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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Novel Accurate and Fast Optic Disc Detection in Retinal Images with Vessel Distribution and Directional Characteristics.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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A novel accurate and fast optic disc (OD) detection method is proposed by using vessel distribution and directional characteristics. A feature combining 3 vessel distribution characteristics, i.e. local vessel density, compactness and uniformity, is designed to find possible horizontal coordinate of OD. Then according to the global vessel direction characteristic, a General Hough Transformation (GHT) is introduced to identify the vertical coordinate of OD. By confining the possible OD vertical range and by simplifying vessel structure with blocks, we greatly decrease the computational cost of the algorithm. Four public datasets have been tested. The OD localization accuracy lies from 93.8% to 99.7%, when 8%~20% vessel detection results are adopted to achieve OD detection. Average computation times for STARE images are about 3.4-11.5s, which relate to image size. The proposed method shows satisfactory robustness on both normal and diseased images. It is better than many previous methods with respect to accuracy and efficiency.
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High performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering via dummy molecular imprinting onto silver microspheres.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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A new strategy for achieving high performance SERS was proposed by using the dummy molecular imprinting technique. The obtained core-shell composite can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio and the veracity of trace analysis in SERS detection.
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Candidate Pathway-Based GWAS Identifies Novel Associations of Genomic Variants in the Complement System Associated with Coronary Artery Disease.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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-Genomic variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain <20% of heritability of coronary artery disease (CAD), thus many risk variants remain missing for CAD. Identification of new variants may unravel new biological pathways and genetic mechanisms for CAD. To identify new variants associated with CAD, we developed a candidate pathway-based GWAS by integrating expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis and mining of GWAS data with variants in a candidate pathway.
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Investigation of key factors affecting the balance function of older adults.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Previous studies have focused mainly on individual factors affecting the balance function of older adults. However, it is largely unknown whether the balance functions of older adults are affected by multiple factors occurring simultaneously, and what is predominant among these factors.
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What causes IOR? Attention or perception? - Manipulating cue and target luminance in either blocked or mixed condition.
Vision Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the performance disadvantage when detecting a target presented at a previously cued location. The current paper contributes to the long-standing debate whether IOR is caused by attentional processing or perceptual processing. We present a series of four experiments which varied the cue luminance in mixed and blocked conditions. We hypothesised that if inhibition was initialized by an attentional process the size of IOR should not vary in the blocked condition as participants should be able to adapt to the level of cue luminance. However, if a perceptual process triggers inhibition both experimental manipulations should lead to varying levels of IOR. Indeed, we found evidence for the latter hypothesis. In addition, we also varied the target luminance in blocked and mixed condition. Both manipulations, cue luminance and target luminance, affected IOR in an additive fashion suggesting that the two stimuli affect human behaviour on different processing stages.
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Characterization of a salt-tolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. from a membrane bioreactor for saline wastewater treatment.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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High salt concentrations can cause plasmolysis and loss of activity of cells, but the salt-tolerant bacterium can endure the high salt concentrations in wastewater. In this research 7 salt-tolerant bacteria, which could survive in dry powder products and could degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater, were isolated from a membrane bioreactor. The strain NY6 which showed the fastest growth rate, best property for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months was selected and characterized. It was classified as Bacillus aerius based on the analysis of the morphological and physiological properties as well as the 16S rRNA sequence and Neigh borjoining tree. The strain NY6 could survive in the salinity up to 6% and the optimal growth salinity is 2%; it belongs to a slightly halophilic bacterium. The capability of its dry powder products for COD removal was 800 mg COD/(g·day) in synthesized saline wastewater with salinity of 2%. According to salt-tolerant mechanism research, when the salinity was below 2%, the stain NY6 absorbed K(+) and Na(+) to maintain osmotic equilibrium, and when the salinity was above 2%, the NY6 kept its life by producing a large amount of spores.
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A systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores (mGPS) predicts overall survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Recent studies have shown the combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin (The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, mGPS) had prognostic value in some solid tumors. However, no studies have examined its prognostic role in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. In this retrospective study, 460 consecutive SCLC patients were screened. Eligible patient was assigned a mGPS of 0, 1, or 2 based on pre-treatment plasma CRP and albumin (0: CRP???10 mg/L; 1: CRP >10 mg/L and albumin???35 g/L; 2: CRP?>?10 mg/L and albumin?
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EBV-driven LMP1 and IFN-? up-regulate PD-L1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Implications for oncotargeted therapy.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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PD-L1 expression is a feature of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we found that EBV-induced latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and IFN-? pathways cooperate to regulate programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1). Expression of PD-L1 was higher in EBV positive NPC cell lines compared with EBV negative cell lines. PD-L1 expression could be increased by exogenous and endogenous induction of LMP1 induced PD-L1. In agreement, expression of PD-L1 was suppressed by knocking down LMP1 in EBV positive cell lines. We further demonstrated that LMP1 up-regulated PD-L1 through STAT3, AP-1, and NF-?B pathways. Besides, IFN-? was independent of but synergetic with LMP1 in up-regulating PD-L1 in  NPC. Furthermore, we showed that PD-L1 was associated with worse disease-free survival in NPC patients. These results imply that blocking both the LMP1 oncogenic pathway and PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoints may be a promising therapeutic approach for EBV positive NPC patients.
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DNA topoisomerase 1? promotes transcriptional silencing of transposable elements through DNA methylation and histone lysine 9 dimethylation in Arabidopsis.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) are related transcriptional silencing mechanisms that target transposable elements (TEs) and repeats to maintain genome stability in plants. RdDM is mediated by small and long noncoding RNAs produced by the plant-specific RNA polymerases Pol IV and Pol V, respectively. Through a chemical genetics screen with a luciferase-based DNA methylation reporter, LUCL, we found that camptothecin, a compound with anti-cancer properties that targets DNA topoisomerase 1? (TOP1?) was able to de-repress LUCL by reducing its DNA methylation and H3K9me2 levels. Further studies with Arabidopsis top1? mutants showed that TOP1? silences endogenous RdDM loci by facilitating the production of Pol V-dependent long non-coding RNAs, AGONAUTE4 recruitment and H3K9me2 deposition at TEs and repeats. This study assigned a new role in epigenetic silencing to an enzyme that affects DNA topology.
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Singlet oxygen generation on porous superhydrophobic surfaces: effect of gas flow and sensitizer wetting on trapping efficiency.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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We describe physical-organic studies of singlet oxygen generation and transport into an aqueous solution supported on superhydrophobic surfaces on which silicon-phthalocyanine (Pc) particles are immobilized. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) was trapped by a water-soluble anthracene compound and monitored in situ using a UV-vis spectrometer. When oxygen flows through the porous superhydrophobic surface, singlet oxygen generated in the plastron (i.e., the gas layer beneath the liquid) is transported into the solution within gas bubbles, thereby increasing the liquid-gas surface area over which singlet oxygen can be trapped. Higher photooxidation rates were achieved in flowing oxygen, as compared to when the gas in the plastron was static. Superhydrophobic surfaces were also synthesized so that the Pc particles were located in contact with, or isolated from, the aqueous solution to evaluate the relative effectiveness of singlet oxygen generated in solution and the gas phase, respectively; singlet oxygen generated on particles wetted by the solution was trapped more efficiently than singlet oxygen generated in the plastron, even in the presence of flowing oxygen gas. A mechanism is proposed that explains how Pc particle wetting, plastron gas composition and flow rate as well as gas saturation of the aqueous solution affect singlet oxygen trapping efficiency. These stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which can physically isolate the photosensitizer particles from the solution may be of practical importance for delivering singlet oxygen for water purification and medical devices.
