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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nanocrystallized CdS beneath the Surface of a Photoconductor for Detection of UV Light with Picowatt Sensitivity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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In this study, we demonstrated that the improvement of detection capability of cadmium sulfide (CdS) photoconductors in the ultraviolet (UV) regime is much larger than that in the visible regime, suggesting that the deep UV laser-treated CdS devices are very suitable for low-light detection in the UV regime. We determined that a nanocrystallized CdS photoconductor can behave as a picowatt-sensitive detector in the UV regime after ultra-shallow-region crystallization of the CdS film upon a single shot from a KrF laser. Photoluminescence and Raman spectra revealed that laser treatment increased the degree of crystallization of the CdS and led to the effective removal of defects in the region of a few tens nanometers beneath the surface of CdS, confirming the result by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical simulations suggested that UV light was almost completely absorbed in the shallow region beneath the surface of the CdS films, consistent with the observed region that underwent major crystal structure transformation. Accordingly, we noted a dramatic enhancement in responsivity of the CdS devices in the UV regime. Under a low bias voltage (1 mV), the treated CdS device provided a high responsivity of 74.7 A W(-1) and a detectivity of 1.0 × 10(14) Jones under illumination with a power density of 1.9 nW cm(-2). Even when the power of the UV irradiation on the device was only 3.5 pW, the device exhibited extremely high responsivity (7.3 × 10(5) A W(-1)) and detectivity (3.5 × 10(16) Jones) under a bias voltage of 1 V. Therefore, the strategy proposed in this study appears to have great potential for application in the development of CdS photoconductors for picowatt-level detection of UV light with low power consumption.
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Synthesis and molecular properties of tricyclic biselenophene-based derivatives with nitrogen, silicon, germanium, vinylidene, and ethylene bridges.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A new class of biselenophene-based materials including an sp(3)-silicon-bridged diselenosilole (DSS), an sp(3)-germanium-bridged diselenogermole (DSG), and an sp(3)-nitrogen-bridged diselenopyrrole (DSP) as well as an sp(2)-vinylidene-bridged dicyanodiselenofulvene (CDSF), a diacetylenediselenofulvene (ADSF), and a dioctylethylene-bridged benzodiselenophene (BDS) have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The bridging moieties play an important role in determining the optical and electrochemical properties. The six brominated derivatives are ready to construct various biselenophene-based conjugated materials with tunable properties for organic photovoltaics and field effect transistors.
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Compact Bis-Adduct Fullerenes and Additive-Assisted Morphological Optimization for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Bis-adduct fullerenes surrounded by two insulating addends sterically attenuate intermolecular interaction and cause inferior electron transportation. In this research, we have designed and synthesized a new class of bis-adduct fullerene materials, methylphenylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MPC60BA), methylthienylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MTC60BA), methylphenylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MPC70BA), and methylthienylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MTC70BA), functionalized with two compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends via cyclopropyl linkages. These materials with much higher-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels successfully enhanced the Voc values of the P3HT-based solar cell devices. The compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends to promote fullerene intermolecular interactions result in aggregation-induced phase separation as observed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/bis-adduct fullerene thin films. The device based on the P3HT/MTC60BA blend yielded a Voc of 0.72 V, a Jsc of 5.87 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 65.3%, resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.76%. The unfavorable morphologies can be optimized by introducing a solvent additive to fine-tune the intermolecular interactions. 1-Chloronaphthalene (CN) having better ability to dissolve the bis-adduct fullerenes can homogeneously disperse the fullerene materials into the P3HT matrix. Consequently, the aggregated fullerene domains can be alleviated to reach a favorable morphology. With the assistance of CN additive, the P3HT/MTC60BA-based device exhibited enhanced characteristics (a Voc of 0.78 V, a Jsc of 9.04 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 69.8%), yielding a much higher PCE of 4.92%. More importantly, the additive-assisted morphological optimization is consistently effective to all four compact bis-adduct fullerenes regardless of the methylphenylmethano or methylthienylmethano scaffolds as well as C60 or C70 core structures. Through the extrinsic additive treatment, these bis-adduct fullerene materials with compact architectures show promise for high-performance polymer solar cells.
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Osteoblast-derived Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 increases VCAM-1 expression and enhances prostate cancer metastasis by down-regulating miR-126.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Bone metastases of prostate cancer (PCa) may cause intractable pain. Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP-1) belongs to the CCN family (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) that plays a key role in bone formation. We found that osteoblast-conditioned medium (OBCM) stimulates migration and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM)-1 expression in human PCa (PC3 and DU145) cells. Osteoblast transfection with WISP-1 shRNA reduced OBCM-mediated PCa migration and VCAM-1 expression. Stimulation of PCa with OBCM or WISP-1 elevated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p38 phosphorylation. Either FAK and p38 inhibitors or siRNA abolished osteoblast-derived WISP-1-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression. Osteoblast-derived WISP-1 inhibited miR-126 expression. Moreover, miR-216 mimic reversed the WISP-1-enhanced migration and VCAM-1 expression. This study suggests that osteoblast-derived WISP-1 promotes migration and VCAM-1 expression in human PCa cells by down-regulating miR-126 expression via ?v?1 integrin, FAK, and p38 signaling pathways. Thus, WISP-1 may be a new molecular therapeutic target in PCa bone metastasis.
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External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver - A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera), also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%), were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v) increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil.
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Inhibitory effects of butein on cancer metastasis and bioenergetic modulation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Tumor metastasis is the major obstacle for cancer treatment. Previous studies have shown that butein exhibits antiangiogenesis property and anticancer effects in different kinds of human cancer cells. However, the effects of butein on metastasis and energy metabolism of cancer cells are mostly unknown. This study showed that butein significantly inhibited invasion of cancer cells without acting in a cytotoxic fashion. It was further demonstrated that butien dramatically suppressed cancer metastasis by an in vivo CAM-intravasation model. Additionally, butein concentration-dependently repressed the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). The study indicated that butein may repress MMP-9 and uPA proteolytic activities and subsequently inhibit cancer metastasis via Akt/mTOR/p70S6K translational machinery. Moreover, butein may partly suppress cancer metastasis by down-regulating ATP synthesis via both oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. The results suggest that butein is a potential antimetastatic agent worthy of further development for cancer treatment.
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Is the posterior cruciate ligament necessary for medial pivot knee prostheses with regard to postoperative kinematics?
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Excellent clinical and kinematical performance is commonly reported after medial pivot knee arthroplasty. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether the posterior cruciate ligament should be retained. This study simulated how the posterior cruciate ligament, post-cam mechanism and medial tibial insert morphology may affect postoperative kinematics.
