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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Protein-silver nanoparticle interactions to colloidal stability in acidic environments.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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We report a kinetic study of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) under acidic environments (i.e., pH 2.3 to pH ?7) and systematically investigate the impact of protein interactions [i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA) as representative] to the colloidal stability of AgNPs. Electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) was used to characterize the particle size distributions and the number concentrations of AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy was employed orthogonally to provide visualization of AgNPs. For unconjugated AgNPs, the extent of aggregation, or the average particle size, was shown to be increased significantly with an increase of acidity, where a partial coalescence was found between the primary particles of unconjugated AgNP clusters. Aggregation rate constant, kD, was also shown to be proportional to acidity, following a correlation of log(kD) = -1.627(pH)-9.3715. Using ES-DMA, we observe BSA had a strong binding affinity (equilibrium binding constant, ? 1.1 × 10(6) L/mol) to the surface of AgNPs, with an estimated maximum molecular surface density of ?0.012 nm(-2). BSA-functionalized AgNPs exhibited highly-improved colloidal stability compared to the unconjugated AgNPs under acidic environments, where both the acid-induced interfacial dissolution and the particle aggregation became negligible. Results confirm a complex mechanism of colloidal stability of AgNPs: the aggregation process was shown to be dominant, and the formation of BSA corona on AgNPs suppressed both particle aggregation and interfacial dissolution of AgNP samples under acidic environments.
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Air-Stable Molecular Semiconducting Iodosalts for Solar Cell Applications: Cs2SnI6 as a Hole Conductor.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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We introduce a new class of molecular iodosalt compounds for application in next-generation solar cells. Unlike tin-based perovskite compounds CsSnI3 and CH3NH3SnI3, which have Sn in the 2+ oxidation state and must be handled in an inert atmosphere when fabricating solar cells, the Sn in the molecular iodosalt compounds is in the 4+ oxidation state, making them stable in air and moisture. As an example, we demonstrate that, using Cs2SnI6 as a hole transporter, we can successfully fabricate in air a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a mesoporous TiO2 film. Doping Cs2SnI6 with additives helps to reduce the internal device resistance, improving cell efficiency. In this way, a Z907 DSSC delivers 4.7% of energy conversion efficiency. By using a more efficient mixture of porphyrin dyes, an efficiency near 8% with photon confinement has been achieved. This represents a significant step toward the realization of low-cost, stable, lead-free, and environmentally benign next-generation solid-state solar cells.
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Vertical InGaN-based green-band solar cells operating under high solar concentration up to 300 suns.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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InGaN/GaN-based solar cells with vertical-conduction feature on silicon substrates were fabricated by wafer bonding technique. The vertical solar cells with a metal reflector sandwiched between the GaN-based epitaxial layers and the Si substrate could increase the effective thickness of the absorption layer. Given that the thermally resistive sapphire substrates were replaced by the Si substrate with high thermal conductivity, the solar cells did not show degradation in power conversion efficiency (PCE) even when the solar concentrations were increased to 300 suns. The open circuit voltage increased from 1.90 V to 2.15 V and the fill factor increased from 0.55 to 0.58 when the concentrations were increased from 1 sun to 300 suns. With the 300-sun illumination, the PCE was enhanced by approximately 33% compared with the 1-sun illumination.
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Theoretical analysis of the intermolecular interactions in naphthalene diimide and pyrene complexes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Supramolecular assembly of donor-acceptor complexes as the key component in organic functional nanomaterials is a promising approach for future electronic devices. One representative example of the donor-acceptor complexes is the naphthalene diimide-pyrene (NDI-Py) system, which shows fascinating photoelectric properties. Herein, the analysis of the ?-? interactions between NDI and Py has been investigated using the DFT/M06-2X and reduced density gradient methods. According to the calculations, the attractive forces for the stabilization of the NDI-Py dimer are dependent on the rotation angles, which provide physical insight into the experimental data reported by Wilson and co-workers (Langmuir, 2011, 27, 6554). Our results not only provide computational evidence for the origin of the rotation in the crystal structure of the NDI-Py but also address the role of the charge-transfer attractions in the complexes.
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Electroactive organic dye incorporating dipeptides in the formation of self-assembled nanofibrous hydrogels.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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In this study, we examined the self-assembly of four dipeptides conjugated with the electroactive dye naphthalenediimide (NDI). The presence of the NDI group at the N-terminus of Phe-Phe and Phe-Gly promoted the formation of one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures and three-dimensional (3-D) colored hydrogels under both acidic and physiological conditions. The 1-D nanostructures of these gels were stabilized through intermolecular ?-? interactions of the conjugated systems and extended hydrogen bonding of the dipeptide units.
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Crystal amphetamine smoking-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia and diffuse alveolar damage: a case report and literature review.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease characterized by prominent infiltration of lung structures by eosinophils. The lung interstitium is infiltrated by eosinophils, and essentially the alveolar spaces are filled with eosinophils and a fibrinous exudate, with conservation of the global architecture of the lung. Diagnosis of EP relies on pathological demonstration of alveolar eosinophilia along with characteristic clinical manifestations of nonproductive cough, dyspnea, chest pain and/or unique imaging features. EP may be categorized according to the origin: EP of undetermined origin may overlap with well-individualized syndromes, while EP with a definite cause are mainly due to infections or drug abuse. Here, we report a case of an amphetamine abuser who developed acute EP and acute respiratory distress syndrome after amphetamine inhalation. Related studies on the pathogenesis of stimulant-related lung injury and treatment strategies are also discussed.
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Clinical predictors associated with full remission versus episode of major depressive disorder outpatients: the experience at a teaching hospital in Taiwan.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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When depressed patients are in remission, the clinical characteristics indicate that they are able to participate in social activities more regularly, and their impairment in daily functioning is improved. The present study examines the clinical characteristics associated with one- and two month clinical response in outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in Taiwan.
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Prescription of psychotropic drugs in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Abstract Objective: Patients on hemodialysis commonly have comorbid depression and require treatment with psychotropic drugs. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the use of psychotropic drugs among patients on hemodialysis and to elucidate the factors associated with use of each class of psychotropic medication.
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[A new vision of nursing: the evolution and development of nursing informatics].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Technology development trends in the 21st century are increasingly focused on the development of interdisciplinary applications. Advanced information technology may be applied to integrate nursing care information, simplify nursing processes, and reduce the time spent on work tasks, thereby increasing the amount of time that clinical personnel are available to care for patients and ensuring that patients are provided with high-quality and personalized care services. The development of nursing information began in Taiwan in 2003 and has since expanded and thrived. The ability of nursing information to connect formerly insular national nursing communities promotes the international visibility of Taiwan. The rapid development of nursing information in Taiwan, resulting in the production of informative and outstanding results, has received worldwide attention. The Taiwan Nursing Informatics Association was established in 2006 to nurture nursing information professionals, develop and apply information technology in the health care domain, and facilitate international nursing information exchanges. The association actively promotes nursing information in the areas of administration, education, research, and clinical practice, thereby integrating nursing with empirical applications to enhance the service quality and management of nursing and increase the benefits of nursing teaching and research. To convert information into knowledge, the association develops individualized strategies for managing mobile care and employs an interagency network to exchange and reintegrate resources, establishing active, intelligent nursing based on network characteristics and an empirical foundation. The mid- and long-term objectives of the association involve introducing cloud computing and facilitating the meaningful use of nursing information in both public and government settings, thereby creating a milestone of developing and expanding nursing information unique to Taiwan.
