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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Vegetation-associated impacts on Arctic tundra bacterial and micro-eukaryotic communities.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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The Arctic is experiencing rapid vegetation changes such as shrub and treeline expansion due to climate warming, as well as increased wetland variability due to hydrological changes associated with permafrost thawing. These changes are of global concern because vegetation change may increase tundra soil biogeochemical processes that would significantly enhance atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Predicting the latter will at least partly depend on knowing the structure, functional activities, and distributions of soil microbes among the vegetation-types across Arctic landscapes. Here we investigated the bacterial and micro-eukaryotic community structures in soils from the four principal low Arctic tundra vegetation types: wet sedge, birch hummock, tall birch and dry heath. Sequencing of ribosomal RNA gene fragments indicated that the wet sedge and tall birch communities differed significantly from each other, and from the other two dominant vegetation types. Distinct microbial communities were associated with soil pH, ammonium, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N), and moisture. In soils of similar moisture and pH (excluding wet sedge), bacterial, fungal and total eukaryotic communities were correlated with ammonium, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and C/N ratio. operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Faith's phylogenetic diversity and Shannon species-level indices (H') were generally lower in the tall birch soil relative to the other vegetation types, with pH strongly correlated with bacterial richness and Faith's phylogenetic diversity. Together, these results suggest that Arctic soil feedback responses to climate change will be vegetation-specific, not just because of distinctive substrates and environmental characteristics, but also potentially because of inherent differences in microbial community structure.
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[The application of UPLC-MS/MS to detect precursors of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluoroalkyl carboxylatesin serum].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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We established a method of UPLC-MS/MS that was to detect fifteen precursors of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSA) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCA) in serum.
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A double-blind, randomized phase II study of dicycloplatin plus paclitaxel versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancers.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of dicycloplatin plus paclitaxel with those of carboplatin plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Comparative study of radial head resection and prosthetic replacement in surgical release of stiff elbows.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Elbow trauma can compromise the arc of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. This study aimed at comparing the outcomes of radial head resection and prosthetic replacement in the surgical release of post traumatic elbow stiffness and associated restriction in forearm rotation.
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Aspirin use after diagnosis but not prediagnosis improves established colorectal cancer survival: a meta-analysis.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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The objective of this meta-analysis was to systematically assess the survival benefit of aspirin use before or after diagnosis for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).
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Identification of reference miRNAs in human tumors by TCGA miRNA-seq data.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Although the accuracy of detecting the expression of miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on reliable reference miRNAs, many commonly used reference miRNAs are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. To solve this problem, we analyzed the global expression profiles of thousands of samples in 14 types of common human tumors released by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified the most stably and highly expressed miRNAs as candidate reference miRNAs in each type of tumor. We found that miR-361-5p and let-7i-5p were the most recommended candidate reference miRNAs in nine and eight types of tumors, respectively, followed by let-7a-5p, mir-28-5p and miR-99b-5p. Our results are of important value to those researchers focused on miRNA; however, these candidate reference miRNAs still need to be validated prior to their use in qRT-PCR studies.
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Prior Decompensation is associated with Delayed Mortality in Patients with Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) represent a complex population with differential prognosis. The aim of the study was to categorize ACLF according to the severity of underlying chronic liver diseases (CLD).
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Reducing secondhand smoke exposure of children undergoing surgery.
Am J Health Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To determine the attitudes and beliefs of both parents and surgical clinicians regarding interventions to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in children undergoing surgery.
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Effect of Cryotherapy after Elbow Arthrolysis: A Prospective, Single-blinded, Randomized Controlled Study.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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To investigate the effect of cryotherapy after elbow arthrolysis on elbow pain, blood loss, analgesic consumption, range of motion and long-term elbow function.
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5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate rescues alcohol-induced neural crest cell migration abnormalities.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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BackgroundAlcohol is detrimental to early development. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) due to maternal alcohol abuse results in a series of developmental abnormalities including cranial facial dysmorphology, ocular anomalies, congenital heart defects, microcephaly and intellectual disabilities. Previous studies have been shown that ethanol exposure causes neural crest (NC) apoptosis and perturbation of neural crest migration. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this report we investigated the fetal effect of alcohol on the process of neural crest development in the Xenopus leavis.ResultsPre-gastrulation exposure of 2-4% alcohol induces apoptosis in Xenopus embryo whereas 1% alcohol specifically impairs neural crest migration without observing discernible apoptosis. Additionally, 1% alcohol treatment considerably increased the phenotype of small head (43.4%¿±¿4.4%, total embryo n¿=¿234), and 1.5% and 2.0% dramatically augment the deformation to 81.2%¿±¿6.5% (n¿=¿205) and 91.6%¿±¿3.0% (n¿=¿235), respectively (P¿<¿0.05). Significant accumulation of Homocysteine was caused by alcohol treatment in embryos and 5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate restores neural crest migration and alleviates homocysteine accumulation, resulting in inhibition of the alcohol-induced neurocristopathies.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates that prenatal alcohol exposure causes neural crest cell migration abnormality and 5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate could be beneficial for treating FASD.
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Hypoxia-induced autophagy contributes to radioresistance via c-Jun-mediated Beclin1 expression in lung cancer cells.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Reduced radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells represents a pivotal obstacle in clinical oncology. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? plays a crucial role in radiosensitivity, but the detailed mechanisms remain elusive. A relationship has been suggested to exist between hypoxia and autophagy recently. In the current study, we studied the effect of hypoxia-induced autophagy on radioresistance in lung cancer cell lines. A549 and H1299 cells were cultured under normoxia or hypoxia, followed by irradiation at dosage ranging from 0 to 8 Gy. Clonogenic assay was performed to calculate surviving fraction. EGFP-LC3 plasmid was stably transfected into cells to monitor autophagic processes. Western blotting was used to evaluate the protein expression levels of HIF-1?, c-Jun, phosphorylated c-Jun, Beclin 1, LC3 and p62. The mRNA levels of Beclin 1 were detected by qRT-PCR. We found that under hypoxia, both A549 and H1299 cells were radio-resistant compared with normoxia. Hypoxia-induced elevated HIF-1? protein expression preferentially triggered autophagy, accompanied by LC3 induction, EGFP-LC3 puncta and p62 degradation. In the meantime, HIF-1? increased downstream c-Jun phosphorylation, which in turn upregulated Beclin 1 mRNA and protein expression. The upregulation of Beclin 1 expression, instead of HIF-1?, could be blocked by SP600125 (a specific inhibitor of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), followed by suppression of autophagy. Under hypoxia, combined treatment of irradiation and chloroquine (a potent autophagy inhibitor) significantly decreased the survival potential of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced autophagy through evaluating Beclin1 expression may be considered as a target to reverse the radioresistance in cancer cells.
