, sulI, sulII, and blaTEM genes were detected in six swine farms with considerable amounts. The results showed that antibiotic resistance is prevalent in livestock farming. The ARG levels were varied by wastewater treatment procedure, frequently with the highest level at anaerobic treatment tank and lowest in the activated sludge unit and the effluents. After normalizing the ARG levels to 16S rRNA gene copies, the results showed that ARGs in WWTP units fluctuated partly with the quantity of bacteria. Regardless of its importance in biodegradation, the anaerobic procedure may facilitate bacterial growth thus increasing the sustainability of the antibiotic resistance genotypes. After comparing the copy numbers in influx and efflux samples, the mean removal efficiency of ARGs ranged between 33.30 and 97.56%. The results suggested that treatments in the WWTP could partially reduce the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and additional procedures such as sedimentation may not critically affect the removal efficiency.
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High electrocatalytic and wettable nitrogen-doped microwave-exfoliated graphene nanosheets as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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In this paper, high electrocatalytic and wettable nitrogen-doped microwave-exfoliated graphene (N-MEG) nanosheets are used as Pt-free counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A low cost solution-based process is developed by using cyanamide (NH2 CN) at room temperature and normal pressure. The pyrrolic and pyridinic N atoms are doped into the carbon conjugated lattice to enhance electrocatalytic activity. N-MEG film having N-doping active sites and large porosity provides a wettable surface to facilitate electrolyte diffusion so that improves fill factor. Moreover, the control of the air exposure time after completing N-MEG film is found to be crucial to obtain a reliable N-MEG CE. A high DSSC efficiency up to 7.18% can be achieved based on N-MEG CE, which is nearly comparable to conventional Pt CE.
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Volatile organic compound identification and characterization by PCA and mapping at a high-technology science park.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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High-technology industries have grown continuously in Taiwan and elsewhere in the world. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise the highest percentage of emissions in these industries. The objectives of this study were to identify VOC sources and to apportion their contributions by using a three-step approach. These included estimating concentration distributions, performing principal component analysis (PCA), and mapping concentration contours. The results showed that the dominant compound groups were aromatic and aliphatic compounds. The PCA resolved four emission sources: vehicular traffic, industrial solvents, waste water plants, and cleaning/degreasing agents. Spatial distributions showed that concentrations of vehicular traffic-related compounds (benzene and isooctane) were highest at the entrances to the science park, and strongly related to traffic volume, and that the emissions of industry-related compounds (xylene and ethylbenzene) were closest to the associated sources. This study provided an accurate, practical and efficient method of characterizing emission sources in an industrial complex.
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Serum proteomic analysis of extracorporeal shock wave therapy-enhanced diabetic wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a significant positive effect on accelerating diabetic wound healing. However, the systemic effect after therapy is still unclear.
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Fertility-preserving treatment in young women with endometrial adenocarcinoma: a long-term cohort study.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Growing evidence suggests that fertility-preserving treatment is feasible for young women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial carcinoma. However, published data on their long-term outcomes and prognostic factors remain scanty. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of young women receiving fertility-preserving treatment.
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MicroRNA-29a promotion of nephrin acetylation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced podocyte dysfunction.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Podocyte dysfunction is a detrimental feature in diabetic nephropathy, with loss of nephrin integrity contributing to diabetic podocytopathy. MicroRNAs (miRs) reportedly modulate the hyperglycemia-induced perturbation of renal tissue homeostasis. This study investigated whether regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) actions and nephrin acetylation by miR-29 contributes to podocyte homeostasis and renal function in diabetic kidneys. Hyperglycemia accelerated podocyte injury and reduced nephrin, acetylated nephrin, and miR-29a levels in primary renal glomeruli from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic miR-29a transgenic mice had better nephrin levels, podocyte viability, and renal function and less glomerular fibrosis and inflammation reaction compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Overexpression of miR-29a attenuated the promotion of HDAC4 signaling, nephrin ubiquitination, and urinary nephrin excretion associated with diabetes and restored nephrin acetylation. Knockdown of miR-29a by antisense oligonucleotides promoted HDAC4 action, nephrin loss, podocyte apoptosis, and proteinuria in nondiabetic mice. In vitro, interruption of HDAC4 signaling alleviated the high glucose-induced apoptosis and inhibition of nephrin acetylation in podocyte cultures. Furthermore, HDAC4 interference increased the acetylation status of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9Ac), the enrichment of H3K9Ac in miR-29a proximal promoter, and miR-29a transcription in high glucose-stressed podocytes. In conclusion, hyperglycemia impairs miR-29a signaling to intensify HDAC4 actions that contribute to podocyte protein deacetylation and degradation as well as renal dysfunction. HDAC4, via epigenetic H3K9 hypoacetylation, reduces miR-29a transcription. The renoprotective effects of miR-29a in diabetes-induced loss of podocyte integrity and renal homeostasis highlights the importance of post-translational acetylation reactions in podocyte microenvironments. Increasing miR-29a action may protect against diabetic podocytopathy.