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Phytochrome B-mediated activation of lipoxygenase modulates an excess red light-induced defence response in Arabidopsis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Lipoxygenase (LOX), a non-haem-iron-containing dioxygenase, is activated under various biotic or abiotic stresses to trigger a series resistance response, but the molecular mechanism of LOX activation remains unclear. This work investigated the activation of LOX during the plant defence response induced by excess red light (RL). In conditions of RL-induced defence, Arabidopsis LOX activity and transcription levels of LOX2, LOX3, and LOX4 were both upregulated. Under RL, phytochrome B promoted the degradation of phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), a factor that inhibited the expression levels of LOXs, and thus the transcription levels of LOX2, LOX3, and LOX4 were increased. Upon pathogen infection, the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 was increased in plants pre-treated with RL. Moreover, experiments with the inhibitor PD98059 and mutants mpk3 and mpk6-2 demonstrated that MPK3 and MPK6 were both responsible for LOX activation. Further results showed that, in response to RL, an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration and upregulation of calmodulin 3 (CaM3) transcript level occurred upstream of MPK3 and MPK6 activation. Collectively, these results suggested that activation of LOX both at the transcript level and in terms of activity modulates the defence response induced by RL, providing a new insight into the mechanistic study of LOX during plant defences.
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Highly Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Mercury and Copper Ions by Ultrasmall Fluorescent DNA-Ag Nanoclusters.
New J Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Fluorescent metal nanoclusters (NCs) have given rise to a new class of fluorescent nanomaterials for the detection of heavy metals. Here, we design a simple, rapid and highly sensitive sensing nanosystem for the detection of Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) based on fluorescence quenching of ultrasmall DNA-Ag NCs. The fluorescence intensity of DNA-Ag NCs was selectively quenched by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+), and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 5 nM and 10 nM, respectively. The technique was renewable employment by EDTA addition and successfully applied to detection of Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) in domestic water samples. The quantum yield (QY) of DNA-Ag NCs was significantly higher to ~30% compared to traditional water-soluble fluorescent metal NCs. The DNA-Ag NC detection system make it potentially suitable for detecting Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) and monitoring water quality in a wide range of samples regulated under the Environmental Protection Agency.
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Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To investigate the diagnostic performance of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for the assessment of the liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
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Neuropilin-1-targeted gold nanoparticles enhance therapeutic efficacy of platinum(IV) drug for prostate cancer treatment.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Platinum-based anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin are some of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents but have limited applications due to severe dose-limiting side effects and a tendency for cancer cells to rapidly develop resistance. The therapeutic index can be improved through use of nanocarrier systems to target cancer cells efficiently. We developed a unique strategy to deliver a platinum(IV) drug to prostate cancer cells by constructing glutathione-stabilized (Au@GSH) gold nanoparticles. Glutathione (GSH) has well-known antioxidant properties, which lead to cancer regression. Here, we exploit the advantages of both the antioxidant properties and high surface-area-to-volume ratio of Au@GSH NPs to demonstrate their potential for delivery of a platinum(IV) drug by targeting the neuropilin-1 receptor (Nrp-1). A lethal dose of a platinum(IV) drug functionalized with the Nrp-1-targeting peptide (CRGDK) was delivered specifically to prostate cancer cells in vitro. Targeted peptide ensures specific binding to the Nrp-1 receptor, leading to enhanced cellular uptake level and cell toxicity. The nanocarriers were themselves nontoxic, but exhibited high cytotoxicity and increased efficacy when functionalized with the targeting peptide and drug. The uptake of drug-loaded nanocarriers is dependent on the interaction with Nrp-1 in cell lines expressing high (PC-3) and low (DU-145) levels of Nrp-1, as confirmed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy. The nanocarriers have effective anticancer activity, through upregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) protein (p50 and p65) expression and activation of NF-?B-DNA-binding activity. Our preliminary investigations with platinum(IV)-functionalized gold nanoparticles along with a targeting peptide hold significant promise for future cancer treatment.
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Experimental investigations and finite element simulation of cutting heat in vibrational and conventional drilling of cortical bone.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Heat generated during bone drilling could cause irreversible thermal damage, which can lead to bone necrosis or even osteomyelitis. In this study, vibrational drilling was applied to fresh bovine bones to investigate the cutting heat in comparison with conventional drilling through experimental investigation and finite element analysis (FEA). The influence of vibrational frequency and amplitude on cutting heat generation and conduction were studied. The experimental results showed that, compared with the conventional drilling, vibrational drilling could significantly reduce the cutting temperature in drilling of cortical bone (P<0.05): the cutting temperature tended to decrease with increasing vibrational frequency and amplitude. The FEA results also showed that the vibrational amplitude holds a significant effect on the cutting heat conduction.
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Selective expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand mediated by microRNA suppresses renal carcinoma growth.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common types among kidney cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) strongly induces apoptosis in RCC. However, TRAIL therapy also leads to hepatotoxicity. To improve the biosafety, we inserted miRNA response elements (MREs) of miR-138, miR-199, and miR-122 into an adenoviral vector, Ad-TRAIL-3MREs, to restrict TRAIL expression within RCC cells. Luciferase assays showed that MREs can regulate the expression of exogenous gene in RCC cells. Ad-TRAIL-3MREs selectively expressed TRAIL and induce apoptosis in RCC cells, but not in normal cells. MTT assays revealed that Ad-TRAIL-3MREs reduced viability of RCC cells without cytotoxicity to normal cells. Ad-TRAIL-3MREs suppressed the growth of ACHN tumors and exerted no hepatotoxicity in vivo. Collectively, we generated a TRAIL-expressing adenoviral vector under the regulation of MREs. This miRNA-based gene therapy may be a promising strategy for RCC treatment.
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Anterior corpus callosotomy combined with anterior temporal resection with amygdalohippocampectomy: outcome in a patient with congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS) is characterized by epilepsy, cognitive deficits, pseudobulbar palsy and diplegia of the facial, pharyngeal and masticatory muscles. Epilepsy has been described in nearly 90% of affected patients. The epilepsy is usually severe and pharmacoresistant in about 55 percent of CBPS patients. Until now, only 12 cases of surgical treatment on CBPS have been reported; the surgical treatment is usually corpus callosotomy. In this paper, we describe a previously unreported combination of anterior corpus callosotomy plus anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy for a patient with CBPS, resulting in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Based on this case, we suggest that palliative focal resective surgery combined with anterior corpus callosotomy should be considered when a predominance of the epileptiform discharges suggests focal onset in patients with CBPS. Meanwhile, the clinical decision to adopt this combination surgery must be based on a thorough pre-surgical evaluation, and should take into account the clinical, radiological, and EEG features.