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Effects of particle softness on shear thickening of microgel suspensions.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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A series of microgel particles composed of a polystyrene (PS) core and a thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) shell with different shell thicknesses were investigated to elucidate the effect of microgel softness on its shear thickening behavior. Since the softness of the microgels increases with decreasing temperature through the volume phase transition effect of PNIPAM shell, the measured softness parameter, n, which is derived from the Zwanzig-Mountain equation, was used to measure and describe the combined influences of temperature and shell thickness. Confocal microscopy is used to investigate the interaction potential between microgel particles with different softness parameters. According to the obtained results, the softness parameter can provide an estimate for the shear thickening behavior of microgel suspensions, at least semi-quantitatively.
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[Effects of field border length for irrigation on photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter accumulation and water use efficiency of wheat].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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With the high-yielding winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 as test material, a three-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of border length for irrigation on flag leaf water potential, photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter accumulation and distribution of wheat. In the 2010-2011 growing season, six treatments were installed, i. e., the field border length was designed as 10 m (L10), 20 m (L20), 40 m (L40), 60 m (L60), 80 m (L80) and 100 m (L100). In the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons, the field border length was designed as 40 m (L40), 60 m (L60), 80 m (L80) and 100 m (L100). The results showed that the average relative soil water content of the 0-200 cm soil layer was presented as L80, L60>L100>L40>L20>L10 at anthesis in the 2010-2011 growing season and as L80, L60>L100>L40 in the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons. At 11 d and 21 d after anthesis, the water potential, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of flag leaf were presented as L80, L100>L60>L40>L20, L10, and as L80>L60, L100>L40, L20, L10 at 31 d after anthesis. The coefficients of variability both of the dry matter accumulation at anthesis and maturity and of grain yield in different regions of L80 field were lower than those of L100. The average dry matter accumulation, dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the contribution to grain of L80 were dramatically higher than those of L100, L40, L20 and L10. L80 had the highest average grain yield and water use efficiency, being the best treatment for irrigation in our study.
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Molecular chaperones (TrxA, SUMO, Intein and GST) Mediating Expression, Purification and Antimicrobial Activity Assays of Plectasin in Escherichia coli.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Plectasin is the first defensin to be isolated from a fungus, the saprophytic ascomycete Pseudoplectania nigrella, and active against Streptococcus pneumonia and S. aureus, including antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In order to establish a bacterium-based production system, we compared the efficiency of four molecular chaperones and corresponding cleavage to the expression and purification of plectasin. The results showed that the yield of plectasin combined with Thioredoxin A (TrxA) and Small Ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) were at higher level (0.0356 g l(-1) , 0.0358 g l(-1) ) than that with Intein (0.0238 g l(-1) ) and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (0.0243 g l(-1) ). TrxA-Plectasin, SUMO-Plectasin and Intein2-Plectasin were cleaved at the correct site and purified, but considerable amount of them was not cleaved and remained as fusion peptide. The antimicrobial activity of plectasin cleaved from SUMO- Plectasin against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae (PRSP), Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) were stronger than Ampicillin (Amp) for the same amount of substance (P?0.05). This is the first study to complete and compare the effect of different molecular chaperones and corresponding cleavage with the expression and purification of plectasin in Escherichia Coli (E.coli) expression system, which laid the foundation for future research and may develop the application and production of plectasin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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BRCA1 gene exon 11 mutations in Uighur and Han women with early-onset sporadic breast cancer in the northwest region of China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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The prevalence of BRCA1 gene mutations in breast cancer differs between diverse ethnic groups. Relatively little information is known about patterns of BRCA1 mutations in early-onset breast cancer in women of Uighur or Han descent, the major ethnic populations of the Xinjiang region in China. The aim of this study was to identify BRCA1 mutations in Uighur and Han patients with early-onset (age <35 years), and sporadic breast cancer for genetic predisposition to breast cancer. For detection of BRCA1 mutations, we used a polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformation polymorphism approach, followed by direct DNA sequencing in 22 Uighur and 13 Han women with early-onset sporadic breast cancer, and 32 women with benign breast diseases. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in this population was 22.9% (8/35) among early-onset sporadic breast cancer cases. Of these, 31.8% (7/22) of Uighur patients and 7.69% (1/13) of Han patients were found to have BRCA1 mutations. In 7 Uighur patients with BRCA1 mutations, there were 11 unique sequence alterations in the BRCA1 gene, including 4 clearly disease-associated mutations on exon 11 and 3 variants of uncertain clinical significance on exon 11, meanwhile 4 neutral variants on intron 20 or 2. None of the 11 BRCA1 mutations identified have been previously reported in the Breast Cancer Information Core database. These findings reflect the prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in Uighur women with early-onset and sporadic breast cancer, which will allow for provision of appropriate genetic counseling and treatment for Uighur patients in the Xinjiang region.
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Graph-regularized dual Lasso for robust eQTL mapping.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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As a promising tool for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping has attracted increasing research interest. An important issue in eQTL mapping is how to effectively integrate networks representing interactions among genetic markers and genes. Recently, several Lasso-based methods have been proposed to leverage such network information. Despite their success, existing methods have three common limitations: (i) a preprocessing step is usually needed to cluster the networks; (ii) the incompleteness of the networks and the noise in them are not considered; (iii) other available information, such as location of genetic markers and pathway information are not integrated.
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Notch1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs3124591 is associated with the risk of development of invasive ductal breast carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Accumulated evidence has revealed the presence of Notch receptor polymorphisms in non-tumorous diseases; however, few studies have investigated the association of Notch polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. A total of 100 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 50 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients and 100 usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) controls were genotyped for the following Notch receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Notch1, rs3124591; Notch2, rs11249433; Notch3, rs3815188, and rs1043994; and Notch4, rs367398, and rs520692. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the effect of Notch polymorphisms on corresponding Notch protein expression in successfully genotyped patients. The frequency of rs3124591 TC genotype was significantly higher in IDC (24.7%, 20/81) and DCIS (30%, 12/40) patients than in UDH controls (8%, 8/97) (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, the distribution of other SNP genotypes was not significantly different between IDC and DCIS patients and UDH controls. The frequency of TC genotype was significantly higher in poorly differentiated tumors than in well-differentiated and moderately differentiated tumors (P = 0.022). Importantly, a positive correlation between the rs3124591 TC genotype and high Notch1 protein expression was observed in DCIS patients (P = 0.043) but not in IDC patients. This is the first study to suggest an increased risk of IDC and DCIS of the breast for the Notch1 rs3124591 variant. Furthermore, given the inconsistent associations between the rs3124591 variant and Notch1 expression in IDC and DCIS, this variant may affect breast cancer risk through mechanisms in the latter stage other than alterations in Notch1 protein expression.
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MR elastography for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: does histologic necroinflammation influence the measurement of hepatic stiffness?
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To determine the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography for the staging of hepatic fibrosis and to evaluate the influence of necroinflammation on hepatic stiffness in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by using histopathologic findings as the reference standard.