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Multichannel photon-pair generation using hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We demonstrate highly efficient photon-pair generation using an 8 mm long hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide in far-detuned multiple wavelength channels simultaneously, measuring a coincidence-to-accidental ratio as high as 400. We also characterize the contamination from Raman scattering and show it to be insignificant over a spectrum span of at least 5 THz. Our results highlight a-Si:H as a potential high-performance, CMOS-compatible platform for large-scale quantum applications, particularly those based on the use of multiplexed quantum signals.
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Application of molecular biological techniques to analyze Salmonella seasonal distribution in stream water.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Salmonella is a leading cause of waterborne diseases. Salmonella can survive for a long time in aquatic environments, and its persistence in the environment is of great concern to public health. Nonetheless, the presence and diversity of Salmonella in the aquatic environments in most areas remain relatively unknown. In this study, we examined three analytical processes for an optimum Salmonella detection method, and the optimized method was used to evaluate seasonal variations of Salmonella in aquatic environments. In addition, Salmonella strains were isolated by selective culture medium to identify the serotypes by biochemical testing and serological assay, and to identify the genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis based on the genetic patterns. A total of 136 water samples were collected in the study area in 9 months. Forty-one (30.1%) samples were found to contain Salmonella-specific invA gene, and most (24/41) of the detections occurred in summer. The serovars of Salmonella enterica were identified, including Bareilly, Isangi, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, Potsdam and Typhimurium.
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Experience with Novalis stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The Novalis linear accelerator system, a well developed modality, can be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The aim of this study was to clarify the efficiency and safety of Novalis SRS in treating vestibular schwannomas.
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Volume of chronic subdural haematoma: Is it one of the radiographic factors related to recurrence?
Injury
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Recurrence of chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is a significant issue in neurosurgical practice, and to distinguish individuals at high risk is important. In this study, we aim to clarify the relationship between quantitative haematoma volume and recurrence of CSDH.
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High expression of zinc-binding protein-89 predicts decreased survival in esophageal squamous cell cancer.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Zinc-binding protein-89 (ZBP-89), a Krüppel-type four-zinc finger transcription factor, is associated with many cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been reported to be involved in several human cancers. However, ZBP-89 expression pattern and its clinical significance have not yet been investigated in esophageal squamous cell cancer.
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Cannabinoid receptor 1 disturbance of PPAR?2 augments hyperglycemia induction of mesangial inflammation and fibrosis in renal glomeruli.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Intensive fibrosis in the glomerular microenvironment is a prominent feature of diabetic nephropathy. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) reportedly mediates diabetes-induced renal injury. However, studies on the molecular events underlying CB1R promotion of renal dysfunction are limited. This study is undertaken to investigate whether CB1R signaling via Ras or PPAR? pathway regulates mesangial fibrosis in diabetic kidneys. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, hyperglycemia induced glomerular hypertrophy and fibrosis in association with increased IL-1?, fibronectin, and CB1R expressions and reduced PPAR?2 signaling. CB1R transgenic mice gained kidney weight, and renal glomeruli strongly displayed IL-1? and fibrotic matrices. Disruption of CB1R by antisense oligonucleotides or inverse agonist AM251 restored PPAR?2 signaling and reduced the promotional effects of hyperglycemia on the expression of fibrogenic transcription factor c-Jun, inflammation regulator SOCS3, proinflammatory cytokines, and accumulation of fibrotic matrix. PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone reduced the hyperglycemia-mediated enhancement of CB1R signaling, inflammation, and glomerular fibrosis in diabetic animals. In vitro, CB1R antagonism restored PPAR?2 action and reduced the promotional effects of high glucose on Ras, ERK, c-Jun, SOCS3 signaling, IL-1?, and fibronectin expression in renal mesangial cells. Activation of PPAR?2 reduced the high glucose-induced CB1R expression in mesangial cells. Taken together, CB1R signaling contributes to the hyperglycemia disturbance of PPAR?2 signaling and increases inflammatory cytokine secretion and fibrotic matrix deposition in renal glomeruli. CB1R mediates the hyperglycemia-induced inflammation and fibrosis in mesangial cells by regulating Ras, ERK, and PPAR?2 signaling. CB1R blockade has a therapeutic potential to reduce the deleterious actions of hyperglycemia on renal glomerular integrity.