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Altered resting-state FMRI signals in acute stroke patients with ischemic penumbra.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Identifying the ischemic penumbra in acute stroke subjects is important for the clinical decision making process. The aim of this study was to use resting-state functional magnetic resonance singal (fMRI) to investigate the change in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of these subjects in three different subsections of acute stroke regions: the infarct core tissue, the penumbra tissue, and the normal brain tissue. Another aim of this study was to test the feasilbility of consistently detecting the penumbra region of the brain through ALFF analysis.
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Selection history modulates the effects of dual mechanisms on flanker interference.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The limit of processing capacity and the effectiveness of top-down control are 2 mechanisms that underlie distractor interference in a flanker task. The current study investigates how the interblock selection history shaped by the target number and the predictability of distractor location may modulate the effects of these 2 mechanisms on flanker interference. Experiment 1 showed that the distractor compatibility effect was eliminated when the task array contained 4 or 5 identical targets, which reflected the capacity limit. The target number and distractor location's predictability (Experiment 2) or location predictability and target-distractor proximity (Experiment 3) were manipulated across blocks, while compatibility varied within blocks, with control efficacy underlying the effects of distractor location (predictability and proximity). The interblock selection history was induced by task order, beginning with 2 or 4 targets in Experiment 2 and with a distractor at a fixed or an unpredictable location in Experiment 3. Effects of interblock selection history were found when the intertrial context did not promote an incentive for altering the processing mode. When the incentive for enacting top-down control is high, intertrial contextual factors influence flanker interference. Contextual factors related to the target number and distractor location modulate flanker interference at multiple levels.
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Observation of the rose petal effect over single- and dual-scale roughness surfaces.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Rose petals exhibit superhydrophobicity with strong adhesion to pin water drops, known as the 'petal effect.' It is generally believed that the petal effect is attributed to dual-scale roughness, that is, the surface possesses both a nanostructure and a microstructure (Feng et al 2008 Langmuir 24 4114). In this study, we demonstrate that the dual-scale roughness is not a necessary condition for a surface of the petal effect. A surface of single-scale roughness, either at the nanoscale or the microscale alone, within a certain roughness region may also exhibit the petal effect. The surface roughness plays the essential role on the wetting behavior and governs the contact angle in the Wenzel or Cassie state, as well as the contact angle hysteresis. A water drop on the surface of the petal effect under the condition of the advancing and receding contact angle would fall into, respectively, the Cassie and Wenzel state, which leads to a contact angle hysteresis large enough to pin the water drop. On both single and dual textured hydrophobic surfaces, a sequence of wetting transitions: Wenzel state ? petal state (sticky superhydrophobic state) ? lotus state (slippery superhydrophobic state) is consistently observed by simply increasing the surface roughness.
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Diffusive and quantum effects of water properties in different states of matter.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of water are important physical quantities for understanding many interesting phenomena in biological systems. However, conventional approaches require different treatments to incorporate quantum and diffusive effects of water in different states of matter. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model as a unified approach to obtain the properties of water over the whole phase region of water from short (?20?ps) classical molecular dynamics trajectories. The 2PT model provides an effective way to separate the diffusive modes (gas-like component) from the harmonic vibrational modes (solid-like component) in the vibrational density of states (DoS). Therefore, both diffusive and quantum effect can be properly accounted for water by applying suitable statistical mechanical weighting functions to the DoS components. We applied the 2PT model to systematically examine the enthalpy, entropy, and their temperature dependence of five commonly used rigid water models. The 2PT results are found to be consistent with those obtained from more sophisticated calculations. While the thermodynamic properties determined from different water models are largely similar, the phase boundary determined from the equality of free energy is very sensitive to the small inaccuracy in the values of enthalpy and absolute entropy. The enthalpy, entropy, and diffusivity of water are strongly interrelated, which challenge further improvement of rigid water model via parameter fitting. Our results show that the 2PT is an efficient method for studying the properties of water under various chemical and biological environments.
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The Arabidopsis malectin-like leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase IOS1 associates with the pattern recognition receptors FLS2 and EFR and is critical for priming of pattern-triggered immunity.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Plasma membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors such as FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate the first layer of plant immunity termed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). A reverse genetics approach with genes responsive to the priming agent ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) revealed IMPAIRED OOMYCETE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (IOS1) as a critical PTI player. Arabidopsis thaliana ios1 mutants were hypersusceptible to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. Accordingly, ios1 mutants demonstrated defective PTI responses, notably delayed upregulation of PTI marker genes, lower callose deposition, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activities upon bacterial infection or MAMP treatment. Moreover, Arabidopsis lines overexpressing IOS1 were more resistant to P. syringae and demonstrated a primed PTI response. In vitro pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, coimmunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analyses supported the existence of complexes between the membrane-localized IOS1 and FLS2 and EFR. IOS1 also associated with BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) in a ligand-independent manner and positively regulated FLS2/BAK1 complex formation upon MAMP treatment. Finally, ios1 mutants were defective in BABA-induced resistance and priming. This work reveals IOS1 as a regulatory protein of FLS2- and EFR-mediated signaling that primes PTI activation upon bacterial elicitation.
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A New Series of Fluorescent Indicators for Super Acids.
Photochem. Photobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The photophysical properties of fluorescent Hammett acidity indicator derived from 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrobis(pyrido[3,2-g]indolo)[2,3-a:3',2'-j]acridine (1a), 6-bis(pyrido[3,2-g]indol-2'-yl)pyridine (1b) and their analogues have been investigated in sulfuric acid solutions by means of absorption, fluorimetry, relaxation dynamics and computational approach. These new indicators undergo a reversible protonation process in the Hammett acidity range of H0  < 0, accompanied by a drastic increase of the bright blue-green (1a) or yellow (1b) fluorescence intensity upon increasing the acidity. For 1a in H2 SO4 , the emission yield increases as large as 200 folds from pH = -0.41 to the Hammett acidity range of -5.17, the results of which are rationalized by a much increase of the steric hindrance upon third protonation toward the central pyridinic site, together with their accompanied changes of electronic configuration from charge transfer to a delocalized ??* character in the lowest lying excited state. The combination of 1a and 1b renders a wide and linear range of H0 measurement from -1.2 to -5.1 detected by highly intensive fluorescence.
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Cardiac hypertrophy-related pathways in obesity.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Obesity is often associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy but the hypertrophyrelated pathways in obesity remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac hypertrophy-related markers, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and hypertrophy-related pathways, interleukin (IL)-6-STAT3, IL-6-MEK5-ERK5 and calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT)3 in the excised hearts from obese rats. Twelve obese Zucker rats were studied at 5-6 months of age and twelve age-matched lean Zucker rats served as the control group. The cardiac characteristics, myocardial architecture, ANP, BNP, TNF? levels, IL-6, STAT3, p-STAT3, MEK5, ERK-5, p-ERK-5, calcineurin and NFAT3 in the left ventricle from the rats were measured by heart weight index, echocardiography, vertical cross section, histological analysis, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Compared with the lean control, the whole heart weight, the left ventricule weight, the ratio of the whole heart weight to tibia length, echocardiographic interventricular septum, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, myocardial morphological changes and systolic blood pressure were found to increase in the obese rats. The protein levels of ANP, BNP, TNF?, IL-6, STAT3, p-STAT3, MEK-5, ERK-5, p-ERK 5, calcineurin and NFAT3 were also significantly increased in the hearts of the obese rats. The results showed that the hypertrophy-related markers, ANP, BNP and TNF?, the hypertrophy-related pathways IL-6-STAT3 and IL-6-MEK5-ERK5, and the calcineurin-NFAT3 hypertrophy-related pathways were more active in obese Zucker rats, which may provide possible hypertrophic mechanisms for developing cardiac hypertrophy and pathological changes in obesity.