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Revisiting the role of MCL1 in tumorigenesis of solid cancer: gene expression correlates with antiproliferative phenotype in breast cancer cells and its functional regulatory variants are associated with reduced cancer susceptibility.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Compared to the well-defined anti-apoptotic role of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1), its antiproliferative function in tumorigenesis is less studied. We had recently reported that regulatory variants of MCL1 contribute to enhanced promoter activity but reduced risk of lung cancer. We hypothesized that MCL1 expression may manifest antiproliferative phenotype and its functional variations may have etiological relevance for breast cancer. We manipulated MCL1 expression in MCF-7 cells and MDA231 with overexpression and knockdown, analyzed the effects on cell viability and cell cycling phase, and characterized the correlation with expression profiles of key regulators of cell cycle. We further genotyped the -190 insertion polymorphism and the neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 745 breast cancer patients and 537 controls and analyzed their association with cancer risk. We confirmed that heightened expression of MCL1 resulted in decreased proliferation ability of breast cancer cells. We further observed that MCL1 overexpression in breast cancer cells resulted in cell cycle progression arresting in S phase and concomitant enhanced expression of p27, which could be rescued by p27 knockdown with co-transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Furthermore, we found a significant reduction in breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.74; 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?0.59-0.93] associated with -190 insertion genotype; the expression-enhancing regulatory haplotype (OR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.66-0.95) and diplotype (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.57-0.89) were consistently associated with decreased cancer susceptibility. The study demonstrates that the expression-enhancing regulatory variants of MCL1 are protective modifiers of breast cancer risk, and reduced cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle progression partly mediated by p27 might be the underlying mechanism.
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An investigation of symptom burden and quality of life in Chinese chemo-naïve advanced lung cancer patients by using the Instrument-Cloud QOL System.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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This study was designed to assess the disease-related symptom burden and quality of life (QOL) in Chinese chemo-naïve advanced lung cancer patients.
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Role of microRNA-27a in down-regulation of angiogenic factor AGGF1 under hypoxia associated with high-grade bladder urothelial carcinoma.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis under a variety of pathological conditions, including malignant tumors by inducing expression of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. Surprisingly, here we report significant association between down-regulation of a new angiogenic factor AGGF1 and high-grade urothelial carcinoma. The proportion of strong AGGF1 expression cases was significantly lower in the high-grade urothelial carcinoma group than that in the low-grade urothelial carcinoma group (P=1.40×10(-5)) or than that in the normal urothelium tissue group (P=2.11×10(-4)). We hypothesized that tumor hypoxia was responsible for differential expression of the AGGF1 protein in low- and high-grade urothelial carcinomas, and therefore investigated the molecular regulatory mechanism for AGGF1 expression under hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, AGGF1 protein levels declined without any change in mRNA levels and protein stability. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of AGGF1 was mediated by miR-27a. Overexpression of miR-27a suppressed AGGF1 expression through translational inhibition, but not by RNA degradation. Moreover, the hypoxia-induced decrease of AGGF1 expression disappeared after miR-27a expression was inhibited. Furthermore, down-regulation of AGGF1 reduced hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that (1) hypoxia down-regulates expression of the AGGF1 protein, but not AGGF1 mRNA, by inducing expression of miR-27a; (2) Down-regulation of AGGF1 had an apparent protective role for cancer cells under hypoxia; (3) Down-regulation of the AGGF1 protein confers a significant risk of high-grade human urothelial bladder carcinoma.
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Regulation of CARD8 expression by ANRIL and association of CARD8 single nucleotide polymorphism rs2043211 (p.C10X) with ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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ANRIL has long been considered as the strongest candidate gene at the 9p21 locus, robustly associated with stroke and coronary artery disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. The present study works to elucidate such a mechanism.
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Interleukin-23A is associated with tumor growth in Helicobacter-pylori-related human gastric cancer.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interleukin (IL)-23 is one of the newly identified inflammatory cytokines, and inflammation is also known to be related to the development of gastric cancer (GC). The role of IL-23 in gastric cancer, however, is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression and possible role of IL-23A in human GC.
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Risk of treatment-related deaths with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a meta-analysis of 41 randomized controlled trials.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have widely been used in advanced cancer. However, these drugs may also lead to serious adverse events. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the overall incidence and risk of deaths due to VEGFR-TKIs with more detailed subgroup analysis.
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Network meta-analysis of erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib and icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) including erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib and icotinib are currently available as treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who harbor EGFR mutations. However, no head to head trials between these TKIs in mutated populations have been reported, which provides room for indirect and integrated comparisons.
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Superhydrophobic photosensitizers. Mechanistic studies of (1)o2 generation in the plastron and solid/liquid droplet interface.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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We describe here a physical-organic study of the first triphasic superhydrophobic sensitizer for photooxidations in water droplets. Control of synthetic parameters enables the mechanistic study of "borderline" two- and three-phase superhydrophobic sensitizer surfaces where (1)O2 is generated in compartments that are wetted, partially wetted, or remain dry in the plastron (i.e., air layer beneath the droplet). The superhydrophobic surface is synthesized by partially embedding silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) sensitizing particles to specific locations on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) posts printed in a square array (1 mm tall posts on 0.5 mm pitch). In the presence of red light and oxygen, singlet oxygen is formed on the superhydrophobic surface and reacts with 9,10-anthracene dipropionate dianion (1) within a freestanding water droplet to produce an endoperoxide in 54-72% yields. Control of the (1)O2 chemistry was achieved by the synthesis of superhydrophobic surfaces enriched with Pc particles either at the PDMS end-tips or at PDMS post bases. Much of the (1)O2 that reacts with anthracene 1 in the droplets was generated by the sensitizer "wetted" at the Pc particle/water droplet interface and gave the highest endoperoxide yields. About 20% of the (1)O2 can be introduced into the droplet from the plastron. The results indicate that the superhydrophobic sensitizer surface offers a unique system to study (1)O2 transfer routes where a balance of gas and liquid contributions of (1)O2 is tunable within the same superhydrophobic surface.
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Growing impact of restenosis on the surgical treatment of peripheral arterial disease.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Patients with peripheral arterial disease often experience treatment failure from restenosis at the site of a prior peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) or lower extremity bypass (LEB). The impact of these treatment failures on the utilization and outcomes of secondary interventions is poorly understood.
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Efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors for Chinese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of lung harboring EGFR mutation.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation mostly occurred in lung adenocarcinoma, rarely in squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). EGFR mutation rate in SQCC varied in previous reports, and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in SQCC harboring EGFR mutation has not yet been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy EGFR-TKIs for Chinese patients with SQCC of lung harboring EGFR mutation.