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Direct electroplated metallization on indium tin oxide plastic substrate.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Looking foward to the future where the device becomes flexible and rollable, indium tin oxide (ITO) fabricated on the plastic substrate becomes indispensable. Metallization on the ITO plastic substrate is an essential and required process. Electroplating is a cost-effective and high-throughput metallization process; however, the poor surface coverage and interfacial adhesion between electroplated metal and ITO plastic substrate limits its applications. This paper develops a new method to directly electroplate metals having strong adhesion and uniform deposition on an ITO plastic substrate by using a combination of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and a sweeping potential technique. An impedance capacitive analysis supports the proposed bridging link model for MPS SAMs at the interface between the ITO and the electrolyte.
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Multidisciplinary predialysis education reduced the inpatient and total medical costs of the first 6 months of dialysis in incident hemodialysis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The multidisciplinary pre-dialysis education (MPE) retards renal progression, reduce incidence of dialysis and mortality of CKD patients. However, the financial benefit of this intervention on patients starting hemodialysis has not yet been evaluated in prospective and randomized trial.
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Comparison of Surface Markers between Human and Rabbit Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study investigated whether there are marked differences in surface markers between rabbit and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Murine and rabbit MSCs have been reported to be CD90-negative. Rat MSCs have been reported to be CD71-negative. Our previous study also shows that rabbit MSCs are CD29-negative. However, human MSCs are generally considered to be CD29-, CD71-, and CD90-positive. Therefore, the surface markers of human MSCs might differ from those of other species. Rabbit bone marrow MSCs were obtained that had a multi-differentiation potential. The phenotype of these cells was studied using flow cytometry antibodies for 25 rabbit surface markers, namely, CD13, CD14, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD49d, CD49f, CD51, CD54, CD59, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD133, CD166, MHC I, MHC II, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), cytokeratin, desmin, and vimentin. The phenotype of commercially available human MSCs was similarly studied using antibodies for human surface markers. CD14, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD49d, CD49f, CD51, CD54, CD71, CD106, CD133, MHC II, and cytokeratin were absent from both rabbit and human MSCs, while CD44, ?-SMA, and vimentin were present on both cell lines. CD13, CD29, CD59, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, and MHC I were present on human MSCs, but not on rabbit MSCs. However, desmin was present on rabbit MSCs, but not on human MSCs. In total, the surface expression of nine markers differed between human and rabbit MSCs, whereas the surface expression of 16 markers was the same in the two cell lines.
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Carbon monoxide induces heme oxygenase-1 to modulate STAT3 activation in endothelial cells via S-glutathionylation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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IL-6/STAT3 pathway is involved in a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. In our present study, we found that CO releasing molecules (CORMs) suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transactivity in endothelial cells (ECs). CO is a byproduct of heme degradation mediated by heme oxygenase (HO-1). However, CORMs can induce HO-1 expression and then inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation. CO has been found to increase a low level ROS and which may induce protein glutathionylation. We hypothesized that CORMs increases protein glutathionylation and inhibits STAT3 activation. We found that CORMs increase the intracellular GSSG level and induce the glutathionylation of multiple proteins including STAT3. GSSG can inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and increase STAT3 glutathionylation whereas the antioxidant enzyme catalase can suppress the glutathionylation. Furthermore, catalase blocks the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by CORMs treatment. The inhibition of glutathione synthesis by BSO was also found to attenuate STAT3 glutathionylation and its inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. We further found that HO-1 increases STAT3 glutathionylation and that HO-1 siRNA attenuates CORM-induced STAT3 glutathionylation. Hence, the inhibition of STAT3 activation is likely to occur via a CO-mediated increase in the GSSG level, which augments protein glutathionylation, and CO-induced HO-1 expression, which may enhance and maintain its effects in IL-6-treated ECs.
