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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Improved outcomes with peritoneal dialysis catheter placement after cardiopulmonary bypass in infants.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2014
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass and is associated with poor outcomes. Peritoneal dialysis improves outcomes in adults with AKI after bypass, but pediatric data are limited. This retrospective case-matched study was conducted to determine if the practice of peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) placement during congenital heart surgery is associated with improved clinical outcomes in infants at high risk for AKI.
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Clear Anti-Smudge Unimolecular Coatings of Diblock Copolymers on Glass Plates.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Two poly[3-(triisopropyloxysilyl)propyl methacrylate]-block-poly[2-(perfluorooctyl)ethyl methacrylate] (PIPSMA-b-PFOEMA) samples and one poly(perfluoropropylene oxide)-block-poly-[3-(triisopropyloxysilyl)propyl methacrylate] (PFPO-b-PIPSMA) sample were synthesized, characterized, and used to coat glass plates. These coatings were formed by evaporating a dilute polymer solution containing HCl, which catalyzed PIPSMA's sol-gel chemistry. Polymer usage was minimized by targeting at diblock copolymer unimolecular (brush) layers that consisted of a sol-gelled PIPSMA layer that was grafted onto the glass plate and a fluorinated surface layer that provided the oil and water repellency. Investigated is the effect of varying the catalyst amount, polymer amount, as well as block copolymer type and composition on the structure, morphology, and oil- and water-repellency of the coatings. Under optimized conditions, the prepared coatings were optically clear and resistant to writing by a permanent marker. The marker's trace was the faintest on PFPO-b-PIPSMA coatings. In addition, the PFPO-b-PIPSMA coatings were far more wear-resistant than the PIPSMA-b-PFOEMA coatings.
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Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men.
Int J Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population.
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Multiplex Serology for Common Viral Infections in Feral Pigs in Hawaii between 2007 and 2010.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abstract Multiplex serology was performed for the detection of total immunoglobulin (Ig) and IgM antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and swine influenza virus (SIV) antigens in feral swine (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were collected from the islands of Oahu (292 pigs) and Hawaii (52 pigs) between 2007 and 2010. The highest antibody prevalence was to PCV2 (63%), followed by SIV (7.8%) and PRRSV (5.8%). Antigen-specific IgM was detected at a much lower prevalence. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of PCV2 in three IgM-positive samples identified PCV2b as the only genotype. While the prevalence of PCV2 and PRRSV remained similar between 2007 and 2010, the percentage of SIV-positive samples on Oahu increased from 2% to 19%. Our results demonstrate the utility of multiplex serology for pathogen surveillance in feral pig populations.
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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Cavidine In Vitro and In Vivo, a Selective COX-2 Inhibitor in LPS-Induced Peritoneal Macrophages of Mouse.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Cavidine is an isoquinoline alkaloid which is isolated from Corydalis impatiens. In traditional Tibetan herb, C. impatiens has been widely used for treatment of skin injuries, hepatitis, cholecystitis, and scabies. The present study aimed to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effect and investigate the mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory action. We used different inflammation model animals and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine peritoneal macrophages to examine the anti-inflammatory function of cavidine. Results indicated pretreatment with cavidine (i.p.) decreased xylene-induced ear edema, formaldehyde-induced paw edema, leukocyte number, and the level of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in acetic acid-induced peritonitis in mice. The data also demonstrated that cavidine significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-?, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and NO production in peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, cavidine regulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) instead of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) at protein levels. These results suggested that cavidine is a selective COX-2 inhibitor which possesses an anti-inflammatory activity.
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Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies by qRT-PCR in the blister beetle Mylabris cichorii.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males.
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Cauda equina-derived extracellular matrix for fabrication of nano-structured hybrid scaffolds applied to neural tissue engineering.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Extracellular matrix (ECM) components have become important candidate materials as neural scaffolds for neural tissue engineering. In this study, we prepared cauda equina-derived ECM material for producing scaffolds. Natural porcine cauda equina was decellularized with use of TritonX-100 and sodium deoxycholate, then physically shattered and made into a suspension by differential centrifugation. The decellularization procedure resulted in the removal of > 94% nuclear material and well preserved the extracellular collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG). Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the presence of collagen type I, laminin, and fibronectin in ECM. Cauda equina ECM was blended with poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to fabricate nano-structured scaffolds by electrospinning. The incorporation of ECM increased the hydrophilicity of scaffolds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multiphoton-induced autofluorescence images showed the presence of ECM in the scaffolds. ECM/PLGA scaffolds were beneficial to the survival of Schwann cells as compared with PLGA-alone scaffolds, and aligned fibers could regulate cell morphologic features by inducing cell orientation. Axons in dorsal root ganglia explants extended to a greater extent along ECM/PLGA than PLGA-alone fibers. Cauda equina ECM may be promising material of scaffolds for neural tissue engineering.
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Enhanced Electrochemical Nanoring Electrode for Analysis of Cytosol in Single Cells.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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A microelectrode array has been applied for single cell analysis with relatively high throughput; however, the cells were typically cultured on the microelectrodes under cell-size microwell traps leading to the difficulty in the functionalization of an electrode surface for higher detection sensitivity. Here, nanoring electrodes embedded under the microwell traps were fabricated to achieve the isolation of the electrode surface and the cell support, and thus, the electrode surface can be modified to obtain enhanced electrochemical sensitivity for single cell analysis. Moreover, the nanometer-sized electrode permitted a faster diffusion of analyte to the surface for additional improvement in the sensitivity, which was evidenced by the electrochemical characterization and the simulation. To demonstrate the concept of the functionalized nanoring electrode for single cell analysis, the electrode surface was deposited with prussian blue to detect intracellular hydrogen peroxide at a single cell. Hundreds of picoamperes were observed on our functionalized nanoring electrode exhibiting the enhanced electrochemical sensitivity. The success in the achievement of a functionalized nanoring electrode will benefit the development of high throughput single cell electrochemical analysis.
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Baseline Factors Associated with Mortality within Six Months after Admission among Hospitalized HIV-1 Patients in Shenyang, China.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Objective Short-term mortality rates remain high among critically ill human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients though long-term mortality rates have dropped. Baseline risk factors for short-term mortality have not yet been determined in China. In this paper, we herein describe clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, causes of clinical deterioration, and risk factors associated with mortality among HIV-1 patients within six months after hospital admission. Methods We carried out a prospective study of hospitalized patients in advanced stages of HIV infection. These patients started antiretroviral therapy three or four weeks after admission. Follow-up was conducted for a period of six months. We used a multivariate logistic-regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 141 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age was 41 years. Fever and weight loss were the most common clinical manifestations of advanced HIV disease. Oral candidiasis, tuberculosis, cytomegaloviremia, and pneumocystis pneumonia were the most common opportunistic infections. Significantly decreased CD4+ T-cell counts, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, hyponatremia, as well as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutamic alanine transaminase levels were common laboratory test abnormalities. The mortality rate was 21.3%. The patients who died were more likely than the survivors to have low CD4+ T-cell counts as well as low creatinine, hemoglobin, albumin, and serum sodium levels while also having longer intervals of fever and higher CRP levels. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the independent risk factors for mortality were active tuberculosis [odds ratio (OR): 2.681; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.006-7.142; p=0.049], hyponatremia (OR: 3.027; 95% CI, 1.238-7.401; p=0.015), and being at clinical stage 4 (as defined by the World Health Organization) (OR: 9.492; 95% CI, 1.200-75.065; p=0.033) within the first six months of admission. Conclusion Special consideration should be given to patients who have active tuberculosis, are at clinical stage 4, and present with hyponatremia upon admission as these were found to be important factors associated with mortality within six months of hospital admission in HIV-1 patients.