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Differentially expressed genes of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) challenged by chemical insecticides.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) termites are harmful social insects to wood constructions. The current control methods heavily depend on the chemical insecticides with increasing resistance. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes mediated by chemical insecticides will contribute to the understanding of the termite resistance to chemicals and to the establishment of alternative control measures. In the present article, a full-length cDNA library was constructed from the termites induced by a mixture of commonly used insecticides (0.01% sulfluramid and 0.01% triflumuron) for 24 h, by using the RNA ligase-mediated Rapid Amplification cDNA End method. Fifty-eight differentially expressed clones were obtained by polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by dot-blot hybridization. Forty-six known sequences were obtained, which clustered into 33 unique sequences grouped in 6 contigs and 27 singlets. Sixty-seven percent (22) of the sequences had counterpart genes from other organisms, whereas 33% (11) were undescribed. A Gene Ontology analysis classified 33 unique sequences into different functional categories. In general, most of the differential expression genes were involved in binding and catalytic activity.
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High throughput detection of human neutrophil peptides from serum, saliva, and tear by anthrax lethal factor-modified nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Human ? defensins human neutrophil peptide 1-3 (HNP 1-3) are potential prognostic cancer biomarkers. Metalloprotein anthrax lethal factor (ALF) binds to HNP 1-3 in a Zn2+-dependent manner. We conjugated ALF to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to magnetically isolate the HNPs, and used Zn2+ to control the capture and release HNPs.
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BRG1 variant rs1122608 on chromosome 19p13.2 confers protection against stroke and regulates expression of pre-mRNA-splicing factor SFRS3.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1122608 on chromosome 19p13.2 and in the BRG1/SMARCA4 gene was previously associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD and ischemic stroke are both associated with atherosclerosis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that rs1122608 is associated with ischemic stroke. Further studies were used to identify the most likely mechanism by which rs1122608 regulates atherosclerosis. For case-control association studies, two independent Chinese Han GeneID cohorts were used, including a Central cohort with 1,075 cases and 2,685 controls and the Northern cohort with 1,208 cases and 824 controls. eQTL and real-time RT-PCR analyses were used to identify the potential candidate gene(s) affected by rs1122608. The minor allele T of SNP rs1122608 showed significant association with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke in the Central GeneID cohort (adjusted P adj = 2.1 × 10(-4), OR 0.61). The association was replicated in an independent Northern GeneID cohort (P adj = 6.00 × 10(-3), OR 0.69). The association became more significant in the combined population (P adj = 7.86 × 10(-5), OR 0.73). Allele T of SNP rs1122608 also showed significant association with a decreased total cholesterol level (P adj = 0.013). Allele T of rs1122608 was associated with an increased expression level of SFRS3 encoding an mRNA splicing regulator, but not with the expression of BRG1/SMARCA4 or LDLR (located 36 kb from rs1122608). Increased expression of SFSR3 may decrease IL-1? expression and secretion, resulting in reduced risk of atherosclerosis and stroke. This is the first study that demonstrates that rs1122608 confers protection against ischemic stroke and implicates splicing factor SFSR3 in the disease process.
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Feasibility of using drinking water treatment residuals as a novel chlorpyrifos adsorbent.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Recent efforts have increasingly focused on the development of low-cost adsorbents for pesticide retention. In this work, the novel reuse of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), a nonhazardous ubiquitous byproduct, as an adsorbent for chlorpyrifos was investigated. Results showed that the kinetics and isothermal processes of chlorpyrifos sorption to WTRs were better described by a pseudo-second-order model and by the Freundlich equation, respectively. Moreover, compared with paddy soil and other documented absorbents, the WTRs exhibited a greater affinity for chlorpyrifos (log Koc = 4.76-4.90) and a higher chlorpyrifos sorption capacity (KF = 5967 mg(1-n)·L·kg(-1)) owing to the character and high content of organic matter. Further investigation demonstrated that the pH had a slight but statistically insignificant effect on chlorpyrifos sorption to WTRs; solution ionic strength and the presence of low molecular weight organic acids both resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition effects. Overall, these results confirmed the feasibility of using WTRs as a novel chlorpyrifos adsorbent.
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Single-particle analysis reveals shutoff control of the Arabidopsis ammonium transporter AMT1;3 by clustering and internalization.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Ammonium is a preferred source of nitrogen for plants but is toxic at high levels. Plant ammonium transporters (AMTs) play an essential role in NH4(+) uptake, but the mechanism by which AMTs are regulated remains unclear. To study how AMTs are regulated in the presence of ammonium, we used variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy for single-particle fluorescence imaging of EGFP-tagged AMT1;3 on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis root cells at various ammonium levels. We demonstrated that AMT1;3-EGFP dynamically appeared and disappeared on the plasma membrane as moving fluorescent spots in low oligomeric states under N-deprived and N-sufficient conditions. Under external high-ammonium stress, however, AMT1;3-EGFPs were found to amass into clusters, which were then internalized into the cytoplasm. A similar phenomenon also occurred in the glutamine synthetase mutant gln1;2 background. Single-particle analysis of AMT1;3-EGFPs in the clathrin heavy chain 2 mutant (chc2 mutant) and Flotllin1 artificial microRNA (Flot1 amiRNA) backgrounds, together with chemical inhibitor treatments, demonstrated that the endocytosis of AMT1;3 clusters induced by high-ammonium stress could occur mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytic pathways, but the contribution of microdomain-associated endocytic pathway cannot be excluded in the internalization. Our results revealed that the clustering and endocytosis of AMT1;3 provides an effective mechanism by which plant cells can avoid accumulation of toxic levels of ammonium by eliminating active AMT1;3 from the plasma membrane.
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Innovative pharmaceutical development based on unique properties of nanoscale delivery formulation.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The advent of nanotechnology has reignited interest in the field of pharmaceutical science for the development of nanomedicine. Nanomedicinal formulations are nanometer-sized carrier materials designed for increasing the drug tissue bioavailability, thereby improving the treatment of systemically applied chemotherapeutic drugs. Nanomedicine is a new approach to deliver the pharmaceuticals through different routes of administration with safer and more effective therapies compared to conventional methods. To date, various kinds of nanomaterials have been developed over the years to make delivery systems more effective for the treatment of various diseases. Even though nanomaterials have significant advantages due to their unique nanoscale properties, there are still significant challenges in the improvement and development of nanoformulations with composites and other materials. Here in this review, we highlight the nanomedicinal formulations aiming to improve the balance between the efficacy and the toxicity of therapeutic interventions through different routes of administration and how to design nanomedicine for safer and more effective ways to improve the treatment quality. We also emphasize the environmental and health prospects of nanomaterials for human health care.
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Plant microRNAs display differential 3 truncation and tailing modifications that are ARGONAUTE1 dependent and conserved across species.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Plant small RNAs are 3 methylated by the methyltransferase HUA1 ENHANCER1 (HEN1). In plant hen1 mutants, 3 modifications of small RNAs, including oligo-uridylation (tailing), are associated with accelerated degradation of microRNAs (miRNAs). By sequencing small RNAs of the wild type and hen1 mutants from Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa), and maize (Zea mays), we found 3 truncation prior to tailing is widespread in these mutants. Moreover, the patterns of miRNA truncation and tailing differ substantially among miRNA families but are conserved across species. The same patterns are also observable in wild-type libraries from a broad range of species, only at lower abundances. ARGONAUTE (AGO1), even with defective slicer activity, can bind these truncated and tailed variants of miRNAs. An ago1 mutation in hen1 suppressed such 3 modifications, indicating that they occur while miRNAs are in association with AGO1, either during or after RNA-induced silencing complex assembly. Our results showed AGO1-bound miRNAs are actively 3 truncated and tailed, possibly reflecting the activity of cofactors acting in conserved patterns in miRNA degradation.