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Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.
Anxiety Stress Coping
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students.
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Diverse presentations in pediatric Meckel's diverticulum: a review of 100 cases.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Our objective was to analyze demographics and characteristics of Meckel's diverticulum with different manifestations in pediatric patients.
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Attentional load and the consciousness of one's own name.
Conscious Cogn
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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We investigated how the location of one's own name in a visual display influences its conscious awareness using recall and recognition tests in an inattentional blindness paradigm. The participant's own name or another person's name appeared unexpectedly in the center or the periphery of the display during a critical trial under low- or high-attentional search load. The results showed that the majority of participants detected their names under low load regardless of location and test method. Under high load, the majority of the participants could recognize or recall their names presented in the center of the display. When the person's name was in the periphery, most of the participants did not recall their names, and approximately half recognized their names. In contrast, conscious awareness of another person's name was low in all conditions. A person's own name is processed with high priority, even under a high-attentional load.
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Protective effect of salidroside on cardiac apoptosis in mice with chronic intermittent hypoxia.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The goal of this study is to determine if salidroside has protective effects on hypoxia-induced cardiac widely dispersed apoptosis in mice with severe sleep apnea model.
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A magnetic and conductive study on a stable defective extended cobalt atom chain.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Two pentacobalt(II) EMACs were synthesized. A pyrazine-modulated tripyridyldiamine resulted in an EMAC with fully delocalized Co-Co bonds along molecules. From a pyrazine- and naphthyridine-containing ligand, a defective cobalt linear EMAC with an 8-coordinated cobalt(II) in the center was obtained for the first time. An electrochemistry study on the defective pentacobalt chain compound showed redox peaks at E1/2 = -1.00, +0.76, and +0.98 V (versus EAg/AgCl), indicating that it is quite stable and very resistant to both oxidation and reduction. Research on magnetism revealed that the fully delocalized Co EMAC is a spin mixture, and the defective cobalt EMAC showed a high-spin mononuclear cobalt(II) behaviour with a magnetic moment of 2.63 ?B per molecule at room temperature. Measurement on molecular electric conductance by STM bj showed a single-molecular resistance of 15.4 (± 3.1) M? for defective and 12.3 (± 2.6) M? for delocalized pentacobalt complexes.
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SHSST cyclodextrin complex prevents the fibrosis effect on CCl?-induced cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in rats through TGF-? pathway inhibition effects.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Patients with liver cirrhosis also have subtle cardiac structure or function abnormalities. This cardiac dysfunction commonly occurs in 56% of waiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients and is defined as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). Up to now, there is no standard treatment because CCM does not have a solidly established diagnosis and is based on high clinical suspicion. The liver function of CCM is particularly limited, making patients vulnerable to more drug treatments. Here, we use silymarin (100 mg/kg/day), baicalein (30 mg/kg/day), San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST, 30 mg/kg/day) and ?-cyclodextrin modified SHSST (SHSSTc, 30 and 300 mg/kg/day) treatments for a CCl4-induced CCM rat model. The results show that silymarin, baicalein and SHSST treatments can only slightly reduce the collagen accumulation in CCM rat hearts. However, SHSSTc treatment protects the heart in CCM and significantly inhibits collagen acumination and the fibrosis regulating transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathway expression. SHSSTc treatments further reduced the heart weight and the ratio between left ventricular weight (LVW) and tibia length (TL). This experimental data show that water solubility improved ?-cyclodextrin modified Chinese herbal medicine formula (SHSSTc) can provide an excellent heart protection effect through TGF-? pathway inhibition.
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N?-carboxymethyllysine-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes endothelial cell injury through Nox4/MKP-3 interaction.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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N(?)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is an important driver of diabetic vascular complications and endothelial cell dysfunction. However, how CML dictates specific cellular responses and the roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases and ERK phosphorylation remain unclear. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization of MAPK phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is critical in regulating ERK inactivation and promoting NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) activation in CML-induced endothelial cell injury. We demonstrated that serum CML levels were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes patients and diabetic animals. CML induced ER stress and apoptosis, reduced ERK activation, and increased MKP-3 protein activity in HUVECs and SVECs. MKP-3 siRNA transfection, but not that of MKP-1 or MKP-2, abolished the effects of CML on HUVECs. Nox4-mediated activation of MKP-3 regulated the switch to ERK dephosphorylation. CML also increased the integration of MKP-3 with ERK, which was blocked by silencing MKP-3. Exposure of antioxidants abolished CML-increased MKP-3 activity and protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of both MKP-3 and CML was increased, but phospho-ERK staining was decreased in the aortic endothelium of streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. Our results indicate that an MKP-3 pathway might regulate ERK dephosphorylation through Nox4 during CML-triggered endothelial cell dysfunction/injury, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting the Nox4/MKP-3 interaction or MKP-3 activation may have clinical implications for diabetic vascular complications.
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Reasons for middle-aged women in Taiwan to choose hysterectomy: a qualitative study using the bounded rationality perspective.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To explore women's perspectives on deciding to undergo hysterectomy for benign conditions based on physicians' recommendations and the women's own judgement.
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Using polyethylene glycol as nonionic osmoticum to promote growth and lipid production of marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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To promote the economic feasibility of Nannochloropsis oculata, efficacy of using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to increase microalgal growth and lipid accumulation was investigated. We first examined the effects of PEG concentrations on microalgal growth using 0-5 % (w/v) PEG-6000, and followed by exploring the effects of PEG molecular weights (400, 600, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, and 20,000) on microalgal growth, size, as well as on yields of biomass, total lipids, and eicosapentaenoic acid. In addition, the capacity of PEG to reduce the effect of oxygen inhibition on microalgal growth was also investigated to evaluate its adaptability for use in large-scale and closed setting. Our results showed that PEG-induced osmotic stress (?) in the range of 2.465-2.472 MPa can raise microalgal growth. The PEG with higher molecular weight exhibited greater efficacy of growth promotion but less lipid content under equal concentration. In this study, 0.5 % (w/v) PEG-20000 (? = 2.466 MPa) remarkably enhanced microalgal growth without interference of intracellular lipid productivity and cellular size, yielding >50 % (w/w) increases in biomass, total lipid, and eicosapentaenoic acid amounts after 7 days that provided the optimal condition for microalgal cultivation. These positive effects possibly resulted from the moderate enhancement of osmotic stress in the medium and stronger chaotrope-like behavior from higher molecular weight PEG. With further verification that 0.5 % (w/v) PEG-20000 enabled to reduce the effect of oxygen inhibition on microalgal growth, the PEG-20000-mediated cultivation offers a feasible means for mass culture of N. oculata in closed setting.
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The Arabidopsis LecRK-VI.2 associates with the pattern-recognition receptor FLS2 and primes Nicotiana benthamiana pattern-triggered immunity.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is broad spectrum and manipulation of PTI is believed to represent an attractive way to engineer plants with broad-spectrum disease resistance. PTI is activated upon perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). We have recently demonstrated that the L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2) positively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Here we show through in vitro pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses that LecRK-VI.2 associates with the PRR FLS2. We also demonstrated that LecRK-VI.2 from the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis remains functional after interfamily transfer to the Solanaceous plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Wild tobacco plants ectopically expressing LecRK-VI.2 were indeed more resistant to virulent hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic bacteria, but not to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea suggesting that, as with Arabidopsis, the LecRK-VI.2 protective effect in N. benthamiana is bacteria specific. Ectopic expression of LecRK-VI.2 in N. benthamiana primed PTI-mediated reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, callose deposition and gene expression upon treatment with the MAMP flagellin. Our findings identified LecRK-VI.2 as a member of the FLS2 receptor complex and suggest that heterologous expression of components of PRR complexes can be used as tools to engineer plant disease resistance to bacteria.
