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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cucurbit[6]uril-Based Supramolecular Assemblies: Possible Application in Radioactive Cesium Cation Capture.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Multidimensional supramolecular assemblies based on cucurbit[n]uril (n = 6 or 7) were constructed via the outer-surface interactions of cucurbit[n]urils with the polyaromatic compound 4,4',4?-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tribenzoate as a structure-directing agent. Most impressively, the cucurbit[6]uril-based assembly exhibits high selectivity for capture of cesium cations among the common alkali metal ions in a basic medium and releases the cesium cations under acidic conditions. This reversible process enables possible applications in cesium cation capture.
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Redox-switchable host-guest systems based on a bisthiotetrathiafulvalene-bridged cryptand.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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By attaching a bisthiotetrathiafulvalene (STTFS) unit to the third arm of the cryptand, a redox-switchable bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10-based cryptand was synthesized successfully. It was found that the dethreading-rethreading processes between this cryptand and the guests could be well-controlled in different redox states owing to the specific redox-active properties of the STTFS unit.
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[Expression and clinical significance of AHSG and complement C3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To analyze serum proteins from pancreatic carcinoma patients, pancreatic benign tumor patients, chronic pancreatitis patients and normal controls to discover potential and specific biomarkers.
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Unprecedented metal-mediated in situ reactions of heterocyclic disulfide of di[4-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrimidinyl]disulfide.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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By the combination of different metal salts and solvents, four unprecedented in situ reactions have been discovered for heterocyclic disulfide of 2-ppds (2-ppds = di[4-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrimidinyl]disulfide). In the CH3CN-DMF solvent, reaction of 2-ppds with AgNO3 produced a one-dimensional chain structure of {[Ag2(1L)2]·2CH3CN}n (), wherein 2-ppds was converted into its sulfonate of 1L by means of oxidative cleavage of the S-S bond. In the CH3CN-DCM solvent, reaction between 2-ppds and Cu(ClO4)2 yielded a discrete mononuclear Cu(ii) coordination structure of [Cu(2L)2H2O)](ClO4)2 (), of which 2-ppds was turned into a totally unexpected zwitterion product of 2Lvia C-S bond scission followed by O substitution. In the MeOH-DCM solvent, reaction of 2-ppds with Co(ClO4)2 resulted in a mononuclear Co(iii) coordination structure of [Co(3L)2]ClO4·2CH3OH·H2O (), in which 2-ppds was transformed into its persulfide of 3Lvia selective single C-S bond rupture. In the CH3CN-DMF solvent, reaction between 2-ppds and CuI afforded a binuclear mixed-valence Cu(I)Cu(II) coordination structure of [Cu2I(4L)2] (), wherein 2-ppds was converted into its thiolate of 4L through homolytic S-S bond cleavage. The reaction mechanisms of these reactions have also been discussed on the basis of these in situ generated coordination structures coupled with our previous observations on 2-ppds.
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Upregulated expression of WNT5a increases inflammation and oxidative stress via PI3K/AKT/NF-?B signaling in the granulosa cells of PCOS patients.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Objective: We investigated the action of WNT5a in the development of chronic inflammation in PCOS, and the related molecular signaling pathways. Design and Setting: This was a prospective study conducted at the Division of Reproduction Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Patients : A total of 35 PCOS patients and 87 control women who reported to the clinic for the in vitro procedure and the cause of marital infertility was male azoospermia were included. Main Outcome Measures: Mural granulosa cells (GCs) of 35 PCOS patients and 37 controls were collected during oocyte retrieval and gene expression was analyzed. The human KGN cells and mural GCs from 50 control subjects (6-8 samples were pooled together for each experiment) were cultured in vitro. The regulation of inflammation and oxidative stress was confirmed by qPCR, flow-cytometric assay, and dual-luciferase reporter assay after inflammatory stimuli or WNT5a overexpression. Relevant signaling pathways were identified using specific inhibitors. Results: Our data demonstrate significantly elevated WNT5a expression in the mural GCs of PCOS patients compared with the controls. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation increased WNT5a expression in KGN and mural GCs, and BAY-117082 and PDTC (NF-?B inhibitor) treatments suppressed WNT5a mRNA below the control level. WNT5a overexpression also enhanced the expression of inflammation-related genes and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, whereas both BAY-117082 and LY-294002 (PI3K inhibitor) significantly inhibited WNT5a-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusions: WNT5a acts as a proinflammatory factor in human ovarian GCs. The upregulated expression of WNT5a in PCOS increases inflammation and oxidative stress predominantly via the PI3K/AKT/NF-?B signaling pathway. The proinflammatory cytokines induced might further enhance WNT5a expression via NF-?B-dependent regulation, indicating a novel regulatory system for chronic inflammation in PCOS.
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Could acupuncture have a role in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder via modulation of BDNF expression and activation?
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by early-onset difficulties in social communication and unusually restricted repetitive behaviour and interests. Multiple lines of evidence directly or indirectly suggest an involvement in autism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a pivotal role in the development and plasticity of the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture-induced activation of BDNF in many neurological disorders. In view of these findings, we hypothesise the potential therapeutic effect of acupuncture-induced activation of BDNF in the treatment of ASD.
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Reduced CD200 and CD200R1 expression in human chorionic villi contributes to early spontaneous abortion.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To examine the expression of CD200 and its receptor (CD200R) in human chorionic villi during the first trimester of normal pregnancy and early spontaneous abortion (ESA).
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Photodegradable and size-tunable single-chain nanoparticles prepared from a single main-chain coumarin-containing polymer precursor.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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A polyester bearing coumarin moieties in the main chain was used to prepare photodegradable single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs) of variable sizes. While the intra-chain photodimerization of the chromophore determines the size of SCNPs, the photocleavage occurring under UV irradiation at a different wavelength breaks down the ultra-small nanoparticles.
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Diverse thermoresponsive behaviors of uncharged UCST block copolymer micelles in physiological medium.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Three amphiphilic diblock copolymers, representative of three types of block copolymer (BCP) design, were synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. All of them have a same uncharged block of a random copolymer of commercially available acrylamide and acrylonitrile, P(AAm-co-AN), and exhibit a composition-tunable upper critical solution temperature (UCST). We show that by coupling a common P(AAm-co-AN) block with either hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) or hydrophilic poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) or the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) polymer of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), the BCP micelles formed in water or in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) can display diverse and UCST-dictated changes in response to temperature variations, such as the reversible dispersion-aggregation of micelles, dissolution-formation of micelles, and reversal of micelle core and corona. The results point out that P(AAm-co-AN) is a robust UCST polymer that can be introduced into controlled polymer architectures producible by RAFT, the same way as using the extensively studied LCST counterparts like poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM). This ability should make the door wide open to exploring new thermosensitive polymers based on the thermosensitivity opposite to the LCST.