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Up-regulation of glycolytic metabolism is required for HIF1?-driven bone formation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The bone marrow environment is among the most hypoxic in the body, but how hypoxia affects bone formation is not known. Because low oxygen tension stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF?) proteins, we have investigated the effect of expressing a stabilized form of HIF1? in osteoblast precursors. Brief stabilization of HIF1? in SP7-positive cells in postnatal mice dramatically stimulated cancellous bone formation via marked expansion of the osteoblast population. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in the mouse did not diminish bone accrual caused by HIF1? stabilization. Thus, HIF1?-driven bone formation is independent of VEGFA up-regulation and increased angiogenesis. On the other hand, HIF1? stabilization stimulated glycolysis in bone through up-regulation of key glycolytic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 completely reversed HIF1?-driven bone formation in vivo. Thus, HIF1? stimulates osteoblast formation through direct activation of glycolysis, and alterations in cellular metabolism may be a broadly applicable mechanism for regulating cell differentiation.
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Quantifying the expression of tumor marker genes in lung squamous cell cancer with RNA sequencing.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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We measured the expression of some commonly used tumor markers with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify any that might be useful for the evaluation of squamous cell lung cancer and identify possible correlations between these tumor markers and any clinical characteristics.
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Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F?actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in ??tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin?proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F?actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F?actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport.
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Association between vitamin A, retinol intake and blood retinol level and gastric cancer risk: A meta-analysis.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The association between dietary vitamin A, retinol intake and blood retinol level and gastric cancer risk has been investigated by many studies. However, the results of these studies were controversial. The aim of our study was to systematically assess this issue.
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Identification of small ubiquitin-like modifier substrates with diverse functions using the Xenopus egg extract system.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Post-translational modification by SUMO is a highly conserved pathway in eukaryotes that plays very important regulatory roles in many cellular processes. Deregulation of the SUMO pathway contributes to the development and progression of many diseases including cancer. Therefore, identifying additional SUMO substrates and studying how their cellular and biological functions are regulated by sumoylation should provide new insights. Our studies showed that sumoylation activity was significant in Xenopus egg extracts, and that a high level of sumoylation was associated with sperm chromatin when SUMO was incubated with Xenopus egg extracts. By isolating SUMO-conjugated substrates using His-tagged SUMO1 or SUMO2 proteins under denaturing conditions, we identified 346 proteins by mass spectrometry analysis that were not present in control pull-downs. Among them, 167 proteins were identified from interphase egg extracts, 86 proteins from mitotic phase egg extracts, and 93 proteins from both. Thirty-three proteins were pulled down by SUMO1, 85 proteins by SUMO2, and 228 proteins by both. We validated the sumoylation of five candidates, CKB, ATXN10, BTF3, HABP4, and BZW1, by co-transfecting them along with SUMO in HEK293T cells. Gene ontology analysis showed that SUMO substrates identified in this study were involved in diverse biological processes. Additionally, SUMO substrates identified from different cell cycle stages or pulled down by different SUMO homologs were enriched for distinct cellular components and functional categories. Our results comprehensively profile the sumoylation occurring in the Xenopus egg extract system.
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A novel integrated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease model predicts short-term prognosis of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure patients.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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A considerable proportion of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients develop acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) with high short-term mortality. It remains difficult to accurately predict short-term prognosis in ACLF patients. The aim of the study is to develop a new prognostic model by assessing new objective variables.
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Injury in Minipig Parotid Glands following Fractionated Exposure to 30 Gy of Ionizing Radiation.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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To explore the effects of 30 Gy of (60)Co ?-rays on apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in minipig parotid cells as a possible mechanism for radiation-induced parotid injury.
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Resveratrol reduces the proinflammatory effects and lipopolysaccharide- induced expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 in RAW264.7 cells.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Resveratrol (Res) is a polyphenol anti-inflammatory agent. We have studied the link between the anti-inflammatory effects of Res and the high mobility group box 1(HMGB1) signaling pathway.
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Collision tumor of esophagus: report of three cases.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Collision tumors are rare, and they are not well-recognized entities. Collision tumors of the esophagus are rarer. Here we report 3 patients with esophageal collision tumors and discuss their characteristics.
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Febrile seizure recurrence reduced by intermittent oral levetiracetam.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common form of childhood seizure disorders. FS is perhaps one of the most frequent causes of admittance to pediatric emergency wards worldwide. We aimed to identify a new, safe, and effective therapy for preventing FS recurrence.
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Immune derangement occurs in patients with H7N9 avian influenza.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Currently, little is known about the immunological characteristics of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.
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Endothelial cells promote stem-like phenotype of glioma cells through activating the Hedgehog pathway.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Microenvironmental regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) strongly influences the onset and spread of cancer. The way in which glioma cells interact with their microenvironment and acquire the phenotypes of CSCs remains elusive. We investigated how communication between vascular endothelial cells and glioma cells promoted the properties of glioma stem cells (GSCs). We observed that CD133(+) GSCs were located closely to Shh(+) endothelial cells in specimens of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In both in vitro and in vivo studies, we found that endothelial cells promoted the appearance of CSC-like glioma cells, as demonstrated by increases in tumourigenicity and expression of stemness genes such as Sox2, Olig2, Bmi1 and CD133 in glioma cells that were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Knockdown of Smo in glioma cells led to a significant reduction of their CSC-like phenotype formation in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial cells with Shh knockdown failed to promote Hedgehog (HH) pathway activation and CSC-like phenotype formation in co-cultured glioma cells. By examination of glioma tissue specimens from 65 patients, we found that the survival of glioma patients was closely correlated with the expression of both Shh by endothelial cells and Gli1 by perivascular glioma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that endothelial cells in the tumour microenvironment provide Shh to activate the HH signalling pathway in glioma cells, thereby promoting GSC properties and glioma propagation.
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Primate-specific miR-663 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting PIK3CD and predicts the prognosis of human glioblastoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To determine the prognostic significance of miR-663 in glioblastoma, its effect in tumor progression, and the underlying mechanism.
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Short- and midterm repeatability of magnetic resonance elastography in healthy volunteers at 3.0 T.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and midterm repeatability of liver stiffness measurements with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in healthy subjects at 3.0T. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were enrolled in this prospective study. The stiffness measurements were obtained from three slices with three repeated acquisitions for each slice (session 1) by two independent raters. After a mean period of 7±2days (session 2) and 195±15days (session 3), each subject was scanned again using the same protocol and MR system. The liver stiffness differences were calculated between sessions or raters. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess interrater agreement and intersession agreement. The stiffness differences over the short- and midterm intervals was (-0.004±0.086) kPa for sessions 1-2, lower than (-0.055±0.150) kPa for sessions 1-3 and (-0.051±0.173) kPa for sessions 2-3. The liver stiffness was more repeatable for the short-term interval with the mean overall ICC of 0.96 (sessions 1-2) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-0.98) compared with 0.91 (sessions 1-3) (95% CI: 0.78-0.96) and 0.87 (sessions 2-3) (95% CI: 0.69-0.95) for the midterm intervals. The overall ICC of interrater agreement was excellent at 0.987 (95% CI: 0.983 to 0.990). These results confirm that MRE is a reproducible technique for liver stiffness quantification over short- and midterm intervals up to 6months in a healthy population at 3.0T.