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Brain meningioma with initial manifestation similar to cervical radiculopathy: a case report.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Meningiomas are the most common benign brain tumors, and are characterized by slow growth and a long asymptomatic period. Once the tumor becomes symptomatic, the various presentations may be related to the location and compression of adjacent structures. Meningioma is primarily treated through surgical intervention, and thus earlier diagnosis is likely to result in better prognosis. The symptoms of the meningioma may mimic other diseases, making precise diagnosis difficult, which will then delay treatment. We report a case of brain meningioma that showed initial signs and symptoms similar to cervical radiculopathy. The symptoms extended gradually, and the ultimate diagnosis of meningioma was confirmed based on brain-image studies. After brain-tumor excision, postoperation radiotherapy, and aggressive rehabilitation, the patient was able to perform better in daily activities.
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Reduced expression of uroplakin 1A is associated with the poor prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of Uroplakin1A (UPK1A) in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Functional studies were also analyzed in vitro.
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Decreased expression of the GATA3 gene is associated with poor prognosis in primary gastric adenocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) was recently proposed to function as a tumor suppressor gene in some types of human cancer. This study aims to investigate GATA3 expression and its prognostic significance in primary gastric adenocarcinoma.
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Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Cultured Freshwater Animals in China.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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The development of resistance to antimicrobials used in aquatic animals is an increasing concern for aquaculture and public health. To monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in Aeromonas, a total of 106 isolates were collected from cultured freshwater animals in China from 1995 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the disk diffusion method. The highest resistance percentage occurred with ampicillin, rifampin, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid. Most strains were sensitive to fluoroquinolones, doxycycline, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and amikacin. The isolates from turtle samples had the highest levels of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials when compared with those from fish or shrimp. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence results showed that all trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant strains contained sul1, and 37.0% were positive for tetA in tetracycline-resistant strains. ant(3?)-Ia was identified in 13 (24.5%) streptomycin-resistant strains. Plasmid-borne quinolone resistance genes were detected in five Aeromonas hydrophila (4.7%), two of which carried qnrS2, while the other three strains harbored aac(6)-Ib-cr. Two cefotaxime-resistant A. hydrophila were positive for blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-3. To our knowledge, this is the first report characterizing antimicrobial resistance in Aeromonas isolated from cultured freshwater animals in China, and providing resistance information of pathogen in Chinese aquaculture.
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Did the fire ant supergene evolve selfishly or socially?
Bioessays
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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The genetic basis for animal social organization is poorly understood. Fire ants provide one of the rare cases where variation in social organization has been demonstrated to be under genetic control, which amazingly, segregates as a single Mendelian locus. A recent genetic, genomic, and cytological analysis revealed that this locus actually consists of over 600 genes locked together in a supergene that possesses many characteristics of sex chromosomes. The fire ant social supergene also behaves selfishly, and an interesting evolutionary question is whether the genes incorporated first into the social supergene were those for social adaptation, selfish genetic drive, or something else. In depth, functional molecular genetic analysis in fire ants and comparative genomics in other closely related socially polymorphic species will be required to resolve this question. Editors suggested further reading in BioEssays Social supergenes of superorganisms: Do supergenes play important roles in social evolution? Abstract.
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Metformin induces cytotoxicity by down-regulating thymidine phosphorylase and excision repair cross-complementation 1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Metformin is an antidiabetic drug recently shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and growth, although the involved molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. In many cancer cells, high expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and Excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) is associated with poor prognosis. We used A549 and H1975 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to investigate the role of TP and ERCC1 expression in metformin-induced cytotoxicity. Metformin treatment decreased cellular TP and ERCC1 protein and mRNA levels by down-regulating phosphorylated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The enforced expression of the constitutively active MEK1 (MEK1-CA) vectors significantly restored cellular TP and ERCC1 protein levels and cell viability. Specific inhibition of TP and ERCC1 expression by siRNA enhanced the metformin-induced cytotoxicity and growth inhibition. Arachidin-1, an antioxidant stilbenoid, further decreased TP and ERCC1 expression and augmented metformins cytotoxic effect, which was abrogated in lung cancer cells transfected with MEK1/2-CA expression vector. In conclusion, metformin induces cytotoxicity by down-regulating TP and ERCC1 expression in NSCLC cells.
