Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide. As a holistic therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have a potential in obesity management. In this controlled trial, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of Xin-Ju-Xiao-Gao-Fang (XJXGF), a TCM herbal formulation, in 140 obese subjects over a 24-week period. The XJXGF formula mainly consists of rhubarb, coptis, semen cassia, and citrus aurantium. Subjects with body mass index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m(2) were recruited at 5 centers in China. We assessed the changes in subjects' body weight, its related parameters, and the reduction of insulin resistance (IR) after administration of XJXGF formula or low-dose XJXGF (10% of the XJXGF formula, as control). After 24-week treatment, among participants in the XJXGF formula group and low-dose XJXGF group, the mean ± SE changes in the body weight were -3.58±0.48 and -1.91±0.38 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The changes in the IR-index of two groups were -2.65±1.04 and -1.58±1.3, respectively (p < 0.05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the 24-week trial. Participants reported 7 minor adverse events, 4 in the XJXGF formula group and 3 in the low-dose XJXGF group (p = 0.578). Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical utility of this TCM formulation in the treatment of obese subjects.
During the course of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) treatment, meibomian gland massage is an effective auxiliary method. Based on an extrusion method using anti-phase massage rollers and a theory on envelope plane, a massage mechanism was proposed in this paper for the defect of the traditional mechanical assist massage structure to discharge obstruction of Meibomian gland more smoothly and to enlarge massage coverage. Meanwhile, for the case that the power of motor was significantly limited by size, an evaluation, about the input, output and loss, was carried out to initially verify the feasibility of the designed mechanism.
IntroductionThe aim of the study was to interrogate the genetic architecture and autoimmune pleiotropy of scleroderma susceptibility in the Australian population.MethodsWe genotyped individuals from a well-characterized cohort of Australian scleroderma patients with the Immunochip, a custom array enriched for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at immune loci. Controls were taken from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. After data cleaning and adjusting for population stratification the final dataset consisted of 486 cases, 4,458 controls and 146,525 SNPs. Association analyses were conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. A replication study was performed using 833 cases and 1938 controls.ResultsA total of 8 loci with suggestive association (P <10-4.5) were identified, of which 5 showed significant association in the replication cohort (HLA-DRB1, DNASE1L3, STAT4, TNP03-IRF5 and VCAM1). The most notable findings were at the DNASE1L3 locus, previously associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and VCAM1, a locus not previously associated with human disease. This study identified a likely functional variant influencing scleroderma susceptibility at the DNASE1L3 locus; a missense polymorphism rs35677470 in DNASE1L3, with an odds ratio of 2.35 (P¿=¿2.3¿×¿10¿10) in anti-centromere antibody (ACA) positive cases.ConclusionsThis pilot study has confirmed previously reported scleroderma associations, revealed further genetic overlap between scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus, and identified a putative novel scleroderma susceptibility locus.
Based on the vector form Snell's law, ray tracing is performed to quantify the pointing errors of Risley-prism-based beam steering systems, induced by component errors, prism orientation errors, and assembly errors. Case examples are given to elucidate the pointing error distributions in the field of regard and evaluate the allowances of the error sources for a given pointing accuracy. It is found that the assembly errors of the second prism will result in more remarkable pointing errors in contrast with the first one. The pointing errors induced by prism tilt depend on the tilt direction. The allowances of bearing tilt and prism tilt are almost identical if the same pointing accuracy is planned. All conclusions can provide a theoretical foundation for practical works.
Protein ubiquitination is one of the most important reversible post-translational modifications (PTMs). In many biochemical, pathological and pharmaceutical studies on understanding the function of proteins in biological processes, identification of ubiquitination sites is an important first step. However, experimental approaches for identifying ubiquitination sites are often expensive, labor-intensive and time-consuming, partly due to the dynamics and reversibility of ubiquitination. In silico prediction of ubiquitination sites is potentially a useful strategy for whole proteome annotation. A number of bioinformatics approaches and tools have recently been developed for predicting protein ubiquitination sites. However, these tools have different methodologies, prediction algorithms, functionality and features, which complicate their utility and application. The purpose of this review is to aid users in selecting appropriate tools for specific analyses and circumstances. We first compared five popular webservers and standalone software options, assessing their performance on four up-to-date ubiquitination benchmark datasets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Arabidopsis thaliana. We then discussed and summarized these tools to guide users in choosing among the tools efficiently and rapidly. Finally, we assessed the importance of features of existing tools for ubiquitination site prediction, ranking them by performance. We also discussed the features that make noticeable contributions to species-specific ubiquitination site prediction.
The diverse biological functions of RNA are determined by the complex structures of RNA stabilized by both secondary and tertiary interactions. An RNA triplex is an important tertiary structure motif that is found in many pseudoknots and other structured RNAs. A triplex structure usually forms through tertiary interactions in the major or minor groove of a Watson-Crick base-paired stem. A major-groove RNA triplex structure is stable in isolation by forming consecutive major-groove base triples such as U·A-U and C(+) ·G-C. Minor-groove RNA triplexes, e.g., A-minor motif triplexes, are found in almost all large structured RNAs. As double-stranded RNA stem regions are often involved in biologically important tertiary triplex structure formation and protein binding, the ability to sequence specifically target any desired RNA duplexes by triplex formation would have great potential for biomedical applications. Programmable chemically modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been developed to form TFO·RNA2 and PNA·RNA2 triplexes, respectively, with enhanced binding affinity and sequence specificity at physiological conditions. Here, we (1) provide an overview of naturally occurring RNA triplexes, (2) summarize the experimental methods for studying triplexes, and (3) review the development of TFOs and triplex-forming PNAs for targeting an HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift-inducing RNA, a bacterial ribosomal A-site RNA, and a human microRNA hairpin precursor, and for inhibiting the RNA-protein interactions involving human RNA-dependent protein kinase and HIV-1 viral protein Rev. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
The relationship between T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3)/Galectin (Gal)-9 pathway and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was studied. Thirty-one pregnant women with RSA and 27 normal early gravidas were investigated to detect the levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas by Western blotting. Meanwhile, the concentration of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 in peripheral blood plasma was determined by ELISA in 25 healthy fertile non-pregnant controls, the normal early gravidas and pregnant women with RSA mentioned above, respectively. It was found that the relative expression levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas were significantly increased in pregnant women with RSA as compared with those in the normal early gravidas. The concentration of IL-4 in peripheral blood plasma of pregnant women with RSA was lower than that of the normal early gravidas (P<0.05) and healthy fertile non-pregnant controls (P<0.05), but that of IL-2 in pregnant women with RSA was significantly higher than that of the normal early gravidas (P<0.05) and healthy fertile non-pregnant controls (P<0.05). It was suggested that the overexpression of Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway may be related to the pathogenesis of RSA.