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The IL-33-ST2L pathway is associated with coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The effects of interleukin-33 (IL-33) on the immune system have been clearly demonstrated; however, in cardiovascular diseases, especially in coronary artery disease (CAD), these effects have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigate the genetic role of the IL-33-ST2L pathway in CAD. We performed three-stage case-control association analyses on a total of 4,521 individuals with CAD and 4,809 controls via tag SNPs in the genes encoding IL-33 and ST2L-IL-1RL1. One tag SNP in each gene was significantly associated with CAD (rs7025417(T) in IL33, padj = 1.19 × 10(-28), OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.31-1.47; rs11685424(G) in IL1RL1, padj = 6.93 × 10(-30), OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.32-1.48). Combining significant variants in two genes, the risk for CAD increased nearly 5-fold (padj = 8.90 × 10(-21), OR = 4.98, 95% CI: 3.56-6.97). Traditional risk factors for CAD were adjusted for the association studies by SPSS with logistic regression analysis. With the two variants above, both located within the gene promoter regions, reporter gene analysis indicated that the rs7025417 C>T and rs11685424 A>G changes resulted in altered regulation of IL33 and IL1RL1 gene expression, respectively (p < 0.005). Further studies revealed that the rs7025417 genotype was significantly associated with plasma IL-33 levels in the detectable subjects (n = 227, R(2) = 0.276, p = 1.77 × 10(-17)): the level of IL-33 protein increased with the number of rs7025417 risk (T) alleles. Based on genetic evidence in humans, the IL-33-ST2L pathway appears to have a causal role in the development of CAD, highlighting this pathway as a valuable target for the prevention and treatment of CAD.
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Meta-analysis identifies robust association between SNP rs17465637 in MIA3 on chromosome 1q41 and coronary artery disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Several large-scale meta-GWAS identified significant association between SNP rs17465637 in the MIA3 gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the European ancestry populations. However, three follow-up replication studies in the Chinese populations yielded inconsistent results. In order to unequivocally determine whether SNP rs17465637 is associated with CAD, we performed an independent case control association study in the Chinese Han population and a follow-up large scale meta-analysis for SNP rs17465637. Our study included 2503 CAD patients and 2920 non-CAD controls of the Chinese Han origin. A significant association was found between SNP rs17465637 and CAD (P = 0.01, OR = 1.11). Meta-analysis included 7263 CAD patients and 8347 controls combined from five Asian populations. The association between SNP rs17465637 and CAD became highly significant (P = 4.97 × 10(-5), OR = 1.11). Similar analysis also identified significant association between SNP rs17465637 and MI (2424 cases vs. 6,536controls; P = 5.00 × 10(-3), OR = 1.10). We conclude that SNP rs17465637 in MIA3 is indeed a genetic risk factor for CAD across different ethnic populations.
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Fullerene-induced increase of glycosyl residue on living plant cell wall.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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In this work, we have investigated the change of cell wall for the tobacco plant cell (Nicotiana tobacum L. cv. Bright Yellow) under the repression of water-soluble carboxyfullerenes (C70(C(COOH)2)(2-4)). The adsorption of C70(C(COOH)2)(2-4) on cell wall led to the disruption of cell wall and membrane, and consequently, cell growth inhibition. Results from atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurement and confocal imaging revealed an increase of the glycosyl residue on the cell wall of carboxyfullerene-treated cells, with a time- and dose-dependent manner, and accompanied by the elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the stimulation-sensitive alteration of glycosyl residue and ROS was demonstrated, which suggested a possible protection strategy for the plant cells under fullerene repression. This study provides the first direct evidence on the change of plant cell wall composition under the repression of fullerene and is the first successful application of AFM ligand-receptor binding force measurement to the living plant cell. The new information present here would help to a better understanding and assessment of the biological effect of fullerenes on plant.
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Spatiotemporal Drug Release Visualized through a Drug Delivery System with Tunable Aggregation-Induced Emission.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Tetraphenylethene and doxorubicin are assembled into a self-indicating drug delivery system (TD NPs). TD NPs are decomposed into DOX and TPE NPs in lysosome. Since TD NPs, TPE NPs and DOX are all fluorescent, the detachment of DOX from TPE NPs is accompanied by fluorescence changing. By observing the fluorescence changes, the spatiotemporal drug release is visualized.
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Characterization, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and antitumor activity of honokiol submicron lipid emulsions in tumor-burdened mice.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Honokiol, isolated from the Chinese traditional herb magnolia, is a poorly water-soluble component and has been found to have anti-tumor properties. In the current study, honokiol submicron lipid emulsions (HK-SLEs) were prepared by high pressure homogenization technology. After HK-SLEs were physically characterized, their pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and antitumor activity after intravenous (i.v.) administration to tumor-burdened mice were examined, using honokiol solution (HK-SOL) as the control. The results showed that the mean particle size, zeta potential, pH value, osmolality, drug loading (DL)% and entrapment efficiency (EE)% of HK-SLEs were 186.6 +/- 1.7 nm, -35.65 +/- 0.67 mV, 7.22 +/- 0.26, 298 +/- 2.3 mOsm/L, 7.1 +/- 0.2% and 95.5 +/- 0.2%, respectively. HK-SLEs were stable for at least 12 months when stored at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. The pharmacokinetic results showed that the drug concentration-time curves of HK-SLEs and HK-SOL could both be described by an open two-compartment model. The half-life of HK-SLEs (t1/2(alpha) = 8.014 min, t1/2(beta) = 35.784 min) was remarkably prolonged compared to that of HK-SOL (t1/2(alpha) = 4.318 min, t1/2(beta) = 15.522 min). HK-SLEs exhibited a greater AUC and reduced plasma clearance. The tissue distribution results indicated that HK-SLEs have better targeting properties to lung and tumor tissues compared with those of HK-SOL. Both HK-SLEs and HK-SOL tended to accumulate in brain tissue. In vivo study showed that HK-SLEs treatment caused significant inhibition of mouse sarcoma S180 tumor growth compared to HK-SOL. These results suggest that HK-SLEs might be an effective parenteral carrier for honokiol delivery in cancer treatment.
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Variation in smoking cessation after vascular operations.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for patients with vascular disease. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking cessation rates after vascular procedures and delineate factors predictive of postoperative smoking cessation.
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Attitudes and behavior of radiation oncologists toward sexual issues of cervical cancer patients who receive radiation therapy: a survey in China.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Cervical cancer is known to impair womens sexual function. This study aimed at investigating the attitudes and behavior of radiation oncologists regarding sexual functioning of female cervical cancer patients who receive radiation therapy.