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Genomic organization, transcriptomic analysis, and functional characterization of avian ?- and ?-keratins in diverse feather forms.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Feathers are hallmark avian integument appendages, although they were also present on theropods. They are composed of flexible corneous materials made of ?- and ?-keratins, but their genomic organization and their functional roles in feathers have not been well studied. First, we made an exhaustive search of ?- and ?-keratin genes in the new chicken genome assembly (Galgal4). Then, using transcriptomic analysis, we studied ?- and ?-keratin gene expression patterns in five types of feather epidermis. The expression patterns of ?-keratin genes were different in different feather types, whereas those of ?-keratin genes were less variable. In addition, we obtained extensive ?- and ?-keratin mRNA in situ hybridization data, showing that ?-keratins and ?-keratins are preferentially expressed in different parts of the feather components. Together, our data suggest that feather morphological and structural diversity can largely be attributed to differential combinations of ?- and ?-keratin genes in different intrafeather regions and/or feather types from different body parts. The expression profiles provide new insights into the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Finally, functional analysis using mutant chicken keratin forms based on those found in the human ?-keratin mutation database led to abnormal phenotypes. This demonstrates that the chicken can be a convenient model for studying the molecular biology of human keratin-based diseases.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus strains from traditional fermented dairy foods and antihypertensive effect of fermented milk of strain H9.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Hypertension is a major global health issue which elevates the risk of a large world population to chronic life-threatening diseases. The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an effective target to manage essential hypertension. In this study, the fermentation properties (titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and fermentation time) and ACE-inhibitory (ACEI) activity of fermented milks produced by 259 Lactobacillus helveticus strains previously isolated from traditional Chinese and Mongolian fermented foods were determined. Among them, 37 strains had an ACEI activity of over 50%. The concentrations of the antihypertensive peptides, Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro, were further determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The change of ACEI activity of the fermented milks of 3 strains exhibiting the highest ACEI activity upon gastrointestinal protease treatment was assayed. Fermented milks produced by strain H9 (IMAU60208) had the highest in vitro ACEI activity (86.4 ± 1.5%), relatively short fermentation time (7.5 h), and detectable Val-Pro-Pro (2.409 ± 0.229 µM) and Ile-Pro-Pro (1.612 ± 0.114 µM) concentrations. Compared with the control, a single oral dose of H9-fermented milk significantly attenuated the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by 15 to 18 mmHg during the 6 to 12 h after treatment. The long-term daily H9-fermented milk intake over 7 wk exerted significant antihypertensive effect to SHR, but not normotensive rats, and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower, by 12 and 10 mmHg, respectively, compared with the control receiving saline. The feeding of H9-fermented milk to SHR resulted in a significantly higher weight gain at wk 7 compared with groups receiving saline, commercial yogurt, and captopril. Our study identified a novel probiotic L. helveticus strain originated from kurut sampled from Tibet (China), which is a valuable resource for future development of functional foods for hypertension management.
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Potential molecular and cellular mechanism of psychotropic drugs.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Psychiatric disorders are among the most debilitating of all medical illnesses. Whilst there are drugs that can be used to treat these disorders, they give sub-optimal recovery in many people and a significant number of individuals do not respond to any treatments and remain treatment resistant. Surprisingly, the mechanism by which psychotropic drugs cause their therapeutic benefits remain unknown but likely involves the underlying molecular pathways affected by the drugs. Hence, in this review, we have focused on recent findings on the molecular mechanism affected by antipsychotic, mood stabilizing and antidepressant drugs at the levels of epigenetics, intracellular signalling cascades and microRNAs. We posit that understanding these important interactions will result in a better understanding of how these drugs act which in turn may aid in considering how to develop drugs with better efficacy or increased therapeutic reach.
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Custom-designed arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels with individually tunable pore sizes.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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We demonstrate a process to selectively tune the pore size of an individual nanochannel in an array of high-aspect-ratio anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanochannels in which the pore sizes were originally uniform. This novel process enables us to fabricate arrays of AAO nanochannels of variable sizes arranged in any custom-designed geometry. The process is based on our ability to selectively close an individual nanochannel in an array by using focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering, which leads to redeposition of the sputtered material and closure of the nanochannel with a capping layer of a thickness depending on the energy of the FIB. When such a partially capped array is etched in acid, the capping layers are dissolved after different time delays due to their different thicknesses, which results in differences in the time required for the following pore-widening etching processes and therefore creates an array of nanochannels with variable pore sizes. The ability to fabricate such AAO templates with high-aspect-ratio nanochannels of tunable sizes arranged in a custom-designed geometry paves the way for the creation of nanophotonic and nanoelectronic devices.
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Assessment of the bacterial and fungal diversity in home-made yoghurts of Xinjiang, China by pyrosequencing.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to gain a deeper knowledge of the bacterial and fungal community diversity in local home-made yoghurts from Zhaosu and Tekesi counties, Xinjiang, China, where a relatively high proportion of the ethnic minority population resides.
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Efficiency of three-dimensional Doppler ultrasonography in assessing nodal metastasis of head and neck cancer.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler ultrasonography with a novel predictive model in the detection of cervical metastasis of untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We assessed cervical lymph node metastasis in 52 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients by 3D color Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography. Pathologic analysis was used as the gold standard for evaluation of these imaging modalities. The rate of correct N staging was 84.6 % on ultrasonography, 55.8 % on magnetic resonance imaging, and 71.2 % on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. On a level-by-level basis, the ultrasonography had 78.9 % sensitivity, 99.0 % specificity, 93.8 % positive predictive value, 96.0 % negative predictive value, and 95.7 % accuracy. It also showed the highest agreement to histology results as compared with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (kappa value = 0.832, 0.506, and 0.537, respectively). 3D Doppler ultrasonography with our prediction model provides a rapid, low-cost, noninvasive, and reliable method with low inter-observation variations for detecting neck metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
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Biomolecular logic gate for analysis of the New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-coding gene with concurrent determination of its drug resistance-encoding fragments.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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We herein exploit a newly schemed logic gate to superiorly facilitate analysis of long and highly structured nucleic acids. This strategy uniquely enables the identification of NDM-specific genes and concurrent screening of two active site-encoded fragments, which is promising for evaluating microbial drug resistance.
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Biomechanical study of expandable pedicle screw fixation in severe osteoporotic bone comparing with conventional and cement-augmented pedicle screws.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Pedicle screws are widely utilized to treat the unstable thoracolumbar spine. The superior biomechanical strength of pedicle screws could increase fusion rates and provide accurate corrections of complex deformities. However, osteoporosis and revision cases of pedicle screw substantially reduce screw holding strength and cause loosening. Pedicle screw fixation becomes a challenge for spine surgeons in those scenarios. The purpose of this study was to determine if an expandable pedicle screw design could be used to improve biomechanical fixation in osteoporotic bone. Axial mechanical pull-out test was performed on the expandable, conventional and augmented pedicle screws placed in a commercial synthetic bone block which mimicked a human bone with severe osteoporosis. Results revealed that the pull-out strength and failure energy of expandable pedicle screws were similar with conventional pedicle screws augmented with bone cement by 2ml. The pull-out strength was 5-fold greater than conventional pedicle screws and the failure energy was about 2-fold greater. Besides, the pull-out strength of expandable screw was reinforced by the expandable mechanism without cement augmentation, indicated that the risks of cement leakage from vertebral body would potentially be avoided. Comparing with the biomechanical performances of conventional screw with or without cement augmentation, the expandable screws are recommended to be applied for the osteoporotic vertebrae.