Additional sex comb-like 1 ( ASXL1) is an enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb family, which are necessary for the maintenance of stable repression of homeotic and other loci. Recently, alterations of ASXL1 gene were identified in the hematopoietic cells from patients with a variety of myeloid malignancies, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML, 43% of cases), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 20%), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, 10%) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 20%). The majority of ASXL1 mutations are frameshift and nonsense mutations. These clinical data suggest an important role of ASXL1 in the pathogenesis and/or transformation of myeloid malignancies. However, the role of ASXL1 in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies and in normal hematopoiesis in vivo, as well as the underlying mechanisms remains unknown. This article reviews the structure and function of ASXL1, the clinical characteristic and prognostic significance of ASXL1 mutation, the association of ASXL1 with other gene mutation, as well as ASXL1 knock-down or silence in vitro and in vivo models.
Working memory (WM) deficit is an important component of impaired cognition in schizophrenia. However, between-studies inconsistencies as to the specific functional substrate imply that inter-individual variability (IIV) in the WM performance is associated with IIV in brain activity in schizophrenia. To examine the neural substrate of this WM IIV, we studied whether the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in WM capacity are the same in schizophrenia patients and healthy people. We correlated the IIV of the task-evoked brain activity and task performance during an n-back WM task with the IIV of the moment-to-moment variability in intrinsic resting-state activity, as measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and further compared this relationship between 17 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 18 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons of the correlation patterns indicated aberrant ALFF-WM activation correlations and ALFF-WM performance correlations in the FES patients, but no significant changes were detected in any single measurement of these three characteristics. Specifically, we found increased positive ALFF-WM activation correlations in the bilateral lateral prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortices and fusiform gyri in the FES patients. We also observed significant increases in positive ALFF-WM performance correlations in the bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortices in the FES patients. This hyper-coupling between the ALFF and fMRI measures during a WM task may indicate that it was difficult for the patients to detach themselves from one state to transition to another and suggests that the inefficient cortical function in schizophrenia stems from the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain.
Abstract Circulating platelets are anucleated and multi-functional cells that participate in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. Multiple ligands and mechanical forces activate platelets, leading to cytoskeletal rearrangement and dramatic shape-changes. Such dramatic changes in platelets membrane structures are commonly detected by optical and electron microscopy after platelets are fixed. We have recently developed a method to study the membrane morphology of live platelets using Hopping Probe Ion Conductance Microscopy (HPICM). We have successfully used this technology to study the process of platelet microvesiculation upon exposure to selective agonists. Here, we further discussed technical details of using HPICM to study platelet biology and compared results from HPICM to those from conventional atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This method offers several advantages over current technologies. First, it monitors morphological changes of platelets in response to agonists in real time. Second, platelets can be repeatedly scanned over time without damages brought by heat and prolong light exposure. Third, there is no direct contact with platelet surface so that there will no or minimal mechanical damages brought by a cantilever of a conventional atomic force microscopy. Finally, it offers the potential to study platelet membrane ion channels, which have been technically challenging up-to-date. Our data show that HPICM has high-resolution in delineating changes of platelet morphology in response to stimulations and could help to unravel the complex role of platelet in thrombus formation.
Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently induces genome instability and p21 suppresses the function of cyclin E, the novel and important implication from our findings is that Bmi-1 plays an important role in limiting genomic instability in cylin E-overexpressing cancer cells by positive regulation of p21.
To improve the accuracy, throughput and automation of proteome quantification analysis, an integrated platform including a microflow mixed-bed ion exchange column, a hydrophilic immobilized enzymatic reactor (hIMER) and nanoRPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS system was established. Online separation and digestion of dimethylated proteins, followed by peptide separation, identification and quantification can be realized automat ically by this platform. High and light dimethyl-labeled (H/L) proteins with the mass ratio of 1:1 were used to evaluate the quantification performance of the platform. The results showed that the dimethyl labeling efficiency at protein level was 90%. The incomplete digestion resulting from 10 min online digestion by the hIMER column and the non-specific adsorption of protein digests on the column had little adverse effect on the accuracy of protein quantification results. The mean value of H/L (mass ratio) of all the quantified proteins was 1.01. This platform was finally applied to analyze the different protein expression levels of two mice hepatocarcinoma ascites cell lines with high and low lymph node metastasis rates (Hca-F and Hca-P cell lines). Finally 15 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated proteins (Hca-F/Hca-P) were successfully obtained. All these results demonstrated that the integrated platform can be used for proteome quantification with the advantages of high accuracy and high throughput.
Polymer self-assembly was developed as an epitope imprinting strategy involving facile processes and high recognition site density. As a model, transferrin epitope imprinted polyethersulfone (PES) beads were successfully fabricated using this technique. The imprinted beads demonstrated excellent selectivity toward the transferrin epitope and transferrin even in the real sample.
Stroke system of care plays key roles both in providing effective therapies and in improving the overall outcome of patients with stroke. Our purpose was to develop and evaluate the system in Chinese rural areas.
Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) were associated with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and/or angiogenesis. LAP3 is one important member of this family. However, its clinical significance and biological function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that LAP3 expression was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues as well as cells and was closely correlated with lower differentiation, positive lymph node metastasis and high Ki-67 expression, indicating a poor prognosis. Then cell viability assays, flow cytometry assays, wound-healing assays and matrigel invasion assays were performed to demonstrate that LAP3 promoted HCC cells proliferation by regulating G1/S checkpoint in cell cycle and advanced HCC cells migration. Furthermore, we discovered that knockdown LAP3 will enhance the sensitivity of HCC cells to cisplatin, thus promoting the cell death of HCC cells. Collectively, our results indicated that up-regulated expression of LAP3 might contribute to the proliferation and metastasis of HCC. Our data gains greater insight into the cancer-promoting role of LAP3 and its functions in HCC cells, possibly providing potential therapeutic strategies for clinical trials.
DNA damage and telomere dysfunction shorten organismal lifespan. Here we show that oral glucose administration at advanced age increases health and lifespan of telomere dysfunctional mice. The study reveals that energy consumption increases in telomere dysfunctional cells resulting in enhanced glucose metabolism both in glycolysis and in the tricarboxylic acid cycle at organismal level. In ageing telomere dysfunctional mice, normal diet provides insufficient amounts of glucose thus leading to impaired energy homeostasis, catabolism, suppression of IGF-1/mTOR signalling, suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and tissue atrophy. A glucose-enriched diet reverts these defects by activating glycolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative glucose metabolism. The beneficial effects of glucose substitution on mitochondrial function and glucose metabolism are blocked by mTOR inhibition but mimicked by IGF-1 application. Together, these results provide the first experimental evidence that telomere dysfunction enhances the requirement of glucose substitution for the maintenance of energy homeostasis and IGF-1/mTOR-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis in ageing tissues.