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P32 Is a Novel Target for ICP34.5 of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, and Facilitates Viral Nuclear Egress.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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As a large double-stranded DNA virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) assembles capsids in the nucleus where the viral particles exit by budding through the inner nuclear membrane. Although a number of viral and host proteins are involved, the machinery of viral egress is not well understood. In search for host interacting proteins of ICP34.5 which is a virulence factor of HSV-1, we identify a cellular protein p32 (gC1qR/HABP1) by Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis. When expressed, ICP34.5 associates with p32 in mammalian cells. Upon HSV-1 infection, p32 is recruited to the inner nuclear membrane by ICP34.5, which parallels with the phosphorylation and rearrangement of nuclear lamina. Knock-down of p32 in HSV-1-infected cells significantly reduces the production of cell-free viruses, suggesting that p32 is a mediator of HSV-1 nuclear egress. These observations suggest that the interaction between HSV-1 ICP34.5 and p32 leads to the disintegration of nuclear lamina and facilitates the nuclear egress of HSV-1 particles.
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RING Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) Derepresses Gene Expression from DNA Methylation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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RNF4 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase originally identified as a transcription co-activator. The mechanism how RNF4 promotes transcription remains unclear. In this study, I found that RNF4 antagonizes transcriptional repression mediated by DNA methylation. RNF4 does not promote DNA demethylation, but mediates the ubiquitination of MeCP2, a Methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) protein. Removal of MeCP2 from gene promoters activates transcription. This study thus not only uncovers how RNF4 functions as a transcription activator, but also reveals the mechanism how MeCP2 protein stability is regulated.
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy with right ventricular sense triggered left ventricular pacing for chronic congestive heart failure.
Cardiol J
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To investigate the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with right ventricular sense triggered left ventricular pacing for chronic heart failure (CHF).
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Nitric oxide negatively regulates AKT1-mediated potassium uptake through modulating vitamin B6 homeostasis in Arabidopsis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Nitric oxide (NO), an active signaling molecule in plants, is involved in numerous physiological processes and adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Under high-salt conditions, plants accumulate NO quickly, and reorganize Na(+) and K(+) contents. However, the molecular connection between NO and ion homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we report that NO lowers K(+) channel AKT1-mediated plant K(+) uptake by modulating vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In a screen for Arabidopsis NO-hypersensitive mutants, we isolated sno1 (sensitive to nitric oxide 1), which is allelic to the previously noted mutant sos4 (salt overly sensitive 4) that has impaired Na(+) and K(+) contents and overproduces pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), an active form of vitamin B6. We showed that NO increased PLP and decreased K(+) levels in plant. NO induced SNO1 gene expression and enzyme activity, indicating that NO-triggered PLP accumulation mainly occurs through SNO1-mediated vitamin B6 salvage biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PLP significantly repressed the activity of K(+) channel AKT1 in the Xenopus oocyte system and Arabidopsis root protoplasts. Together, our results suggest that NO decreases K(+) absorption by promoting the synthesis of vitamin B6 PLP, which further represses the activity of K(+) channel AKT1 in Arabidopsis. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pivotal role of NO in modulating the homeostasis of vitamin B6 and potassium nutrition in plants, and shed light on the mechanism of NO in plant acclimation to environmental changes.
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Combined In vivo Optical and µCT Imaging to Monitor Infection, Inflammation, and Bone Anatomy in an Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Mice.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Multimodality imaging has emerged as a common technological approach used in both preclinical and clinical research. Advanced techniques that combine in vivo optical and ?CT imaging allow the visualization of biological phenomena in an anatomical context. These imaging modalities may be especially useful to study conditions that impact bone. In particular, orthopaedic implant infections are an important problem in clinical orthopaedic surgery. These infections are difficult to treat because bacterial biofilms form on the foreign surgically implanted materials, leading to persistent inflammation, osteomyelitis and eventual osteolysis of the bone surrounding the implant, which ultimately results in implant loosening and failure. Here, a mouse model of an infected orthopaedic prosthetic implant was used that involved the surgical placement of a Kirschner-wire implant into an intramedullary canal in the femur in such a way that the end of the implant extended into the knee joint. In this model, LysEGFP mice, a mouse strain that has EGFP-fluorescent neutrophils, were employed in conjunction with a bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus strain, which naturally emits light. The bacteria were inoculated into the knee joints of the mice prior to closing the surgical site. In vivo bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging was used to quantify the bacterial burden and neutrophil inflammatory response, respectively. In addition, ?CT imaging was performed on the same mice so that the 3D location of the bioluminescent and fluorescent optical signals could be co-registered with the anatomical ?CT images. To quantify the changes in the bone over time, the outer bone volume of the distal femurs were measured at specific time points using a semi-automated contour based segmentation process. Taken together, the combination of in vivo bioluminescent/fluorescent imaging with ?CT imaging may be especially useful for the noninvasive monitoring of the infection, inflammatory response and anatomical changes in bone over time.
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Molecular Links between Caloric Restriction and Sir2/SIRT1 Activation.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Ageing is the most significant risk factor for a range of prevalent diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, interventions are needed for delaying or preventing disorders associated with the ageing process, i.e., promotion of healthy ageing. Calorie restriction is the only nongenetic and the most robust approach to slow the process of ageing in evolutionarily divergent species, ranging from yeasts, worms, and flies to mammals. Although it has been known for more than 80 years that calorie restriction increases lifespan, a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon remains elusive. Yeast silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases, and its mammalian homologue Sir2-like protein 1 (SIRT1), have been suggested to promote survival and longevity of organisms. SIRT1 exerts protective effects against a number of age-associated disorders. Caloric restriction increases both Sir2 and SIRT1 activity. This review focuses on the mechanistic insights between caloric restriction and Sir2/SIRT1 activation. A number of molecular links, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide, biotin, and related metabolites, are suggested to be the most important conduits mediating caloric restriction-induced Sir2/SIRT1 activation and lifespan extension.
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A Visco-Hyperelastic Constitutive Model for Human Spine Ligaments.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Human spine ligaments show a highly non-linear, strain rate dependent biomechanical behavior under tensile tests. A visco-hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model was accordingly developed for human ligaments, in which the energy density function is decomposed into two parts. The first part represents the elastic strain energy stored in the soft tissue, and the second part denotes the energy dissipated due to its inherent viscous characteristics. The model is applied to various human spinal ligaments including the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, ligamentum flavum, capsular ligament, and interspinous ligament. Material parameters for each type of ligament were obtained by curve-fitting with corresponding experimental data available in the literature. The results indicate that the model presented here can properly characterize the visco-hyperelastic biomechanical behavior of human spine ligaments.