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Detection of potential drug-drug interactions for outpatients across hospitals.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The National Health Insurance Administration (NHIA) has adopted smart cards (or NHI-IC cards) as health cards to carry patients' medication histories across hospitals in Taiwan. The aims of this study are to enhance a computerized physician order entry system to support drug-drug interaction (DDI) checking based on a patient's medication history stored in his/her NHI-IC card. For performance evaluation, we developed a transaction tracking log to keep track of every operation on NHI-IC cards. Based on analysis of the transaction tracking log from 1 August to 31 October 2007, physicians read patients' NHI-IC cards in 71.01% (8,246) of patient visits; 33.02% (2,723) of the card reads showed at least one medicine currently being taken by the patient, 82.94% of which were prescribed during the last visit. Among 10,036 issued prescriptions, seven prescriptions (0.09%) contained at least one drug item that might interact with the currently-taken medicines stored in NHI-IC cards and triggered pop-up alerts. This study showed that the capacity of an NHI-IC card is adequate to support DDI checking across hospitals. Thus, the enhanced computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system can support better DDI checking when physicians are making prescriptions and provide safer medication care, particularly for patients who receive medication care from different hospitals.
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Angiotension receptor blockers reduce the risk of dementia.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Recent studies implied that angiotension receptor blockers (ARBs) not only have an antihypertensive effect but also have beneficial effects on dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ARBs on dementia and the subtypes.
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Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Anhedonic Depressive-like Behavior in Male Rats.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior. Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression, defined as a loss of the capacity to experience pleasure. The present study used the sucrose preference test to investigate the influence of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on LPS-induced anhedonia in male rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: (I) vehicle?+?saline, (II) vehicle?+?LPS, (III) EGb 761?+?saline, and (IV) EGb 761?+?LPS. Saline or LPS (100?µg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 2?h before the sucrose preference test. Sucrose consumption was recorded 2, 4, 6, 13, and 24?h after 100?µg/kg of LPS or saline injection in the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. Dopamine and serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens were measured. Our results indicated that the vehicle?+?LPS group exhibited a significant decrease in sucrose intake compared with the vehicle?+?saline group. The EGb 761?+?LPS group showed more sucrose and food consumption than the vehicle?+?LPS group. Additionally, compared with the EGb 761?+?LPS group, the vehicle?+?LPS group had less dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Treatment with EGb 761 had no effect on water intake. Our results suggest that EGb 761 may be useful for reducing anhedonic depressive-like behavior. © 2014 TheAuthors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES).
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES) and to perform a cross-cultural validity assessment.
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Molecular engineering of push-pull porphyrin dyes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells: the role of benzene spacers.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Porphyrins have drawn much attention as sensitizers owing to the large absorption coefficients of their Soret and Q?bands in the visible region. In a donor and acceptor zinc porphyrin we applied a new strategy of introducing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) as a ?-conjugated linker between the anchoring group and the porphyrin chromophore to broaden the absorption spectra to fill the valley between the Soret and Q?bands. With this novel approach, we observed 12.75% power-conversion efficiency under simulated one-sun illumination (AM1.5G, 100?mW?cm(-2)). In this study, we showed the importance of introducing the phenyl group as a spacer between the BTD and the zinc porphyrin in achieving high power-conversion efficiencies. Time-resolved fluorescence, transient-photocurrent-decay, and transient-photovoltage-decay measurements were employed to determine the electron-injection dynamics and the lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers.
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Disruption of brain connectivity in acute stroke patients with early impairment in consciousness.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Impairment in consciousness is common in acute stroke patients and is correlated with the clinical outcome after stroke. The underlying mechanism is not completely understood, with little known about brain activity and connectivity changes in acute stroke patients having impaired consciousness. In this study, we investigated changes in regional brain activity and brain networks of consciousness impaired stroke patients, as well as the amplitude of spontaneous low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of each time series. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) of each voxel was measured, and resting state network analysis was consequently conducted. Results from this study demonstrate that, compared to normal subjects, the intensities of ALFF and ReHo, as well as the strength of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity, were significantly decreased in the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex regions among stroke patients with impaired consciousness. Furthermore, the strength of the DMN was highly correlated with differences in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores between the onset time and the scanning time. Results from this study suggest that the resting state fMRI is a feasible tool for the evaluation of acute stroke patients with an early impairment of consciousness. The detailed mechanisms, implications of these brain activities and networks exhibiting changes will require further investigation.
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Changes in endotracheal tube cuff pressure during laparoscopic surgery in head-up or head-down position.
BMC Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The abdominal insufflation and surgical positioning in the laparoscopic surgery have been reported to result in an increase of airway pressure. However, associated effects on changes of endotracheal tube cuff pressure are not well established.
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Pedunculated intraventricular subependymoma: Review of the literature and illustration of classical presentation through a clinical case.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Subependymomas are rare benign, noninvasive tumors, classified by the World Health Organization as low grade neoplasms. International data estimate their frequency between 0.2% and 0.7% of the intracranial tumors, and they usually are an incidental finding in autopsies. Preferably located in the fourth ventricle, these tumors tend to become symptomatic when they cause hydrocephalous by obstructing cerebrospinal fluid circulation.
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Domain-specific control of selective attention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous research has shown that loading information on working memory affects selective attention. However, whether the load effect on selective attention is domain-general or domain-specific remains unresolved. The domain-general effect refers to the findings that load in one content (e.g. phonological) domain in working memory influences processing in another content (e.g., visuospatial) domain. Attentional control supervises selection regardless of information domain. The domain-specific effect refers to the constraint of influence only when maintenance and processing operate in the same domain. Selective attention operates in a specific content domain. This study is designed to resolve this controversy. Across three experiments, we manipulated the type of representation maintained in working memory and the type of representation upon which the participants must exert control to resolve conflict and select a target into the focus of attention. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants maintained digits and nonverbalized objects, respectively, in working memory while selecting a target in a letter array. In Experiment 2, we presented auditory digits with a letter flanker task to exclude the involvement of resource competition within the same input modality. In Experiments 3a and 3b, we replaced the letter flanker task with an object flanker task while manipulating the memory load on object and digit representation, respectively. The results consistently showed that memory load modulated distractibility only when the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in the same domain. The magnitude of distractor interference was larger under high load than under low load, reflecting a lower efficacy of information prioritization. When the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in different domains, memory load did not modulate distractibility. Control of processing priority in selective attention demands domain-specific resources.
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Dual-wavelength GaN-based LEDs grown on truncated hexagonal pyramids formed by selective-area regrowth on Si-implanted GaN templates.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with micro truncated hexagonal pyramid (THP) array were grown on selective-area Si-implanted GaN (SIG) templates. The GaN epitaxial layer regrown on the SIG templates exhibited selective growth and subsequent lateral growth to form the THP array. The observed selective-area growth was attributed to the different crystal structures between the Si-implanted and implantation-free regions. Consequently, LEDs grown on the GaN THP array emitted broad electroluminescence spectra with multiple peaks. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence revealed that the broad spectra originated from different areas within each THP. Transmission electron microscopy showed the GaN-based epitaxial layers, including InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells regrown at different growth rates (or with different In content in the InGaN wells) between the semi-polar and c-face planes of each THP.