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Optical assessment of the cardiac rhythm of contracting cardiomyocytes in vitro and a pulsating heart in vivo for pharmacological screening.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Our quest in the pathogenesis and therapies targeting human heart diseases requires assessment of the contractile dynamics of cardiac models of varied complexity, such as isolated cardiomyocytes and the heart of a model animal. It is hence beneficial to have an integral means that can interrogate both cardiomyocytes in vitro and a heart in vivo. Herein we report an application of dual-beam optical reflectometry to determine noninvasively the rhythm of two representative cardiac models-chick embryonic cardiomyocytes and the heart of zebrafish. We probed self-beating cardiomyocytes and revealed the temporally varying contractile frequency with a short-time Fourier transform. Our unique dual-beam setup uniquely records the atrial and ventricular pulsations of zebrafish simultaneously. To minimize the cross talk between signals associated with atrial and ventricular chambers, we particularly modulated the two probe beams at distinct frequencies and extracted the signals specific to individual cardiac chambers with phase-sensitive detection. With this setup, we determined the atrio-ventricular interval, a parameter that is manifested by the electrical conduction from the atrium to the ventricle. To demonstrate pharmacological applications, we characterized zebrafish treated with various cardioactive and cardiotoxic drugs, and identified abnormal cardiac rhythms and atrioventricular (AV) blocks of varied degree. In light of its potential capability to assess cardiac models both in vitro and in vivo and to screen drugs with cardioactivity or toxicity, we expect this approach to have broad applications ranging from cardiopharmacology to developmental biology.
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A small-molecule benzimidazole derivative that potently activates AMPK to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle: comparison with effects of contraction and other AMPK activators.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is an attractive therapeutic drug target for treating metabolic disorders. We studied the effects of an AMPK activator developed by Merck (ex229 from patent application WO2010036613), comparing chemical activation with contraction in intact incubated skeletal muscles. We also compared effects of ex229 with those of the Abbott A769662 compound and AICAR (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside). In rat epitrochlearis muscle, ex229 dose-dependently increased AMPK activity of ?1-, ?2-, ?1- and ?2-containing complexes with significant increases in AMPK activity seen at a concentration of 50 ?M. At a concentration of 100 ?M, AMPK activation was similar to that observed after contraction and importantly led to an ~2-fold increase in glucose uptake. In AMPK ?1-/?2-catalytic subunit double-knockout myotubes incubated with ex229, the increases in glucose uptake and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) phosphorylation seen in control cells were completely abolished, suggesting that the effects of the compound were AMPK-dependent. When muscle glycogen levels were reduced by ~50% after starvation, ex229-induced AMPK activation and glucose uptake were amplified in a wortmannin-independent manner. In L6 myotubes incubated with ex229, fatty acid oxidation was increased. Furthermore, in mouse EDL (extensor digitorum longus) and soleus muscles, ex229 increased both AMPK activity and glucose uptake at least 2-fold. In summary, ex229 efficiently activated skeletal muscle AMPK and elicited metabolic effects in muscle appropriate for treating Type 2 diabetes by stimulating glucose uptake and increasing fatty acid oxidation.
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The effect of different humeral prosthesis fin designs on shoulder stability: A computational model.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Humeral prostheses commonly use a fin structure as an attachment point for the supraspinatus muscle in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), but these fins may cause injury to the muscle during implantation, inadvertently influencing stability. In order to prevent supraspinatus injury, the effect of different humeral prostheses on shoulder joint stability needs to be investigated. A commercially available prosthesis and two modified humeral prostheses that substituted the fin structure for 2 (2H) or 3 holes (3H) were evaluated using computational models. Glenohumeral abduction was simulated and the superioinferior/anterioposterior stability of the shoulder joint after TSA was calculated. The results revealed that the 2H design had better superioinferior stability than the other prostheses, but was still less stable than the intact shoulder. There were no obvious differences in anterioposterior stability, but the motion patterns were clearly distinguishable from the intact shoulder model. In conclusion, the 2H design showed better superioinferior stability than the 3H design and the commercial product during glenohumeral joint abduction; the three prostheses show similar results in anterioposterior stability. However, the stability of each tested prosthesis was not comparable to the intact shoulder. Therefore, as a compromise, the 2H design should be considered for TSA because of its superior stability.
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Modulated expression of human peripheral blood microRNAs from infancy to adulthood and its role in aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests a role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating various processes of mammalian postnatal development and aging. To investigate the changes in blood-based miRNA expression from preterm infants to adulthood, we compared 365 miRNA expression profiles in a screening set of preterm infants and adults. Approximately one-third of the miRNAs were constantly expressed from postnatal development to adulthood, another one-third were differentially expressed between preterm infants and adults, and the remaining one-third were not detectable in these two groups. Based on their expression in infants and adults, the miRNAs were categorized into five classes, and six of the seven miRNAs chosen from each class except one with age-constant expression were confirmed in a validation set containing infants, children, and adults. Comparing the chromosomal locations of the different miRNA classes revealed two hot spots: the miRNA cluster on 14q32.31 exhibited age-constant expression, and the one on 9q22.21 exhibited up-regulation in adults. Furthermore, six miRNAs detectable in adults were down-regulated in older adults, and four chosen for individual quantification were verified in the validation set. Analysis of the network functions revealed that differentially regulated miRNAs between infants and adults and miRNAs that decreased during aging shared two network functions: inflammatory disease and inflammatory response. Four expression patterns existed in the 11 miRNAs from infancy to adulthood, with a significant transition in ages 9-20 years. Our results provide an overview on the regulation pattern of blood miRNAs throughout life and the possible biological functions performed by different classes of miRNAs.
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Biomechanical considerations in the design of high-flexion total knee replacements.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Typically, joint arthroplasty is performed to relieve pain and improve functionality in a diseased or damaged joint. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) involves replacing the entire knee joint, both femoral and tibial surfaces, with anatomically shaped artificial components in the hope of regaining normal joint function and permitting a full range of knee flexion. In spite of the design of the prosthesis itself, the degree of flexion attainable following TKA depends on a variety of factors, such as the joint's preoperative condition/flexion, muscle strength, and surgical technique. High-flexion knee prostheses have been developed to accommodate movements that require greater flexion than typically achievable with conventional TKA; such high flexion is especially prevalent in Asian cultures. Recently, computational techniques have been widely used for evaluating the functionality of knee prostheses and for improving biomechanical performance. To offer a better understanding of the development and evaluation techniques currently available, this paper aims to review some of the latest trends in the simulation of high-flexion knee prostheses.
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Food safety and bioavailability evaluations of four vegetables grown in the highly arsenic-contaminated soils on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not available. Pot experiments were conducted to examine the growth and accumulation of As in four vegetable crops grown in As-contaminated soils and to assess As intake through consumption. The phytotoxic effects of As in soils were not shown in the pot experiments in which vegetable crops were grown in soils contaminated with different As levels in situ collected from Guandu Plain (120-460 mg/kg) or artificially spiked As-contaminated soils (50-170 mg/kg). Experimental results showed that the bioavailable As extracted with 0.5M NaHCO3 from soils can be used to estimate As concentrations in vegetables. The As concentrations in the vegetables were compared with data shown in the literature and As limits calculated from drinking water standards and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI) of inorganic As established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Although the As levels in the vegetables were not high and the bioavailability of As in the soils was quite low, long-term consumption may result in higher As intake in the human body.
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Effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha?¹) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha?¹) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.
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A strategy to create spin-split metallic bands on silicon using a dense alloy layer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To exploit Rashba effect in a 2D electron gas on silicon surface for spin transport, it is necessary to have surface reconstruction with spin-split metallic surface-state bands. However, metals with strong spin-orbit coupling (e.g., Bi, Tl, Sb, Pt) induce reconstructions on silicon with almost exclusively spin-split insulating bands. We propose a strategy to create spin-split metallic bands using a dense 2D alloy layer containing a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling and another metal to modify the surface reconstruction. Here we report two examples, i.e., alloying reconstruction with Na and Tl/Si(111)1 × 1 reconstruction with Pb. The strategy provides a new paradigm for creating metallic surface state bands with various spin textures on silicon and therefore enhances the possibility to integrate fascinating and promising capabilities of spintronics with current semiconductor technology.