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Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates oxidative stress of bud seedlings in tomato under water deficit stress.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and development under drought have been widely reported. However, little information is available on the effects of silicon on seed germination under drought. In this work, the effects of exogenous silicon (0.5 mM) on the seed germination and tolerance performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bud seedlings under water deficit stress simulated by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) were investigated in four cultivars ('Jinpengchaoguan', 'Zhongza No.9', 'Houpi L402' and 'Oubao318'). The results showed that the seed germination percentage was notably decreased in the four cultivars under water stress, and it was significantly improved by added silicon. Compared with the non-silicon treatment, silicon addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the production of superoxide anion (O2·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the radicles of bud seedlings under water stress. Addition of silicon decreased the total phenol concentrations in radicles under water stress, which might contribute to the decrease of peroxidase (POD) activity, as observed in the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The decrease of POD activity might contribute to a less accumulation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) under water stress. Silicon addition also decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the radicles under stress, indicating decreased lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that exogenous silicon could improve seed germination and alleviate oxidative stress to bud seedling of tomato by enhancing antioxidant defense. The positive effects of silicon observed in a silicon-excluder also suggest the active involvement of silicon in biochemical processes in plants.
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Increased pro-angiogenic factors, infiltrating neutrophils and CD163(+) macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung cancer patients.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Infiltration of inflammatory cells and production of pro-angiogenic factors are important in lung cancer immunity. The distributions of those cells and their contributions to the production of pro-angiogenic factors and the activation phenotype of macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from lung cancer patients remain unclear. We analyzed the presence of distinct inflammatory cells and the macrophage activation phenotype together with the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) within BALF from 54 smoking lung cancer patients including 36 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 9 adenocarcinoma (AC), and 9 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in comparison with those from 13 non-smoking and 7 smoking patients with nonspecific chronic inflammation and 8 non-smoking normal controls. We found a significantly lower percentage of total macrophages and a much higher percentage of neutrophils among all inflammatory cells in BALF from lung cancer and non-specific chronic inflammation patients. BALF from AC patients had a significantly higher percentage of lymphocytes. CD163(+)) macrophages predominantly existed in BALF from SCLC patients. BALF of lung cancer patients had markedly higher levels of IL-8 and VEGF. Interestingly, IL-8 level was positively correlated to the numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes. VEGF level was inversely correlated to the number of lymphocytes but positively to cancer cells in SCC cases, whereas no correlation existed between CD163(+)) macrophages and the levels of IL-8 and VEGF. Our results suggest that the detection of infiltrating inflammatory cells and pro-angiogenic factors in BALF will be helpful for diagnosis of cancerous inflammation in lungs.
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mTORC2 signaling promotes skeletal growth and bone formation in mice.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase controlling many physiological processes in mammals. mTOR functions in two distinct protein complexes, namely mTORC1 and mTORC2. Compared to mTORC1, the specific roles of mTORC2 are less well understood. To investigate the potential contribution of mTORC2 to skeletal development and homeostasis, we have genetically deleted rictor, an essential component of mTORC2, in the limb skeletogenic mesenchyme of the mouse embryo. Loss of rictor leads to shorter and narrower skeletal elements in both embryos and postnatal mice. In the embryo, rictor deletion reduces the width but not the length of the initial cartilage anlage. Subsequently, the embryonic skeletal elements are shortened due to a delay in chondrocyte hypertrophy, with no change in proliferation, apoptosis, cell size or matrix production. Postnatally, rictor-deficient mice exhibit impaired bone formation, resulting in thinner cortical bone, but the trabecular bone mass is relatively normal thanks to a concurrent decrease in bone resorption. Moreover, rictor-deficient bones exhibit a lesser anabolic response to mechanical loading. Thus, mTORC2 signaling is necessary for optimal skeletal growth and bone anabolism. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between dietary intake/blood levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene) and gastric cancer risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted until April 2013 in Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Forty articles were finally included in the present study. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (for vitamin C, pooled OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65; for vitamin E, pooled OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.74; for ?-carotene, pooled OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.70; for ?-carotene, pooled OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). Subgroup analyses suggested the effects of these antioxidant vitamins were different in gastric cancer subtypes. As indicated by dose-response analysis, a 100 mg/day increment of vitamin C intake conferred an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90); a 15 mg/day increment of vitamin E intake conferred an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.94); and a 5 mg/day increment in ?-carotene intake conferred an OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.04). No significant association was observed between blood vitamin C, ?-tocopherol, ?- tocopherol, ?-carotene and ?-carotene levels and gastric cancer risk. In conclusion, dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and ?-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk while no such association was observed for blood levels of these antioxidant vitamins, thus the results should be interpreted cautiously.
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Identification of reference genes for qRT-PCR in human lung squamous-cell carcinoma by RNA-Seq.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Although the accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on the reliable reference genes, many commonly used reference genes are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. The aim of this study was to identify novel reliable reference genes in lung squamous-cell carcinoma. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to survey the whole genome expression in 5 lung normal samples and 44 lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples. We evaluated the expression profiles of 15 commonly used reference genes and identified five additional candidate reference genes. To validate the RNA-Seq dataset, we used qRT-PCR to verify the expression levels of these 20 genes in a separate set of 100 pairs of normal lung tissue and lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples, and then analyzed these results using geNorm and NormFinder. With respect to 14 of the 15 common reference genes (B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT1, IPO8, PGK1, POLR2A, PPIA, RPLP0, TBP, TFRC, UBC, and YWHAZ), the expression levels were either too low to be easily detected, or exhibited a high degree of variability either between lung normal and squamous-cell carcinoma samples, or even among samples of the same tissue type. In contrast, 1 of the 15 common reference genes (ACTB) and the 5 additional candidate reference genes (EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14) were stably and constitutively expressed at high levels in all the samples tested. ACTB, EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14 are ideal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of lung squamous-cell carcinoma, while 14 commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes are less appropriate in this context.
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miR-200c inhibits metastasis of breast cancer cells by targeting HMGB1.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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miR-200c has been shown to regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inhibiting ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression in breast cancer cells. This study further examined the role of miR-200c in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer that goes beyond the regulation on ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression. In this study, the bioinformatics software (miRanda) was used to predict the target gene of miR-200c and Renilla luciferase assay to verify the result. The metastatic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 were cultured and transfected with the miR-200c mimic or inhibitor. The expressions of miR-200c and HMGB1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Transwell assay and wound healing assay were employed to examine the invasive and migrating ability of transfected cells. Target prediction and Renilla luciferase analysis revealed that HMGB1 was a putative target gene of miR-200c. After transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with the miR-200c mimic or inhibitor, the expression of miR-200c was significantly increased or decreased when compared with cells transfected with the miR-200c mimic NC or inhibitor NC. Moreover, the expression of HMGB1 was reversely correlated with that of miR-200c in transfected cells. Tranwell assay showed that the number of invasive cells was significantly reduced in miR-200c mimic group when compared with miR-200c inhibitor group. It was also found that the migrating ability of cells transfected with miR-200c mimics was much lower than that of cells transfected with miR-200c inhibitors. It was suggested that miR-200c can suppress the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of HMGB1. miR-200c and HMGB1 may become useful biomarkers for progression of breast cancer and targets of gene therapy.