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Educational Intervention for Metabolic Bone Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The currently accepted international guidelines for treatment of CKD-MBD has been published, unfortunately adequate control of serum markers of disorder, especially hyperphosphatemia, is poorly achieved. Whether educational intervention is an effective way for improving CKD-MBD remains controversial. A systematic review of educational intervention versus routine care to improve patients with CKD-MBD was conducted. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs examining the efficacy of educational intervention to improve patients with CKD-MBD were included. We performed a comprehensive search of several databases and sources to identify eligible trials. In addition, we searched unpublished studies by tracking the SIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature) database. Finally, 8 RCTs and 2 quasi-RCTs containing 775 participants were included in our systematic review. The result of our study revealed that the educational intervention to patients with CKD-MBD led to an improvement of the serum phosphorus and calcium by phosphate product. Educational intervention is a beneficial supplement method in improving CKD-MBD and putting off deterioration of the disease.
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Dishevelled-3 activates p65 to upregulate p120-catenin transcription via a p38-dependent pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Dishevelled-3 (Dvl-3) and p120-catenin (p120ctn) have abnormal expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is associated with poor prognosis. Dvl-3 upregulates p120ctn transcription in NSCLC cells, but the mechanism is unknown. Here we transiently transfected Dvl-3 cDNA to NSCLC cells. Dvl-3 transfection is sufficient for induction of p38 signaling. In turn, Dvl-3 induces p38-mediated activation of the p65 so as to facilitate its nuclear translocation. Treatment with SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (I?B-? phosphorylation inhibitor) suppresses Dvl-3 induced activation of p65. The results further show that active p65 interacts with PAX2 promoter to increase the expression of PAX2 and then PAX2 binds to p120ctn promoter so as to upregulate p120ctn gene transcription. Moreover, Dvl-3 transfection enhanced the binding of active p65 to Sp1 so as to decrease the binding of Sp1 to p120ctn promoter. The above-mentioned effects are linked to biological behavior of non-small cell lung cancer cells. These findings confirm that p38 and PAX2 are important for the Dvl-3 induced upregulation of p120ctn. Dvl-3 activates a p38???p65???PAX2???p120ctn pathway to affect biological behavior of NSCLC cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Relationship between melatonin receptor 1B and insulin receptor substrate 1 polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Studies have investigated the relationship between genetic variants and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs10830963 and rs1387153 variants in melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) and rs1801278 variant in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) with GDM susceptibility. Electronic database of PubMed, Medline, Embase, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for relevant studies between 2005 and 2014. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to estimate the association. Total ten case-control studies, including 3428 GDM cases and 4637 healthy controls, met the inclusion criteria. Our results showed a significant association between the three genetic variants and GDM risk, rs10830963 with a P-value less than 0.0001, rs1387153 with a P-value of 0.0002, and rs1801278 with a P-value of 0.001. Furthermore, all the genetic models in these three polymorphisms were associated with increased risks of GDM as well (P< = 0.009). In conclusion, our study found that the genetic polymorphisms rs10830963 and rs1387153 in MTNR1B and rs1801278 in IRS1 were associated with an increased risk of developing GDM. However, further studies with gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions should be considered.
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Hydrogen peroxide enhances the oxidation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds on mineral dust particles: a case study of methacrolein.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Heterogeneous oxidation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) serves as an important sink of OVOCs as well as a source of secondary organic material. However, the roles of gas phase oxidants in these reactions are poorly understood. In this work, we present the first laboratory study of the heterogeneous reactions of methacrolein (MACR) on various mineral dust particles in the presence of gaseous H2O2. It is found that the presence of gaseous H2O2 significantly promotes both the uptake and oxidation of MACR on kaolinite, ?-Al2O3, ?-Fe2O3, and TiO2, but not on CaCO3. The oxidation of MACR produces organic acids as its major low-molecular-weight product, whose yields are enhanced by a factor of 2-6 in the presence of H2O2. In addition, organic peroxides such as methyl hydroperoxide, peroxyformic acid, and peroxyacetic acid are only formed in the presence of H2O2, and the formation of methyl hydroperoxide indicates that MACR oxidation on the surface involves reaction with OH radicals. A probe reaction using salicylic acid verifies the production of OH radicals from H2O2 decomposition on kaolinite, ?-Al2O3, ?-Fe2O3, and TiO2, which rationalizes the enhanced MACR oxidation observed on these particles. The uptake coefficients of MACR on kaolinite, ?-Fe2O3, and TiO2 in the presence of H2O2 are on the order of 10(-5)-10(-4). Our results provide new insights into the formation and chemical evolution of organic species in the atmosphere.
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Changes of serum parameters of TiO? nanoparticle-induced atherosclerosis in mice.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The evaluation of toxicological effects of nanoparticulate matter is increasingly important due to their growing occupational use and presence as compounds in consumer products. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to nanosized particles lead to systemic inflammation in experimental animals, but whether long-term exposure to nanosized particles induces atherogenesis is rarely evaluated. In the current study, mice were continuously exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) at 1.25, 2.5, or 5mg/kg body weight, administered by nasal instillation for nine consecutive months, and the association between serum parameter changes and atherosclerosis in mice were investigated. The present findings suggested that chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in atherogenesis coupling with pulmonary inflammation, increased levels of serum triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, NAD(P)H oxidases 4, C-reaction protein, E-selectin, endothelin-1, tissue factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and reduced levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator. Our study suggests an association of long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs with atherosclerosis and pulmonary inflammation. This finding demonstrates the hypothesized role of TiO2 NPs as a risk factor for atherogenesis.
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Clinical applications of the indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of anti-cell membrane-associated DNA antibodies in Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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BackgroundJuvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) has a higher mortality risk compared to adult-onset SLE. We compared the diagnostic value of anti-cmDNA antibodies with that of anti-nucleosome antibodies (AnuA), anti-Sm antibodies and anti-dsDNA antibodies and human B lymphocyte Raji cells with that of human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells as substrates in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect anti-cmDNA antibodies in JSLE patients.MethodsWe recruited 92 JSLE patients and 71 patients with other rheumatic diseases. Anti-cmDNA antibodies and ANA were detected in patient sera using indirect immunofluorescence assays. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected by combining ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. Anti-Sm antibodies were detected by double immunodiffusion assay and immunoblotting, while anti-nucleosome antibodies (AnuA) were detected by ELISA.ResultsJSLE group had a significantly higher percentage of patients positive for anti-cmDNA compared to patients with other rheumatoid diseases. Using one antibody for diagnosis, anti-cm DNA antibodies has highest accuracy as 84.0%, using 2 antibodies, the combination of anti-cm DNA and anti-dsDNA antibodies has 90.8 % accuracy. Raji cells used as substrate demonstrated a stronger intensity of fluorescent patterns compared to HL60 cells.ConclusionThe high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detection of anti-cmDNA antibodies make it a valuable diagnostic tool for JSLE.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.182.