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Mesenchymal stem cell-like cells from children foreskin inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become a research hotspot in recent years because of their roles in regenerative medicine and tissue injury repair. However, the limited source for MSCs hampers its clinical application. In this study, we isolated and identified human mesenchymal stem cell-like cells from foreskin (hFMSCs) by explant culture. HFMSCs had similar morphology and immunophenotype to that of human bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells. HFMSCs formed colonies after 9 days of inoculation and could be propagated for more than 50 passages. HFMSCs had a normal karyotype and high G0/G1 phase independent of passage number. Further, hFMSCs could be induced to differentiate into osteocytes and adipocytes. We found that the growth of SGC-7901 (human gastric adenocarcinoma) cells could be suppressed by simultaneous injection of hFMSCs in vivo. HFMSCs also inhibited SGC-7901 cell proliferation in vitro. HFMSC co-injection resulted in a decrease in PCNA-positive and an increase in apoptotic tumor cells. HFMSCs derived conditioned medium inhibited the expression of BCL-2 while increased the expression of BAX and caspase-3 in SGC-7901 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that children foreskin is a new source for MSCs and hFMSCs could inhibit gastric cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo.
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Serum proteomic study on EGFR-TKIs target treatment for patients with NSCLC.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are widely used for EGFR mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, tumor sample availability and heterogeneity of the tumor remain challenging for physicians selection of these patients. Here, we developed a serum proteomic classifier based on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to predict the clinical outcome of patients treated with EGFR-TKIs.
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Clinical significance of the thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, and thymidine phosphorylase mRNA expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma patients receiving 5-fluorouracil-based transarterial chemoembolization treatment.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To determine whether 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity is associated with the mRNA expressions of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with 5-FU-based transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).
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Two components in IOR: evidence for response bias and perceptual processing delays using the SAT methodology.
Atten Percept Psychophys
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Inhibition of return (IOR) occurs when reaction times (RTs) are slowed to respond to a target that appears at a previously attended location. We used the speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure to obtain conjoint measures of IOR on sensitivity and processing speed by presenting targets at cued and uncued locations. The results showed that IOR is associated with both delays in processing speed and shifts in response criterion. When the target was briefly presented, the results supported a criterion shift account of IOR. However, when the target was presented until response, the evidence indicated that, in addition to a response bias effect, there was an increase in the minimal time required for information about the target to accumulate above chance level. A hybrid account of IOR is suggested that describes effects on both response bias and perceptual processing.
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Expression of PIK3CA and FOXP1 in gastric and intestinal non-Hodgkins lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Non-Hodgkins lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type arises from a wide variety of extranodal sites, most frequently from the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, it has been demonstrated that karyotypic alterations involving the PIK3CA and FOXP1 genes of chromosome 3 occur in MALT lymphoma. However, their associated protein expression has not been extensively studied. Tumor tissues from 27 gastric and 23 intestinal MALT lymphomas were analyzed for PIK3CA and FOXP1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry and correlated with histological features and treatment outcomes. Expression of PIK3CA, a novel indicator, was found in 40% of gastrointestinal cases and indicated an inferior progression-free survival in both gastric and intestinal MALT lymphomas (P = 0.001 and P = 0.015). Tumor staining of nuclear FOXP1 (46.0%) was more common in gastric than intestinal MALT lymphomas (P = 0.042) and was significantly associated with polymorphic histology (P = 0.007). FOXP1 expression was identified as an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival in gastric MALT lymphomas (P = 0.035). We further combined these two markers and observed that patients that are positive for both PIK3CA and FOXP1 had a worse overall and progression-free survival. Considering the small sample size of this study, these results should be confirmed in a large prospective study.
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Preparation, structure, and imaging of luminescent SiO2 nanoparticles by covalently grafting surfactant-encapsulated europium-substituted polyoxometalates.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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A novel route to the preparation of luminescent silica nanoparticles and coloration for living cells was demonstrated in this article. A europium-substituted polyoxometalate was encapsulated by a hydroxyl-group-terminated double-chain quaternary ammonium cation through an ion replacement process, yielding an organic-inorganic complex with core-shell structure bearing hydroxyl groups located at the periphery. The introduction of -OH groups not only increased the solubility of the complex in polar solvents but also caused it to embed into the inner matrix of silica nanoparticles covalently and be well-dispersed through an in situ sol-gel reaction with tetraethyl orthosilicate. Elemental analysis and spectral characterization confirmed the formation of prepared complexes with the anticipated chemical composition. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the size change of luminescent nanoparticles with smooth surfaces and well-dispersed polyoxometalate complexes inside of the silica matrix. X-ray photonic spectra and ?-potential measurements revealed the chemical association between the silica matrix and the complex. Luminescent spectral characterization indicated the well-retained photophysical property of Eu-substituted polyoxometalate in silica nanoparticles. The surface amino-modified silica nanoparticles were applied to cell coloration, and the dyed Hela cells were observed through laser confocal fluorescence microscopy.
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Study of the inhibitory effect of water-soluble fullerenes on plant growth at the cellular level.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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The effect of water-soluble fullerene C(70)(C(COOH)(2))(4-8) on plant growth was investigated, using the transgenic seedling lines expressing fluorescent makers. The retarded roots with shortened length and loss of root gravitropism were observed for seedlings grown in the fullerene-containing medium. Fluorescence imaging revealed the abnormalities of root tips in hormone distribution, cell division, microtubule organization, and mitochondrial activity. The study of the inhibitory effects at the cellular level provides new information on the phytotoxicity mechanism of fullerene.
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Incorporation of polyoxotungstate complexes in silica spheres and in situ formation of tungsten trioxide nanoparticles.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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In this paper, we demonstrated a new convenient route for in situ fabrication of well separated small sized WO(3) nanoparticles in silica spheres, through a predeposition of surfactant encapsulated polyoxotungates as tungsten source, and followed by a calcination process. In a typical procedure, selected polyoxotungates with different charges were enwrapped with dioctadecyldimethylammonium cations through electrostatic interaction. Elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and spectral characterization confirmed the formation of prepared complexes with the anticipated chemical structure. The complexes were then phase-transferred into aqueous solution that predissolved surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and finally incorporated into silica spheres through a joint sol-gel reaction with tetraethyl orthosilicate in a well dispersed state under the protection of organic layer for polyoxotungates from the alkaline reaction condition. Transmission electron microscopic images illustrated the well dispersed WO(3) nanoparticles in the size range of ca. 2.2 nm in the silica spheres after the calcination at 465 °C. The sizes of both the silica spheres and WO(3) nanoparticles could be adjusted independently through changing the doping content to a large extent. Meanwhile, the doped polyoxotungate complexes acted as the template for the mesoporous structure in silica spheres after the calcination. Along with the increase of doping content and surfactant, the mesopore size changed little (2.0-2.9 nm), but the specific surface areas increased quite a lot. Importantly, the WO(3)-nanoparticle-doped silica spheres displayed an interesting photovoltaic property, which is favorable for the funtionalization of these nanomaterials.