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The sweet approach is still worthwhile in modern esophagectomy.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The Ivor Lewis and Sweet approaches are the two most widely used open transthoracic esophagectomy techniques. We evaluated and compared the therapeutic efficacy of these two approaches to determine the appropriate method to treat middle or lower third esophageal carcinomas.
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Atractylenolide-I sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel by blocking activation of TLR4/MyD88-dependent pathway.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Paclitaxel, a known TLR4 ligand, leads to activation of TLR4/MyD88-dependent pathway that mediates chemoresistance and tumor progression in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Atractylenolide-I (AO-I), a novel TLR4-antagonizing agent, inhibits TLR4 signaling by interfering with the binding of LPS or paclitaxel to membrane TLR4 of human leukocytes. In this study, AO-I was found to attenuate paclitaxel-induced protein expression of IL-6, VEGF and survivin, and to enhance early apoptosis and growth inhibition in MyD88(+) EOC cells; AO-I was shown to fit into the hydrophobic pocket of human MD-2 and to partially overlap with the binding site of paclitaxel by docking simulations, suggesting that AO-I may block the MD-2-mediated TLR4/MyD88-dependent paclitaxel signaling in MyD88(+) EOC cells. Therefore, AO-I could significantly sensitize the response of MyD88(+) EOC cells to paclitaxel by blocking MD-2-mediated TLR4/MyD88 signaling, and that AO-I-paclitaxel combination could be a promising strategy for the treatment of EOC with a functional TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B pathway.
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Rapid recovery of soil bacterial communities after wildfire in a Chinese boreal forest.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Fires affect hundreds of millions of hectares annually. Above-ground community composition and diversity after fire have been studied extensively, but effects of fire on soil bacterial communities remain largely unexamined despite the central role of bacteria in ecosystem recovery and functioning. We investigated responses of bacterial community to forest fire in the Greater Khingan Mountains, China, using tagged pyrosequencing. Fire altered soil bacterial community composition substantially and high-intensity fire significantly decreased bacterial diversity 1-year-after-burn site. Bacterial community composition and diversity returned to similar levels as observed in controls (no fire) after 11 years. The understory vegetation community typically takes 20-100 years to reach pre-fire states in boreal forest, so our results suggest that soil bacteria could recover much faster than plant communities. Finally, soil bacterial community composition significantly co-varied with soil pH, moisture content, NH4(+) content and carbon/nitrogen ratio (P < 0.05 in all cases) in wildfire-perturbed soils, suggesting that fire could indirectly affect bacterial communities by altering soil edaphic properties.
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Differential gene expression identified by RNA-Seq and qPCR in two sizes of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Differential growth of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata still exists in the aquaculture production. There is no systematic study of the entire transcriptome of differential gene expression in P. fucata in the literature. In this study, high-throughput Illumina/HiSeq™ 2000 RNA-Seq was used to examine the differences of gene expression in large (L) and small oysters (S). In total, 74,293 and 76,635 unigenes were generated from L and S oysters, respectively. RT quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the differential expression pattern of 19 out of 34 selected genes was consistent with the results of RNA-Seq analysis: 14 genes (11 for growth, 1 for reproduction and 2 for shell formation) were expressed more highly in S, 5 genes (1 for growth, 1 for reproduction and 3 for the immune system) were expressed more highly in L; 3 genes associated with the immune system were opposite to it; and no difference was found for the remaining 12 genes. Another 9 shell formation-related genes in L and S were examined by qPCR: 1 gene was expressed more highly in L, 5 genes were expressed more highly in S and no difference was found for the remaining 3 genes. Some genes related to growth and development, shell formation and reproduction were expressed more highly in S compared to L. This phenomenon could be explained by "catch-up growth". The results of this study will help toward a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of differential growth between P. fucata individuals and provide valuable information for future research.
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Smoking status and health care costs in the perioperative period: a population-based study.
JAMA Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Cigarette smoking adds an estimated $100 billion in annual incremental direct health care costs nationwide. Cigarette smoking increases complication risk in surgical patients, but the potential effects of smoking status on perioperative health care costs are unclear.
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Feasibility of using 3D MR elastography to determine pancreatic stiffness in healthy volunteers.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To evaluate the feasibility of using three-dimensional (3D) MR elastography (MRE) to determine the stiffness of the pancreas in healthy volunteers.
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Clinical utility of recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene therapy: current perspectives.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gene therapy has promised to be a highly effective antitumor treatment by introducing a tumor suppressor gene or the abrogation of an oncogene. Among the potential therapeutic transgenes, the tumor suppressor gene p53 serves as an attractive target. Restoration of wild-type p53 function in tumors can be achieved by introduction of an intact complementary deoxyribonucleic acid copy of the p53 gene using a suitable viral vector, in most cases an adenoviral vector (Adp53). Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Adp53 triggers a dramatic tumor regression response in various cancers. These viruses are engineered to lack certain early proteins and are thus replication defective, including Gendicine, SCH-58500, and Advexin. Several types of tumor-specific p53-expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus vectors (known as replication-competent CRAdp53 vectors) have been developed, such as ONYX 015, AdDelta24-p53, SG600-p53, OBP-702, and H101. Various clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the safety and efficiency of these adenoviral vectors. In this review we will talk about the biological mechanisms, clinical utility, and therapeutic potentials of the replication-deficient Adp53-based and replication-competent CRAdp53-based gene therapy.
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Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy.
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The theory of planned behavior as applied to preoperative smoking abstinence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Abstinence from smoking on the morning of surgery may improve outcomes. This study examined the explicatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict smoking behavior on the morning of surgery, testing the hypothesis that the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) will predict intent to abstain from smoking the morning of surgery, and that intent will predict behavior. TPB constructs were assessed in 169 pre-surgical patients. Smoking behavior on the morning of surgery was assessed by self-report and CO monitoring. Correlations and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to determine associations between measures and behavior. All TPB measures, including intent as predicted by the TPB, were correlated with both a lower rate of self-reported smoking on the morning of surgery and lower CO levels. The SEM showed a good fit to the data. In the SEM, attitude and PBC, but not subjective norm, were significantly associated with intent to abstain, explaining 46% of variance. The effect of PBC on CO levels was partially mediated by intent. The amount of variance in behavior explained by these TPB constructs was modest (10% for CO levels). Thus, attitude and perceived behavioral control explain a substantial portion of the intent to maintain preoperative abstinence on the morning of elective surgery, and intent and perceived behavioral control explain a more modest but significant amount of the variance in actual smoking behavior.