A dual-wedge scanner has potential applications in laser imaging radar. To realize fast scanning imaging without a blind region, the rotation rates of the wedges have to be controlled to perform beam scanning along appropriate track paths. The first-order paraxial approximation method is employed to investigate the 2D scan patterns and path density for different angular frequency ratios of the wedges rotating steadily in the same and opposite directions. The frame rate of no-blind-region scanning imaging is estimated in terms of the imaging coverage requirement. The internal relations between the rotation rates, the instantaneous field of view (IFOV), and the imaging velocity are revealed. The results show that the spiral scanning trace, resulting from co-rotating wedges, is dense in the center and sparse at the edge of the scanning field. The reverse results can be obtained for the rosette scanning trace, resulting from counter-rotating wedges. The denser the scanning trace is, the longer the scan period is. The faster the wedges rotate and the wider the IFOV is, the higher the frame rate is. When the ratio of the width of IFOV to the angular radius of the scanning field is 0.15, the frame rate of no-blind-region spiral scanning imaging can be up to 18 fps for wedge rotation rate of 12000??r/min, and that for rosette scanning imaging can be up to 20 fps.
Intestinal barrier damage is an important event during the occurrence and progression of severe acute pancreatitis. The expression of occludin, one of the main components of the intestinal barrier proteins, is regulated by various factors related to intestinal barrier formation and the remodeling process. The ?SNAP, as a novel membrane protein, is ubiquitously expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the role of ?SNAP in acute pancreatitis and the relationship between occludin and ?SNAP.
Cucurbitacin C, a bitter substance in Cucumis sativus L., was isolated from green leaves by using phytochemical methods. An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established for the quantification of cucurbitacin C in different parts of the cucumber plant at different growth periods. Cucurbitacin C was detected in the leaves and stems but not in the female flowers, fruits, roots and leafstalks. The level of cucurbitacin C decreased significantly with the process of young leaves turning old. A new compound named 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin C, regarded as the next metabolite of cucurbitacin C, was determined unambiguously by HPLC-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.
Microcystin (MC)-LR is a cyclic heptapeptide that acts as a potent reproductive system toxin, especially by decreasing sperm quality through affecting spermatogonia. However, the molecular mechanisms of MC-induced spermatogonial cytotoxicity still remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate changes in microRNA (miRNA) profiles and their potential functions in spermatogonia (GC-1 cell line) following treatment with MC-LR. With microarray analysis, 101 miRNAs were identified to be significantly altered in GC-1 cells treated with MC-LR. Among the 25 miRNAs associated with spermatogenesis, miR-96 was down-regulated most dramatically and thus selected for further functional analysis. Deleted-in azoospermia-associated protein 2 (DAZAP2) was predicted to have a binding sequence for miR-96 within its 3'-untranslated region. Fluorescent reporter assay confirmed that DAZAP2 was the target gene of miR-96. The expression of DAZAP2 decreased significantly when miR-96 was up-regulated. Consistently, down-regulation of miR-96 significantly increased the level of DAZAP2. Up-regulation of miR-96 promoted cell viability in GC-1 cells as a result of exposure to MC-LR. Our study suggested a crucial role for miR-96 in the regulation of cytotoxic effects of MC-LR in spermatogonia, which provides new perspectives in the diagnosis and treatment strategies for MC-induced male infertility.
The large scale relative quantification of all proteins expressed in biological samples under different states is of great importance for discovering proteins with important biological functions, as well as screening disease related biomarkers and drug targets. Therefore, the accurate quantification of proteins at proteome level has become one of the key issues in protein science. Herein, the recent advances in stable isotope labeling based techniques for proteome relative quantification were reviewed, from the aspects of metabolic labeling, chemical labeling and enzyme-catalyzed labeling. Furthermore, the future research direction in this field was prospected.
Microbes colonize human oral surfaces within hours after delivery. During postnatal development, physiological changes, such as the eruption of primary teeth and replacement of the primary dentition with permanent dentition, greatly alter the microbial habitats, which, in return, may lead to community composition shifts at different phases in people's lives. By profiling saliva, supragingival and mucosal plaque samples from healthy volunteers at different ages and dentition stages, we observed that the oral cavity is a highly heterogeneous ecological system containing distinct niches with significantly different microbial communities. More importantly, the phylogenetic microbial structure varies with ageing. In addition, only a few taxa were present across the whole populations, indicating a core oral microbiome should be defined based on age and oral niches.
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) involving the cardiovascular system is extremely rare; to our knowledge, there are only 9 cases in the literature. Here, a case of a 60-year-old male with RDD involving the right atrium is presented. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to summarize the clinical and pathologic features of this disorder.
Orphan nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) is a transcription factor stimulated by many factors and plays pivotal roles in metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study, the expression of NR4A1 in Huh7.5.1 cells was significantly upregulated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The silencing of NR4A1 inhibited the entry of HCV and reduced the specific infectivity of secreted HCV particles but had only minor or no effect on the genome replication and translation, virion assembly and virus release steps of the virus life cycle. Further experiments demonstrated that the silencing of NR4A1 affected virus entry through pan-downregulation of the expression of HCV receptors scavenger receptor BI, occludin, claudin-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor but not CD81. The reduced specific infectivity of HCV in the knockdown cells was due to decreased apolipoprotein E (ApoE) expression. These results explain the delayed spread of HCV in NR4A1 knockdown Huh7.5.1 cells. Thus, NR4A1 plays a role in HCV replication through regulating the expression of HCV receptors and ApoE, and facilitates HCV entry and spread.
One common cancer chemotherapeutic strategy is to perturb cell division with anti-mitotic drugs. Paclitaxel, the classic microtubule-targeting anti-mitotic drug, so far still outperforms the newer, more spindle-specific anti-mitotics in the clinic, but the underlying cellular mechanism is poorly understood. In this study we identified post-slippage multinucleation, which triggered extensive DNA damage and apoptosis after drug-induced mitotic slippage, contributes to the extra cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in comparison to the spindle-targeting drug, Kinesin-5 inhibitor. Based on quantitative single-cell microscopy assays, we showed that attenuation of the degree of post-slippage multinucleation significantly reduced DNA damage and apoptosis in response to paclitaxel, and that post-slippage apoptosis was likely mediated by the p53-dependent DNA damage response pathway. Paclitaxel appeared to act as a double-edge sword, capable of killing proliferating cancer cells both during mitotic arrest and after mitotic slippage by inducing DNA damage. Our results thus suggest that to predict drug response to paclitaxel and anti-mitotics in general, 2 distinct sets of bio-markers, which regulate mitotic and post-slippage cytotoxicity, respectively, may need to be considered. Our findings provide important new insight not only for elucidating the cytotoxic mechanisms of paclitaxel, but also for understanding the variable efficacy of different anti-mitotic chemotherapeutics.