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Visualized study on the interaction between single bubbles and curved solid surface in flotation separation process.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The present study has been devoted to bubble-curved solid surface interaction in water, which is critical to the separation of suspended particles by air flotation. For this purpose, two particular stages of the interaction (collision and attachment) have been examined visually using high-speed photography in a laboratory-scale flotation column. The effects of the surface material and surfactant concentration on these two stages have been also studied quantitatively. The considered solid materials are the cleaned glass as hydrophilic surface and Teflon as hydrophobic surface. The experimental results show that the presence of surfactant significantly affects the collision and rebound process of a gas bubble, while there is no obvious effect of the surface material on the rebound process. An increase in surfactant concentration has been observed to suppress the rebound number and maximal distance of the bubble from the surface. Moreover, the three-phase contact time of the bubble is a strong function of the surfactant concentration and surface hydrophobicity as well as of the bubble diameter. Another important finding is that the bubble attachment is only observed at the hydrophobic Teflon surface below the surfactant CMC (critical micelle concentration). Results of this study are relevant for deep understanding of the attachment mechanism and to determine the proper conditions for a selective flotation process.
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A novel and cost effective method of removing excess albumin from plasma/serum samples and its impacts on LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of therapeutic proteins.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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We have developed an innovative method to remove albumin from plasma/serum samples for the LC-MS/MS quantitation of therapeutic proteins. Different combinations of organic solvents and acids were screened for their ability to remove albumin from plasma and serum samples. Removal efficiency was monitored by two signature peptides (QTALVELVK and LVNEVTEFAK) from albumin. Isopropanol with 1.0% trichloroacetic acid was found to be the most effective combination to remove albumin while retaining the protein of interest. Our approach was compared with a commercial albumin depletion kit on both efficiency of albumin removal and recovery of target proteins. We have demonstrated that our approach can remove 95% of the total albumin in human plasma samples while retaining close to 100% for two of three therapeutic proteins tested, with the third one at 60-80%. The commercial kit removed 98% of albumin but suffered at least 50% recovery loss for all therapeutic proteins when compared to our approach. Using BMS-C as a probe compound, the incorporation of the albumin removal approach has improved both assay sensitivity and ruggedness, compared to the whole plasma protein digestion approach alone. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated based on this new approach for the analysis of BMS-C in monkey serum. This assay was successfully applied to a toxicological study. When the albumin removal method was used in another clinical LC-MS/MS method, the sensitivity improved 10-fold to 50 ng/mL LLOQ comparing to a typical pellet digestion method.
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Inflammatory caspases are innate immune receptors for intracellular LPS.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The murine caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome responds to various bacterial infections. Caspase-11 activation-induced pyroptosis, in response to cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is critical for endotoxic shock in mice. The mechanism underlying cytosolic LPS sensing and the responsible pattern recognition receptor are unknown. Here we show that human monocytes, epithelial cells and keratinocytes undergo necrosis upon cytoplasmic delivery of LPS. LPS-induced cytotoxicity was mediated by human caspase-4 that could functionally complement murine caspase-11. Human caspase-4 and the mouse homologue caspase-11 (hereafter referred to as caspase-4/11) and also human caspase-5, directly bound to LPS and lipid A with high specificity and affinity. LPS associated with endogenous caspase-11 in pyroptotic cells. Insect-cell purified caspase-4/11 underwent oligomerization upon LPS binding, resulting in activation of the caspases. Underacylated lipid IVa and lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS) could bind to caspase-4/11 but failed to induce their oligomerization and activation. LPS binding was mediated by the CARD domain of the caspase. Binding-deficient CARD-domain point mutants did not respond to LPS with oligomerization or activation and failed to induce pyroptosis upon LPS electroporation or bacterial infections. The function of caspase-4/5/11 represents a new mode of pattern recognition in immunity and also an unprecedented means of caspase activation.
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Serum anti-osteopontin autoantibody as a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphorylated and glycosylated protein, which plays an important role in carcinogenesis and metastasis. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), OPN is being investigated either as a therapeutic target gene or as a biomarker for diagnosis. Yet, the role of the anti-OPN autoantibody in HCC remains unclear. In the present study, the level of serum anti-OPN autoantibody in HCC was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed to analyze protein expression profiles and the prognostic significance of OPN in HCC. In this study, the prevalence and titer of anti-OPN autoantibodies in HCC were significantly higher than these values in normal human serum (NHS) (P=0.001, P=0.000, respectively). When both ?-fetoprotein and the autoantibody against OPN were used simultaneously as diagnostic biomarkers, the sensitivity was up to 65%. In IHC, 59 of the 83 (65.6%) HCC specimens expressed OPN with cytoplasmic positive staining. The overall survival (OS) of HCC patients with OPN-positive tumors was 28.81 months compared to 39.37 months for HCC patients with OPN-negative tumors (P<0.01). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that OPN overexpression was the strongest independent adverse prognostic factor for OS (P=0.02). Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-OPN autoantibody may be a supplementary serological biomarker for HCC, and is correlated with poor prognosis in HCC patients.
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Sulforaphane Ameliorates Neurobehavioral Deficits and Protects the Brain From Amyloid ? Deposits and Peroxidation in Mice With Alzheimer-Like Lesions.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly individuals and its effective therapies are still unavailable. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotection of sulforaphane (SFN) in AD-lesion mice induced by combined administration of d-galactose and aluminium. Results showed that SFN ameliorated spatial cognitive impairment and locomotor activity decrease in Morris water maze and open field test, respectively. And attenuated numbers of amyloid ? (A?) plaques in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex of AD-lesion mice were detected by immunohistochemistry. According to spectrophotometry and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results, a significant increase in carbonyl group level and obvious decreases in both activity and messenger RNA expression of glutathione peroxidase were found in brain of AD-lesion mice compared with control, but not in SFN-treated AD-lesion mice. In conclusion, SFN ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits and protects the brain from A? deposits and peroxidation in mice with Alzheimer-like lesions, suggesting SFN is likely a potential phytochemical to be used in AD therapeutics.