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Graphitic carbon nitride solid nanofilms for selective and recyclable sensing of Cu(2+) and Ag(+) in water and serum.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Herein we report the fabrication of g-C3N4 nanofilms and their application as a solid fluorescence sensor. The as-prepared films are capable of convenient, sensitive, selective, rapid and recyclable sensing of Cu(2+) and Ag(+) in water and serum, indicating the sensor's potential application in disease diagnosis. Attractively, our sensor is able to differentiate Cu(2+) and Ag(+) by making use of their different adsorption and desorption kinetics during the interaction with g-C3N4 nanofilms.
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NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Essential for Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The innate immune response is important in paraquat-induced acute lung injury, but the exact pathways involved are not elucidated. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the process. Acute lung injury was induced by administering paraquat (PQ) intraperitoneally. NLRP3 inflammasome including NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue and IL-1? and IL-18 levels in BALF were detected at 4, 8, 24, and 72 h after PQ administration in rats. Moreover, rats were pretreated with 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg NLRP3 inflammasome blocker glybenclamide, respectively, 1 h before PQ exposure. At 72 h after PQ administration, lung histopathology changes, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 protein expression, as well as secretion of cytokines including IL-1? and IL-18 in BALF were investigated. The NLRP3 inflammasome including NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 expression, and cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 levels in PQ poisoning rats were significantly higher than that in the control group. NLRP3 inflammasome blocker glybenclamide pretreatment attenuated lung edema, inhibited the NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 activation, and reduced IL-1? and IL-18 levels in BALF. In the in vitro experiments, IL-1? and IL-18 secreted from RAW264.7 mouse macrophages treated with paraquat were attenuated by glybenclamide. In conclusion, paraquat can induce IL-1?/IL-18 secretion via NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 pathway, and the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for paraquat-induced acute lung injury.
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The C-terminal elongation of NS1 of H9N2 influenza virus induces a high level of inflammatory cytokines and increases transmission.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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H9N2 avian influenza viruses are enzootic around the world, and can infect many different avian and mammalian hosts, including humans. Unlike the H9N2 viruses, which mainly originated in other countries and possess an non-structural protein 1( NS1) of 230 amino acids (aa), 98% of the H9N2 viruses isolated in China lack the 13 aa at the C-terminus of NS1 (217 aa in total). The biological significance of NS1 elongation remains elusive. In the current study, reverse genetics was used to generate a wild-type avian influenza H9N2 virus containing a 217 aa NS1 (H9N2NS1217) and two mutant viruses with elongated NS1s of 230 aa and 237 aa (H9N2NS1230 and H9N2NS1237), in order to examine the effect NS1 C-terminal elongation in the influenza virus. The C-terminal elongation of NS1 did not have significant impact on virus replication in MDCK or DF-1 cells. Although the three variants exhibited similar replicability in mice, the H9N2NS1230 and H9N2NS1237 up-regulated the level of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, both the H9N2NS1230 and H9N2NS1237 viruses increased replication and induced a high level of inflammatory cytokines and transmission in chickens, compared to the wild-type virus. These findings suggest that the NS1 extension conferred a gain of fitness to some extent.
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Immunosuppression for 6-8 weeks after modified donor lymphocyte infusion reduced acute graft-versus-host disease without influencing graft-versus-leukemia effect in haploidentical transplant.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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In haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the duration of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after modified donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was the only risk factor of DLI-associated grades 3-4 acute GVHD. However, the successful application of modified DLI depended not only on the reduction of severe GVHD, but also on the preservation of graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Therefore, this study was performed to compare the impact of prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks and prophylaxis for <6 weeks on GVL effect after modified DLI in haploidentical HSCT.
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[Comparison of radial versus femoral approach for percutaneous coronary intervention in octogenarians with acute coronary syndrome].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To evaluate the prognostic effects of radial artery access (RA) versus femoral artery access (FA) in octogenarians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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Novel (19)F Activatable Probe for the Detection of Matrix Metalloprotease-2 Activity by MRI/MRS.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have been found to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumor tissues. Noninvasive visualization of MMP activity may play an important role in the diagnosis of MMP associated diseases. Here we report the design and synthesis of a set of fluorine-19 dendron-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes for real-time imaging of MMP-2 activity. The probes have the following features: (a) symmetrical fluorine atoms; (b) the number of fluorine atoms can be increased through facile chemical modification; (c) readily accessible peptide sequence as the MMP-2 substrate; (d) activatable (19)F signal (off/on mode) via paramagnetic metal ion incorporation. Following optimization for water solubility, one of the probes was selected to evaluate MMP-2 activity by (19)F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our results showed that the fluorine signal increased by 8.5-fold in the presence of MMP-2. The specific cleavage site was verified by mass spectrometry. The selected probe was further applied to detect secreted MMP-2 activity of living SCC7 squamous cell carcinoma cells. The fluorine signal was increased by 4.8-fold by MRS analysis after 24 h incubation with SCC7 cells. This type of fluorine probe can be applied to evaluate other enzyme activities by simply tuning the substrate structures. This symmetrical fluorine dendron-based probe design extends the scope of the existing (19)F MRI agents and provides a simple but robust method for real-time (19)F MRI application.
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BrMYB4, a suppressor of genes for phenylpropanoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, is downregulated by UV-B but not by pigment-inducing sunlight in turnip cv. Tsuda.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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The regulation of light-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis in Brassica rapa subsp. rapa cv. Tsuda turnip was investigated using an EMS-induced mutant R30 with light-independent pigmentation. TILLING and subsequent analysis showed that a stop codon was inserted in the R2R3-MYB transcription factor BrMYB4 and that the encoded protein (BrMYB4mu) had lost its C-terminal region. In R30, anthocyanin accumulated in the underground portion of the storage root of 2-mo-old plants. In 4-d-old seedlings and 2-mo-old plants, expression of BrMYB4 was similar between R30 and wild type (WT), but the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene (BrC4H) was enhanced markedly in R30 in the dark. In turnip seedlings, BrMYB4 expression was suppressed by UV-B irradiation in the WT, but this negative regulation was absent in R30. Concomitantly, BrC4H was repressed by UV-B irradiation in the WT, but stayed at high levels in R30. A gel-shift assay revealed that BrMYB4 could directly bind to the promoter region of BrC4H, but BrMYB4mu could not. The BrMYB4-eGFP protein could enter the nucleus in the presence of BrSAD2 (an importin ?-like protein) nuclear transporter, but BrMYB4mu-eGFP could not. These results showed that BrMYB4 functions as a negative transcriptional regulator of BrC4H and mediates UV-B-dependent phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, while BrMYB4mu has lost this function. In the storage roots, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes was enhanced in R30 in the dark and in sunlight in both the WT and R30. However, in the WT, anthocyanin-inducing sunlight did not suppress BrMYB4 expression. Therefore, sunlight-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis does not seem to be regulated by BrMYB4.
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Late onset temperature reduction can retard aging process in aged fish via a combined action of antioxidant system and IIS pathway.