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Characterization of protein marker expression, tumorigenicity, and doxorubicin chemoresistance in two new canine mammary tumor cell lines.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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BackgroundCanine mammary tumors (CMTs) are the most common type of cancer found in female dogs. Establishment and evaluation of tumor cell lines can facilitate investigations of the biological mechanisms of cancer. Different cell models are used to investigate genetic, epigenetic, and cellular pathways, cancer progression, and cancer therapeutics. Establishment of new cell models will greatly facilitate research in this field. In the present study, we established and characterized two new CMT cell lines derived from a single CMT.ResultsWe established two cell lines from a single malignant CMT specimen: DTK-E and DTK-SME. Morphologically, the DTK-E cells were large, flat, and epithelial-like, whereas DTK-SME cells were round and epithelial-like. Doubling times were 24 h for DTK-E and 18 h for DTK-SME. On western blots, both cell lines expressed cytokeratin AE1, vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Moreover, investigation of chemoresistance revealed that DTK-SME was more resistant to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis than DTK-E was. After xenotransplantation, both DTK-E and DTK-SME tumors appeared within 14 days, but the average size of DTK-SME tumors was greater than that of DTK-E tumors after 56 days.ConclusionWe established two new cell lines from a single CMT, which exhibit significant diversity in cell morphology, protein marker expression, tumorigenicity, and chemoresistance. The results of this study revealed that the DTK-SME cell line was more resistant to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and exhibited higher tumorigenicity in vivo than the DTK-E cell line. We anticipate that the two novel CMT cell lines established in this study will be useful for investigating the tumorigenesis of mammary carcinomas and for screening anticancer drugs.
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Influence of magnesium on copper phytotoxicity to and accumulation and translocation in grapevines.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The phytotoxic effects of excess copper (Cu) on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. var. Kyoho) were examined, both from macroscopic and microscopic perspectives, by using a fifteen-day hydroponic experiments. The influence of magnesium (Mg) on Cu phytotoxicity to, and accumulation and translocation in grapevines was also observed. For phytotoxicity effect, results showed that a relative low median growth inhibition level of Cu was found for grapevine roots (0.809-3.671?M). Moreover, Cu toxicity was significantly alleviated by Mg treatment at Mg(2+) activity between 0.15 and 2.01mM. For accumulation and translocation effects, results indicated that competition for binding sites between Cu and Mg occurred for roots; however, Mg and Cu levels in stems and leaves were not affected by solution metals concentration. At Cu concentration less than 1?M, the translocation of Cu was decreased significantly for the highest Mg treatment; at Cu concentrations greater than 5?M, no obvious change was observed in leaf TF value between Mg treatments, while an increasing trend of stem TF value was observed with increasing Mg. These results suggest that the toxic effect resulted from metals depend not only on the competition of coexistent cations for plasma membrane surface, but also on the transport and distribution of toxic metals in physiological active sites in plants.
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Toward functional screening of cardioactive and cardiotoxic drugs with zebrafish in vivo using pseudodynamic three-dimensional imaging.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Given the high mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases and the life-threatening consequences of drugs with unforeseen adverse effects on hearts, a critical evaluation of the pharmacological response of cardiovascular function on model animals is important especially in the early stages of drug development. We report a proof-of-principle study to demonstrate the utility of zebrafish as an analytical platform to predict the cardiac response of new drugs or chemicals on human beings. With pseudodynamic 3D imaging, we derive individual parameters that are central to the cardiac function of zebrafish, including the ventricular stroke volume, ejection fraction, cardiac output, heart rate, diastolic filling function, and ventricular mass. We evaluate both inotropic and chronotropic responses of the heart of zebrafish treated with drugs that are commonly prescribed and possess varied known cardiac activities. We reveal deranged cardiac function of a zebrafish model of cardiomyopathy induced with a cardiotoxic drug. The cardiac function of zebrafish exhibits a pharmacological response similar to that of human beings. We compare also cardiac parameters obtained in this work with those derived with conventional 2D approximation and show that the latter tends to overestimate the cardiac parameters and produces results of greater variation. In view of the growing interest of using zebrafish in both fundamental and translational biomedical research, we envisage that our approach should benefit not only contemporary pharmaceutical development but also exploratory research such as gene, stem cell, or regenerative therapies targeting congenital or acquired heart diseases.
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Association of fatty liver disease with nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Nephron Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) is reportedly higher than that in healthy individuals. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether ultrasonographically documented fatty liver disease (FLD) is an independent risk factor for nonfatal CV events in patients undergoing HD.
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The partner's insecure attachment, depression and psychological well-being as predictors of diurnal cortisol patterns for breast cancer survivors and their spouses.
Stress
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to explore whether stress from individual's and partner's depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, insecure attachment and meaning in life were predictors of diurnal cortisol patterns in breast cancer survivors and their spouses. Thirty-four couple dyads participated in this eight-month follow-up study. The breast cancer survivors and their spouses completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and they collected salivary cortisol at home at the time of awakening, 30 and 45?min after waking and at 1200?h, 1700?h and 2100?h. Diurnal cortisol slopes of survivors and spouses are positively correlated. But the factors associated with diurnal cortisol patterns are different between survivors and spouses. For survivors, neither survivor individuals' nor spouses' psychosocial factors were the predictors of survivors' diurnal cortisol patterns. For spouses, the survivors' higher anxious attachment style was the main predictor of spouses' flatter diurnal cortisol patterns. In conclusion, for spouses, psychophysiological stress responses are mainly influenced by breast cancer survivors' insecure attachment. Future couple supportive care interventions can address survivors' attachment styles in close relationships in order to improve neuroendocrine functions for both breast cancer survivors and their spouses.
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Long-term outcomes of dialysis patients after coronary revascularization: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The outcomes of Chinese patients undergoing dialysis after coronary revascularization are unknown. We examined the outcomes of Taiwanese dialysis patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or coronary stenting.
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Silicon-based broadband antenna for high responsivity and polarization-insensitive photodetection at telecommunication wavelengths.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Although the concept of using local surface plasmon resonance based nanoantenna for photodetection well below the semiconductor band edge has been demonstrated previously, the nature of local surface plasmon resonance based devices cannot meet many requirements of photodetection applications. Here we propose the concept of deep-trench/thin-metal (DTTM) active antenna that take advantage of surface plasmon resonance phenomena, three-dimensional cavity effects, and large-area metal/semiconductor junctions to effectively generate and collect hot electrons arising from plasmon decay and, thereby, increase photocurrent. The DTTM-based devices exhibited superior photoelectron conversion ability and high degrees of detection linearity under infrared light of both low and high intensity. Therefore, these DTTM-based devices have the attractive properties of high responsivity, extremely low power consumption, and polarization-insensitive detection over a broad bandwidth, suggesting great potential for use in photodetection and on-chip Si photonics in many applications of telecommunication fields.