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Block copolymer self-assembly controlled by the "green" gas stimulus of carbon dioxide.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Stimuli-responsive macromolecules have inspired much interest in polymer science. Inputting an external stimulus to these polymers can modulate their chain structures and self-assembled architectures for functional outputs. This appealing feature has made this class of polymer materials promising for many emerging applications. In order to apply these polymer systems in organisms and further make them adaptive to physiological environments, it is important to explore new stimulation modes. In this Feature Article, we review the recent development of using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a stimulus for tuning or controlling block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly. We show that a series of CO2-responsive functionalities can easily be incorporated into BCP structures, and that rationally designed BCPs can have their self-assembled structures undergo drastic changes in size, shape, morphology and function, controlled by the amount of CO2 in aqueous solution. This gas stimulus has some distinct advantages over other conventional stimuli: it is truly "green" for the environment of the target polymer system without any chemical contaminations; the stimulating strength or magnitude can be precisely adjusted with the continuous gas flow; and, being a key metabolite in cells, it provides a convenient physiological signal to allow synthetic polymer systems to mimic certain properties of organelles and act as intelligent macromolecular machines and devices.
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Correlated electrical and optical analysis of single nanoparticles and biomolecules on a nanopore-gated optofluidic chip.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The analysis of individual biological nanoparticles has significantly advanced our understanding of fundamental biological processes but is also rapidly becoming relevant for molecular diagnostic applications in the emerging field of personalized medicine. Both optical and electrical methods for the detection and analysis of single biomolecules have been developed, but they are generally not used in concert and in suitably integrated form to allow for multimodal analysis with high throughput. Here we report on a dual-mode electrical and optical single-nanoparticle sensing device with capabilities that would not be available with each technique individually. The new method is based on an optofluidic chip with an integrated nanopore that serves as a smart gate to control the delivery of individual nanoparticles to an optical excitation region for ensemble-free optical analysis in rapid succession. We demonstrate electro-optofluidic size discrimination of fluorescent nanobeads, electro-optical detection of single fluorescently labeled influenza viruses, and the identification of single viruses within a mixture of equally sized fluorescent nanoparticles with up to 100% fidelity.
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Neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic neurons in mice with Alzheimer's disease-like lesions.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are unavailable. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane (an activator of NF-E2-related factor 2) on mice with AD-like lesions induced by combined administration of aluminum and D-galactose. Step-down-type passive avoidance tests showed sulforaphane ameliorated cognitive impairment in AD-like mice. Immunohistochemistry results indicated sulforaphane attenuated cholinergic neuron loss in the medial septal and hippocampal CA1 regions in AD-like mice. However, spectrophotometry revealed no significant difference in acetylcholine level or the activity of choline acetyltransferase or acetylcholinesterase in the cerebral cortex among groups of control and AD-like mice with and without sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane significantly increased the numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive neurons in the subventricular and subgranular zones in AD-like mice which were significantly augmented compared with controls. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed significantly lower aluminum levels in the brains of sulforaphane-treated AD-like mice than in those that did not receive sulforaphane treatment. In conclusion, sulforaphane ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits by reducing cholinergic neuron loss in the brains of AD-like mice, and the mechanism may be associated with neurogenesis and aluminum load reduction. These findings suggest that phytochemical sulforaphane has potential application in AD therapeutics.
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A crystalline phosphaalkene radical anion.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Salts containing phosphaalkene radical anions have been isolated and characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The radical anions feature elongated P-C bonds and an aromatization of fulvene compared to the neutral phosphaalkene. Their EPR spectra and theoretical calculations indicate the spin density of the radicals mainly resides on phosphorus atoms. This work provides the first example of a crystalline phosphaalkene radical anion.
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Single-lens stereovision system using a prism: position estimation of a multi-ocular prism.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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In this paper, a position estimation method using a prism-based single-lens stereovision system is proposed. A multifaced prism was considered as a single optical system composed of few refractive planes. A transformation matrix which relates the coordinates of an object point to its coordinates on the image plane through the refraction of the prism was derived based on geometrical optics. A mathematical model which is able to denote the position of an arbitrary faces prism with only seven parameters is introduced. This model further extends the application of the single-lens stereovision system using a prism to other areas. Experimentation results are presented to prove the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed model.
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Doliroside A attenuates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by targeting NLRP3 inflammasome.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Our previous study demonstrates that Dolichos falcata Klein (DF) ameliorates the gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, and one of the active components, doliroside A, contributed to the anti-gouty arthritis effect of DF according to the in vitro study. However, there is still little known about the potential beneficial effects and possible mechanism of action of doliroside A on gouty arthritis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism of action of doliroside A in vitro and the anti-inflammatory effects of doliroside A in vivo. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages were treated with doliroside A before or after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and then stimulated with MSU crystals, nigericin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The expressions of proteins related to activation of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were analyzed. The results manifested that doliroside A (15, 30, 45 and 60 ?M) suppressed both LPS-induced priming and inflammasome activation in macrophages. Moreover, doliroside A was administered to the rats treated by MSU crystals. The results demonstrated that doliroside A (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) ameliorated the symptoms of gouty arthritis, decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited the expressions of caspase-1 and pro-interleukin-1? (pro-IL-1?) proteins in MSU crystals-treated rats. These findings indicate that doliroside A exhibits a prominent effect on ameliorating gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals. The action of doliroside A on gouty arthritis exerts via inhibiting the activation of caspase-1 and IL-1? secretion by affecting both LPS-induced priming and inflammasome activation.
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Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol has been studied. UV B, liquid state and sufficient exposure time are essential conditions to the photochemical change of trans-resveratrol. Three principal compounds, cis-resveratrol, 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione, were successively generated in the reaction solution of trans-resveratrol (0.25mM, 100% ethanol) under 100?Wcm(-2) UV B radiation for 4h. cis-Resveratrol, originated from isomerization of trans-resveratrol, resulted in 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol through photocyclisation reaction meanwhile loss of 2 H. 2,4,6-Phenanthrenetriol played a role of photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen in the reaction pathway. The singlet oxygen triggered [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of trans-resveratrol, and then resulted in the generation of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione through photorearrangement and oxidation reaction. The singlet oxygen reaction was closely related to the substrate concentration of trans-resveratrol in solution.