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Functional dominant-negative mutation of sodium channel subunit gene SCN3B associated with atrial fibrillation in a Chinese GeneID population.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the clinic, and accounts for more than 15% of strokes. Mutations in cardiac sodium channel alpha, beta1 and beta2 subunit genes (SCN5A, SCN1B, and SCN2B) have been identified in AF patients. We hypothesize that mutations in the sodium channel beta3 subunit gene SCN3B are also associated with AF. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a large scale sequencing analysis of all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of SCN3B in 477 AF patients (28.5% lone AF) from the GeneID Chinese Han population. A novel A130V mutation was identified in a 46-year-old patient with lone AF, and the mutation was absent in 500 controls. Mutation A130V dramatically decreased the cardiac sodium current density when expressed in HEK293/Na(v)1.5 stable cell line, but did not have significant effect on kinetics of activation, inactivation, and channel recovery from inactivation. When co-expressed with wild type SCN3B, the A130V mutant SCN3B negated the function of wild type SCN3B, suggesting that A130V acts by a dominant negative mechanism. Western blot analysis with biotinylated plasma membrane protein extracts revealed that A130V did not affect cell surface expression of Na(v)1.5 or SCN3B, suggesting that mutant A130V SCN3B may not inhibit sodium channel trafficking, instead may affect conduction of sodium ions due to its malfunction as an integral component of the channel complex. This study identifies the first AF-associated mutation in SCN3B, and suggests that mutations in SCN3B may be a new pathogenic cause of AF.
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Significant association of SNP rs2106261 in the ZFHX3 gene with atrial fibrillation in a Chinese Han GeneID population.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac rhythm disorder at the clinical setting and accounts for up to 15% of all strokes. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2106261 and rs7193343 in ZFHX3 (zinc finger homeobox 3 gene) and rs13376333 in KCNN3 (encoding a potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 3) that showed significant association with AF in multiple populations of European ancestry. Here, we studied a Chinese Han, GeneID cohort consisting of 650 AF patients and 1,447 non-AF controls to test whether the GWAS findings on ZFHX3/KCNN3 and AF can be expanded to a different ethnic population. No significant association was detected for rs7193343 in ZFHX3 and rs13376333 in KCNN3. However, significant association was identified between rs2106261 in ZFHX3 and AF in the GeneID population for both allelic frequencies (P=0.001 after adjusting for covariates of age, gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus; OR=1.32), and genotypic frequencies assuming either an additive or recessive model (OR=1.29, P=0.001 and OR=1.77, P =0.00018, respectively). When only lone AF cases were analyzed, the association remained significant (OR=1.50, P=0.001 for allelic association; OR=1.45, P=0.001 for an additive model; OR=2.24, P=0.000043 for a recessive model). Our results indicate that rs2106261 in ZFHX3 confers a significant risk of AF in a Chinese Han population. The study expands the association between ZFHX3 and AF to a non-European ancestry population and provides the first evidence of a cross-race susceptibility of the 16q22 AF locus.
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Ionic charge reduction and atomic partial charges from first-principles calculations of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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We present a detailed calculation of partial charges for the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid. We first analyze MP2 electronic structure calculations and DFT results on isolated ion pairs with various methods of assigning partial charges to the atomic centers. In a second run we analyze the trajectory of a 25 ps long Car-Parrinello MD run of 30 ion pairs under bulk conditions using a charge fitting procedure due to Blöchl. Both, the single ion pair and the bulk system, provide us with a similar total ionic charge considerably less than unity. Especially the liquid state DFT results give convincing evidence for a reduced ionic charge on the ions. The similarity of both results suggest that the delocalization of the Cl charge is due only to local interactions. The relevance of our results is 2-fold; on the one hand they shed light on the basic property of the liquid and its reduced ionic character, and on the other hand, the ab initio derived partial charges provide a fundamental theoretical basis for the recent attempts to use the total ionic charge as an adjustable parameter. Furthermore, all our partial charges are subject to large fluctuations, hinting to the importance of polarization effects.
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The Vascular Study Group of New England Cardiac Risk Index (VSG-CRI) predicts cardiac complications more accurately than the Revised Cardiac Risk Index in vascular surgery patients.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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The Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) is a widely used model for predicting cardiac events after noncardiac surgery. We compared the accuracy of the RCRI with a new, vascular surgery-specific model developed from patients within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE).
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[Immediate versus delayed topotecan after first-line therapy in small cell lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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How to prolong progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been one of the hottest issues. We retrospectively reviewed our data to compare the survival of immediate with delayed topotecan after first-line therapy in SCLC.
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COX5B regulates MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling through interaction with ATG5 and repressing ROS production.
PLoS Pathog.
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Innate antiviral immunity is the first line of the host defense system that rapidly detects invading viruses. Mitochondria function as platforms for innate antiviral signal transduction in mammals through the adaptor protein, MAVS. Excessive activation of MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling leads to dysfunction of mitochondria and cell apoptosis that likely causes the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. However, the mechanism of how MAVS is regulated at mitochondria remains unknown. Here we show that the Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) complex subunit COX5B physically interacts with MAVS and negatively regulates the MAVS-mediated antiviral pathway. Mechanistically, we find that while activation of MAVS leads to increased ROS production and COX5B expression, COX5B down-regulated MAVS signaling by repressing ROS production. Importantly, our study reveals that COX5B coordinates with the autophagy pathway to control MAVS aggregation, thereby balancing the antiviral signaling activity. Thus, our study provides novel insights into the link between mitochondrial electron transport system and the autophagy pathway in regulating innate antiviral immunity.
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Comparison of different methods for detecting epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in peripheral blood and tumor tissue of non-small cell lung cancer as a predictor of response to gefitinib.
Onco Targets Ther
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Previous studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in tumor tissue and peripheral blood can predict the response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the heterogeneity of the sample sources makes it difficult to evaluate the detecting methodologies. The goal of this study is to compare different methods for analyzing EGFR mutation in blood and tumor tissue.
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The impact of tumor size change after target therapy on survival: analysis of patients enrolled onto three clinical trials of advanced NSCLC from one institution.
Onco Targets Ther
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To explore whether changes in tumor size impact survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after target therapy, especially in patients with evaluation of stable disease (SD), and to review the applicability of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria in target therapy.
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Mechanisms that impact microRNA stability in plants.
RNA Biol
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microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide RNAs that regulate a variety of developmental and metabolic processes. The accumulation of miRNAs in vivo can be controlled at multiple levels. In addition to miRNA biogenesis, mechanisms that lead to RNA degradation, such as 3 uridylation and 3 truncation, also affect the steady-state levels of miRNAs. On the other hand, 2-O-methylation in plant miRNAs protects their 3 ends from truncation and uridylation. The recent identification of HESO1 as the key enzyme responsible for miRNA uridylation in Arabidopsis was a first step toward a full understanding of the mechanisms underlying miRNA turnover. Analyses of the heso1 mutant predicted the existence of another uridylation activity and a previously unknown nuclease that act on miRNAs. The future identification of these enzymes will enrich our understanding of miRNA turnover.
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Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work.