Five new triterpene saponins, Ilexpublesnins N-R (1-5), along with seven known analogs were isolated from the root of Ilex pubescens. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Ilexpublesnin N (1) possessed a rare 20-hydroxyursolic acid scaffold from natural resource. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HLE, BEL7402, BEL7403, BEL7405, MCF-7, HeLa. Among them, only compounds 5 and 10 showed cytotoxic potentiality against BEl-7403 and HEL cell lines [inhibition (%): 35.38 and 45.12, respectively].
Relative quantification of N-glycoproteomes shows great promise for the discovery of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The traditional protocol for quantitative analysis of glycoproteomes is usually off-line performed, and suffers from long sample preparation time, and the risk of sample loss or contamination due to manual manipulation. In this study, a novel integrated sample preparation platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established, with combination of online N-glycopeptide capture by a HILIC column, sample buffer exchange by a N2-assisted HILIC-RPLC interface, deglycosylation by a hydrophilic PNGase F immobilized enzymatic reactor (hIMER) and solid dimethyl labeling on a C18 precolumn. To evaluate the performance of such a platform, two equal aliquots of immunoglobulin G (IgG) digests were sequentially pretreated, followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The signal intensity ratio of heavy/light (H/L) labeled deglycosylated peptides with the equal aliquots was 1.00 (RSD=6.2%, n=3), much better than those obtained by the offline protocol, with H/L ratio as 0.76 (RSD=11.6%, n=3). Additionally, the total on-line sample preparation time was greatly shortened to 160 min, much faster than that of offline approach (24h). Furthermore, such an integrated pretreatment platform was successfully applied to analyze the two kinds of hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high (Hca-F) and low (Hca-P) lymph node metastasis rates. For H/L labeled Hca-P lysates with the equal aliquots, 99.6% of log2 ratios (H/L) of quantified glycopeptides ranged from -1 to 1, demonstrating high accuracy of the developed sample preparation strategy. By triplicated analysis of glycopeptides and non-glycopeptides of Hca-F and Hca-P lysates, 43 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated (Hca-F/P) N-glycosylation sites, and 11 significantly changed N-glycoproteins were successfully quantified, and most of them were related to tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis. All these results demonstrate the developed integrated N-glycoprotein pretreatment platform is of great power for the accurate, precise and high-throughput analysis of N-glycoproteomes.
Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) in early aldosterone action on epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in mammalian renal epithelia was investigated by hopping probe ion conductance microscopy combined with patch-clamping in this study. Aldosterone treatment enlarged the cell volume and elevated the apical membrane of renal mpkCCDc14 epithelia, which resulted in enhancing the open probability of ENaC. Inhibition of PI3K pathway by LY294002 obviously suppressed these aldosterone-induced changes in both cell morphology and ENaC activity. These results indicated the important role of PI3K pathway in early aldosterone action and the close relationship between cell morphology and ENaC activity in mammalian renal epithelia.
Seed vigor is an index of seed quality that is used to describe the rapid and uniform germination and the establishment of strong seedlings in any environmental conditions. Strong seed vigor in low-temperature germination conditions is particularly important in direct-sowing rice production systems. However, seed vigor has not been selected as an important breeding trait in traditional breeding programs due to its quantitative inherence. In this study, we identified and mapped eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed vigor by using a recombinant inbred population from a cross between rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) cultivars ZS97 and MH63. Conditional QTL analysis identified qSV-1, qSV-5b, qSV-6a, qSV-6b, and qSV-11 influenced seedling establishment and that qSV-5a, qSV-5c, and qSV-8 influenced only germination. Of these, qSV-1, qSV-5b, qSV-6a, qSV-6b, and qSV-8 were low-temperature-specific QTLs. Two major-effective QTLs, qSV-1, and qSV-5c were narrowed down to 1.13-Mbp and 400-kbp genomic regions, respectively. The results provide tightly linked DNA markers for the marker-assistant pyramiding of multiple positive alleles for increased seed vigor in both normal and low-temperature germination environments.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most commonly occurring primary intracranial tumor, is associated with a negative outcome, regardless of the availability of multimodal therapies. However, the identification of glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are small groups of cells within the GBM, has resulted in novel avenues for research. GSCs are resistant to numerous types of environmental stress, such as irradiation, antitumor drugs and hypoxia. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has a significant role the cellular response to oxidative stress and previous studies have supported the significance of Nrf2 in GBM; however, the role of Nrf2 in GSCs remains unclear. In the present study, Nrf2 in CD133(-) GBM cells and CD133(+) GSCs from GBM were compared. GSCs from GBM, which express the surface marker CD133, were separated by magnetic cell sorting and analyzed by immunofluorescence in 24-well clusters and cell counting using flow cytometry. The expression of Nrf2 was detected at the transcriptional and translational levels in CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells, and the result indicated that GSCs were successfully isolated from the GBM. The percentage of tumor stem cells in total cells was between 0.49 and 0.91%. Nrf2 was overexpressed in CD133(+) GSCs when compared with CD133(-) GBM cells, which indicated that the expression of Nrf2 in GSCs was closely correlated with malignant proliferation and differentiation of the GBM. Therefore, it was concluded that Nrf2 may be a potential biomarker and rational therapeutic target in GBM.
It is now well established that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to and interact in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the currently described causal genetic variants do not explain the majority of the heritability of MS, resulting in 'missing heritability'. Epigenetic mechanisms, which principally include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing, may contribute a significant component of this missing heritability. As the development of MS is a dynamic process potentially starting with inflammation, then demyelination, remyelination and neurodegeneration, we have reviewed the dynamic epigenetic changes in these aspects of MS pathogenesis and describe how environmental risk factors may interact with epigenetic changes to manifest in disease.
Recently, combination therapy with acupuncture and medicine as a practical strategy to treat diseases has gained increasing attention. The present study aimed to investigate whether acupuncture stimulation at ST.36 had a potential impact on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of lignans. An HPLC-ESI/MS analytical method was established and successfully applied to a comparative study of drug concentration in plasma and tissues of three lignans. The parameters area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the final measurable point and from time zero to infinity, and peak concentration were significantly increased, with a prolonged mean residence time and a corresponding decrease in clearance in comparision with the Schisandra-alone group. Additionally, tissue concentrations of three lignans were improved in the group with acupuncture, especially in liver. The results indicated that acupuncture has a synergistic effect on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the three lignans, which could postpone their elimination, resulting in a longer blood circulating time in rat plasma and prolonged residence time in target tissues, leading to higher tissue concentration. The findings provide some scientific evidence for the mechanism of the combined use of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Furthermore, we suggest that acupuncture and its combination with herbal medicine should be investigated further as a possible adjuvant therapy in clinical treatment for liver injury.