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Multilevel analysis of temperature dependent near-infrared spectra.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Quantitative spectra-temperature relationship (QSTR) between near-infrared (NIR) spectra and temperature has been used for quantitative determination of the compositions in mixtures. In this work, QSTR is studied using multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA) and the spectral data of the samples with different concentrations measured at different temperatures. MSCA model contains a between-individual model describing the differences between the individuals and a within-individual model capturing the differences within the data of all the individuals. NIR spectra of five different compositions (water-ethanol-isopropanol) measured at seven temperatures were analyzed. A between-temperature model describing the effect of temperature and a within-temperature model describing the variation of concentration were obtained, from which QSTR model is established and quantitative analysis is achieved. Furthermore, the difference between the between-temperature or within-temperature models of different mixtures is used to study the composition of the solvent.
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EZH2 Represses Target Genes through H3K27-Dependent and H3K27-Independent Mechanisms in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Alterations of polycomb group (PcG) genes directly modulate the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and may thus affect the epigenome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is crucial for controlling the HCC cell phenotype. However, the extent of downstream regulation by PcGs in HCC is not well defined. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we found that the target gene network of PcGs contains well-established genes, such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKN2A), and genes that were previously undescribed for their regulation by PcG, including E2F1, NOTCH2, and TP53. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that EZH2 occupancy coincides with H3K27me3 at E2F1 and NOTCH2 promoters. Interestingly, PcG repress the expression of the typical tumor suppressor TP53 in human HCC cells, and an increased level of PcG was correlated with the downregulation of TP53 in certain HCC specimens. Unexpectedly, we did not find obvious H3K27me3 modification or an EZH2 binding signal at the TP53 promoters, suggesting that PcG regulates TP53 expression in an H3K27me3-independent manner. Finally, the reduced expression of PcGs effectively blocked the aggressive signature of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
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Mechanisms of TiO2 nanoparticle-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been demonstrated to decrease learning and memory of animals. However, whether the impacts of these NPs on the recognition function are involved in hippocamal neuron damages is poorly understood. In this study, primary cultured hippocampal neurons from one-day-old fetal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5, 15, or 30 ?g/mL TiO2 NPs for 24 h, we investigated cell viability, ultrastructure, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, apoptotic signaling pathway associated with the primary cultured hippocamal neuron apoptosis. Our findings showed that TiO2 NP treatment resulted in reduction of cell viability, promoted lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptosis and increased neuron apoptotic rate in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, TiO2 NPs led to [Ca(2+) ]i elevation, and mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, up-regulated protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase-3, glucose-regulate protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein and caspase-12, and down-regulated bcl-2 expression in the primary cultured hippocampal neurons. These findings suggested that hippocampal neuron apoptosis caused by TiO2 NPs may be associated with mitochondria-mediated signal pathway and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated signal pathway.
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Nonclinical Safety Profile of BMS-986001, a Nucleoside Transcriptase Inhibitor for Combination Retroviral Therapy.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors are key components of combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. First-generation NRTIs are associated with mitochondrial toxicity in patients, mainly due to inhibition of human DNA polymerase ? (hDNA pol?) that manifests as adverse events such as lipodystrophy, lactic acidosis, myopathy, cardiomyopathy, or nephropathy in patients. In chronic nonclinical studies in rodents and nonrodents, eukaryotic (host) mitochondrial toxicity manifests as some drug-specific toxicities similar to human toxicity. BMS-986001, a novel thymidine analog with minimal hDNA pol? inhibition, has demonstrated antiretroviral activity in early clinical studies. The primary toxicity of BMS-986001 in rats and monkeys is bone marrow dyserythropoiesis with associated decreases in red blood cell mass. Additionally, at high doses, severe platelet reductions accompanied by cutaneous petechiae began during weeks 8 and 11 in 3 of 60 monkeys in chronic toxicity studies. In a 6-month study, platelet reductions required euthanasia of the 2 affected monkeys (300 mg/kg/d) at week 14, but with dose reduction (200 mg/kg/d) remaining monkeys had no platelet changes. One affected monkey (200 mg/kg/d) in a 9-month study completed dosing and its platelet counts recovered during a 1-month recovery. Formation of platelet-bound immunoglobulin in the presence of BMS-986001, together with rapid and complete platelet recovery in the absence of BMS-986001, suggested that platelet decreases in monkeys may be immune mediated. No findings indicative of mitochondrial toxicity were observed in rats or monkeys given BMS-986001, suggesting an improved safety profile compared to marketed NRTI or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
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[Seasonal variation of carcinogenic heavy metals in PM2.5 and source analysis in Beijing].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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During April, July, October 2009 and January 2010, daily (24-h average) PM2.5 samples were collected at urban sites in Beijing and 29 metal elements were analyzed by the ICP-MS. The characteristics of 7 carcinogenic heavy metal mass concentrations, enrichment, and possible sources were discussed. The annual average concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Se were (11.6 +/- 14.0), (2.6 +/- 2.4), (1.0 +/- 0.7), (11.3 +/- 9.4), (4.0 +/- 2.4), (142.5 +/- 98.9) and (3.3 +/- 2.2) ng m(-3), respectively. Only annual average concentration of As exceeded WHO standard by a factor of 0.8. Higher enrichment factors of As, Cd, Pb and Se were found and their enrichment factors exceeded 500. Their enrichment factors in summer were much higher than those in other seasons. The local coal combustion and vehicle exhaust should be the dominant sources for the above four carcinogenic heavy metals in spring, autumn and winter, while regional transportation contributed more in summer.
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Side population cells of pancreatic cancer show characteristics of cancer stem cells responsible for resistance and metastasis.
Target Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to underlie the initiation and maintenance of tumor growth and the development of chemoresistance in solid tumors. The identification and role of these important cells in pancreatic cancer remains controversial. Here, we isolate side population (SP) cells from the highly aggressive and metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell line L3.6pl and evaluate their potential role as models for CSCs. SP cells were isolated following Hoechst 33342 staining of L3.6pl cells. SP, non-SP, and unsorted L3.6pl cells were orthotopically xenografted into the pancreas of nude mice and tumor growth observed. RNA was analyzed by whole genome array and pathway mapping was performed. Drug resistant variants of L3.6pl were developed and examined for SP proportions and evaluated for surface expression of known CSC markers. A distinct SP with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into non-SP cells was isolated from L3.6pl (0.9 %?±?0.22). SP cells showed highly tumorigenic and metastatic characteristics after orthotopic injection. Transcriptomic analysis identified modulation of gene networks linked to tumorigenesis, differentiation, and metastasization in SP cells relative to non-SP cells. Wnt, NOTCH, and EGFR signaling pathways associated with tumor stem cells were altered in SP cells. When cultured with increasing concentrations of gemcitabine, the proportion of SP cells, ABCG2(+), and CD24(+) cells were significantly enriched, whereas 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment lowered the percentage of SP cells. SP cells were distinct from cells positive for previously postulated pancreatic CSC markers. The Hoechst-induced side population in L3.6pl cells comprises a subset of tumor cells displaying aggressive growth and metastasization, increased gemcitabine-, but not 5-FU resistance. The cells may act as a partial model for CSC biology.