Rejuvenation Res
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Two different mechanisms are considered to be related with aging. Cumulative molecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, is one of these mechanisms (ROS concept). Deregulated nutrient sensing by insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway is the second mechanism (IIS concept). Temperature reduction (TR) is known to modulate aging and prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we first demonstrate that late onset TR from 26oC to 22oC extends mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 5.2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We then show that TR is able to decrease the accumulation of histological aging markers senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) in the epithelium and lipofuscin (LF) in the liver, and to reduce the protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscle. We also show that TR can enhance the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and stimulate the synthesis of SirT1 and FOXO, both of which are the downstream regulator of IIS pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that late onset TR, a simple non-intrusion intervention, can retard aging process in aged fish, resulting in their lifespan extension, via a synergistic action of antioxidant system and IIS pathway. This also suggests that combined assessment of ROS concept and IIS concept will contribute to providing more comprehensive view of anti-aging process.
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High-yield synthesis and crystal structure of a green Au30 cluster co-capped by thiolate and sulfide.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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A green gold-cluster, Au30S(StBu)18, was successfully prepared in high yield and crystallographically characterized. Each cluster consists of an Au22 core capped by a mixed layer of staple Au-thiolate units, bridging thiolates and a ?3-S(2-).
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Atorvastatin Inhibits CD68 Expression in Aortic Root Through a GRP78-Involved Pathway.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a chaperone protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Previous studies have suggested that statins favorably affect ER stress by upregulating GRP78. This study was designed to investigate whether the anti-atherosclerotic effect of atorvastatin is modulated by a GRP78-involved pathway.
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Non-specific physiological background effects of acupuncture revealed by proteomic analysis in normal rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The total effects of adequate real acupuncture treatment consist of pathologic-specific and non-specific physiological effects. The latter may be the fundamental component of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. This study investigated the physiological background effects of acupuncture in normal rats treated with acupuncture.
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[The risk factors of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders following haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is rare but severe. Risk factors including pre-HSCT exposure variables, conditioning regimens, transplant-related complications, and post-HSCT immune reconstitution were investigated in the development of PTLD after allo-HSCT.
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Association of interferon-?-induced protein-10 serum levels with virological responses to PEG-interferon-based therapy in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 or 2 chronically infected Chinese patients.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Abstract Objective. Interferon (IFN)-?-induced protein-10 (IP-10) serum level has been shown be associated with viral response in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. However, little is known in Chinese population. We determined IP-10 serum levels in Chinese CHC patients undergoing PEG-IFN-based therapy. Predictive role of IP-10 level for virological responses was accessed. Material and methods. IP-10 serum levels were determined in 165 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 33 genotype 2 patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to screen independent factors for sustained virological response (SVR) prediction. Predictive value of IP-10 level in combination with interleukin 28B (IL28B) genotype or rapid virological response was further investigated. Results. Our study showed that pretreatment IP-10 level was significantly higher in HCV genotype 1 patients. IP-10 levels were independently predictive for SVR with cut-off values of 250.60 pg/ml at baseline or 407.40 pg/ml at week 4. Positive predictive value (PPV) for SVR of low IP-10 level at baseline and IL28B CC genotype was 96.15% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 50.00%. PPV for SVR of low IP-10 level at week 4 and rapid viral response (RVR) was 95.24% and NPV was 50.00%. Conclusion. Together our study indicated that higher IP-10 serum levels were associated with HCV genotype 1 CHC Chinese patients. IP-10 levels at baseline and week 4 were both predictive of SVR and improved predictive performances of IL28B genotype and RVR for SVR.
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Blood pressure and renal function decline: a 7-year prospective cohort study in middle-aged rural Chinese men and women.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The most recent guidelines for the management of hypertension (Eighth Joint National Committee) indicate the need of more evidence for hypertensive persons aged below 60 years. We sought to examine the relationship between baseline blood pressure (BP) and renal function decline in a 7-year prospective cohort study of 2383 rural Chinese men and women aged 40-60 years.
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A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive.
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Identification and Characterization of a Tyramine-Glutamate Ligase (MfnD) Involved in Methanofuran Biosynthesis.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Methanofuran is the first in a series of coenzymes involved in the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. All methanofuran structural variants contain a basic core structure of 4-[N-(?-l-glutamyl-?-l-glutamyl)-p-(?-aminoethyl)phenoxymethyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan (APMF-(Glu)2) with different attached side chains depending on the source organism. Recently, we discovered the biosynthetic route for the production of 5-(aminomethyl)-3-furanmethanol-phosphate (F1-P), a precursor to the furan moiety of methanofuran. However, how the ?-linked glutamates are incorporated into methanofuran's structure remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of an ATP-grasp enzyme encoded by the gene Mefer_1180 in Methanocaldococcus fervens (the homologue of MJ0815 in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, annotated as MfnD) that catalyzes the ATP-dependent addition of one glutamate to tyramine via a ?-linked amide bond. The occurrence of this reaction is consistent with the presence of ?-glutamyltyramine in cell extracts of M. jannaschii. Our steady-state kinetic analysis of the recombinant enzyme showed that MfnD exhibits a catalytic ability comparable to other ATP-grasp enzymes such as the Escherichia coli glutathione synthetase (GS), with a similar apparent kcat and KM. In addition, its activity is divalent metal-dependent, with the highest activity observed with Mn(2+). The previously solved crystal structure of MfnD from Archaeoglobus fulgidus exhibits a classical ATP-grasp fold with three structural domains; the ATP-binding and metal-binding motifs are conserved in MfnD as seen in other ATP-grasp enzymes. We used site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis to demonstrate that Arg251 is an important residue for both catalysis and glutamate binding. By comparing the active site of MfnD with GS and by molecular docking substrates to the MfnD active site, we predicted the possible glutamate- and tyramine-binding pocket. This is the first report describing the enzymology of the incorporation of the initial l-glutamate molecule into the methanofuran structure. It also provides the first example of an ATP-grasp enzyme activating the ?-carboxylate of glutamate as substrate.
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Stable 4 V-class bicontinuous cathodes by hierarchically porous carbon coating on Li3V2(PO4)3 nanospheres.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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A high performance, durable cathode material for lithium ion batteries is achieved by incorporating ?50 nm Li3V2(PO4)3/C core-shell nanospheres into a porous carbon framework. The Li3V2(PO4)3/C nanocomposite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 130 mA h g(-1), approaching its theoretical limit (133 mA h g(-1)). At a high current rate (10 C), the nanocomposite displays an impressive long cycle life and remarkable capacity retention (90% after 1200 cycles). Notably, the Coulombic efficiency is above 99% during the course of cycling. The remarkable power capability and cycle stability derived from our simple and scalable synthesis suggests that this 4 V-class material could be one of the most promising candidates for future batteries.
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Inhibiting the Th17/IL-17A-Related Inflammatory Responses With Digoxin Confers Protection Against Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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T helper 17 cells and interleukin-17A have been implicated in the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma thymus, the master transcription factor of T helper 17 cell differentiation, is selectively antagonized by digoxin. However, the effect of antagonizing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma thymus on AAA has not been investigated.