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Identification and characterization of small non-coding RNAs from Chinese fir by high throughput sequencing.
BMC Plant Biol.
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Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play key roles in plant development, growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At least four classes of sRNAs have been well characterized in plants, including repeat-associated siRNAs (rasiRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) and natural antisense transcript-derived siRNAs. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is one of the most important coniferous evergreen tree species in China. No sRNA from Chinese fir has been described to date.
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Effect of low multi-walled carbon nanotubes loading on the crystallization behavior of biodegradable poly(butylene adipate).
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
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The effect of low carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) loading on the crystallization behavior of biodegradable poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) was studied with various techniques in this work. For the nonisothermal melt crystallization, f-MWCNTs accelerate the crystallization process of PBA apparently due to the heterogeneous nucleation effect. The Ozawa method fails to describe the nonisothermal crystallization process of neat PBA and its nanocomposite. Isothermal melt crystallization kinetics of neat PBA and its nanocomposite was analyzed by the Avrami equation. The overall isothermal crystallization rate of neat PBA and its nanocomposite increases with increasing crystallization temperature. The addition of f-MWCNTs accelerates the isothermal crystallization of PBA as compared with that of neat PBA at a given crystallization temperature, indicative of the nucleating agent effect of f-MWCNTs; however, the crystallization mechanism does not change. The crystal structure of PBA remains unchanged in the PBA/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite despite the presence of f-MWCNTs.
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The challenge to relate the physicochemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles to their cytotoxicity.
Acc. Chem. Res.
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Nanomaterials offer opportunities to construct novel compounds for many different fields. Applications include devices for energy, including solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells, and for health, including contrast agents and mediators for photodynamic therapy and hyperthermia. Despite these promising applications, any new class of materials also bears a potential risk for human health and the environment. The advantages and innovations of these materials must be thoroughly compared against risks to evaluate each new nanomaterial. Although nanomaterials are often used intentionally, they can also be released unintentionally either inside the human body, through wearing of a prosthesis or the inhalation of fumes, or into the environment, through mechanical wear or chemical powder waste. This possibility adds to the importance of understanding potential risks from these materials. Because of fundamental differences in nanomaterials, sound risk assessment currently requires that researchers perform toxicology studies on each new nanomaterial. However, if toxicity could be correlated to the basic physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, those relationships could allow researchers to predict potential risks and design nanomaterials with minimum toxicity. In this Account we describe the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and how they can be determined and discuss their general importance for cytotoxicity. For simplicity, we focus primarily on in vitro toxicology that examines the interaction of living cells with engineered colloidal NPs with an inorganic core. Serious risk assessment of NPs will require additional in vivo studies. Basic physicochemical properties of nanoparticulate materials include colloidal stability, purity, inertness, size, shape, charge, and their ability to adsorb environmental compounds such as proteins. Unfortunately, the correlation of these properties with toxicity is not straightforward. First, for NPs released either unintentionally or intentionally, it can be difficult to pinpoint these properties in the materials. Therefore, researchers typically use NP models with better defined properties, which dont include the full complexity of most industrially relevant materials. In addition, many of these properties are strongly mutually connected. Therefore, it can be difficult to vary individual properties in NP models while keeping the others constant.
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Kupffer cells suppress perfluorononanoic acid-induced hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression by releasing cytokines.
Arch. Toxicol.
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Kupffer cells (KCs) have been demonstrated to play a role in the regulation of intra-hepatic lipid metabolism through the synthesis and secretion of biologically active products. The involvement of KCs in the disturbance of lipid metabolism that induced by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), a known agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), was investigated in this study. Rats were exposed to PFNA or PFNA combined with gadolinium chloride, an inhibitor of KCs, for 14 days. PFNA exposure dose-dependently increased absolute and relative liver weights, induced triglyceride accumulation, up-regulated the expression of both SERBP-1c and PPAR?, and stimulated the release of TNF? and IL-1?. Inactivation of KCs markedly lowered TNF? and IL-1? level, enhanced PFNA-induced expression of PPAR? and its target genes, and reduced liver triglyceride levels. In vitro, PFNA-induced expression of PPAR? in primary cultured hepatocytes was suppressed by recombinant rat TNF? and IL-1?. However, inhibition of the NF-?B pathway prevented this. Transient transfection and promoter analysis further revealed that these two cytokines and NF-?B were coordinately involved in the suppression of PPAR? promoter activity. Our data demonstrate that TNF? and IL-1? released from KCs following PFNA exposure can suppress the expression of PPAR? via NF-?B pathway, which partially contribute to the evident accumulation of triglycerides in rat liver.
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National survey of the medical treatment status for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China.
Lung Cancer
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Treatment choice for NSCLC in China has not previously been reported. This paper explores the clinical practice and adherence to treatment guidelines for NSCLC.
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TNF-? expression in the UCB-MSCs as stable source inhibits gastric cancers growth in nude mice.
Cancer Invest.
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potentially vehicles for therapy of malignant diseases. In our study, we investigated whether UCB-MSCs are capable to carry TNF-? to target tumor cells in vivo. The human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 were subcutaneously injected into the abdomen near groins of 15 nude mice to establish experiment tumor models. MSC-TNF-? demonstrated a strong suppressive effect on the tumor growth compared with MSC and NaCl. Thus, MSC-TNF-? can obviously inhibit Gastric cancers growth in nude mice, indicating that UCB-MSCs may have the potential to become a prevention approach against gastric cancer.
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Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of miRNAs from Pinus densata.
BMC Genomics
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in diverse developmental processes, nutrient homeostasis and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The biogenesis and regulatory functions of miRNAs have been intensively studied in model angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Populus trichocarpa. However, global identification of Pinus densata miRNAs has not been reported in previous research.
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The Arabidopsis nucleotidyl transferase HESO1 uridylates unmethylated small RNAs to trigger their degradation.
Curr. Biol.
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) impact numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. In addition to biogenesis, turnover contributes to the steady-state levels of small RNAs. One major factor that stabilizes miRNAs and siRNAs in plants as well as siRNAs and piRNAs in animals is 2-O-methylation on the 3 terminal ribose by the methyltransferase HUA ENHANCER1 (HEN1) [1-6]. Genetic studies with Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and zebrafish hen1 mutants show that 2-O-methylation protects small RNAs from 3-to-5 truncation and 3 uridylation, the addition of nontemplated nucleotides, predominantly uridine [2, 7, 8]. Uridylation is a widespread phenomenon that is not restricted to small RNAs in hen1 mutants and is often associated with their reduced accumulation ([7, 9, 10]; reviewed in [11]). The enzymes responsible for 3 uridylation of small RNAs when they lack methylation in plants or animals have remained elusive. Here, we identify the Arabidopsis HEN1 SUPPRESSOR1 (HESO1) gene as responsible for small RNA uridylation in hen1 mutants. HESO1 exhibits terminal nucleotidyl transferase activity, prefers uridine as the substrate nucleotide, and is completely inhibited by 2-O-methylation. We show that uridylation leads to miRNA degradation, and the degradation is most likely through an enzyme that is distinct from that causing the 3 truncation in hen1 mutants.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.