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Simultaneous optical absorption and viscoelasticity imaging based on photoacoustic lock-in measurement.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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We propose a dual-parameter detection method to realize the simultaneous optical absorption and viscoelasticity imaging based on photoacoustic lock-in measurement. Both optical absorption and viscoelasticity properties can be obtained simultaneously by analyzing the amplitude and phase of photoacoustic signals. This method is experimentally verified by imaging of gelatin phantoms with different absorption coefficients and viscoelastic coefficients. Furthermore, pilot experiments were performed on an in vivo murine EMT6 tumor from the back of a BALB/c mouse. Results demonstrate that the method can be used to measure the optical absorption and viscoelasticity of different biological tissues.
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Effects of aluminium on ?-amyloid (1-42) and secretases (APP-cleaving enzymes) in rat brain.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Chronic administration of aluminium has been proposed as an environmental factor that may affect some pathological changes related to neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The abnormal generation and deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) in senile plaques are hallmark features in the brains of AD patients. Furthermore, A? is generated by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via the APP cleaving enzyme (?-secretase, or ?-secretase) and ?-secretase. In the present study, we investigated the modulation of A? deposition and neurotoxicity in aluminium-maltolate-treated (0, 15, 30, 45 mmol/kg body weight via intraperitoneal injection) in experimental rats. We measured A?1-40 and A?1-42 in the cortex and hippocampus in rat brains using ELISA. Subtypes of ?-secretase, ?-secretase, and ?-secretase, including ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM17 (TACE), BACE1, presenilin 1 (PS1) and nicastrin (NCT), were determined using western blotting analyses. These results indicated that aluminium-maltolate induced an AD-like behavioural deficit in rats at 30 and 45 mmol/kg body weight. Moreover, the A?1-42 content increased significantly, both in the cortex and hippocampus, although no changes were observed in A?1-40. Furthermore, ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 decreased significantly; in contrast, BACE1, PS1, and NCT showed significant increase. Taken together, these results suggest that the changes in secretases may correlate to the abnormal deposition of A? by aluminium in rat brains.
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Wogonin suppresses human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell A549 migration in inflammatory microenvironment by modulating the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Increasing evidence from various clinical and experimental studies has demonstrated that the inflammatory microenvironment facilitates tumor metastasis. Clinically, it will be a promising choice to suppress tumor metastasis by targeting inflammatory microenvironment. Our previous studies have demonstrated that wogonin (a bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine of Huang-Qin) possesses the anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory activity, but we have little idea about its efficacy on inflammatory-induced tumor metastasis and the mechanism underlying it. In this study, we focused on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first step of tumor metastasis, to evaluate the effects of wogonin on tumor metastasis in inflammatory microenvironment. We found that wogonin inhibited THP-1 conditioned-medium- (CM-) and IL-6-induced EMT by inactivating STAT3 signal. And in wogonin-treated A549 cells which pretreated with THP-1 CM or IL-6, the expression level of E-cadherin, an EMT negative biomarker, increased while that of N-cadherin, Vimentin, and EMT-related transcription factors including Snail and Twist decreased. Moreover, wogonin inhibited IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, prevented p-STAT3 dimer translocation into the nucleus, and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of p-STAT3. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in the tumor xenografts mice, including downregulation of p-STAT3, N-cadherin, and Vimentin while up-regulation of E-cadherin. Wogonin also inhibit the metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. Taken all data together, we concluded that wogonin suppresses tumor cells migration in inflammatory microenvironment by inactivating STAT3 signal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Psychometric Properties of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue) in Chinese Patients Receiving Maintenance Dialysis.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Fatigue is a common symptom reported by patients with end-stage renal disease, and it can significantly decrease patients' quality of life. A brief and convenient fatigue assessment tool is needed for Chinese patients on maintenance dialysis.
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Polymerase chain reaction-based assays for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.
Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed.
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X protein mutations in hepatitis B virus DNA predict postoperative survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is prone to mutations because of the proofreading deficiencies of HBV polymerase. The postoperative prognostic value of HBV mutations in HBV X protein (HBx) gene was assessed in HBV associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The HBx gene was amplified and sequenced, the HBV mutations was identified according to NCBI database ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/5536 ). The relationship between the HBV mutations and HCC survival was compared. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons between the curves were made using the log-rank test. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. After adjusting for clinical characteristics, the following eight mutational sites were identified as statistically significant independent predictors of HCC survival: 1383, 1461, 1485, 1544, 1613, 1653, 1719, and 1753. In addition, the following four mutational sites were identified for their association with survival at a border-line significance level: 1527, 1637, 1674, and 1762/1764. A total of 12 mutations in HBx gene region were identified as independent predictors of postoperative survival in HCC patients. The analysis of HBV DNA mutations may help identify patient subgroups with poor prognosis and may help refine therapeutic decisions regarding HCC patients.
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Deficiency of the NR4A orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 in hematopoietic stem cells accelerates atherosclerosis.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The NR4A orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 functions as a constitutively active transcription factor regulating cellular inflammation and proliferation. In this study, we used bone marrow transplantation to determine the selective contribution of NOR1 expression in hematopoietic stem cells to the development of atherosclerosis. Reconstitution of lethally irradiated apoE(-/-) mice with NOR1-deficient hematopoietic stem cells accelerated atherosclerosis formation and macrophage recruitment following feeding a diet enriched in saturated fat. NOR1 deficiency in hematopoietic stem cells induced splenomegaly and monocytosis, specifically the abundance of inflammatory Ly6C(+) monocytes. Bone marrow transplantation studies further confirmed that NOR1 suppresses the proliferation of macrophage and dendritic progenitor (MDP) cells. Expression analysis identified RUNX1, a critical regulator of hematopoietic stem cell expansion, as a target gene suppressed by NOR1 in MDP cells. Finally, in addition to inducing Ly6C(+) monocytosis, NOR1 deletion increased the replicative rate of lesional macrophages and induced local foam cell formation within the atherosclerotic plaque. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that NOR1 deletion in hematopoietic stem cells accelerates atherosclerosis formation by promoting myelopoiesis in the stem cell compartment and by inducing local proatherogenic activities in the macrophage, including lesional macrophage proliferation and foam cell formation.