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The effect of tumor size on the imaging diagnosis: a study based on simulation.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in early diagnosis of tumors. Though standardized uptake value (SUV) is a common diagnosis index for PET, it will be affected by the size of the tumor. To explore how the tumor size affects imaging diagnosis index, dynamic PET images were simulated to study the relationship between tumor size and the imaging diagnosis index. It was found that the SUV of the region of the tumor varied with scan time, and the SUV was always lower than the true value of tumor. Even more deviations were found in SUV with a reduced tumor size. The diagnosis index SUV(max) was more reliable than SUV, for it declined only when the volume of tumor was less than 3 mm(3). Therefore, the effect of tumor size on the SUV and SUV(max) that are used as diagnosis indices in the early diagnosis of tumors should not be neglected.
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Dynamic biometric identification from multiple views using the GLBP-TOP method.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To realize effective and rapid dynamic biometric identification with low computational complexity, a video-based facial texture program that extracts local binary patterns from three orthogonal planes in the frequency domain of the Gabor transform (GLBP-TOP) was proposed. Firstly, each normalized face was transformed by Gabor wavelet to get the enhanced Gabor magnitude map, and then the LBP-TOP operator was applied to the maps to extract video texture. Finally, weighted Chi square statistics based on the Fisher Criterion were used to realize the identification. The proposed algorithm was proved effective through the biometric experiments using the Honda/UCSD database, and was robust against changes of illumination and expressions.
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Myricetin prevents fibrillogenesis of hen egg white lysozyme.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Myricetin is a natural flavonol found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, and herbs as well as other plants. Recent studies have identified potential antiamyloidogenic activity for this compound. In this study, the kinetics of amyloid fibril formation by hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and the antifibril-forming activity of myricetin were investigated. We demonstrate that myricetin significantly inhibits the fibrillation of HEWL and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect toward HEWL fibrillation was stronger than that exerted by the previously characterized fibril-forming inhibitor quercetin, which has high structural similarity with myricetin. Spectrofluorometric and computational studies suggest that the mechanism underlying the inhibitory action of myricetin at a molecular level is to reduce the population of partially unfolded HEWL intermediates. This action is achieved by the tight binding of myricetin to the aggregation-prone region of the ?-domain of HEWL and linking to the relatively stable ?-domain, thus resulting in the inhibition of amyloid fibril formation.
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[In vitro effect of photoactivated hypericin on anti-Schistosoma japonicum adult male worms].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To investigate the in vitro effect of photoactivated hypericin on anti-Schistosoma japonicum adult male worms.
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Restless legs syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: effectiveness of pramipexole therapy.
BMJ Support Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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We investigated the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and assessed the efficacy of pramipexole therapy.
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Analysis on the Interaction Domain of VirG and Apyrase by Pull-Down Assay.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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VirG is outer membrane protein of Shigella and affects the spread of Shigella. Recently it has been reported that apyrase influences the location of VirG, although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The site of interaction between apyrase and VirG is the focus of our research. First we constructed recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and pS-(v1-1102, v53-758, v759-1102, v53-319, v320-507, v507-758) by denaturation-renaturation, the phoN2:kan mutant of Shigella flexneri 5a M90T by a modified version of the lambda red recombination protocol originally described by Datsenko and Wanner and the complemented strain M90T?phoN2/pET24a(PhisphoN2). Second, the recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and the pS-(v1-1102, v53-758, v759-1102, v53-319, v320-507, v507-758) were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) and induced to express the fusion proteins. Third, the fusion proteins were purified and the interaction of VirG and apyrase was identified by pull-down. Fourth, VirG was divided and the interaction site of apyrase and VirG was determined. Finally, how apyrase affects the function of VirG was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, the results provided the data supporting the fact that apyrase combines with the ?-domain of VirG to influence the function of VirG.
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[Construction and application of plasmid pVAX-HBVE harboring hepatitis B surface antibody targeted interferon and interleukin 12 genes].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective To construct a new gene therapy plasmid that can express both hepatitis B surface antibody(HBsAb) targeted interferon (dsFv?) and human interleukin 12 (hIL-12) genes for the immunotherapy of chronic hepatitis B. Methods The pEE14.1-dsFv? plasmid was digested to obtain dsFv? fragment, and then the fragment was cloned into the upstream of IRES sequence in vector pVAX-IRES-hIL-12 digested by the same enzyme to construct the recombinant expression plasmid pVAX-HBVE. The recombinant plasmid was transiently transfected into the HEK293T cells and the expression of target gene was detected by ELISA. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-HBVE was extracted and injected into the leg muscles of HBV transgenic mice with electroporation delivery. The HBV gene copies were detected by quantitative PCR before and after injection. Results Enzyme digestion and sequencing analysis showed that the recombinant plasmid pVAX-HBVE was constructed as expected before. ELISA showed that dsFv? gene and IL-12 gene were successfully expressed in the supernatant of transfected cells. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-HBVE (30 ?g, once) reduced the HBV gene copy by two orders of magnitude after being injected into transgenic mice. Conclusion The neo-type immune gene therapy plasmid was successfully constructed, which would provide an alternative for immune gene therapy of chronic hepatitis B.
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[Association between complementary feeding frequency and growth of infants and young children aged 6 -24 months old in urban and rural areas of southwest China].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To study the association between complementary feeding frequency (CFF) and growth of infants and young children.
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Mesenchymal stem cells for treating articular cartilage defects and osteoarthritis.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Articular cartilage damage and osteoarthritis are the most common joint diseases. Joints are prone to damage caused by sports injuries or aging, and such damage regularly progresses to more serious joint disorders, including osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative disease characterized by the thinning and eventual wearing-out of articular cartilage, ultimately leading to joint destruction. Osteoarthritis affects millions of people worldwide. Current approaches to repair of articular cartilage damage include mosaicplasty, microfracture, and injection of autologous chondrocytes. These treatments relieve pain and improve joint function, but the long-term results are unsatisfactory. The long-term success of cartilage repair depends on development of regenerative methodologies that restore articular cartilage to a near-native state. Two promising approaches are (i) implantation of engineered constructs of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-seeded scaffolds, and (ii) delivery of an appropriate population of MSCs by direct intra-articular injection. MSCs may be used as trophic producers of bioactive factors initiating regenerative activities in a defective joint. Current challenges in MSC therapy are the need to overcome current limitations in cartilage cell purity, and to in vitro engineer tissue structures exhibiting the required biomechanical properties. This review outlines the current status of MSCs used in cartilage tissue engineering, and in cell therapy seeking to repair articular cartilage defects and related problems. MSC-based technologies show promise when used to repair cartilage defects in joints.
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Serum parathyroid hormone as a potential novel biomarker of coronary heart disease.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and coronary heart disease (CHD).
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Two new dimeric naphthoquinones with neuraminidase inhibitory activity from Lithospermum erythrorhizon.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The crude methanol extract of roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon was subjected to successive chromatographic fractionation which afforded two new dimeric naphthoquinone derivatives shikometabolin E (2) and shikometabolin F (3) as well as one known compound shikometabolin A (1). The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by using UV, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The two new dimeric naphthoquinone derivatives showed significant neuraminidase inhibitory activities.