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Osx-Cre targets multiple cell types besides osteoblast lineage in postnatal mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Osterix (Osx or Sp7) is a zinc-finger-family transcriptional factor essential for osteoblast differentiation in mammals. The Osx-Cre mouse line (also known as Osx1-GFP::Cre) expresses GFP::Cre fusion protein from a BAC transgene containing the Osx regulatory sequence. The mouse strain was initially characterized during embryogenesis, and found to target mainly osteoblast-lineage cells. Because the strain has been increasingly used in postnatal studies, it is important to evaluate its targeting specificity in mice after birth. By crossing the Osx-Cre mouse with the R26-mT/mG reporter line and analyzing the progenies at two months of age, we find that Osx-Cre targets not only osteoblasts, osteocytes and hypertrophic chondrocytes as expected, but also stromal cells, adipocytes and perivascular cells in the bone marrow. The targeting of adipocytes and perivascular cells appears to be specific to those residing within the bone marrow, as the same cell types elsewhere are not targeted. Beyond the skeleton, Osx-Cre also targets the olfactory glomerular cells, and a subset of the gastric and intestinal epithelium. Thus, potential contributions from the non-osteoblast-lineage cells should be considered when Osx-Cre is used to study gene functions in postnatal mice.
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[Effects of irrigation with different length micro-sprinkling hoses on soil water distribution, water consumption characteristics of winter wheat, and its grain yield].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Taking the high-yielding winter wheat variety Jimai 22 as test material, a field experiment was conducted in 2010-2012 to study the effects of irrigation with different length micro-sprinkling hoses on the soil water distribution in winter wheat growth period and the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat. Three micro-sprinkling hose lengths were designed, i. e., 40 m (T40), 60 m (T60) and 80 m (T80). Under the micro-sprinkling irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages, the uniformity of the horizontal distribution of irrigation water in soil increased significantly with the decrease of hose length from 80 to 40 m. When irrigated at jointing stage, the water content of 0-200 cm soil layer in each space of wheat rows had no significant difference within the 0-40 m distanced from the border initial in treatments T40 and T60. When measured at the 38-40 m, 58-60 m, and 78-80 m distanced from the border initial in treatment T80 at jointing and anthesis stages, the water content in 0-200 cm soil layer had the same change pattern, i. e., decreased with the increasing distance from micro-sprinkling hose. The water consumption amounts in 40-60 cm soil layer from jointing to anthesis stages and in 20-80 cm soil layer from anthesis to maturing stages were higher in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. However, the soil water consumption amount, irrigation amount at anthesis stage, total irrigation amount, and total water consumption amount were significantly lower in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. The grain yield, yield water use efficiency increased with the hose length decreased from 80 to 40 m, but the flow decreased. Therefore, the effective irrigation area per unit time decreased with the same irrigation amounts. Considering the grain yield, water use efficiency, and the flow through micro-sprinkling hose, 40 and 60 m were considered to be the appropriate micro-sprinkling hose lengths under this experimental condition.
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Survival without common toxicity criteria grade 3/4 toxicity following second-line treatment with pemetrexed for nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese patients.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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The efficacy of pemetrexed in the second-line treatment of Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been shown to be similar to that of docetaxel in a recent study; additionally, pemetrexed was associated with much better safety and toxicity profiles. Here, the survival without common toxicity criteria grade 3/4 toxicity (SWT) data from a post hoc analysis of this recent prospective NSCLC study in Chinese patients is reported. This post hoc analysis differs from the main study; it focuses on the nonsquamous population to align with the current approval for pemetrexed in China.
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[Effects of exogenous spermidine on the nitrogen metabolism and main mineral elements contents of tomato seedlings under saline-alkali stress].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Taking two tomato cultivars Zhongza No. 9 and Jinpengchaoguan as test objects, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the tomato seedling nitrogen metabolism and main mineral elements contents under saline-alkali stress. Under the stress, the seedling dry biomass decreased significantly, and the plant growth was inhibited. The activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and the contents of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and total N, K, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in leaves and roots decreased significantly, while the contents of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), and Na+ had a significant increase. The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in the leaves of the two cultivars and in the roots of Zhongza No. 9 increased significantly, but that in the roots of Jinpengchaoguan had less change. The total P content in the leaves of the two cultivars decreased significantly, while that in the roots of Jinpengchaoguan and Zhongza No. 9 had a significant increase and less change, respectively. Applying exogenous Spd increased the assimilation of NH4+ by the plants through increasing the NR, GS and GOGAT activities, alleviated the nitrogen metabolic disturbance caused by the saline-alkali stress, and further, promoted the absorption, release, or transportation of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Na in different organs, maintained a proper balance among the nutrients, and improved the plant saline-alkali resistance. Zhongza No. 9 was more sensitive to the saline-alkali stress than Jinpengchaoguan, and the alleviation effect of exogenous Spd on the nitrogen metabolic disturbance and nutritional out-of-balance of Zhongza No. 9 was more obvious.
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[Effects of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of moisture content in different soil layers on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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In 2010-2011, a field experiment with high-yielding winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 was conducted to study the effects of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of moisture content in different soil layers on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat. Four soil layers (0-20 cm, W1; 0-40 cm, W2; 0-60 cm, W3; and 0-140 cm, W4) were designed to make the supplemental irrigation at wintering stage (target soil relative moisture content = 75%), jointing stage (target soil relative moisture content = 70%), and anthesis stage (target soil relative moisture content = 70%), taking no irrigation (W0) during the whole growth season as the control. At the wintering, jointing, and anthesis stages, the required irrigation amount followed the order of W3 > W2 > W1. Treatment W4 required smaller irrigation amount at wintering and jointing stages, but significantly higher one at anthesis stage than the other treatments. The proportion of the irrigation amount relative to the total water consumption over the entire growth season followed the sequence of W4, W3 > W2 > W1. By contrast, the proportion of soil water consumption relative to the total water consumption followed the trend of W1 > W2 > W3 > W4. With the increase of the test soil depths, the soil water utilization ratio decreased. The water consumption in 80-140 cm and 160-200 cm soil layers was significantly higher in W2 than in W3 and W4. The required total irrigation amount was in the order of W3 > W4 > W2 > W1, the grain yield was in the order of W2, W3, W4 > W1 > W0, and the water use efficiency followed the order of W2, W4 > W0, W1 > W3. To consider the irrigation amount, grain yield, and water use efficiency comprehensively, treatment W2 under our experimental condition could be the optimal treatment, i. e., the required amount of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer should be feasible for the local winter wheat production.
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[Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for first-line treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer: a Phase III, multi-center, randomized controlled trial, Chinese subreport].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in the first-line treatment of HER-2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer.