Determining the composition and function of subgingival dental plaque is crucial to understanding human periodontal health and disease, but it is challenging because of the complexity of the interactions between human microbiomes and human body. Here, we examined the phylogenetic and functional gene differences between periodontal and healthy individuals using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a specific functional gene array (a combination of GeoChip 4.0 for biogeochemical processes and HuMiChip 1.0 for human microbiomes). Our analyses indicated that the phylogenetic and functional gene structure of the oral microbiomes were distinctly different between periodontal and healthy groups. Also, 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that 39 genera were significantly different between healthy and periodontitis groups, and Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Treponema, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Tannerella, Hallella, Parvimonas, Peptostreptococcus and Catonella showed higher relative abundances in the periodontitis group. In addition, functional gene array data showed that a lower gene number but higher signal intensity of major genes existed in periodontitis, and a variety of genes involved in virulence factors, amino acid metabolism and glycosaminoglycan and pyrimidine degradation were enriched in periodontitis, suggesting their potential importance in periodontal pathogenesis. However, the genes involved in amino acid synthesis and pyrimidine synthesis exhibited a significantly lower relative abundance compared with healthy group. Overall, this study provides new insights into our understanding of phylogenetic and functional gene structure of subgingival microbial communities of periodontal patients and their importance in pathogenesis of periodontitis.
The aim of this study is to investigate the outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based individual thrombolysis therapy using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with superacute infarction, comparing the outcome in 1 group of patients treated within 4.5 hours compared with 4.5- to 12-hour window treatment group.
Abnormal decision-making processes have been observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unresolved whether MDD patients show abnormalities in decision making in a social interaction context, in which decisions have actual influences on both the self-interests of the decision makers per se and those of their partners.
A novel, sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection with signal dual-amplification using glucose oxidase (GOx) and laccase was investigated. The method was based on the characterization of a luminol-H2O2-laccase reaction. Compared with the horseradish peroxidase-based biosensor, laccase exhibited high catalytic activity in strong alkaline medium, which was compatible with the luminol system. The capture antibody was immobilized onto the magnetic bead (MB) surfaces. The detection antibody was linked with GOx through biotin-avidin recognition. Accordingly, the bioconjugation of MB-caputure antibody- E. coli O157:H7-detection antibody-GOx catalyzed the substrate glucose, thereby generating H2O2. E. coli O157:H7 was then detected by measuring the CL intensity after H2O2 formation. Under optimal conditions, the calibration plot obtained for E. coli O157:H7 was approximately linear from 4.3 × 10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU) mL(-1) to 4.3 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1), and the total assay time was <2.0 h without any enrichment. The limit of detection for the assay was 1.2 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1) (3?), which was considerably lower than that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (1.0 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1)) (3?). A series of repeatability measurements of using 1.7 × 10(4) CFU mL(-1) E. coli O157:H7 exhibited reproducible results with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.5% (n = 11). Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used to detect E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic samples (spring water, apple juice, and skim milk), which indicated its potential practical application. This protocol can be applied in various fields of study.
Emergency department (ED) crowding correlates with patient safety. Difficulties quantifying crowding and providing solutions were highlighted in the recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) report calling for the application of advanced industrial engineering (IE) research techniques to evaluate ED crowding. ED personnel workload is a related concept, with potential reciprocal effects between the two. Collaboration between emergency medicine and IE is needed to address crowding and ED personnel workload.
Increasing studies have implicated the thalamus in schizophrenia, supporting the view that this structure has an important role in this disorder. Given that extensive reciprocal connections exist between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, it is believed that disruptions of the thalamo-cortical connections may underlie the multiplicity of schizophrenic symptoms. Therefore, assessing the relationship between the thalamus and the neocortex may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We analyzed magnetic resonance images from a sample of 101 schizophrenic patients and 101 healthy controls. By assessing the correlation between the thalamic volume and cortical thickness at each vertex on the cortical surface, a thalamo-cortical network was obtained for each group. We compared the patterns of thalamo-cortical connectivity between the two groups. Compared with healthy controls, less distributed cortical regions were identified in the thalamo-cortical network in patients with schizophrenia. Vertex-wise comparison revealed decreased thalamo-cortical connectivity in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus and the right parieto-occipital region in schizophrenia. The observed disruptions in thalamo-cortical connectivity might be the substrate underlying the wide range of schizophrenic symptoms and provide further evidence to support the notion of schizophrenia as a disorder of brain dysconnectivity.
FTIR (Fourier transformed infrared) spectra have been collected and analyzed for solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (PC), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), and PC+DMF mixtures. The band splitting and symmetric ring deformation for PC and O=C-N deformation for DMF suggest that there is a strong interaction between lithium cations and solvent molecules. The solvent molecules have been assigned to two types, the free and complexed molecules. By a comparison of the intensity for the corresponding bands, it has been concluded that Li(+) cations are preferentially solvated by DMF molecules in the LiBF4/PC+DMF solutions. This has been explained by the difference in values of donor number (DN).
Inherited deafness has been shown to have high genetic heterogeneity. For many decades, linkage analysis and candidate gene approaches have been the main tools to elucidate the genetics of hearing loss. However, this associated study design is costly, time-consuming, and unsuitable for small families. This is mainly due to the inadequate numbers of available affected individuals, locus heterogeneity, and assortative mating. Exome sequencing has now become technically feasible and a cost-effective method for detection of disease variants underlying Mendelian disorders due to the recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In the present study, we have combined both the Deafness Gene Mutation Detection Array and exome sequencing to identify deafness causative variants in a large Chinese composite family with deaf by deaf mating. The simultaneous screening of the 9 common deafness mutations using the allele-specific PCR based universal array, resulted in the identification of the 1555A>G in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA in affected individuals in one branch of the family. We then subjected the mutation-negative cases to exome sequencing and identified novel causative variants in the MYH14 and WFS1 genes. This report confirms the effective use of a NGS technique to detect pathogenic mutations in affected individuals who were not candidates for classical genetic studies.
Sporadic or late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is expected to affect 50% of individuals reaching 85 years of age. The most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the e4 allele of APOE gene encoding apolipoprotein E, a lipid carrier shown to modulate brain amyloid burden. Recent genome-wide association studies have uncovered additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to AD susceptibility, including those in the CLU and BIN1 genes encoding for clusterin (CLU) and the bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) proteins, respectively. Because CLU has been implicated in brain amyloid-? (A?) clearance in mouse models of amyloid deposition, we sought to investigate whether an AD-linked SNP in the CLU gene altered A?42 biomarker levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Instead, we found that the CLU rs11136000 SNP modified CSF levels of the microtubule-associated protein Tau in AD patients. We also found that an intracellular form of CLU (iCLU) was upregulated in the brain of Tau overexpressing Tg4510 mice, but not in Tg2576 amyloid mouse model. By overexpressing iCLU and Tau in cell culture systems we discovered that iCLU was a Tau-interacting protein and that iCLU associated with brain-specific isoforms of BIN1, also recently identified as a Tau-binding protein. Through expression analysis of CLU and BIN1 variants, we found that CLU and BIN1 interacted via their coiled-coil motifs. In co-immunoprecipitation studies using human brain tissue, we showed that iCLU and the major BIN1 isoform expressed in neurons were associated with modified Tau species found in AD. Finally, we showed that expression of certain coding CLU variants linked to AD risk led to increased levels of iCLU. Together, our findings suggest that iCLU and BIN1 interaction might impact Tau function in neurons and uncover potential new mechanisms underlying the etiology of Tau pathology in AD.
Tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) is a novel tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation is implicated in the occurrence, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of esophageal cancer. TSLC1 was studied by comparing the tumor formation of TSLC1 transfectant and control cells in nude mice. Compared with blank group and mock group, tumor size and infiltrating range of transfected group was less, differentiation of tumor tissue was slightly better, and differences of tumor angiogenesis was worse. There was no obvious difference between blank group and mock group. We have shown TSLC1 gene inhibited the growth proliferation, infiltration and angiogenesis of Eca109 cells.
Long-term spaceflight induces both physiological and psychological changes in astronauts. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying these physiological and psychological changes, it is critical to investigate the effects of microgravity on the functional architecture of the brain. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to study whether the functional architecture of the brain is altered after 45 days of -6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a reliable model for the simulation of microgravity. Sixteen healthy male volunteers underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Specifically, we used a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, i.e., degree centrality (DC), to perform a full-brain exploration of the regions that were influenced by simulated microgravity. We subsequently examined the functional connectivities of these regions using a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis. We found decreased DC in two regions, the left anterior insula (aINS) and the anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex (MCC; also called the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in many studies), in the male volunteers after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Furthermore, seed-based RSFC analyses revealed that a functional network anchored in the aINS and MCC was particularly influenced by simulated microgravity. These results provide evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS-MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight. The current findings provide a new perspective for understanding the relationships between microgravity, cognitive function, autonomic neural function, and central neural activity.
Space is characterized by risk and uncertainty. As humans play an important role in long-duration space missions, the ability to make risky decisions effectively is important for astronauts who spend extended time periods in space. The present study used the Balloon Analog Risk Task to conduct both behavioral and fMRI experiments to evaluate the effects of simulated microgravity on individuals' risk-taking behavior and the neural basis of the effect. The results showed that participants' risk-taking behavior was not affected by bed rest. However, we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) showed less deactivation after bed rest and that the VMPFC activation in the active choice condition showed no significant difference between the win outcome and the loss outcome after bed rest, although its activation was significantly greater in the win outcome than in the loss outcome before bed rest. These results suggested that the participants showed a decreased level of value calculation after the bed rest. Our findings can contribute to a better understanding of the effect of microgravity on individual higher-level cognitive functioning.
A unique feature of the human species is compliance with social norms, e.g., fairness, even though this normative decision means curbing self-interest. However, sometimes people prefer to pursue wealth at the expense of moral goodness. Specifically, deviations from a fairness-related normative choice have been observed in the presence of a high monetary incentive. The neural mechanism underlying this deviation from the fairness-related normative choice has yet to be determined. In order to address this issue, using functional magnetic resonance imaging we employed an ultimatum game (UG) paradigm in which fairness and a proposed monetary amount were orthogonally varied. We found evidence for a significant modulation by the proposed amount on fairness in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the bilateral insular cortices. Additionally, the insular subregions showed dissociable modulation patterns. Inter-individual differences in the modulation effects in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) accounted for inter-individual differences in the behavioral modulation effect as measured by the rejection rate, supporting the concept that the PFC plays a critical role in making fairness-related normative decisions in a social interaction condition. Our findings provide neural evidence for the modulation of fairness by monetary incentives as well as accounting for inter-individual differences.
Men are more risk prone than women, but the underlying basis remains unclear. To investigate this question, we developed a trait-like measure of risk propensity which we correlated with resting-state functional connectivity to identify sex differences. Specifically, we used short- and long-range functional connectivity densities to identify associated brain regions and examined their functional connectivities in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from a large sample of healthy young volunteers. We found that men had a higher level of general risk propensity (GRP) than women. At the neural level, although they shared a common neural correlate of GRP in a network centered at the right inferior frontal gyrus, men and women differed in a network centered at the right secondary somatosensory cortex, which included the bilateral dorsal anterior/middle insular cortices and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, men and women differed in a local network centered at the left inferior orbitofrontal cortex. Most of the regions identified by this resting-state fMRI study have been previously implicated in risk processing when people make risky decisions. This study provides a new perspective on the brain-behavioral relationships in risky decision making and contributes to our understanding of sex differences in risk propensity.
A subpopulation of cancer stem cells is recognized as the cause of tumorigenesis and spreading. To investigate the effects of casticin (5,3-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4-tetramethoxyflavone), derived from Fructus Viticis Simplicifoliae, on lung cancer stem cells, we isolated and identified a subpopulation of lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) from non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells with the features including self-renewal capacity and high invasiveness in vitro, elevated tumorigenic activity in vivo, and high expression of stemness markers CD133, CD44, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), using serum-free suspension sphere-forming culture method. We then found that casticin could suppress the proliferation of LCSLCs in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.4 ?mol/L, being much stronger than that in parental A549 cells. In addition, casticin could suppress the self-renewal and invasion of LCSLCs concomitant with decreased CD133, CD44, and ALDH1 protein expression and reduced MMP-9 activity. Further experiments showed that casticin suppressed self-renewal and invasion at least partly through down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, casticin suppressed the characteristics of LCSLCs, suggesting that casticin may be a candidate compound for curing lung cancer via eliminating cancer stem cells.
Discovering differentially expressed proteins in various biological samples requires proteome quantification methods with accuracy, precision, and wide dynamic range. This study describes a mass defect-based pseudo-isobaric dimethyl labeling (pIDL) method based on the subtle mass defect differences between (12)C/(13)C and (1)H/(2)H. Lys-C protein digests were labeled with CD2O/(13)CD2O and reduced with NaCNBD3/NaCNBH3 as heavy and light isotopologues, respectively. The fragment ion pairs with mass differences of 5.84 mDa were resolved by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and used for quantification. The pIDL method described here resulted in highly accurate and precise quantification results with approximately 100-fold dynamic range. Furthermore, the pIDL method was extended to 4-plex proteome quantification and applied to the quantitative analysis of proteomes from Hca-P and Hca-F, two mouse hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with low and high lymph node metastasis rates.