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Biogeographical distribution of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria in Chinese wetland ecosystems.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation with nitrite as electron acceptor mediated by 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' connected the biogeochemical carbon and nitrogen cycle in a new way. However, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding about the distribution of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in the terrestrial realm, especially the wetland ecosystems that are known as the largest natural source of atmospheric methane. Here, our molecular evidence demonstrated that a wide geographical distribution of M. oxyfera-like bacteria at oxic/anoxic interfaces of various wetlands (n = 91) over the Chinese territory. Intriguingly, the M. oxyfera-like bacteria were detected in some extreme environments, indicating that M. oxyfera-like bacteria occupied a wide range of habitats. Quantitative PCR estimated that the abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria ranged from 2.2 ×10(3) to 2.3×10(7) copies g(-1) dry soil, and up to around 0.62 % of the total number of bacteria. Moreover, the M. oxyfera-like bacteria showed high biodiversity in wetland ecosystems based on the analysis of 462 pmoA and 287 16S rRNA gene sequences. The current study revealed the widespread distribution and biogeography of M. oxyfera-like bacteria in the terrestrial system.
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Haploidentical stem cell transplantation for the treatment of leukemia: current status.
Expert Rev Hematol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT), either with T-cell depletion or T-cell replete, has been a reliable source of stem cells for patients with high-risk leukemia who do not have matched donors because it provides comparable outcomes to human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling donor transplantation, unrelated donor transplantation and umbilical cord blood transplantation. Factors, such as the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index, associated with transplant outcomes may help us design risk-stratification-directed intervention to improve the prognosis of leukemia patients. Preliminary results of novel protocols, including co-transplant of haploidentical allografts and cord blood, as well as human leukocyte antigen-mismatched stem cell microtransplantation, for leukemia have shown that these approaches are feasible. Several strategies for enhancing the graft-versus-leukemia effects significantly decreased the relapse rate after haplo-SCT. Future direction of research will focus on perfecting available haplo-SCT protocols and determining the optimal time of haplo-SCT for leukemia and 'fit' haploidentical transplant candidates.
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[A cross sectional survey on the prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis in three 'key' elderly population].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To conduct a survey on the prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis among 65 year olds or above. Study subjects would include those with characteristics of TB suspicious symptoms, diabetes and close contacts.
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Understanding the Kondo resonance in the d-CoPc/Au(111) adsorption system.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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By combining the density functional theory (DFT) and a hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach, we investigate the Kondo phenomena in a composite system consisting of a dehydrogenated cobalt phthalocyanine molecule (d-CoPc) adsorbed on an Au(111) surface. DFT calculations are performed to determine the ground-state geometric and electronic structures of the adsorption system. It is found that the singly occupied dz(2) orbital of Co forms a localized spin, which could be screened by the substrate conduction electrons. This screening leads to the prominent Kondo features as observed in the scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We then employ the HEOM approach to characterize the Kondo correlations of the adsorption system. The calculated temperature-dependent differential conductance spectra and the predicted Kondo temperature agree well with the experiments, and the universal Kondo scaling behavior is correctly reproduced. This work thus provides important insights into the relevant experiments, and it also highlights the applicability of the combined DFT+HEOM approach to the studies of strongly correlated condensed matter systems.
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Reactive oxygen species promote ovarian cancer progression via the HIF-1?/LOX/E-cadherin pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can drive the de?differentiation of tumor cells leading to the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to enhance invasion and metastasis. The invasive and metastatic phenotype of malignant cells is often linked to loss of E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of EMT. Recent studies have demonstrated that hypoxic exposure causes HIF-1-dependent repression of E-cadherin. However, the mechanism by which ROS and/or HIF suppresses E-cadherin expression remains less clear. In the present study, we found that ROS accumulation in ovarian carcinoma cells upregulated HIF-1? expression and subsequent transcriptional induction of lysyl oxidase (LOX) which repressed E-cadherin. Loss of E-cadherin facilitated ovarian cancer (OC) cell migration in vitro and promoted tumor growth in vivo. E-cadherin immunoreactivity correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis. Negative E-cadherin expression along with FIGO stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis significantly predicted for a lower 5-year survival rate. These findings suggest that ROS play an important role in the initiation of metastatic growth of OC cells and support a molecular pathway from ROS to aggressive transformation which involves upregulation of HIF-1? and its downstream target LOX to suppress E-cadherin expression leading to an increase in cell motility and invasiveness.
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C5a promotes the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The anaphylatoxin C5a is a chemoattractant that can induce various inflammatory responses in vivo via the C5a receptor (C5aR). There is emerging evidence that C5a is generated in the cancer microenvironment. However, the role of C5a in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains largely unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the direct influence of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells were studied in vitro, and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)?mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acetylation and its role in regulating the proliferation of NPC cells was subsequently explored. Our results demonstrated that C5a stimulation increased the proliferation of human NPC cells in vitro. STAT3 acetylation was further found to be enhanced in human NPC cells induced by C5a. Moreover, PCAF induction was required for STAT3 acetylation in human NPC cells by exposure to C5a. Functionally, PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation contributed to the proliferation of human NPC cells stimulated by C5a. These results illustrate the novel activity of the C5a-C5aR axis that promotes human NPC cell proliferation through PCAF?mediated STAT3 acetylation. This may provide a potential strategy for treating human NPC through inhibition of C5a or its receptors.
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Protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection against learning and memory impairments in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection against learning and memory impairment in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanism involved. Sprague Dawley male rats (n=30) were randomized into three groups: Diabetes, diabetes treated with S. miltiorrhiza injection and normal control. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg). The S. miltiorrhiza injection-treated rats received an intraperitoneal injection of S. miltiorrhiza (5 ml/kg/day) while the rats of the other two groups were administered an intraperitoneal injection of the same volume of 0.9% saline for four weeks. After four weeks of treatment, the escape latency and search strategies in the rats were assessed by the Morris water maze test. The protein levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, the body weight of the diabetic rats was significantly lower and the blood glucose concentration was significantly higher than that of the control rats. S. miltiorrhiza injection was observed to improve the blood glucose and learning ability (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of MKP-1 was significantly decreased in the hippocampal area of the diabetes group; S. miltiorrhiza injection-treated rats showed an increased expression compared with the diabetic rats, but the expression remained lower than that of the normal control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, S. miltiorrhiza injection can improve the learning and memory decline of diabetic rats. The changes in expression of MKP-1 under hyperglycemia may play a role in the protective effects of S. miltiorrhiza against dementia in diabetic rats.
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Using gold nanoparticles as probe for detection of salmeterol xinafoate by resonance Rayleigh light scattering.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The paper explores the method of determination of salmeterol xinafoate at nanogram level with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) probe, to measure the intensity of resonance Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) by a common spectrofluorometer. The RLS intensity of salmeterol xinafoate was greatly enhanced by AuNPs, with the maximum scattering peak at 357 nm. The salmeterol xinafoate was determined basing on the binding of salmeterol xinafoate to AuNPs by electrostatic adsorption. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced RLS intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of salmeterol xinafoate in the range of 0.054-6.038 ?g mL(-1) with a good linear relationship (r=0.9928). The limit of detection (LOD) was 9.48 ng mL(-1). The interference tests were performed carefully. With the proposed method, the synthetic samples were analyzed satisfactorily, the recovery and RSD were 102.5-103.0% and 0.67-1.0% respectively.