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Genistein decreases the breast cancer stem-like cell population through Hedgehog pathway.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The existence of breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs) has profound implications for cancer prevention. Genistein, a predominant isoflavone found in soy products, has multiple robust anti-tumor effects in various cancers, especially in the breast and prostate cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate genistein inhibition of BCSCs and its potential mechanism by culturing MCF-7 breast cancer cells and implanting these cells into nude mice.
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5% CO2 inhalation suppresses hyperventilation-induced absence seizures in children.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Hyperventilation can cause respiratory alkalosis by exhaling CO2, and is often used to confirm diagnosis of absence epilepsy. CO2 has long been known for its anticonvulsant properties since the 1920s. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine whether inhaling medical carbogen containing 5% CO2 and 95% O2 can suppress hyperventilation-induced absence seizures and spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs). We examined 12 patients whose absence seizures were induced by hyperventilation using video electroencephalographic recording for at least 4h. The patients were asked to hyperventilate for 3min while breathing the following gases: (1) room air (12 patients); (2) carbogen (12 patients); and (3) 100% O2 (8 patients). Eight out of twelve patients were also examined in room air through pretreatment with carbogen for 3min before the 3min hyperventilation. Compared with hyperventilation in room air, hyperventilation supplemented with 5% CO2 had the following effects: (a) decrease in the number and duration of seizures; (b) prolonged appearance of epileptic discharges; and (c) reduction in the number and duration of SWDs (P<0.001). However, pretreatment with 5% CO2 and 100% O2 supplement did not yield similar effects. We demonstrated that 5% CO2 could suppress hyperventilation-induced absence seizures and SWDs, supporting the claim that 5% CO2 is an effective anticonvulsant agent. Our pilot study provides clinical basis that 5% CO2 inhalation could be a therapeutic approach for hyperventilation-related seizures.
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Length scales and interfacial potentials in ion hydration.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The Quasichemical Theory (QCT) involves a length-scale organization of solvation thermodynamics. The QCT has been employed in studies of solutes ranging in size from small molecules and ions to proteins. There are three contributions to the QCT free energy: (1) an inner-shell term that includes the direct solute-solvent chemical interactions, (2) an outer-shell packing term that is the free energy to dig out a cavity in the solvent, and (3) an outer-shell long-ranged term that includes all interactions of the solute with the solvent conditional on an empty inner shell. The present study utilizes a regularizing generalization of the QCT and classical simulations to compute these three contributions to the ion hydration free energy out to large cavity radii for eight ions in the alkali halide series. The accuracy of simple approximations for the long-ranged term is also examined. The inner-shell contribution exhibits ion specificity for cavity sizes less than 4-5 A?, followed by a common length scale of 6.15 A? at which its value equals the bulk hydration free energy for all eight of the ions. The 6.15 A? length scale is closely approximated by the distance at which the revised scaled-particle theory packing contribution matches the magnitude of a simple Born estimate for the long-ranged term.
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Association between zinc intake and risk of digestive tract cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Association between zinc intake and digestive tract cancers risk has been reported in several epidemiological studies, while the results were controversial. The aim of our study was to get a systemic review of this issue.
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miR-30a regulates endothelial tip cell formation and arteriolar branching.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Microvascular rarefaction increases vascular resistance and pressure in systemic arteries and is a hallmark of fixed essential hypertension. Preventing rarefaction by activation of angiogenic processes could lower blood pressure. Endothelial tip cells in angiogenic sprouts direct branching of microvascular networks; the process is regulated by microRNAs, particularly the miR-30 family. We investigated the contribution of miR-30 family members in arteriolar branching morphogenesis via delta-like 4 (Dll4)-Notch signaling in a zebrafish model. The miR-30 family consists of 5 members (miR-30a-e). Loss-of-function experiments showed that only miR-30a reduced growth of intersegmental arterioles involving impaired tip cell function. Overexpression of miR-30a stimulated tip cell behavior resulting in augmented branching of intersegmental arterioles. In vitro and in vivo reporter assays showed that miR-30a directly targets the Notch ligand Dll4, a key inhibitor of tip cell formation. Coadministration of a Dll4 targeting morpholino in miR-30a morphants rescued the branching defects. Conversely, conditional overexpression of Notch intracellular domain restored arteriolar branching in miR-30a gain-of-function embryos. In human endothelial cells, loss of miR-30a increased DLL4 protein levels, activated Notch signaling as indicated in Notch reporter assays, and augmented Notch downstream effector, HEY2 and EFNB2 (ephrin-B2), expression. In spheroid assays, miR-30a loss- and gain-of-function affected tip cell behavior, consistent with miR-30a targeting Dll4. Our data suggest that miR-30a stimulates arteriolar branching by downregulating endothelial Dll4 expression, thereby controlling endothelial tip cell behavior. These findings could have relevance to the rarefaction process and, therefore, to hypertension.
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Association of serotonin transporter polymorphisms with responsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone in infantile spasm.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of the level of serotonergic neurotransmission. In the present study, the contribution of 5-HTT polymorphisms to the risk of infantile spasm (IS) and the responsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were investigated.
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Multiple polymorphisms within the PLCE1 are associated with esophageal cancer via promoting the gene expression in a Chinese Kazakh population.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Although recent genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) identified a susceptibility locus in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) in Chinese Han populations, few studies further confirmed these findings in pure Kazakh population in which there are higher incidence and mortality of ESCC. Here, we investigated the potential associations between 19 SNPs of PLCE1 and susceptibility to ESCC in 222 cases and 326 controls from a pure ethnic population of Kazakh. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the PLCE1 expression levels and evaluate their association with PLCE1 polymorphism. We found that only 4 SNPs (rs753724, rs11187842, rs2274223, and rs12263737) with moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) confer significantly increased risk of ESCC, with the ORs ranging from 1.43 to 2.04, and there was a risk allele dose-dependent increase in ESCC risk (P-trend=0.043). Especially, the risk effects of rs2274223 were more evident in poor differentiation and advanced clinical stages of Kazakh ESCC. Additionally, the significantly lowest PLCE1 mRNA expression was found in the KYSE-150 cell line having no risk alleles compared with other three cell lines having risk alleles, and the normal tissues of both homozygous mutant type of PLCE1 rs12263737 and rs2274223 had a higher PLCE1 staining score than that of homozygous wild type. Our findings suggested that genetic variants in PLCE1 might serve as candidate markers for Kazakh ESCC susceptibility, and these LD variants might influence ESCC risk individually and jointly by promoting the messenger RNA and protein expression of the gene.
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(3R,4S,5R)-Methyl 3,5-bis-[(tert-butyl-dimethyl-sil-yl)-oxy]-4-meth-oxy-cyclo-hex-1-ene-carboxyl-ate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The title compound, C21H42O5Si2, was synthesized from (3R,4S,5R)-methyl 3,5-bis-[(tert-butyl-dimethyl-sil-yl)-oxy]-4-hy-droxy-cyclo-hex-1-ene-carboxyl-ate by an esterification reaction. The cyclo-hexene ring adopts a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via C-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming helical chains propagating along [010].