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Strategic control modulates working memory-driven attentional capture.
Exp Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The current study used a naming task to investigate whether strategic control could modulate the process of attentional capture that is driven by working memory. The use of a naming task to engage working memory eliminates potential strategic perceptual resampling, which may have played a role in several previous studies. After naming a prime, participants performed a selection task in which they judged the direction of a moving target in each trial. Prime validity, which is the probability that the primes are identical to the selection targets, was manipulated across four experiments. The results showed that reaction times to the motion judgment were faster in the valid condition than in the invalid condition when the prime validity was 50% (Experiment 1A). These results occurred even in the presence of a highly informative spatial cue that predicted the targets location (Experiment 4). A larger capturing effect was observed when the validity was 70% (Experiments 2 and 3). When the prime validity was lower than the chance level (0% in Experiment 1B; 15% in Experiments 2 and 3), a validity effect was not observed. Thus, the results suggest that there is a strong tendency for working memory to capture attention by default when there is no reason to avoid the influence of primes. When there is a reason to avoid the influence, strategic control modulates the attentional capture that is driven by working memory.
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High-directional light source using photon recycling with a retro-reflective Dome incorporated with a textured LED die surface.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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This paper demonstrates a novel retro-reflective dome that enhances the directionality of a light emitting diode (LED) by recycling photons reflected by a textured LED die surface. A simulation model is developed to describe both the photon recycling process within the dome and the role of specific pyramid patterns on the top surface of the LED die. Advanced simulations showed that a perfectly polished surface with 100% reflectivity potentially enhances the directionality of the dome by 340%, 250%, and 240% using reflective domes with 10°, 20°, and 30° light cones, respectively. In the experiment, the directionality of the domes exhibiting surface imperfections is enhanced by approximately 160%, 150%, and 130% using 10°, 20°, and 30° light cones, respectively. By incorporating a textured top surface on the LED die, the proposed dome effectively increases the directionality of the LED light source.
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Thrombomodulin domain 1 ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in mice via anti-NF-?B/NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation, enhancement of NRF2 antioxidant activity and inhibition of apoptosis.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Chronic inflammatory processes have been increasingly shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we demonstrated that a lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin (THBD), which is known as THBD domain 1 (THBDD1) and which acts independently of protein C activation, neutralised an inflammatory response in a mouse model of sepsis. Here, therapeutic effects of gene therapy with adeno-associated virus (AAV)-carried THBDD1 (AAV-THBDD1) were tested in a mouse model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
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Activation of estrogen receptors with E2 downregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality and occurs more often in men than in women; however, little is known about its underlying molecular mechanisms. The present study investigated the effect of estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) expression in Hep3B cells. We examined PPAR?, ER? and ER? mRNA and protein expression by RT-PCR and western blotting. In order to determine whether PPAR? plays a central role in HCC, we screened for PPAR? expression in liver cancer patient tissues and differentially differentiated HCC cell lines (HA22T, Huh-7, Hep3B and HepG2). We found that PPAR? expression was highly expressed in liver cancer tissues and in Hep3B cells. Furthermore, overexpression of ER? and ER? was found to decrease PPAR? expression at the transcriptional as well as at the translational level in a ligand-dependent manner. In summary, the present study demonstrated that both ER? and ? were sufficient to inhibit PPAR? and provide a valuable therapeutic option for the treatment of HCC patients.
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Facile synthesis of heterotrimetallic metal-string complex [NiCoRh(dpa)4Cl2] through direct metal replacement.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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This communication provides a practical strategy for the synthesis of heterotrimetallic extended metal atom chains with supported dpa(-) ligands. The transformation of the CoCoRh to a NiCoRh trinuclear complex can be achieved by direct metallic replacement. Furthermore, the first (CoRh)(4+) metal-metal bond is described here.
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Timing of epidural analgesia intervention for labor pain in nulliparous women in Taiwan: a retrospective study.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Labor pain is probably the most painful event in a womans life. By the present consensus, epidural analgesia is the most effective and least depressive treatment for labor pain. Recent systematic reviews concluded that the risk of cesarean delivery or instrumental vaginal delivery for women receiving early epidural analgesia has not increased. However, studies designed for discussing this topic in Taiwan are few. In this study, the association of the intervention timing with labor outcomes in nulliparous women in Taiwan is discussed.
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Probiotic-fermented purple sweet potato yogurt activates compensatory IGF?IR/PI3K/Akt survival pathways and attenuates cardiac apoptosis in the hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Apoptosis is recognized as a predictor of adverse outcomes in subjects with cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of probiotic-fermented purple sweet potato yogurt (PSPY) with high ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content on cardiac apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) hearts. The rats were orally adminsitered with 2 different concentrations of PSPY (10 and 100%) or captopril, 15.6 mg/kg, body weight (BW)/day. The control group was administered distilled water. DAPI and TUNEL staining were used to detect the numbers of apoptotic cells. A decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive cardiac myocytes was observed in the SHR-PSPY (10 and 100%) groups. In addition, the levels of key components of the Fas receptor- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways were determined by western blot analysis. The results revealed that the levels of the key components of the Fas receptor- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway were significantly decreased in the SHR-captopril, and 10 and 100% PSPY groups. Additionally, the levels of phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor?I receptor (p-IGF?IR) were increased in SHR hearts from the SHR-control group; however, no recovery in the levels of downstream signaling components was observed. In addition, the levels of components of the compensatory IGF-IR-dependent survival pathway (p-PI3K and p-Akt) were all highly enhanced in the left ventricles in the hearts form the SHR-10 and 100% PSPY groups. Therefore, the oral administration of PSPY may attenuate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in SHR hearts by activating IGF?IR-dependent survival signaling pathways.
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Monoclonality and cytogenetic abnormalities in hyaline vascular Castleman disease.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Hyaline vascular Castleman disease is traditionally regarded as a reactive hyperplastic process. Occasional cases, however, have been reported with cytogenetic anomalies bringing this concept into question. In this study, we used conventional and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction methods to assess the human androgen receptor ? (HUMARA) gene in 29 female patients with hyaline vascular Castleman disease and compared the results with three cases of plasma cell Castleman disease and 20 cases of age-matched lymphoid hyperplasia. We also assessed for immunoglobulin gene and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements, and conventional cytogenetic analysis was performed in three cases of hyaline vascular Castleman disease. In cases with informative results, conventional and methylation-specific human androgen receptor ? gene analyses yielded a monoclonal pattern in 10 of 19 (53%) and 17 of 23 (74%) cases of hyaline vascular Castleman disease, respectively. A monoclonal pattern was also detected in three cases of plasma cell Castleman disease but not in cases of lymphoid hyperplasia. The frequency of monoclonality was higher for lesions >5?cm in size (100%) and for the stromal-rich variant (91%). Cytogenetic abnormalities in stromal cells were revealed in two cases of hyaline vascular Castleman disease and no cases showed monoclonal immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. Follow-up data showed persistent disease in 4 of 23 (17%) patients. We conclude that hyaline vascular Castleman disease is often a monoclonal proliferation, most likely of lymph node stromal cells.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 8 November 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.202.