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Measurement of serum antibodies against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA: A guide for the treatment of specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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NY-ESO-1 has been identified as one of the most immunogenic antigens; thus, is a highly attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. The present study analyzed the expression of serum antibodies (Abs) against NY-ESO-1 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), with the aim of guiding the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific-immunotherapy for these patients. Furthermore, the present study was the first to evaluate the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 239 serum samples from 155 pathologically confirmed patients with advanced CRC (stages III and IV) were collected. The presence of spontaneous Abs against NY-ESO-1 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that 24.5% (38/155) of the investigated patients were positive for NY-ESO-1-specific Abs. No statistically significant correlations were identified between the expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and clinicopathological parameters, including age and gender, location, grading, local infiltration, lymph node status, metastatic status and K-ras mutation status (P>0.05). In 59 patients, the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs was analyzed, of which 14 patients were initially positive and 45 patients were initially negative. Notably, 16/59 (27.1%) patients changed their expression status during the study period, and the initially positive patients were more likely to change compared with the initially negative patients (85.7 vs. 8.8%; P<0.001). Therefore, monitoring serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA is an easy and feasible method. The high expression rate of NY-ESO-1-specific Abs in CRC patients indicates that measuring the levels of serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 may guide the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced CRC.
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Identifying tips for intramolecular NC-AFM imaging via in situ fingerprinting.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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A practical experimental strategy is proposed that could potentially enable greater control of the tip apex in non-contact atomic force microscopy experiments. It is based on a preparation of a structure of interest alongside a reference surface reconstruction on the same sample. Our proposed strategy is as follows. Spectroscopy measurements are first performed on the reference surface to identify the tip apex structure using a previously collected database of responses of different tips to this surface. Next, immediately following the tip identification protocol, the surface of interest is studied (imaging, manipulation and/or spectroscopy). The prototype system we choose is the mixed Si(111)-7×7 and surface which can be prepared on the same sample with a controlled ratio of reactive and passivated regions. Using an "in silico" approach based on ab initio density functional calculations and a set of tips with varying chemical reactivities, we show how one can perform tip fingerprinting using the Si(111)-7×7 reference surface. Then it is found by examining the imaging of a naphthalene tetracarboxylic diimide (NTCDI) molecule adsorbed on surface that negatively charged tips produce the best intramolecular contrast attributed to the enhancement of repulsive interactions.
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A review of the extraction and chromatographic determination methods for the analysis of parabens.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Parabens are a family of most widely used antimicrobial preservatives in food ingredients, cosmetic consumer products and pharmaceutical preparations. But several recent studies have cautioned that exposure to parabens may have more harmful consequences on animal and human health than what we realized previously, which made the analysis of parabens necessary. In this paper, we reviewed main sample preparation methods and chromatographic analysis methods proposed in formerly published works dealing with the analysis of parabens in different matrices. The sample preparation methods included ultrasonic assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, liquid phase microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction and matrix solid phase dispersion. The chromatographic analysis methods involved liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis.
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Association of the miR-149 Rs2292832 Polymorphism with Papillary Thyroid Cancer Risk and Clinicopathologic Characteristics in a Chinese Population.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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(1) Background: The genetic predisposition to papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is far from clearly elucidated. Rs2292832 is a genetic polymorphism that located in the precursor of mir-149 and has been studied in diverse cancers. Thus far, the role of rs2292832 in PTC tumorigenesis and progression was unclear; (2) Method: Rs2292832 was genotyped in 838 PTCs, 495 patients with thyroid benign tumors (BNs) and 1006 controls in a Chinese Han population. Clinicopathological data was collected and compared. The expression level of mature mir-149 was examined in 55 normal thyroid tissue samples; (3) Results: The CC genotype of rs2292832 was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTC compared with TT homozygote (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.72-2.20, p = 0.003) and TT/TC combined genotype (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.09, p = 0.005). Rs2292832 is an independent risk factor correlated with tumor invasion (p = 0.006) and higher T stage in PTC patients (p = 0.007), but uncorrelated with short-term disease persistence of PTC. PTC subjects carrying CC genotype have lower mir-149-5p expression than those with TC genotype (p = 0.002). Twelve predicted target genes have been identified by collaboratively using computational tools; (4) Conclusion: Rs2292832 was possibly involved in the susceptibility and local progression of PTC in Chinese patients, by altering the expression level of mir-149-5p and its target genes.
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Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone and triethylamine in an ionic liquid: Time-resolved EPR and transient absorption spectroscopy study.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone (MeAQ) and triethylamine (TEA) in a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]), was investigated by comparing the time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TR-EPR) spectroscopy and the transient absorption spectroscopy. The results of TR-EPR spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 8mmolL(-1) and TEA was 150mmolL(-1), indicated that the transient radical would exist longer time in [bmim][PF6] than in acetonitrile. At the delay time of 8?s after laser excitation, the TR-EPR signal transformed from an emissive peak into an absorptive peak when the experiment was performed in [bmim][PF6]. The results of the transient absorption spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 0.1mmolL(-1) and TEA was 2.2mmolL(-1), showed that the efficiency and the rate of the photoinduced electron transfer reaction in [bmim][PF6] were obviously lower than that in acetonitrile. It was concluded that various factors, such as concentration, viscosity and local structural transformation of the solution, have an influence on the process of photoinduced electron transfer in [bmim][PF6].
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Association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in mature microRNAs and the risk of thyroid tumor in a Chinese population.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in mature miRNAs (mmSNPs), some of which have been linked to cancer risk; however, it is unclear which mmSNPs contribute to the susceptibility to thyroid tumors. In the present study, we examined the influence of selected mmSNPs on the risk of thyroid tumor. After systematic in silico screening, seventeen mmSNPs were identified and genotyped in a Chinese population including 828 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 488 patients with benign thyroid tumor (BN), and 1038 cancer-free controls. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association of SNP genotypes and alleles with the risk of developing PTC and BN. Three SNPs (rs67106263 in mir-3144, GA versus GG, OR = 1.35, 1.09-1.68; rs4919510 in mir-608, CC versus GG/GC, OR = 0.76, 0.60-0.97; and rs79402775 in mir-933, AA versus GG/GA, OR = 1.76, 1.00-3.12) were associated with PTC risk. A combined effect of unfavorable genotypes was observed to give increased PTC risk in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, three SNPs (rs10061133 in mir-449b, rs79402775 in mir-933 and rs4919510 in mir-608) showed at least borderline correlations with the risk of BN. False-positive report probability was assessed for significant findings. The rs67106263 SNP was associated with the expression level of mir-3144 in thyroid tissue. These results indicate that mmSNPs may contribute to genetic susceptibility to thyroid tumors. Large validation and functional studies are required to further explore the role of mmSNPs in carcinogenesis.