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The role of intracellular high-mobility group box 1 in the early activation of Kupffer cells and the development of Con A-induced acute liver failure.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Acute liver failure (ALF) is a highly complex syndrome characterized by devastating activation of early activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALF. However, the factors regulating KC early activation are virtually unexplored. The aim of present study was to determine the role of the intracellular high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in modulating the early activation of KCs during ALF. The intravenous injection of Concanavalin A (Con A) was used to establish a mouse model of ALF. The dynamic pro-inflammatory properties and MHC II expression of KCs were measured by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. HMGB1 expression in KCs was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The immunofluorescence was implemented to determine the relocation of HMGB1 in KCs, and the siRNA against HMGB1 was utilized to assess the impact of HMGB1 on KC pro-inflammatory properties. The peak of pro-inflammatory cytokines production and MHC II expression in KCs appeared at the early stage of ALF. The up-regulation of HMGB1 expression and the translocation of HMGB1 in KCs were in parallel with the early activation of KCs. The blockade of intracellular HMGB1 expression caused by siRNA significantly inhibited the production of KC-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, and led to a down-regulation of MAP kinase activation in KCs. The self-derived HMGB1 is an "early alarmin" of KC activation during Con A-induced ALF. HMGB1 might be a potential target for cell-specific strategy in ALF.
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Interferon-? sensitizes HBx-expressing hepatocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs through inhibition of HBx-mediated NF-?B activation.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high chemotherapy resistance; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. In addition, HBx protein has been reported to play a key role in virus-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the role of HBx in the drug-resistance of HBV-related HCC and examine whether such drug-resistance can be reversed by IFN-? treatment.
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254C>G: a TRPC6 promoter variation associated with enhanced transcription and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in Chinese children.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Mutations in canonical transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) have been identified as responsible for the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a proteinuric disease with steroid resistance and poor prognosis. This study explores the prevalence of TRPC6 variants in Chinese children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), the genotype/phenotype correlation of TRPC6 variants, the therapeutic response, and the underlying molecular mechanism.
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Perioperative smoking behavior of Chinese surgical patients.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Surveys suggest that, consistent with a high smoking prevalence, Chinese smokers in the general population report little interest in quitting. In other cultures, surgery is a powerful teachable moment for smoking cessation, increasing the rate of spontaneous quitting. We determined the perioperative tobacco use behavior of Chinese patients scheduled for elective surgery who smoke cigarettes and factors associated with both preoperative intent to abstain and self-reported smoking behavior at 30 days postoperatively. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that perception of the health risks of smoking would be independently associated with both preoperative intent to abstain and self-reported abstinence at 30 days postoperatively.
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Dll4-Notch signaling determines the formation of native arterial collateral networks and arterial function in mouse ischemia models.
Development
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Arteriogenesis requires growth of pre-existing arteriolar collateral networks and determines clinical outcome in arterial occlusive diseases. Factors responsible for the development of arteriolar collateral networks are poorly understood. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) promotes arterial differentiation and restricts vessel branching. We hypothesized that Dll4 may act as a genetic determinant of collateral arterial networks and functional recovery in stroke and hind limb ischemia models in mice. Genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches in mice showed that Dll4-Notch signaling restricts pial collateral artery formation by modulating arterial branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Adult Dll4(+/-) mice showed increased pial collateral numbers, but stroke volume upon middle cerebral artery occlusion was not reduced compared with wild-type littermates. Likewise, Dll4(+/-) mice showed reduced blood flow conductance after femoral artery occlusion, and, despite markedly increased angiogenesis, tissue ischemia was more severe. In peripheral arteries, loss of Dll4 adversely affected excitation-contraction coupling in arterial smooth muscle in response to vasopressor agents and arterial vessel wall adaption in response to increases in blood flow, collectively contributing to reduced flow reserve. We conclude that Dll4-Notch signaling modulates native collateral formation by acting on vascular branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Dll4 furthermore affects tissue perfusion by acting on arterial function and structure. Loss of Dll4 stimulates collateral formation and angiogenesis, but in the context of ischemic diseases such beneficial effects are overruled by adverse functional changes, demonstrating that ischemic recovery is not solely determined by collateral number but rather by vessel functionality.
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Genetic and biochemical findings in Chinese children with Leigh syndrome.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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This study investigated the genetic and enzymological features of Leigh syndrome due to respiratory chain complex deficiency in Chinese patients. The clinical features of 75 patients were recorded. Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities were determined via spectrophotometry. Mitochondrial gene sequence analysis was performed in 23 patients. Five core pedigrees were investigated via restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing. Psychomotor retardation (55%), motor regression (20%), weakness (29%), and epilepsy (25%) were the most frequent manifestations. Sixty-four patients (85.3%) had isolated respiratory complex deficiencies: complex I was seen in 28 patients (37.3%); complex II, seven (9.3%); complex III, six (8%); complex IV, ten (13.3%); and complex V, 13 patients (17.3%). Eleven patients (14.7%) had combined complex deficiencies. Mitochondrial DNA mutations were detected in 10 patients. Eight point mutations were found in mitochondrial structural genes: m.4833A>G in ND2, m.10191T>C in ND3, m.12338T>C and m.13513G>A in ND5, m.14502T>C and m.14487T>C in ND6, m.8108A>G in COXII, and m.8993T>G in ATPase6. Three mutations were found in tRNA genes: m.4395A>G in tRNA-Gln, m.10454T>C in tRNA-Arg, and m.5587T>C in tRNA-Ala. One patient and their mother both had the m.12338T>C and m.8993T>C mutations. In conclusion, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency and structural gene mutations frequently occur in Chinese Leigh syndrome patients.
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Development of a new method for the isolation and culture of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from rat pulmonary arteries.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction plays an integral role in the pathogenesis and development of pulmonary hypertension. It is difficult and inconvenient to obtain pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from humans and large animals. Some methods for the isolation of PAECs from rats require complex equipment and expensive reagents. In this study, we describe a new method of obtaining cultures of PAECs isolated from rat pulmonary arteries with Chinese acupuncture needles. We acquired PAECs in 5 steps. These were: the isolation of pulmonary arteries, exposure of endothelium, enzymatic digestion, concentration of resuspended pellets and incubation. PAECs were characterized by morphological activity and by immunostaining for von Willebrand factor, CD31 and CD34, but not for ?-smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain or CD90/Thy-1. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy was carried out, confirming the presence of Weibel-Palade bodies that are characteristic ultrastructures of vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we established a simple and economical technique to isolate and culture PAECs from rat pulmonary arteries. These PAECs exhibit features consistent with vascular endothelial cells, and they could subsequently be used to study pathophysiological mechanisms involving the pulmonary arterial endothelium. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Emodin regulating excision repair cross-complementation group 1 through fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signaling.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the reversal effect of emodin on platinum resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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