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Complex and region-specific changes in astroglial markers in the aging brain.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Morphological aging of astrocytes was investigated in entorhinal cortex (EC), dentate gyrus (DG), and cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) regions of hippocampus of male SV129/C57BL6 mice of different age groups (3, 9, 18, and 24 months). Astroglial profiles were visualized by immunohistochemistry by using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), and s100? staining; these profiles were imaged using confocal or light microscopy for subsequent morphometric analysis. GFAP-positive profiles in the DG and the CA1 of the hippocampus showed progressive age-dependent hypertrophy, as indicated by an increase in surface, volume, and somata volume at 24 months of age compared with 3-month-old mice. In contrast with the hippocampal regions, aging induced a decrease in GFAP-positive astroglial profiles in the EC: the surface, volume, and cell body volume of astroglial cells at 24 months of age were decreased significantly compared with the 3-month group. The GS-positive astrocytes displayed smaller cellular surface areas at 24 months compared with 3-month-old animals in both areas of hippocampus, whereas GS-positive profiles remained unchanged in the EC of old mice. The morphometry of s100?-immunoreactive profiles revealed substantial increase in the EC, more moderate increase in the DG, and no changes in the CA1 area. Based on the morphological analysis of 3 astroglial markers, we conclude that astrocytes undergo a complex age-dependent remodeling in a brain region-specific manner.
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Evaluation of tracheal intubation: A retrospective study of skill acquisition by medical students in the operating theater.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Tracheal intubation is a critical life-saving invasive procedure. Medical students generally obtain the skill of performing tracheal intubation in the operating theater during their anesthesiology rotation. In this study, we sought to characterize medical students skill acquisition of tracheal intubation.
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Suppression of TLR-4-Related Inflammatory Pathway and Anti-Fibrosis Effects of Probiotic-Fermented Purple Sweet Potato Yogurt in Hearts of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Inflammation plays an important role in triggering fibrosis of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) has hypotensive effect; GABA concentration could be enhanced in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This study evaluated the effect of probiotic-fermented purple sweet potato yogurt (PSPY) on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-related inflammatory components, and on fibrosis in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). TLR4- related pathway and fibrosis-associated proteins TGF? and FGF2 were significantly increased in SHR hearts, but were highly suppressed in 10% PSPY-fed rats. Microscopic examination with Masson trichrome staining of left ventricle further demonstrated that 10% and 100% PSPY both significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis in SHR hearts. These findings indicated that oral administration of 10% probiotic-fermented PSPY was strong enough to lower cardiac fibrosis in SHR rats through the suppression of TLR-4-related inflammatory pathway. Therefore, PSPY may be included in diets to help prevent cardiac fibrosis in patients with hypertension.
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Glutamine synthetase in astrocytes from entorhinal cortex of the triple transgenic animal model of Alzheimers disease is not affected by pathological progression.
Biogerontology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Astrocytes are fundamental for brain physiology and pathology, including Alzheimers disease (AD). Among their functions, the maintenance of glutamate balance via the glutamate-glutamine (Glu-Gln) shuttle is critical for both normal cognitive functions and excitotoxicity relevant for AD progression. Astroglial glutamine synthetase (GS), converting glutamate to glutamine, is a key element in the Glu-Gln cycle. The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the brain area earliest affected in human AD. We have recently reported an early astrocytic atrophy in the EC in triple transgenic animal model of AD (3×Tg-AD). Here, we studied and analysed whether the changes in astrocytic morphology coincides with alterations of the Glu-Gln cycle by determining astrocytic GS. We found that the numerical density of GS-immunoreactive (GS-IR) cells as well as GS content (measured by optical density, OD) remained constant between 1 and 12 months of age, independent of the presence of senile plaques. Dual labelling images revealed GS-IR, GFAP-IR, GS/GFAP-IR subsets of astroglia. Despite the evident decrease in GFAP-IR surface and volume, the surface and volume of GS-IR and GS/GFAP-IR cells remained unchanged. Therefore, reduced GFAP presence obvious in the progression of AD from early stages does not impair upon glutamate homeostasis in the EC of 3×Tg-AD mice. Our data also indicate distinct functional populations of astrocytes, which may undergo specific remodelling during AD progression.
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Porphyrin sensitizers with ?-extended pull units for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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New ?-extended porphyrin dyes YD26-YD29 with long alkoxyl chains at the ortho positions of the meso-phenyls, and meta di-tert-butylphenyl-substituted porphyrins YD12-CN, and YD13-CN were synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells, and their optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties were investigated and compared with those of YD12 and YD13. The absorption spectra of YD26-YD29 showed a slight red shift of Soret bands and blue shift of Q bands as compared to the meta-substituted porphyrins due to the electron-donating effects of dioctyloxy substituents at the ortho-positions of the meso-phenyl rings. Replacement of the carboxyl with a cyanoacrylic acid as the anchoring group results in significant broadening and red shifts of the absorptions, which is due to the strong electronic coupling between the pull unit and the porphyrin ring facilitated by the C?C triple bond. The electrochemical studies and quantum-chemical calculations (DFT) indicated that the ortho alkoxy-substituted sensitizers exhibit lower oxidation potential, i.e. a higher HOMO energy level, and their HOMO-LUMO gaps are comparable to the meta-substituted analogues. The photovoltaic measurements confirmed that the ortho-octyloxy groups in the two meso-phenyls of YD26 and YD27 play a significant role in preventing dye aggregation thereby enhancing the corresponding short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. The power conversion efficiency (?) of YD26 is 8.04%, which is 11% higher than that of YD12, whereas the efficiency of YD27 is 6.03%, which is 135% higher than that of YD13. On the other hand, the poor performance of YD28 and YD29 is due to the floppy structural nature and limited molecular rigidity of the cyanoacrylic acid anchor.
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Evaluating an online pharmaceutical education system for pharmacy interns in critical care settings.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Incorporating electronic learning (eLearning) system into professional experimental programs such as pharmacy internships is a challenge. However, none of the current systems can fully support the unique needs of clinical pharmacy internship. In this study we enhanced a commercial eLearning system for clinical pharmacy internship (The Clinical Pharmacy Internship eLearning System, CPIES). The KAP questionnaire was used to evaluate the performance of group A with the traditional teaching model and group B with the CPIES teaching model. The CPIES teaching model showed significant improvement in interns knowledge and practice (p=0.002 and 0.031, respectively). The traditional teaching model only demonstrated significant improvement in practice (p=0.011). Moreover, professionalism, such as attitudes on cooperating with other health professionals, is developed by learning from a good mentor. The on-line teaching and traditional teaching methods should undoubtedly be blended in a complete teaching model in order to improve learners professional knowledge, facilitate correct attitude, and influence good practice.
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Neonatal dexamethasone treatment exacerbates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) is commonly used to prevent chronic lung disease in prematurely born infants. Treatment regimens usually consist of high doses of DEX for several weeks, notably during a critical period of brain development. Therefore, there is some concern about adverse effects of this clinical practice on fetal brain development. In this study, using a clinically relevant rat model, we examined the impact of neonatal DEX treatment on subsequent brain injury due to an episode of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI).
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Factors associated with quality of life after attempted suicide: a cross-sectional study.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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To describe factors associated with the subjective quality of life of individuals who had attempted suicide.
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The influence of electron injection and charge recombination kinetics on the performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells: effects of the 4-tert-butylpyridine additive.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The effects of the 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) additive in the electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of two push-pull porphyrin sensitizers (YD12 and YD12CN) were examined. Addition of TBP significantly increased the open-circuit voltage (VOC) for YD12 (from 550 to 729 mV) but it was to a lesser extent for YD12CN (from 544 to 636 mV); adding TBP also had the effect of reducing the short-circuit current density (JSC) slightly for YD12 (from 17.65 to 17.19 mA cm(-2)) but it led to a significant reduction for YD12CN (from 16.45 to 9.78 mA cm(-2)). The resulting power conversion efficiencies of the YD12 devices increase from 6.2% to 8.5% whereas those of the YD12CN devices decrease from 5.8% to 4.5%. Based on measurements of temporally resolved photoelectric transients of the devices and femtosecond fluorescence decays of thin-film samples, the poor performance of the YD12CN device in the presence of TBP can be understood as being due to the enhanced charge recombination, decreased electron injection, and a lesser extent of inhibition of the intermolecular energy transfer.