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Recombinant expressed vector pET32a (+) S constructed by ligation independent cloning.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The aim of this work was to develop a new method for constructing vectors, named ligation-independent cloning (LIC) method. We constructed the S label expression vector and recombinant pET32a (+) S-phoN2 by LIC. The recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli at a high level, and then the specificity of the recombinant proteins was identified by western blot. The target band was detected by S monoclonal antibody and Apyrase polyclonal antibodies but not Trx monoclonal antibody and HIS monoclonal antibody. Finally, we obtained protein Apyrase in E. coli (BL21), with a protein-only expression S tag. Collectively, our results demonstrated that LIC is effective for the construction of new vectors and recombinant plasmids. Free from the limitations of restriction enzyme sites and with a higher positive rate, LIC processes should find broad applications in molecular biology research.
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Evolution of the Strategies for Screening and Identifying Human Tumor Antigens.
Curr. Protein Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The prevailing view is that not only can some of the tumor antigens be used as biosensors for cancers, but also they may indeed be used as targets for immunotherapy. The identification of tumor antigens becomes a vital step in oncology research. Both the humoral immune system and the cellular immune system are activated in response to a tumor antigen in vivo of patients with tumor. Immune effector molecules and cells can be used to screen and identify tumor antigens. Specific T cells, including CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, can identify T cell epitopes, and specific antibodies in sera can identify B cell epitopes. The researchers have studied this area for decades. Initially, they explored tumor antigens with the use of 1-D SDS-PAGE and sandwich ELISAs. Since 1990s, CTL screening approach and peptide elution approach had been established. After that, SEREX, SERPA and protein microarray technology have become the mainstream high-throughput strategies for identifying tumor antigens. There are some other approaches, such as combinatorial peptide libraries, representational difference analysis of cDNA and bioinformatics methods. This review's aim is to describe the generation, the theory, the key protocols and the application of some main techniques and provide their benefits and drawbacks.
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Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Enhanced Tropism and Paracrine Secretion of Cytokines and Growth Factors to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising for the treatment of various diseases and injuries. Many strategies have been applied to attract MSCs to injury site after systemic infusion. In this study, we evidenced that the CXCR4-SDF1? axis in engineered MSCs serves not only to attract MSC migration to TBI, but also to activate Akt kinase signaling pathway in MSCs to promote paracrine secretion of cytokines and growth factors. This leads to enhanced vasculogenesis and neuroprotection at the boundary of TBI for improved blood supply, recovery of axon connectivity and behavioral ability, and results in positive feedback loop to enhance additional MSC tropism to injury. These findings indicate a new aspect of SDF1? in mediating CXCR4 engineered MSCs for brain trauma homing and recovery. This potential mechanism may be applicable to other injuries, where CXCR4-SDF1? interaction is highly associated. Stem Cells 2014.
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Clogging of vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating urban wastewater contaminated with a diesel spill.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Clogging often leads to a decrease of the treatment performance of wetlands. The aims of this study were to compare the impact of different design and operational variables on the treatment efficiency and clogging processes and to model suspended solid (SS) accumulation within the saturated wetland zone using the Wang-Scholz model. Different vertical-flow constructed wetlands were operated from June 2011 until April 2014. Four treatment periods were assessed: set-up, first year after set-up period, second year after set-up period and diesel spill (for selected filters only). The filter with the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading but no diesel contamination performed the best in terms of COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal for the fourth and final treatment period. Filters contaminated by diesel performed worse in terms of COD and BOD but considerably better regarding nitrate-nitrogen removal. Serious clogging phenomena impacting negatively on the treatment performance and the hydraulic conductivity were not observed. Modelling results were generally poor for the set-up period, adequate for the first 2 years after the set-up period and variable after the diesel spill. The Wang-Scholz model performed well for less complex operations.
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Chromogenic and fluorescent 'turn-on' chemodosimeter for fluoride based on a F(-) -triggered cascade reaction.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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We developed a new chromogenic and fluorescent 'turn-on' chemodosimeter 1 based on a F(-) -triggered cascade reaction. This system displayed significant changes in UV/vis absorption and fluorescence emission intensities selectively for F(-) over other anions in a mixture of CH3 CN/H2 O (95 : 5, v/v) and in acetonitrile. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Coordination Chemistry of Highly Hemilabile Bidentate Sulfoxide N-Heterocyclic Carbenes with Palladium(II).
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Imidazolium salts, [RS(O)?CH2 (C3 H3 N2 )Mes]Cl (R=Me (L1?a), Ph (L1?b)); Mes=mesityl), make convenient carbene precursors. Palladation of L1?a affords the monodentate dinuclear complex, [(PdCl2 {MeS(O)CH2 (C3 H2 N2 )Mes})2 ] (2?a), which is converted into trans-[PdCl2 (NHC)2 ] (trans-4?a; N-heterocyclic carbene) with two rotamers in anti and syn configurations. Complex trans-4?a can isomerize into cis-4?a(anti) at reflux in acetonitrile. Abstraction of chlorides from 4?a or 4?b leads to the formation of a new dication: trans-[Pd{RS(O)CH2 (C3 H2 N2 )Mes}2 ](PF6 )2 (R=Me (5?a), Ph (5?b)). The X-ray structure of 5?a provides evidence that the two bidentate SO?NHC ligands at palladium(II) are in square-planar geometry. Two sulfoxides are sulfur- and oxygen-bound, and constitute five- and six-membered chelate rings with the metal center, respectively. In acetonitrile, complexes 5?a or 5?b spontaneously transform into cis-[Pd(NHC)2 (NCMe)2 ](PF6 )2 . Similar studies of thioether-NHCs have also been examined for comparison. The results indicate that sulfoxides are more labile than thioethers.
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Two natural glucomannan polymers, from Konjac and Bletilla, as bioactive materials for pharmaceutical applications.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Next-generation biomaterials are expected to possess both desirable mechanical features and unique biological functions. Recently, two plant-derived glucomannans (GMs)-Konjac glucomannan (KGM) and the polysaccharide of Bletilla striata (BSP)-have emerged as new sources for development of biomaterials. They have been fabricated into drug delivery vehicles and wound healing dressings in varying shapes and sizes, and demonstrated strong gelling properties, high biocompatibility and remarkable convenience for processing and modification. Notably, they demonstrate bioactivities such as response to enzymes produced in special biological niches and/or affinity for carbohydrate receptors on specific cells. All these mechanical and biological advantages suggest these two GMs have great potential for future development and broader application in various biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.
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Indoleacetic acid derivatives from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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A pair of diastereoisomers, the N-glycosylated derivatives of dioxindole-3-hydroxy-3-acetic acid 1-2, and their conjugates with flavonoids 3-8, was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations were determined by circular dichroism method. Compounds 3-10 were evaluated for the antioxidant capacity, using the radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay.
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Combination of individualized local control and target-specific agent to improve unresectable liver cancer managements: a matched case-control study.
Target Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Management of late-stage hepatocellular carcinoma is difficult. A direct comparison of clinical data is needed in order to demonstrate the survival benefits of different therapies. We directly compared various therapies in a retrospective matched case-control study. A total of 79 patients with unresectable tumors greater than 10 cm in size were included in the study between 2008 and 2012. Thirty-five patients were treated with transarterial chemoembolization for local control, 20 were treated with sorafenib systemic chemotherapy, and 24 received combination treatment. The total follow-up time after initial therapy was 4.5 years. Survival time after treatment was significantly longer in the combination therapy group (P?
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.