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Increased expression of stomatin-like protein 2 (STOML2) predicts decreased survival in gastric adenocarcinoma: a retrospective study.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Stomatin-like protein 2 (STOML2), a member of the stomatin, has been reported to be upregulated in several human cancers. However, its role and clinical significance in gastric adenocarcinoma remains unclear to date. The purpose of this retrospective study was to explore whether there was a correlation between the expression of STOML2 by immunohistochemistry and the clinical outcome of a large group of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. In this retrospective study, we performed immunohistochemistry to evaluation of STOML2 expression in a large panel of gastric adenocarcinoma samples. The receiver operating characteristic method was used to define the STOML2 immunoreactivity score cutoff value. The clinical/prognostic significance of STOML2 expression was analyzed statistically. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the postoperative survival between groups. STOML2 was overexpressed in gastric cancer compared with paracancerous normal mucosa. Increased STOML2 expression was associated with higher histologic grade (P = 0.047), T category (P < 0.001), and N category (P = 0.01). Patients with high expression of STOML2 demonstrated shortened overall survival compared with those with low expression of STOML2 (median of 38.9 vs. 64.0 months, P < 0.001). Furthermore, STOML2 expression could stratify patients survival in stage N0 (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the level of STOML2 expression was an independent prognostic factor in gastric adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.920, P = 0.001). Increased expression of STOML2 suggests unfavorable prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Further studies are warranted.
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Quantum frequency conversion in nonlinear microcavities.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We study nonlinear microresonantors as potential implements for quantum frequency conversion of narrowband optical signals. Using silicon-nitride microdisks as a concrete example, we show that high-conversion performance can be achieved with relatively low pump power. Being chip integratable, such devices hold promise for use in large-scale quantum applications, including atomic-memory-based quantum repeaters.
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Dynamic evolution of conducting nanofilament in resistive switching memories.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) has been considered the most promising next-generation nonvolatile memory. In recent years, the switching behavior has been widely reported, and understanding the switching mechanism can improve the stability and scalability of devices. We designed an innovative sample structure for in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe the formation of conductive filaments in the Pt/ZnO/Pt structure in real time. The corresponding current-voltage measurements help us to understand the switching mechanism of ZnO film. In addition, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) have been used to identify the atomic structure and components of the filament/disrupted region, determining that the conducting paths are caused by the conglomeration of zinc atoms. The behavior of resistive switching is due to the migration of oxygen ions, leading to transformation between Zn-dominated ZnO(1-x) and ZnO.
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Mechanism and control of the structural evolution of a polymer solar cell from a bulk heterojunction to a thermally unstable hierarchical structure.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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We simultaneously employed grazing incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS) techniques to quantitatively study the structural evolution and kinetic behavior of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) crystallization, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) aggregation and amorphous P3HT/PCBM domains from a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) to a thermally unstable structure. The independent phase separation regimes on the nanoscale (?10 nm), mesoscale (?100 nm) and macroscale (??m) are revealed for the first time. Bis-PCBM molecules as inhibitors incorporated into the P3HT/PCBM blend films were adopted as a case study of a control strategy for improving the thermal stability of P3HT/PCBM solar cell. The detailed information on the formation, growth, transformation and mutual interaction between different phases during the hierarchical structural evolution of P3HT/PCBM:xbis-PCBM (x = 8-100%) blend films are presented herein. This systematic study proposes the mechanisms of thermal instability for a polymer/fullerene-based solar cell. We demonstrate a new fundamental concept that the structural evolution and thermal stability of mesoscale amorphous P3HT/PCBM domains during heating are the origin of controlling thermal instability rather than those of nanoscale thermally-stable BHJ structures. It leads to a low-cost and easy-fabrication control strategy for effectively tailoring the hierarchical morphology against thermal instability from molecular to macro scales. The optimum treatment achieving high thermal stability, control of mesoscale domains, can be effectively designed. It is independent of the original BHJ nanostructure design of a polymer/fullerene-based solar cell with high performance. It advances the general knowledge on the thermal instability directly arising from the nanoscale structure.
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Characterization of maltocin P28, a novel phage tail-like bacteriocin from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important global opportunistic pathogen for which limited therapeutics are available because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. A novel bacteriocin, maltocin P28, which is produced by S. maltophilia strain P28, may be the first identified phage tail-like bacteriocin from S. maltophilia. Maltocin P28 resembles a contractile but nonflexible phage tail structure based on electron microscopy, and it is sensitive to trypsin, proteinase K, and heat. SDS-PAGE analysis of maltocin P28 revealed two major protein bands of approximately 43 and 20 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid residues of these two major subunits were sequenced, and the maltocin P28 gene cluster was located on the S. maltophilia P28 chromosome. Our sequence analysis results indicate that this maltocin gene cluster consists of 23 open reading frames (ORFs), and that its gene organization is similar to that of the P2 phage genome and R2 pyocin gene cluster. ORF17 and ORF18 encode the two major structural proteins, which correspond to gpFI (tail sheath) and gpFII (tail tube) of P2 phage, respectively. We found that maltocin P28 had bactericidal activity against 38 of 81 tested S. maltophilia strains. Therefore, maltocin P28 is a promising therapeutic substitute for antibiotics for S. maltophilia infections.