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Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure.
Microb Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens.
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Glypican 4 may be involved in the adipose tissue redistribution in high-fat feeding C57BL/6J mice with peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? agonist rosiglitazone treatment.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Fat distribution affects the risk of developing obesity-related chronic diseases. Glypican 4 (Gpc4) may be involved in the regulation of obesity and body fat distribution. The aim of the study was to explore whether Gpc4 affects fat accumulation and the possible mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet for eight weeks and treated with a peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, rosiglitazone, for another four weeks. The weight of inguinal and epididymal fat pads was determined. The Gpc4 mRNA and protein expression and two probable regulators of the Gpc4 gene, specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Sp3 mRNA, were also measured. Mice treated with rosiglitazone showed a significant increase in subcutaneous fat weight compared with the untreated mice. The expression of Gpc4 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in visceral than in subcutaneous fat in all the groups. Compared with untreated mice the expression of Gpc4 and Sp3 mRNA in subcutaneous fat and the expression of Sp1 and Sp3 mRNA in visceral fat in mice treated with rosiglitazone increased significantly. The Sp3/Sp1 ratio was consistent with the expression of Gpc4 mRNA and protein in subcutaneous and visceral fat. The present study indicated that Gpc4 may play an important role in fat distribution, and this effect is perhaps regulated by the ratio of Sp3/Sp1 in the subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues.
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Effects of combining low?dose aspirin with a Chinese patent medicine on follicular blood flow and pregnancy outcome.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical value of low?dose aspirin in combination with Tiao Jing Cu Yun pills in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by measuring follicular peripheral blood flow parameters and the clinical efficacy. The study involved 78 infertile females with PCOS who were randomly divided into experimental (n=38) and control (n=40) groups. The subjects in the experimental group were treated with letrozole in combination with aspirin and Tiao Jing Cu Yun pills, and the control group was treated with letrozole alone. Transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure the endometrial thickness, pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of the follicular peripheral artery on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration. The patients who failed to become pregnant in the control group were reintegrated into the experimental group in the subsequent cycle and the clinical effect was observed. In the experimental group, subject perifollicular blood flow was more plentiful, and the PI and RI of the perifollicular blood flow were significantly reduced, while the EDV of the perifollicular blood flow and the rate of clinical pregnancy were markedly elevated compared with the subjects in the control group. Low?dose aspirin combined with Tiao Jing Cu Yun pills effectively improved perifollicular artery blood flow, and enhanced the oocyte quality and rate of clinical pregnancy.
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Effects of amylose and phosphate monoester on aggregation structures of heat-moisture treated potato starches.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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For three cultivars of potato starch, heat-moisture treatment (HMT) displayed an influence on the aggregation structures at different scale levels. With HMT, the granular morphology of potato starch granules remained similarly, and an increase in the average repeat distance of semi-crystalline lamellae was observed. The crystalline structure and birefringence were also affected. Moreover, the polymorphic transformation (B ? A+B) could be related to dehydration, whereas the decrease in the degree of crystallinity might be resulted from the rupture of hydrogen bonds. Interestingly, amylose could act as the backbone of the aggregation structures of potato starch to provide resistance to HMT, but phosphate monoester could promote the destruction during HMT. In addition, compared with amylose, phosphate monoester played a more significant role in changing the average repeat distance of semi-crystalline lamellae (long period) during HMT.
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A novel bioinformatics method for efficient knowledge discovery by BLSOM from big genomic sequence data.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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With remarkable increase of genomic sequence data of a wide range of species, novel tools are needed for comprehensive analyses of the big sequence data. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is an effective tool for clustering and visualizing high-dimensional data such as oligonucleotide composition on one map. By modifying the conventional SOM, we have previously developed Batch-Learning SOM (BLSOM), which allows classification of sequence fragments according to species, solely depending on the oligonucleotide composition. In the present study, we introduce the oligonucleotide BLSOM used for characterization of vertebrate genome sequences. We first analyzed pentanucleotide compositions in 100?kb sequences derived from a wide range of vertebrate genomes and then the compositions in the human and mouse genomes in order to investigate an efficient method for detecting differences between the closely related genomes. BLSOM can recognize the species-specific key combination of oligonucleotide frequencies in each genome, which is called a "genome signature," and the specific regions specifically enriched in transcription-factor-binding sequences. Because the classification and visualization power is very high, BLSOM is an efficient powerful tool for extracting a wide range of information from massive amounts of genomic sequences (i.e., big sequence data).
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Characterisation of cellulose films regenerated from acetone/water coagulants.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A precooled aqueous solution of 7 wt% NaOH/12 wt% urea was used to dissolve cellulose up to a concentration of 2 wt%, which was then coagulated in an acetone/water mixture to regenerate cellulose film. The volume ratio of acetone to water (?) had a dominant influence on film dimensional stability, film-forming ability, micromorphology, and mechanical strength. The film regenerated at ?=2.0 showed excellent performance in both dimensional stability and film-forming ability. Compared to that from pure acetone, the cellulose film from the acetone/water mixture with ?=2.0 was more densely interwoven, since the cellulosic fibrils formed during regeneration had pores with smaller average diameter. The alkali capsulated in the film during film formation could be released at quite a slow rate into the surrounding aqueous solution. The regenerated cellulose film with adjustable structure and properties may have potential applications in drug release and ultra filtration.