Ferroelectric-germanium heterostructures have a strong potential for multifunctional devices. Germanium (Ge) is attractive due to its higher electron and hole mobilities while ferroelectric BaTiO3 is promising due to its high relative permittivity, which can make next-generation low-voltage and low-leakage metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. Here, we investigate the growth, structural, chemical, and band alignment properties of pulsed laser deposited BaTiO3 on epitaxial (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge layers. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy micrographs show the amorphous nature of the BaTiO3 layer and also show a sharp heterointerface between BaTiO3 and Ge. The appearance of strong Pendellösung oscillation fringes from high-resolution X-ray diffraction implies the presence of parallel and sharp heterointerfaces. The valence band offset relation of ?EV(100) ? ?EV(111) > ?EV(110) and the conduction band offset relation of ?E(C)(110) > ?E(C)(111) ? ?E(C)(100) on crystallographically oriented Ge offer significant advancement for designing new-generation ferroelectric-germanium-based multifunctional devices.
Sorcin, a 22-kDa calcium-binding protein, renders cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, thus playing an important role in multidrug resistance. As there is a clear association between drug resistance and an aggressive phenotype, we asked whether sorcin affects also the motility, invasion, and stem cell characteristics of cancer cells. We have used both RNA interference (transient and stable expression of hairpins) and a lentiviral expression vector to experimentally modulate sorcin expression in a variety of cells. We demonstrate that sorcin depletion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells reduces the pool of CD44(+)/CD24(-) and ALDH1(high) cancer stem cells (CSCs) as well as mammosphere-forming capacity. We also observe that sorcin regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CSCs partly through E-cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. This leads to the acquisition of an epithelial-like phenotype, attenuating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppression of metastases in nude mice. The sorcin-depleted phenotype can also be reproduced in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and lung fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. In addition, overexpression of sorcin in MCF7 cells, which have low endogenous sorcin expression levels, increases their migration and invasion in vitro. This offers the rationale for the development of therapeutic strategies down-regulating sorcin expression for the treatment of cancer.
Convergent evidence suggests that psychiatric disorders are the result of faulty brain networks. To understand the pathophysiological network mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, it is necessary to integrate multi-level network features obtained using various functional and anatomical brain imaging technologies on different scales. We have proposed a new concept, the brainnetome, to represent this integrative framework. In the present review, we use schizophrenia, a disorder characterized by dysconnectivity, to demonstrate how the brainnetome concept can be applied to the study of psychiatric disorders. We first review studies of abnormal brain networks in schizophrenia that are based on single regions of interest. We then present some advances and challenges in understanding the malfunctions of specific brain networks in schizophrenia. Some recent advances and challenges in understanding abnormal whole brain networks in schizophrenia are also presented. We next briefly introduce a few studies that show how genes related to the risk for schizophrenia affect brain networks. Finally, we present a brief discussion about how the brainnetome concept may influence future research and provide a perspective on challenges in this field.
Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by naturally freshwater cyanobacteria. Among more than 90 identified analogues of microcystins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most abundant and toxic. Our previous investigations indicated that MC-LR displays male reproductive toxicity, but the target of MC-LR in testes remains unclear. To this end, the present study is designed to elucidate whether microcystin-LR could be distributed to testes and explore the target cells in testes. In the in vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with MC-LR at a dose of 300 ?g/kg per day for 6 days. MC-LR was detected in testes, mainly within seminiferous tubules, which was further validated by Western blot. The concentrations of MC-LR were determined by LC-MS analysis, with a result of 0.0252 ± 0.0037 and 0.0056 ± 0.0012 ?g/g dry weight in liver and testis respectively. In the in vitro study, Primary cultured spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells were exposed to MC-LR respectively, and MC-LR was observed to enter spermatogonia and Sertoli cells, but not Leydig cells. These results suggested that the reproductive toxicity of MC-LR were induced by its distribution in testis. Spermatogonia and Sertoli cells are important target cells.
Despite much evidence questioning its validity, superstitious belief continues to be rooted in the human mind. We used functional MRI to directly compare participants neural responses to monetary attractiveness with their responses to the value of an auspicious date. We found that the right middle/superior frontal gyrus showed greater deactivation whenever an auspicious-based choice was made and that the contrast between the auspicious-based and economics-based choices was negatively correlated with the participants rated wedding date-related superstitious belief, suggesting that a specific brain region carries decision signals which contribute to making decisions based on superstition and may be able to account for individual differences in superstitious behavior. The present investigation helps to reveal how the brain handles superstition.
Quantitative proteomics is an important research field in post-genomics era. There are two strategies for proteome quantification: label-free methods and stable isotope labeling methods which have become the most important strategy for quantitative proteomics at present. In the past few years, a number of quantitative methods have been developed, which support the fast development in biology research. In this work, we discuss the progress in the stable isotope labeling methods for quantitative proteomics including relative and absolute quantitative proteomics, and then give our opinions on the outlook of proteome quantification methods.
FTIR (Fourier transformed infrared) spectra have been collected and analyzed for solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (PC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and PC+DEC mixtures. It has been shown that the carbonyl stretch bands of PC and DEC, the ring of PC and the ether oxygen stretch bands of DEC are all very sensitive to the interaction between Li(+) and the solvent molecules. New shoulders appear and the original bands split with the addition of LiBF4, indicating that a strong interaction between Li(+) and molecules of PC and DEC exists through the oxygen group of CO and ring of PC and both CO oxygen and ether oxygen atoms of DEC. In addition, no preferential solvation of Li(+) in LiBF4/PC+DEC solutions was detected.
Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), a cyclic heptapeptide produced by cyanobacteria, has strong reproductive toxicity. The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of declines in sperm quality as a result of exposure to MC-LR by using spermatogenic cells as a model system. MC-LR was intraperitoneally administered to male rats daily at 0, 50 and 100 µg/kg body weight for one week. Results showed that changes occurred in the structural of testis, the tubular diameter and the relative weight of the testes was significantly decreased following treatment with 100 ?g/kg. Major differences in apoptosis and proliferation of testicular cells were observed at the100 ?g/kg MC-LR. The gene expression levels of testis-specific histone 2B (TH2B) and transition protein 2 (TP2) were both significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the stem cell factor receptor (c-kit) was increased after exposure to 50 or 100 ?g/kg MC-LR. This study demonstrated that MC-LR can alter the apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation of spermatogenic cells in vivo.
Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a product of tumor cells that plays an important role in protecting tumor cells and adjusting to low oxygen tension through driving the progression and aggressiveness of tumors and changing the growth, angiogenesis, differentiation and metastasis of tumors. Prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3) is a member of PHDs that are induced in hypoxia. Many studies have shown that PHD3 not only can hydroxylate HIF-1?, but also has various other biological functions. Thus PHD3 plays significant roles in suppressing the growth, angiogenesis, differentiation and metastasis of tumors and promoting apoptosis of tumors under hypoxic conditions. It may become a new tumor suppressor gene and also may become a new approach to investigate tumors.