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The triterpenoids of Ganoderma tsugae prevent stress-induced myocardial injury in mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Ganoderma mushrooms (Lingzhi in Chinese) have well-documented health benefits. Ganoderma tsugae (G. tsugae), one of the ganoderma species, has been commercially cultivated as a dietary supplement. Because G. tsugae has high antioxidant activity and because oxidative stress is often associated with cardiac injury, we hypothesized that G. tsugae protects against cardiac injury by alleviating oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis using a work-overload-induced myocardial injury model created by challenging mice with isoproterenol (ISO). Remarkably, oral G. tsugae protected the mice from ISO-induced myocardial injury. Moreover, the triterpenoid fraction of G. tsugae, composed of a mixture of nine structurally related ganoderic acids (GAs), provided cardioprotection by inhibiting the ISO-induced expression of Fas/Fas ligand, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The antioxidant activity of GAs was tested in cultured cardio-myoblast H9c2 cells against the insult of H?O?. GAs dissipated the cellular reactive oxygen species imposed by H?O? and prevented cell death. Our findings uncovered the cardioprotective activity of G. tsugae and identified GAs as the bioactive components against cardiac insults.
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Cultural implications of managing chronic illness: treating elderly Chinese patients with heart failure.
Geriatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Dietary patterns are associated with morbidity and mortality of heart failure. Volume overload was the most common cause for re-hospitalization for heart failure patients. However, recommended preventive strategies of restricting excessive dietary sodium and fluid intake were found to be in vain. This study looks at the preventive dietary instructions from a cultural context, and examined the effects of sodium and fluid restriction on twelve elderly Chinese patients hospitalized with heart failure through a qualitative design. Four themes emerged from the data: medicine-food homology, salt and sodium as synonymous, activity intolerance but still wanting social connections, and barriers to asking questions. Results suggested that living with heart failure is a complex and changeable process for both patients and caregivers. Many patients reported low levels of understanding concerning their symptoms and heart function deterioration. The findings found that good communication requires cultural sensitivity, objective listening to the patients narrative, and helping patients find meaning between their experiences and symptom control.
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MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of small molecular weight compounds (under 10 KDa) as biomarkers of rat hearts undergoing arecoline challenge.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Statistical and clinical reports indicate that betel nut chewing is strongly associated with progression of oral cancer because some ingredients in betel nuts are potential cancer promoters, especially arecoline. Early diagnosis for cancer biomarkers is the best strategy for prevention of cancer progression. Several methods are suggested for investigating cancer biomarkers. Among these methods, gel-based proteomics approach is the most powerful and recommended tool for investigating biomarkers due to its high-throughput. However, this proteomics approach is not suitable for screening biomarkers with molecular weight under 10 KDa because of the characteristics of gel electrophoresis.
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The Effect of Elephantopus scaber L. on Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) is a physiological response for maintaining homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of Elephantopus scaber L.- (ESL-) induced liver regeneration on growth factors (HGF and IGF-1), cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis suppressed. In this study, we fed five Chinese medicinal herbs (1?g/kg/day), Codonopsis pilosula (CP, Dangshen), Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB, Danshen,), Bupleurum kasi (BK, Chaihu), Elephantopus scaber L. (ESL, Teng-Khia-U), and Silymarin (Sm, 25?mg/kg) for 7 days to male Spraue-Dawley rats. Then surgical 2/3?PHx was conducted and liver regeneration mechanisms were estimated on the following 24?hrs and 72?hrs. The activities of growth factors (HGF and IGF-I) and cell cycle proteins were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. Histological analysis and apoptosis were detected by H&E stain and TUNEL. The results showed that extraction of Elephantopus scaber L. (ESL) and Silymarin (Sm, positive control) were increased protein expression levels of HGF and IGF-1 which leads into cell cycle. These results suggest that the ESL plays a crucial role in cell cycle-induced liver regeneration and apoptosis. These results suggested that the ESL plays a crucial role in cell cycle-induced liver regeneration and suppressed hepatocytes apoptosis.
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Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 is a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lymphoma-specific biomarkers contribute to therapeutic strategies and the study of tumorigenesis. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of malignant lymphoma. However, only 50% of patients experience long-term survival after current treatment; therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies is warranted. Comparative proteomic analysis of two DLBCL lines with a B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) showed differential expression of Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1) between them, which was confirmed using immunoblotting. Immunostaining showed that the majority of DLBCLs (92%, 46/50) were RanGAP1(+), while reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 12) was RanGAP1(+) predominantly in germinal centers. RanGAP1 was also highly expressed in other B-cell lymphomas (BCL, n = 180) with brisk mitotic activity (B-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia: 93%, and Burkitt lymphoma: 95%) or cell-cycle dysregulation (mantle cell lymphoma: 83%, and Hodgkins lymphoma 91%). Interestingly, serum RanGAP1 level was higher in patients with high-grade BCL (1.71 ± 2.28 ng/mL, n = 62) than in low-grade BCL (0.75 ± 2.12 ng/mL, n = 52) and healthy controls (0.55 ± 1.58 ng/mL, n = 75) (high-grade BCL vs. low-grade BCL, p = 0.002; high-grade BCL vs. control, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). In vitro, RNA interference of RanGAP1 showed no effect on LCL but enhanced DLBCL cell death (41% vs. 60%; p = 0.035) and cell-cycle arrest (G0/G1: 39% vs. 49%, G2/M: 19.0% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.030) along with decreased expression of TPX2 and Aurora kinases, the central regulators of mitotic cell division. Furthermore, ON 01910.Na (Estybon), a multikinase inhibitor induced cell death, mitotic cell arrest, and hyperphosphorylation of RanGAP1 in DLBCL cell lines but no effects in normal B and T cells. Therefore, RanGAP1 is a promising marker and therapeutic target for aggressive B-cell lymphoma, especially DLBCL.
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Comparison of arterial spin labeling and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in patients with acute stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reliably quantify perfusion deficit as compared to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI.
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Perceived object continuity and spontaneous retrieval of features from an inhibited object.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Previous research has shown that attention to an object can trigger the retrieval of features of a preceding object. The present study investigates whether such retrieval would occur to a recently inhibited object. In three experiments, participants saw two successively presented stimuli (S1 and S2) that varied in color and orientation. The task was to respond to the color or orientation of S2 in accordance with a task cue at the beginning of each trial. In separate experiments, we manipulated the number of the trials on which the task relevant features of S1 and S2 were matched versus mismatched, and the perceived object continuation between the two stimuli. Evidence for spontaneous feature retrieval was found when S1 and S2 could be seen as different instantiations of the same object but not when they were likely to be perceived as different types of objects. These results suggest that the features of a previously inhibited object can be retrieved spontaneously. However, such retrieval and its effect on a subsequent stimulus depend on the perceived object continuity between the two successive stimuli.