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Synthesis and supramolecular assembly of pentacyclic dithienofluorene and diselenophenofluorene derivatives.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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2,7-Diiodo-3,6-dibromofluorene and 2,7-dichloro-3,6-dibromofluorene have been successfully synthesized. The two key intermediates enable us to implement a regioselective Sonogashira reaction followed by intramolecular thiolate/acetylene cyclization, forming two regiospecific pentacyclic dithieno[2,3-b:7,6-b']fluorene (2,7-DTF) and dithieno[3,2-b:6,7-b']fluorene (3,6-DTF) isomeric molecules, respectively. By using a similar strategy, selenophene-based diselenopheno[2,3-b:7,6-b']fluorene (2,7-DSF) as well as diselenopheno[3,2-b:6,7-b']fluorene (3,6-DSF) were also prepared. The isomeric and sulfur/selenium effects determine the optical, electrochemical, and orbital properties. X-ray crystallography revealed that 2,7-DTF and 3,6-DTF molecules assemble into supramolecular helical structures.
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Development and application of a monoclonal antibody against grouper iridovirus (GIV) major capsid protein.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The major capsid protein (MCP) is a main structural protein of iridoviruses, and is used as a marker for the identification, differentiation and classification of ranaviruses. In the present study, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant MCP of grouper iridovirus (GIV) were produced and characterized. All of the six mAbs were of IgG1 isotype. Among the mAbs, GIV-MCP-mAb-21 showed the highest reactivity in ELISA and was used to further characterize the expression of GIV-MCP during viral replication. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that GIV-MCP is a late gene during GIV infection. By immunofluorescence assay, the presence of GIV-MCP was observed in not only the cytoplasm but also the nucleus of GIV-infected cells, a surprising finding that might indicate additional role of GIV-MCP. In conclusion, the newly established GIV-MCP-mAbs are a valuable tool for GIV diagnostic and future studies on GIV pathogenesis.
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The osteogenesis of bone marrow stem cells on mPEG-PCL-mPEG/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold via solid freeform fabrication.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The study described a novel bone tissue scaffold fabricated by computer-aided, air pressure-aided deposition system to control the macro- and microstructure precisely. The porcine bone marrow stem cells (PBMSCs) seeded on either mPEG-PCL-mPEG (PCL) or mPEG-PCL-mPEG/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) composite scaffold were cultured under osteogenic medium to test the ability of osteogenesis in vitro. The experimental outcomes indicated that both scaffolds possessed adequate pore size, porosity, and hydrophilicity for the attachment and proliferation of PBMSCs and the PBMSCs expressed upregulated genes of osteogensis and angiogenesis in similar manner on both scaffolds. The major differences between these two types of the scaffolds were the addition of HA leading to higher hardness of PCL/HA scaffold, cell proliferation, and VEGF gene expression in PCL/HA scaffold. However, the in vivo bone forming efficacy between PBMSCs seeded PCL and PCL/HA scaffold was different from the in vitro results. The outcome indicated that the PCL/HA scaffold which had bone-mimetic environment due to the addition of HA resulted in better bone regeneration and mechanical strength than those of PCL scaffold. Therefore, providing a bone-mimetic scaffold is another crucial factor for bone tissue engineering in addition to the biocompatibility, 3D architecture with high porosity, and interpored connection.
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Characterization of fecal microbiota across seven Chinese ethnic groups by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The human gut microbiota consists of complex microbial communities, which possibly play crucial roles in physiological functioning and health maintenance. China has evolved into a multicultural society consisting of the major ethnic group, Han, and 55 official ethnic minority groups. Nowadays, these minority groups inhabit in different Chinese provinces and some of them still keep their unique culture and lifestyle. Currently, only limited data are available on the gut microbiota of these Chinese ethnic groups. In this study, 10 major fecal bacterial groups of 314 healthy individuals from 7 Chinese ethnic origins were enumerated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our data confirmed that the selected bacterial groups were common to all 7 surveyed ethnicities, but the amount of the individual bacterial groups varied to different degree. By principal component and canonical variate analyses of the 314 individuals or the 91 Han subjects, no distinct group clustering pattern was observed. Nevertheless, weak differences were noted between the Han and Zhuang from other ethnic minority groups, and between the Heilongjiang Hans from those of the other provinces. Thus, our results suggest that the ethnic origin may contribute to shaping the human gut microbiota.
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Progesterone receptor expression in sinonasal leiomyoma: a case report and review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Leiomyomas are benign myogenic tumors that seldom occur in the sinonasal cavity. They were commonly found in middle-aged adults with a female predominance. Clinical symptoms include nasal obstruction with discharge, nasal bleeding and pain. We describe the case of a 48 year-old woman with a leiomyoma arising from right inferior nasal turbinate. Transnasal endoscopic excision was performed with satisfied result. The tumor was found to be progesterone receptor positive on immunohistochemical analysis. The clinical findings are addressed with a review of the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case that supports the growth of the tumor may be hormone-dependent.
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Usefulness of dual-energy computed tomography imaging in the differential diagnosis of sellar meningiomas and pituitary adenomas: preliminary report.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To quantitatively assess the imaging characteristics of sellar lesion in dual-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging for differentiation of sellar meningiomas and pituitary adenomas during the arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP).
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Nationwide survey to evaluate medical utilization by patients with inguinal hernia and the risk of developing varicocele in Taiwan.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to analyze age, geographical and seasonal variations in medical service utilization by patients with inguinal hernia in Taiwan, and the influence of herniorrhaphy on development of ipsilateral varicocele in male patients.
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Reducing Regioisomers of Fullerene-Bisadducts by Tether-Directed Remote Functionalization: Investigation of Electronically and Sterically Isomeric Effects on Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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C60 bis-adduct containing a mixture of regio-isomers with different LUMO energy levels and steric geometries could greatly affect the morphological and bulk properties. To investigate the regio-isomer effect on solar cell performance, we have successfully designed and synthesized a regio-selective 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct (S-APM-CBA) by "tether-directed remote functionalization" strategy and a random 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct denoted as R-APM-CBA by traditional cyclopropanation. The dramatic reduction in the number of regio-isomers in S-APM-CBA is confirmed by the (1)H NMR and HPLC measurements and theoretical calculation. Compared to the R-APM-CBA-based device with a Jsc of 6.63 mA/cm(2), an FF of 44.3% and a PCE of 2.46%, the device using S-APM-CBA yielded a much lower Jsc of 1.48 mA/cm(2), an FF of 32.2%, and a PCE of 0.38%. Consistently, the electron-only device using S-AMP-CBA exhibited lower electron mobility than the R-AMP-CBA-based device. These results imply that the electronic shallow-trap effect ascribed to the LUMO energy variations turned out to be insignificant in the AMP-CBA system. The lower efficiency and mobility of S-AMP-CBA might due to the assumption that the most probable trans-4-III isomer in S-AMP-CBA prevents the intermolecular facial contact of fullerenes, thereby hindering the electron transporting. Furthermore, the nanomorphology of S-AMP-CBA and R-AMP-CBA active layers could be different because of their different three-dimensional structures. This research demonstrated that steric effect of regio-isomers in a given C60 bis-adduct is more crucial than electronic shallow-trap effect.
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Exclusively endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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We reported two patients with nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma resected by using the exclusively endoscopic approach. Case reports and a review of the world literature concerning nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma. The tumors were resected successfully via the exclusively endoscopic approach and no conversions to the conventional approach were necessary. The two patients were followed up for 26 and 18 months respectively, and no recurrence was noted without postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma. Our experience revealed that not only for the early recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the exclusively endoscopic nasopharyngectomy can be expanded for the resection of selected nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma.