The effect of cryogenic treatment on wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical applications was experimentally investigated in this paper. Cryogenic treatments with the same soaking time of 24h at different temperatures of -80°C, -140°C and -196°C were conducted and the treatments at the same temperature of -196°C were then further given different soaking time of 3h, 48h and 72h to be investigated. After cryogenic treatment, the Vickers hardness of specimens was measured. Wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was measured by pin-on-disk wear test under dry sliding condition. The results demonstrated that the Vickers hardness increased slightly with the reduction of temperature while it increased obviously with the elongation of soaking time at -196°C. The friction coefficients of specimens cryo-treated at -196°C were lower than those of untreated and of cryo-treated at -80°C and -140°C. And the longer the soaking time is during the cryogenic treatment, the higher the friction coefficient reduction can be achieved. The obvious reduction of mass loss can be obtained at -196°C with 72h soaking. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect the microstructure and worn surface of specimens. By cryogenic treatment, the plowing in the worn surface was smoothed and shallowed, and the degree of plastic deformation in the subsurface was decreased. There was no obvious phase transformation which can be detected in the microstructure after cryogenic treatment. However, the tendency of refinement in grain size can be detected by XRD which improved the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common, aggressive, and proliferative among all brain tumors. The prognosis of GB is still far from satisfactory currently, thus demanding great modification and enhancement, which may be acquired by the help of the molecular target therapy. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a pivotal transcriptional factor of cellular responses to oxidative stress, was observed to function remarkably in cancer pathobiology. In the current study, we analyzed the correlation between Nrf2 and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in GB, together with their association to the features and survival of clinicopathology.
Herein, a highly sensitive stress probe is reported based on pyrromethene 597 (PM597) doped elastic polydimethylsiloxane films. By sandwiching the dye doped elastic film with two plano dichromatic mirrors, a solid-sate microcavity laser with low laser threshold (~0.2 ?J) is presented as a straightforward probing method for mechanical stress, which is monitored by the laser output spectra, demonstrating a resolution limit higher than 0.01 MPa. The photostability of PM597 doped into the microcavity laser is higher than 7222 GJ/mol, which is among the highest record ever reported to our knowledge and a fast self-recovery on the laser output in less than 1 h, attributed to diffusion of dye molecules is observed, indicating a practical durability for such stress probes.
Nerve injury and inflammation can both induce neuropathic pain via the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the process, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were involved in pain signal transduction. GPCR kinase (GRK) 6 is a member of the GRK family that regulates agonist-induced desensitization and signaling of GPCRs. However, its expression and function in neuropathic pain have not been reported. In this study, we performed a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in adult male rats and investigated the dynamic change of GRK6 expression in spinal cord. GRK6 was predominantly expressed in the superficial layers of the lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn neurons and its expression was decreased bilaterally following induction of CCI. The changes of GRK6 were mainly in IB4 and P substrate positive areas in spinal cord dorsal horn. And over-expression of GRK6 in spinal cord by lentivirus intrathecal injection attenuated the pain response induced by CCI. In addition, the level of TNF-? underwent the negative pattern of GRK6 in spinal cord. And neutralized TNF-? by antibody intrathecal injection up-regulated GRK6 expression and attenuated the mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in CCI model. All the data indicated that down-regulation of neuronal GRK6 expression induced by cytokine may be a potential mechanism that contributes to increasing neuronal signaling in neuropathic pain.
2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride (FTY720) is a potent immunosuppressant which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a new treatment for multiple sclerosis. As an immunosuppressant, it displays its anti-multiple sclerosis, immunosuppressive effects by activating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs). In addition to the immunosuppressive effects, FTY720 also shows preclinical antitumor efficacy in several cancer models. In most cases, phosphorylation of FTY720 is not required for its cytotoxic effect, indicating the involvement of S1PR-independent mechanisms which are starkly different from the immunosuppressive property of FTY720. In the present study, we reviewed the rapidly advancing field of FTY720 in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of the unphosphorylated form of FTY720.
We study the topological phase transition in biased bilayer graphene in the presence of intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit couplings. The system exhibits a complicated topological phase transition depending on the given parameters. The topological phase transition between these phases is always accompanied by the bulk gap closing and reopening, and can be realized by tuning the bias voltage. The stability of these topological phases are also investigated. We find that the weak (strong) topological insulator phase remains stable under a finite exchange field provided that the effect of intrinsic (Rashba) spin-orbit coupling is dominant, and this also holds for the quantum valley Hall phase if the spatial inversion symmetry breaking overcomes the time-reversal symmetry breaking.
Gardeniae Fructus (G.Fructus), the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used for the treatment of hepatitis, jaundice, hypersonic, diabetes and hematuria. Numerous researches have demonstrated that the major active constituents in G.Fructus were responsible for the majority of medical effects of this fruit and their quantification were important for the quality control of G.Fructus. However, in the current quality control standard, only geniposide was used as characteristic marker of G.Fructus, which could not reflect the overall quality of this fruit. In order to identify more chemical makers for improving the quality control standard and evaluate producing areas differentiation of G.Fructus, in the present study, a novel and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 8 major constituents, including geniposidic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), genipin-1-?-gentiobioside (3), geniposide (4), genipin (5), rutin (6), crocin-1 (7), crocin-2 (8) in G.Fructus. Moreover, chemometric analysis techniques with principal component constituent analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) involved were introduced in statistical analysis of 8 investigated constituents in the 34 batches samples to discriminate the samples from different producing areas. The results indicated that the contents of the 8 major bioactive constituents in G.Fructus varied significantly among different producing areas. From results of the loading plot from PCA analysis, genipin-1-?-gentiobioside may have more influence in discriminating the sample from different producing areas, and which was found to be the most abundant bioactive component besides geniposide in all the 34 batches samples, suggesting that it should be added as chemical marker for further investigation on the pharmacological actions and the quality control of G.Fructus.
Previous studies have shown that core leptosporangiates, the most species-rich group of extant ferns (monilophytes), have a distinct plastid genome (plastome) organization pattern from basal fern lineages. However, the details of genome structure transformation from ancestral ferns to core leptosporangiates remain unclear because of limited plastome data available. Here, we have determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences of Lygodium japonicum (Lygodiaceae), a member of schizaeoid ferns (Schizaeales), and Marsilea crenata (Marsileaceae), a representative of heterosporous ferns (Salviniales). The two species represent the sister and the basal lineages of core leptosporangiates, respectively, for which the plastome sequences are currently unavailable. Comparative genomic analysis of all sequenced fern plastomes reveals that the gene order of L. japonicum plastome occupies an intermediate position between that of basal ferns and core leptosporangiates. The two exons of the fern ndhB gene have a unique pattern of intragenic copy number variances. Specifically, the substitution rate heterogeneity between the two exons is congruent with their copy number changes, confirming the constraint role that inverted repeats may play on the substitution rate of chloroplast gene sequences.
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