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Br2 molecular elimination in photolysis of (COBr)2 at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy: a photodissociation channel being ignored.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
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A primary dissociation channel of Br(2) elimination is detected following a single-photon absorption of (COBr)(2) at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. The technique contains two laser beams propagating in a perpendicular configuration. The tunable laser beam along the axis of the ring-down cell probes the Br(2) fragment in the B(3)?(ou)(+)-X(1)?(g)(+) transition. The measurements of laser energy- and pressure-dependence and addition of a Br scavenger are further carried out to rule out the probability of Br(2) contribution from a secondary reaction. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population for v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.65 ± 0.09):(0.34 ± 0.07), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 893 ± 31 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br(2) elimination reaction is determined to be 0.11 ± 0.06. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the pathway of molecular elimination is proposed on the energetic ground state (COBr)(2) via internal conversion. A four-center dissociation mechanism is followed synchronously or sequentially yielding three fragments of Br(2) + 2CO. The resulting Br(2) is anticipated to be vibrationally hot. The measurement of a positive temperature effect supports the proposed mechanism.
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Early astrocytic atrophy in the entorhinal cortex of a triple transgenic animal model of Alzheimers disease.
ASN Neuro
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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The EC (entorhinal cortex) is fundamental for cognitive and mnesic functions. Thus damage to this area appears as a key element in the progression of AD (Alzheimers disease), resulting in memory deficits arising from neuronal and synaptic alterations as well as glial malfunction. In this paper, we have performed an in-depth analysis of astroglial morphology in the EC by measuring the surface and volume of the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) profiles in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD [3xTg-AD (triple transgenic mice of AD)]. We found significant reduction in both the surface and volume of GFAP-labelled profiles in 3xTg-AD animals from very early ages (1 month) when compared with non-Tg (non-transgenic) controls (48 and 54%, reduction respectively), which was sustained for up to 12 months (33 and 45% reduction respectively). The appearance of A? (amyloid ?-peptide) depositions at 12 months of age did not trigger astroglial hypertrophy; nor did it result in the close association of astrocytes with senile plaques. Our results suggest that the AD progressive cognitive deterioration can be associated with an early reduction of astrocytic arborization and shrinkage of the astroglial domain, which may affect synaptic connectivity within the EC and between the EC and other brain regions. In addition, the EC seems to be particularly vulnerable to AD pathology because of the absence of evident astrogliosis in response to A? accumulation. Thus we can consider that targeting astroglial atrophy may represent a therapeutic strategy which might slow down the progression of AD.
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A new phenylalkanoid from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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A new phenylalkanoid, (E)-3-hydroxy-1-(4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-dodecan-6-en-5-one (1) was isolated from the rhizomes of Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)). The structure of this new phenylalkanoid was elucidated by chemical and physical evidences.
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Cycling exercise with functional electrical stimulation improves postural control in stroke patients.
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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The aim of this study is to determine whether short term functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling training can affect the postural control of stroke patients, and whether the application of FES can enhance the effect of cycling training. 20 stroke patients were randomly assigned to the FES-cycling group (FES-CG) or the cycling group (CG). Measurements were completed before and immediately after each 20 min training sessions. The measurements included a balance test (to quantify the postural control ability), a Hoffmanns reflex/motor response ratio (H/M ratio) test and a pendulum test (to quantify the muscle tone). In the balance test, some parameters in all directions exhibited significant intervention effects between the FES-CG group and the CG group. The H/M ratios (p=.014; .005, FES-CG and CG respectively) and relaxation index (p=.005; .047, FES-CG and CG respectively) revealed significant difference between FES-CG and CG group. The change ratios of directional control in the forward direction and H/M ratio revealed significant difference (p=.022; .015) between FES-CG and CG among subjects with higher muscle tone. The stroke subjects postural control was improved while their muscle tone was reduced after the 20 min cycling training program both with and without FES. We conclude that cycling training, with or without FES may reduce spasticity in stroke patients. The application of FES in cycling exercise was shown to be more effective in stroke patients with higher muscle tone.
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Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2011
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The iodide/triiodide redox shuttle has limited the efficiencies accessible in dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we report mesoscopic solar cells that incorporate a Co((II/III))tris(bipyridyl)-based redox electrolyte in conjunction with a custom synthesized donor-?-bridge-acceptor zinc porphyrin dye as sensitizer (designated YD2-o-C8). The specific molecular design of YD2-o-C8 greatly retards the rate of interfacial back electron transfer from the conduction band of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide film to the oxidized cobalt mediator, which enables attainment of strikingly high photovoltages approaching 1 volt. Because the YD2-o-C8 porphyrin harvests sunlight across the visible spectrum, large photocurrents are generated. Cosensitization of YD2-o-C8 with another organic dye further enhances the performance of the device, leading to a measured power conversion efficiency of 12.3% under simulated air mass 1.5 global sunlight.
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[The spirit of humanism should be cultivated in the nursing profession].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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As nursing is an art that emphasizes the nature of caring it should have humanistic attributes. Humanistic education of a nursing professional should emphasize a person-centered perspective in order to foster cultivation of the humanities and infuse the spirit of humane care into medical practice. Cultivation of humanism refers to the emotional level of personal-affective experience that blends humanistic science and aesthetic experience to enhance nurse observational abilities. The ability generated by self-awareness and reflection can trigger deep empathy and empathetic performance, which is ideal humanistic-nursing behavior in nursing staff. Traditional nursing education focuses on acquiring professional knowledge and largely ignores the cultivation of a humanist spirit. To help nurses adjust to the rapidly changing environment of nursing care and demonstrate a professional and humane character, in addition to advocating for a humane medical environment, the six Es of humanistic-nursing education (Example, Explanation, Exhortation, Environment, Experience, Expectation) should be promoted. The six Es are essential to building a framework to cultivate humanistic education strategies and strengthen humanist content in nursing education. In order to instill deeply the spirit of humanistic care in nursing and make the nursing-care process more humane, these ideals must be emphasized in nursing education to raise the level of humanism.
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Forgetting the unforgotten affective autobiographical memories in nonclinical dissociators.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Inefficient memory inhibition has been observed in nonclinical and clinical dissociators. Paradoxically, dissociators also report unusual forgetfulness. Investigating how forgetting emerges in dissociators may uncover the antecedents for their self-report memory problems. We postulated that set switch can link inefficient memory inhibition to forgetting. Recollection detour, which involves an affect switch, may elicit forgetting of previously uninhibited memories in nonclinical dissociators. This hypothesis was verified in participants with high- and low-dissociation proneness via a retrieval practice paradigm using positive and negative autobiographical memories. After the study and retrieval-practice phases, memories of the practiced affect category were tested without and with intervening recall of the unpracticed affect category in the control and detour condition, respectively. Nondissociators showed reduced recall in the control condition, replicating the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect and recollection detour did not alter the RIF effect. By contrast, nonclinical dissociators showed the RIF effect in the detour condition but not in the control condition. Detour to recollecting memories of another affect category rendered an aftereffect of forgetting of previously uninhibited memories in nonclinical dissociators.
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A new 3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one from the leaves of Cinnamomum philippinense.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Investigation of the leaves extract of Cinnamomum philippinense (Merr.) Chang (Lauraceae) led to the isolation of one novel compound, cinnamophilin D. Its structure was determined through in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses.
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A new benzodioxocinone from the leaves of Cinnamomum tenuifolium.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Investigation of the leaves extract of Cinnamomum tenuifolium (Lauraceae) led to the isolation of one novel benzodioxocinone, 2,3-dihydro-6,6-dimethylbenzo-[b][1,5]dioxocin-4(6 H)-one (1). The structure was determined through in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using the following in vitro method: scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. We also detected the anti-proliferative effect of 1 on human oral cancer cells and its IC(50) is 107.7 µM.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.