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High-Temperature, High-Pressure Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Spectroscopic Studies of a Uranium(IV) Phosphate (Na10U2P6O24) and the Isotypic Cerium(IV) Phosphate (Na10Ce2P6O24).
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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A uranium(IV) phosphate, Na10U2P6O24, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 570 °C and 160 MPa and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The valence state of uranium was established by UV-vis and U 4f X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The powder sample has a second-harmonic-generation signal, confirming the absence of a center of symmetry in the structure. The structure contains UO8 snub-disphenoidal polyhedra that are linked to monophosphate tetrahedra by vertex and edge sharing such that a three-dimensional framework with intersecting 12-sided circular and rectangular channels is formed. All 10 sodium sites are situated inside the channels and are fully occupied. This is the first uranium(IV) phosphate synthesized under high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal conditions. The isotypic cerium(IV) phosphate, Na10Ce2P6O24, was also synthesized under the same hydrothermal conditions. It is the first structurally characterized Ce(IV) phosphate with a P/Ce ratio of 3. Crystal data of Na10U2P6O24: orthorhombic, P212121 (No. 19), a = 6.9289(3) Å, b = 16.1850(7) Å, c = 18.7285(7) Å, V = 2100.3(2) Å(3), Z = 4, R1 = 0.0304, and wR2 = 0.0522. Crystal data of Na10Ce2P6O24: orthorhombic, P212121 (No. 19), a = 6.9375(14) Å, b = 16.215(3) Å, c = 18.765(4) Å, V = 2111.0(7) Å(3), Z = 4, R1 = 0.0202, and wR2 = 0.0529.
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Synthesis and Molecular Properties of Four Isomeric Dialkylated Angular-Shaped Naphthodithiophenes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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A new strategy to synthesize 4,9- and 5,10-dialkylated ?-aNDTs as well as 4,9- and 5,10-dialkylated ?-aNDTs is described. Four isomeric precursors with different dithienyl-ene-diyne arrangements undergo base-induced double 6?-cyclization to construct the central naphthalene cores, leading to the formation of the regiospecific products. These 2,7-distannylated dialkylated aNDT-based monomers can be used for Stille cross-coupling to produce promising conjugated materials for various optoelectronic applications.
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Discovery of novel antitumor dibenzocyclooctatetraene derivatives and related biphenyls as potent inhibitors of NF-?B signaling pathway.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Several dibenzocyclooctatetraene derivatives (5-7) and related biphenyls (8-11) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for inhibition of cancer cell growth and the NF-?B signaling pathway. Compound 5a, a dibenzocyclooctatetraene succinimide, was discovered as a potent inhibitor of the NF-?B signaling pathway with significant antitumor activity against several human tumor cell lines (GI50 1.38-1.45?M) and was more potent than paclitaxel against the drug-resistant KBvin cell line. Compound 5a also inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation in RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 0.52?M, prevented I?B-? degradation and p65 nuclear translocation, and suppressed LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The antitumor data in cellular assays indicated that relative positions and types of substituents on the dibenzocyclooctatetraene or acyclic biphenyl as well as torsional angles between the two phenyls are of primary importance to antitumor activity.
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Effects of Areca Nut Extract on Lipopolysaccharides-Enhanced Adhesion and Migration of Human Mononuclear Leukocytes.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Background: Areca chewers have a higher prevalence of periodontitis than non-chewers. Cell adhesion and movement (migration) are important for the leukocyte recruitment to the inflammation sites. This study investigated the effects of areca nut extract (ANE) on the adhesion and migration abilities of human immune cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The combined effects of nicotine and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also analyzed. Methods: Purified PBMC obtained from healthy adults were treated with ANE, nicotine and/or LPS. Cell adhesion ability was examined using fibronectin-coated microslides, Lius stain and light microscopy. Cell migration ability was evaluated using the transwell system followed by staining and fluorescence microscopy. Statistical difference was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: When compared to the media-treated control samples, PBMC treated with ANE for 4 hours showed a significant reduction of the adherent cells on the microslides. Interestingly, LPS treatment increased cell adhesion which could be reduced by simultaneous ANE plus nicotine treatment. The chemotactic migration of PBMC was reduced by ANE treatment for 1, 4 or 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner. LPS treatment increased PBMC migration which could be reduced by simultaneous treatment with ANE or with ANE plus nicotine. Conclusions: ANE reduced the adhesion and migration abilities of PBMC. ANE, with or without nicotine, also attenuated the migration of LPS-stimulated PBMC. The results implicated that the immune cell functions were impaired in areca chewers which might increase the host susceptibility to oral and periodontal infection.
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On the Utility of Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging as a Tool in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign lesions with a meta-analysis.
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[Genotype, environment and their interactions of major bioactive components in 2-year licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) population].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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This study aimed at analyzing the effect of genotype (G), environment (E) and their interactions (G x E) on the major bioactive components of 2-year licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) population, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the licorice breeding with high content of bioactive components and quality improvement.
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Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is an AMPK target participating in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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PIKfyve (FYVE domain-containing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase), the lipid kinase that phosphorylates PtdIns3P to PtdIns(3,5)P2, has been implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We investigated whether PIKfyve could also be involved in contraction/AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with YM201636, a selective PIKfyve inhibitor, reduced contraction- and AICAriboside (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside)-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistently, PIKfyve knockdown in C2C12 myotubes reduced AICAriboside-stimulated glucose transport. Furthermore, muscle contraction increased PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels and PIKfyve phosphorylation. AMPK phosphorylated PIKfyve at Ser307 both in vitro and in intact cells. Following subcellular fractionation, PIKfyve recovery in a crude intracellular membrane fraction was increased in contracting versus resting muscles. Also in opossum kidney cells, wild-type, but not S307A mutant, PIKfyve was recruited to endosomal vesicles in response to AMPK activation. We propose that PIKfyve activity is required for the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake by contraction/AMPK activation. PIKfyve is a new AMPK substrate whose phosphorylation at Ser307 could promote PIKfyve translocation to endosomes for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis to facilitate GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) translocation.
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A new ladder-type benzodi(cyclopentadithiophene)-based donor-acceptor polymer and a modified hole-collecting PEDOT:PSS layer to achieve tandem solar cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.62 V.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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We have developed a new ladder-type conjugated polymer and a robust interconnecting layer (ICL) integrating a hole-collecting m-PEDOT:PSS layer with an electron-collecting ZnO layer. The inverted device using exhibited a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.76% with a Voc of 0.81 V, a Jsc of 12.82 mA cm(-2), and a FF of 55.5%. The inverted tandem device incorporating the and ICL achieves a Voc of 1.62 V leading to a PCE of 7.08%.
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An Optimized microRNA Backbone for Effective Single-Copy RNAi.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology enables stable and regulated gene repression. For establishing experimentally versatile RNAi tools and minimizing toxicities, synthetic shRNAs can be embedded into endogenous microRNA contexts. However, due to our incomplete understanding of microRNA biogenesis, such "shRNAmirs" often fail to trigger potent knockdown, especially when expressed from a single genomic copy. Following recent advances in design of synthetic shRNAmir stems, here we take a systematic approach to optimize the experimental miR-30 backbone. Among several favorable features, we identify a conserved element 3 of the basal stem as critically required for optimal shRNAmir processing and implement it in an optimized backbone termed "miR-E", which strongly increases mature shRNA levels and knockdown efficacy. Existing miR-30 reagents can be easily converted to miR-E, and its combination with up-to-date design rules establishes a validated and accessible platform for generating effective single-copy shRNA libraries that will facilitate the functional annotation of the genome.