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Health-related quality of life in fathers of children with or without developmental disability: the mediating effect of parental stress.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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The aims of this study were to compare parental stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between Taiwanese fathers of children with and without developmental disabilities (DDs) and to examine the mediating effect of parental stress on the association between having a child with DD and paternal HRQOL within Chinese culture.
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Dose-normalization for exposure to mycophenolic acid and the early clinical outcome in patients taking tacrolimus after heart transplantation.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The early phase of MPA exposure has rarely been investigated after solid organ transplantation, especially in heart transplantation patients. We evaluated the association between exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA), a main metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and clinical events within 3 months after heart transplantation.
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Readmission, mortality, and first-year medical costs after stroke.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and mortality in Taiwan, resulting in a tremendous burden on the healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to characterize disease burden by evaluating readmissions, mortality, and medical cost during the first year after acute stroke under the National Health Insurance (NHI) program.
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with RANBP2 and ALK gene rearrangement: a report of two cases and literature review.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are categorized as intermediate biologic neoplasms, whereas IMTs with genetic features of ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement (IMT-RAs) are possibly related to a more aggressive clinical course. However, fewer than 10 cases of IMT-RA have been reported to date. Herein, we present 2 new cases of IMT-RA in which both tumors recurred quickly after primary surgery; one patient died 3 months later from the disease, and the other patient has been living with the disease for 12 months. IMT-RAs are characterized by noncohesive epithelioid and rounded tumoral cell morphology, commonly derived from pelvic and peritoneal cavities, and frequently show larger tumor sizes. The relation between the clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis of IMT-RA is discussed.
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Pulsed ultrasound promotes melanoblast migration through upregulation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor/focal adhesion kinase autocrine signaling and paracrine mechanisms.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Repigmentation of vitiliginous lesions relies on the proliferation and migration of melanoblasts from hair follicles to the epidermis. Pulsed ultrasound has been demonstrated to have stimulatory effects on cell proliferation and migration and has been applied clinically to enhance tissue repair. To clarify the biologic effects and signaling mechanisms of pulsed ultrasound on melanoblast proliferation and migration, two melanoblast cell lines, the undifferentiated NCCmelb4 cells and the differentiated NCCmelan5 cells, were examined. We demonstrated that pulsed ultrasound increased cell migration in a dose-dependent manner without altering cell proliferation. Pulsed ultrasound enhanced autocrine secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), which subsequently activated the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway to promote melanoblast migration. Furthermore, conditioned medium from mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH 3T3 and primary human keratinocytes treated with pulsed ultrasound could stimulate melanoblast migration through a paracrine effect. Our results provide a novel mechanism to promote migration of melanoblasts by pulsed ultrasound stimulation.
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Characterization and spinal fusion effect of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of rabbits have been reported only sporadically. However, interest in the spinal fusion effect of MSCs has risen recently. The purpose of this research was to study the surface markers and spinal fusion effect of rabbit MSCs.
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Increased SOX2 expression in less differentiated breast carcinomas and their lymph node metastases.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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SOX2 is a key regulatory gene in embryonic stem cells. Although it has been implicated in cancer progression, its role in breast carcinoma is poorly understood.
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Inhibition of p38 MAPK-dependent MutS homologue-2 (MSH2) expression by metformin enhances gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human squamous lung cancer cells.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Gefitinib, a quinazoline-derived tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has anti-tumor activity in vivo and in vitro. Human MutS homologue-2 (MSH2) plays a central role in promoting genetic stability by correcting DNA replication errors. The present study investigated the effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal on gefitinib-induced MSH2 expression in two human non-small cell lung squamous cancer cell lines.
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Management and outcome of primary spinal ependymomas: a single center experience from Taiwan.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Surgical treatment of spinal ependymomas requires careful consideration of the relative risks of neurological worsening from surgery. Our aim was to determine the risk factors of neurological deterioration after surgery for spinal ependymomas.
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Single-crystalline ?-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of ?-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the ?-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/?m), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation.
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Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.