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The dynamic growth exhibition and accumulation of cadmium of Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) grown in contaminated soils.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2-3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5-4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health.
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Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in two domestic chickens.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies.
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Impact of foot progression angle on the distribution of plantar pressure in normal children.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Plantar pressure distribution during walking is affected by several gait factors, most especially the foot progression angle which has been studied in children with neuromuscular diseases. However, this relationship in normal children has only been reported in limited studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between foot progression angle and plantar pressure distribution in normal children, as well as the impacts of age and sex on this correlation.
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Associations Between Genetic Polymorphisms of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Survival of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Patients Treated with 5-Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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This retrospective cohort study investigated the association between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy.
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Hybrid ZnO NR/graphene structures as advanced optoelectronic devices with high transmittance.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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A hybrid structure (HS) made of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods (NRs) and a two-dimensional synthesized graphene sheet was successfully constructed in this study. The uniform ZnO NRs were obtained by hydrothermal method and grown on a graphene surface that had been transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The HS exhibited high transmittance (approximately 75%) over the visible wavelength range, even after cyclic bending with a small radius of curvature. Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurement were carried out to verify the chemical composition and electrical properties of the structure. Stable electrical conductance of the ZnO NR/graphene HS was achieved, and increase in carrier mobility decreased the resistance of the ZnO-with-graphene sheet in comparison with bare ZnO NRs.
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Interface engineering to enhance the efficiency of conventional polymer solar cells by alcohol-/water-soluble C60 materials doped with alkali carbonates.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Two new C60-based n-type materials, EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH, functionalized with hydrophilic triethylene glycol groups (TEGs), have been synthesized and employed in conventional polymer solar cells. With the assistance of the TEG-based surfactant, EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH can be dissolved in highly polar solvents to implement the polar/nonpolar orthogonal solvent strategy, forming an electron modification layer (EML) without eroding the underlying active layer. Multilayer conventional solar cells on the basis of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PC61BM/EML/Ca/Al configuration with the insertion of the EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH EML between the active layer and the electrode have thus been successfully realized by cost-effective solution processing techniques. Moreover, the electron conductivity of the EML can be improved by incorporating alkali carbonates into the EGMC-COOH EML. Compared to the pristine device with a PCE of 3.61%, the devices modified by the Li2CO3-doped EGMC-COOH EML achieved a highest PCE of 4.29%. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the formation of the EGMC-COOH EML can be utilized as a general approach in the fabrication of highly efficient multilayer conventional devices. With the incorporation of the EGMC-COOH doped with 40 wt % Li2CO3, the PCDCTBT-C8:PC71BM-based device exhibited a superior PCE of 4.51%, which outperformed the corresponding nonmodified device with a PCE of 3.63%.
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Areca nut extracts increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1? in human immune cells via oxidative stress.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Areca nut has been identified as a carcinogen. Inflammation reveals a strong link with tumourigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of areca nut on the expression of the key pro-inflammatory mediators involved in malignancy, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1? and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), by human immune cells. The role of oxidative stress was also examined.
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Biomechanical comparisons between a new avascular necrosis of femaral head stem based on Chinese patients with avascular necrosis and two other designs.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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There is a relatively high failure rate of the femoral component in patients with avascular necrosis at the intermediate-term follow-up. Improving the geometrical fit of the femoral stem against the medullary canal may help to provide long-term survivorship of the hip replacement for patients with avascular necrosis.
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Electrical detection of C-reactive protein using a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever for highly reproducible and accurate measurements.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD) of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 µg/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays.
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Depletion of 4E-BP1 and regulation of autophagy lead to YXM110-induced anticancer effects.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Natural products have always been a profuse database for developing new chemotherapeutics. YXM110 is a newly synthesized phenanthroquinolizidines that exhibits excellent anticancer activity in numerous cancer cells. In this study, we examined the anticancer mechanisms of YXM110 both in vitro and in vivo. Protein level of 4E-binding protein 1, which is crucial in cap-independent translation, was decreased significantly after YXM110 treatment via c-Jun N-terminal kinases-mediated proteasomal degradation. Moreover, the effects of YXM110 were associated with several characteristics of autophagy, including accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, elevation of Atg12-Atg5 and light chain 3 (LC3)-II, and levels of GFP-LC3 puncta. The results suggested that depletion of Mcl-1 contributes to YXM110-triggered autophagy, whereas downregulation of lysosomal-related genes could cause autophagy impairment. Furthermore, YXM110-induced cell death was prevented by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and Atg5 silencing, indicating that YXM110-mediated autophagy impairment leads to cancer cell death. These data reveal key mechanisms that support the further development of YXM110 as a promising anticancer agent.
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Comparing end-of-life care for hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in Taiwan.
J Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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When it comes to end-of-life care, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are often treated differently from lung cancer patients. However, few reports have compared end-of-life care between these two groups. We investigated the differences between patients with end-stage COPD and end-stage lung cancer based on end-of-life symptoms and clinical practice patterns using a retrospective study of COPD and lung cancer patients who died in an acute care hospital in Taiwan. End-stage COPD patients had more comorbidities and spent more days in the intensive care unit (ICU) than end-stage lung cancer patients. They were more likely to die in the ICU and less likely to receive hospice care. COPD patients also had more invasive procedures, were less likely to use narcotic and sedative drugs, and were less likely to have given do-not-resuscitate consent. Symptoms were similar between these two groups. Differences in treatment management suggest that COPD patients receive more care aimed at prolonging life than care aimed at relieving symptoms and providing end-of-life support. It may be more difficult to determine when COPD patients are at the end-of-life stage than it is to identify when lung cancer patients are at that stage. Our findings indicate that in Taiwan, more effort should be made to give end-stage COPD patients the same access to hospice care as end-stage lung cancer patients.
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Efficacy of psychotherapy on diurnal cortisol patterns and suicidal ideation in adjustment disorder with depressed mood.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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The aims were to examine the effects of psychotherapy on depressive and anxiety symptoms, the occurrence of suicidal ideations and diurnal cortisol patterns in patients with adjustment disorder (AD) with depressed mood.
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Mammalian target of rapamycin-independent S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation during contraction in rat skeletal muscle.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Muscle protein synthesis rates decrease during contraction/exercise, but rapidly increase post-exercise. Previous studies mainly focused on signaling pathways that control protein synthesis during post-exercise recovery, such as mTOR and its downstream targets S6K1 and 4E-BP1. In this study, we investigated the effect of high-frequency electrical stimulation on the phosphorylation state of signaling components controlling protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. Electrical stimulation increased S6K1 Thr389 phosphorylation, which was unaffected by Torin1, a selective mTOR inhibitor, suggesting that S6K1 phosphorylation by contraction was mTOR-independent. Phosphorylation of eIF4B Ser422 was also increased during electrical stimulation, which was abrogated by inhibition of MEK/ERK/RSK1 activation. Moreover, although phosphorylation of conventional mTOR sites in 4E-BP1 decreased during contraction, mTOR-independent phosphorylation was also apparent, which was associated with the release of 4E-BP1 from eIF4E. The results indicate mTOR-independent phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 and suggest MEK/ERK/RSK1-dependent phosphorylation of eIF4B during skeletal muscle contraction. These phosphorylation events would keep the translation initiation machinery "primed" in an active state so that protein synthesis could quickly resume post-exercise.
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[A nursing case experience using Levines conservation model to provide sepsis care].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Sepsis is a systemic inflammation caused by severe infection. It is a condition that is life-threatening, progresses rapidly, and affects multiple system functions. An evidence-based medical sepsis bundles model has been used for sepsis care in clinic practice. Therefore, a holistic nursing care protocol for patients with sepsis is needed to improve medical outcomes. This case study describes a nursing experience using Levines Conservation Model to care for a patient with sepsis. Data were collected using physical assessment, medical chart reviews, written communications with the patient, interviews patient family members, and observing the patient during intensive care hospitalization from June 10th, 2011 through July 5th, 2011. Levins Conservation Model, used as the nursing guideline, successfully identified patient issues including failure to conserve energy, structural, personal and social integrity. Interventions included: (1) sepsis bundles and early goal directed therapy to reduce patient energy expenditure; (2) prevention of infection to maintain structural function; and (3) enhancement of self-esteem, privacy, family cohesion, and social activities to maintaining personal and social integrity functions. The interventions helped the case adapt successfully to the sepsis-related imbalance. This case report provides a valuable nursing care experience as a reference for similar sepsis cases in the future.
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Biomechanical analysis of different types of pedicle screw augmentation: a cadaveric and synthetic bone sample study of instrumented vertebral specimens.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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This study aims to determine the pull-out strength, stiffness and failure pull-out energy of cement-augmented, cannulated-fenestrated pedicle screws in an osteoporotic cadaveric thoracolumbar model, and to determine, using synthetic bone samples, the extraction torques of screws pre-filled with cement and those with cement injected through perforations. Radiographs and bone mineral density measurements from 32 fresh thoracolumbar vertebrae were used to define specimen quality. Axial pull-out strength of screws was determined through mechanical testing. Mechanical pull-out strength, stiffness and energy-to-failure ratio were recorded for cement-augmented and non-cement-augmented screws. Synthetic bone simulating a human spinal bone with severe osteoporosis was used to measure the maximum extraction torque. The pull-out strength and stiffness-to-failure ratio of cement pre-filled and cement-injected screws were significantly higher than the non-cement-augmented control group. However, the cement pre-filled and cement-injected groups did not differ significantly across these values (p=0.07). The cement pre-filled group had the highest failure pull-out energy, approximately 2.8 times greater than that of the cement-injected (p<0.001), and approximately 11.5 times greater than that of the control groups (p<0.001). In the axial pull-out test, the cement-injected group had a greater maximum extraction torque than the cement pre-filled group, but was statistically insignificant (p=0.17). The initial fixation strength of cannulated screws pre-filled with cement is similar to that of cannulated screws injected with cement through perforations. This comparable strength, along with the heightened pull-out energy and reduced extraction torque, indicates that pedicle screws pre-filled with cement are superior for bone fixation over pedicle screws injected with cement.
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Interleukin-17-producing cell infiltration in the breast cancer tumour microenvironment is a poor prognostic factor.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is most prominently produced by T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells, a distinct CD4+ T-helper cell subset. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of IL-17-producing cells in the breast cancer tumour microenvironment and its prognostic role.
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MicroRNA expression aberration associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants: a preliminary study.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Because environmental insults and genetic factors account for the variance in the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight < 1,500 g) preterm infants, the search for BPD biomarkers has begun to focus on the regulators of non-coding RNA such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of BPD in VLBW preterm infants.
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Activated PAR-2 regulates pancreatic cancer progression through ILK/HIF-?-induced TGF-? expression and MEK/VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Tissue factor initiates the process of thrombosis and activates cell signaling through protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological role of PAR-2 signaling in pancreatic cancer. We first demonstrated that activated PAR-2 up-regulated the protein expression of both hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and HIF-2?, resulting in enhanced transcription of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Down-regulation of HIFs-? by siRNA or YC-1, an HIF inhibitor, resulted in depleted levels of TGF-? protein. Furthermore, PAR-2, through integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, including the p-AKT, promoted HIF protein expression. Diminishing ILK by siRNA decreased the levels of PAR-2-induced p-AKT, HIFs-?, and TGF-?; our results suggest that ILK is involved in the PAR-2-mediated TGF-? via an HIF-?-dependent pathway. Furthermore, the culture medium from PAR-2-treated pancreatic cancer cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation, which was blocked by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059. We also found that activated PAR-2 enhanced tumor angiogenesis through the release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) from cancer cells, independent of the ILK/HIFs-? pathways. Consistent with microarray analysis, activated PAR-2 induced TGF-A and VEGF-A gene expression. In conclusion, the activation of PAR-2 signaling induced human pancreatic cancer progression through the induction of TGF-? expression by ILK/HIFs-?, as well as through MEK/VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis, and it plays a role in the interaction between cancer progression and cancer-related thrombosis.
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Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 in lung reduced airway inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in chronic allergic asthma is currently unclear. Both airway neutrophilia and eosinophilia and increase in HMGB1 expression in the lungs in our murine model of chronic asthma. Inhibition of HMGB1 expression in lung in ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice decreased induced airway inflammation, mucus formation, and collagen deposition in lung tissues. Analysis of the numbers of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs revealed that Th17 showed greater increases than Th2 cells and Th1 cells in OVA-immunized mice; further, the numbers of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells decreased in anti-HMGB1 antibody (Ab)-treated mice. In OVA-immunized mice, TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression, but not RAGE expression, was activated in the lungs and attenuated after anti-HMGB1 Ab treatment. The results showed that increase in HMGB1 release and expression in the lungs could be an important pathological mechanism underlying chronic allergic asthma and HMGB1 might a potential therapeutic target for chronic allergic asthma.
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Ubiquitous transcription factor YY1 promotes zebrafish liver steatosis and lipotoxicity by inhibiting CHOP-10 expression.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The ubiquitous transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is known to have diverse and complex cellular functions. Although relevant literature has reported that YY1 expression can induce the down-regulation of C/EBP homologous protein 10 (CHOP-10) and then allow the transactivation of certain transcription factors required for lipogenesis, similar properties of YY1 are poorly understood in animal model systems. In this study, we demonstrate hepatic lipid accumulation in YY1 transgenic zebrafish (GY). Oil-red staining cells were predominantly increased in the livers of both GY larvae and adults, indicating that YY1 functionally promoted lipid accumulation in GY livers. Molecular analysis revealed that YY1 over-expression contributed to the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides (TGs) by inhibiting CHOP-10 expression in the juvenile GY and 3 other fish cell lines; the decreased CHOP-10 expression then induced the transactivation of C/EBP-? and PPAR-?? expression. CHOP-10 morpholino (MO)-injected and rosiglitazone-treated G-liver larvae showed liver steatosis by transactivating PPAR-?. PPAR-? MO-injected, and GW9662- and astaxanthin-treated GY larvae showed no liver steatosis by inhibiting PPAR-?. Moreover, a fatty acid (FA) accumulation and a TG decrease were found in the liver of aged GY, leading to the induction of FA-oxidizing systems that increased hepatic oxidative stress and liver damage. This study is the first to examine YY1 as a potential stimulator for GY liver steatosis and lipotoxicity.
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The increment in standardized uptake value determined using dual-phase 18F-FDG PET is a promising prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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We aimed to determine whether the increment in the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary lung tumour between the initial and delayed imaging by dual-phase (18)F-FDG PET has prognostic value in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.