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MicroRNA-191, by promoting the EMT and increasing CSC-like properties, is involved in neoplastic and metastatic properties of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A common interest in lung cancer research is the identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis and accurate prognosis. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in lung cancer. To explore new biomarkers of chemical exposure in risk assessment of chemical carcinogenesis and lung cancer, we analyzed miRNA expression profiles of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells malignantly transformed by arsenite. High-throughput microarray analysis showed that 51 miRNAs were differentially expressed in transformed HBE cells relative to normal HBE cells. In particular, miR-191 was up-regulated in transformed cells. In HBE cells, arsenite induced increases of miR-191 and WT1 levels, decreased BASP1 expression, and activated the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, effects that were blocked by miR-191 knockdown. In addition, a luciferase reporter assay indicated that BASP1 is a direct target of miR-191. By inhibiting the expression of BASP1, miR-191 increased the expression of WT1 to promote activation of Wnt/?-catenin pathway. In transformed cells, inhibition of miR-191 expression blocked the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties of cells and decreased their migratory capacity and neoplastic properties. Thus, these results demonstrate that miR-191 modulates the EMT and the CSC-like properties of transformed cells and indicate that it is an onco-miR involved in the neoplastic and metastatic properties of transformed cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Vaccination with DKK1-derived peptides promotes bone formation and bone mass in an aged mouse osteoporosis model.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The investigation of agents for the treatment of osteoporosis has been a long-standing effort. The Wnt pathway plays an important role in bone formation and regeneration, and expression of Wnt pathway inhibitors, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), appears to be associated with changes in bone mass. Inactivation of DKK1 leads to substantially increased bone mass in genetically manipulated animals. DKK1-derived peptides (DDPs) were added to BMP2-stimulated MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells in vitro to evaluate inhibitory activity of DDPs in MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Study was extended in vivo on old female mice to show whether or not inhibition of endogenous DKK1 biological activity using DDPs vaccination approach leads to increase of bone formation, bone density, and improvement of bone microstructure. We reported that synthetic DDPs were able to reduce alkaline phosphatase activity, prevent mineralization and inhibit the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. Furthermore, vaccination with these DDPs in aged female mice 4 times for a total period of 22 weeks promoted bone mass and bone microstructure. 3D microCT and histomorphometric analysis showed that there were significant increase in bone mineral densities, improvement of bone microstructure and promotion of bone formation in the vaccinated mice, especially in the mice vaccinated with DDP-A and DDP-C. Histological and scanning electron microscopy image analysis also indicated that vaccination increased trabecular bone mass and significantly decreased fragmentation of bone fibers. Taken together, these preclinical results suggest that vaccination with DDPs represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the treatment of bone-related disorders, such as osteoporosis.
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Bioanalysis of propylparaben and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and their sulfate conjugates in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Two rugged liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the determination of propylparaben, its major metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA), and their sulfate conjugates have been developed and validated in citric acid-treated rat plasma. To prevent propylparaben being hydrolyzed to pHBA ex vivo, rat plasma was first treated with citric acid; then collected and processed at a reduced temperature (ice bath). Stable isotope labeled internal standards, d4-propylparaben, (13)C6-pHBA, and the d4-labeled internal standards of their sulfate conjugates were used in the methods. The analytes were extracted from the matrix using protein precipitation, followed by chromatographic separation on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column. Quantification using negative ion electrospray was performed on a Sciex API 4000 mass spectrometer. The analytical ranges were established from 2.00 to 200 ng/mL for propylparaben, 50.0-5000 ng/mL for pHBA, 50.0-10,000 ng/mL for the sulfate conjugate of propylparaben (SPP) and 200-40,000 ng/mL for the sulfate conjugate of pHBA (SHBA). Inter- and intra-run precision for the quality control samples were less than 5.3% and 4.4% for all analytes; and the overall accuracy was within ±5.7% of the nominal values. The validated bioanalytical methods demonstrated excellent sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision and were successfully applied to a rat toxicology study under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). Strategies have been developed and applied toward overcoming the challenges related to analyte stability, and environmental and endogenous background.
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Physical activity level of urban pregnant women in tianjin, china: a cross-sectional study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women.
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Salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities and structural changes of the polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps Militaris.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the (13)C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable (34)S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future.
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Patient considerations and targeted therapies in the management of psoriasis in Chinese patients: role of ustekinumab.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease affecting approximately 0.1% to 0.5% of the population in the People's Republic of China. Multiple therapeutic options are available for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis although they all have their respective disadvantages. The application of biological agents has brought significant efficacy in psoriasis treatment. Ustekinumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-12/23 pathway, shows its superiority in efficacy, long duration of drug action, and good tolerance in patients. Phase III clinical trials of ustekinumab have been completed in Mainland China, and the drug is available in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Meanwhile, its long-term safety and efficacy merit further investigation.
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Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A up-regulated by progesterone promotes adhesion and proliferation of trophoblastic cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Embryo implantation and development is a complex biological process for the establishment of the successful pregnancy. Progesterone is a critical factor in the regulation of embryo adhesion to uterine endometrium and proliferation. Although it has been reported that pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is increased in pregnant women, the relationship between progesterone and PAPPA, and the effects of PAPPA on embryo adhesion and proliferation are still not clear. The present results showed that the serum level of progesterone and PAPPA was closely correlated by ELISA assay (p<0.01). PAPPA was detected in the villi of early embryo by RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, PAPPA was significantly up-regulated by progesterone in trophoblastic (JAR) cells by Real-time PCR and ELISA assay (p<0.01); while the expression was decreased by the progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486. The down-regulation of PAPPA by siRNA transfection or up-regulation of PAPPA by progesterone treatment significantly decreased or increased the adhesion rate of trophoblastic cells to human uterine epithelial cell lines (RL95-2 and HEC-1A), respectively (p<0.01), as well as the proliferation of trophoblastic cells. In conclusion, PAPPA is up-regulated by progesterone, which promotes the adhesion and proliferation potential of trophoblastic cells.
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Dual-Stimuli-Responsive Micelle of an ABC Triblock Copolymer Bearing a Redox-Cleavable Unit and a Photocleavable Unit at Two Block Junctions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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The design, synthesis, and study of a new dual-stimuli-responsible ABC-type triblock copolymer are reported. Using ATRP and click coupling reaction, the prepared copolymer is composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), polystyrene (PS), and poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and features a redox-cleavable disulfide junction between the PEO and PS blocks as well as a photocleavable o-nitrobenzyl linkage between the PS and PDMAEMA blocks. This design allows the triblock copolymer to respond to both a reducing agent like dithiothreitol (DTT) and UV light, while having the minimum number of stimuli-reactive moieties in the copolymer structure (two per chain). The disruption of the triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was examined under the action of either UV light or DTT alone or combined use of the two stimuli. It was found that the removal of one type of hydrophilic polymer chains from the water-soluble corona of the micelles with a hydrophobic PS core, that is, either redox-cleaved PEO or photocleaved PDMAEMA, could only result in a limited destabilization effect on the dispersion of the micelles. Severe aggregation of the polymer was observed only by applying the two stimuli converting the triblock copolymer onto three homopolymers. By monitoring the quenching by aqueous medium of the fluorescence of a hydrophobic dye (Nile Red) loaded in the triblock copolymer micelles, the effect on the payload release was also investigated of the different ways in which the micelles can be disrupted by the stimuli.
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Polymers with dual light-triggered functions of shape memory and healing using gold nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Shape-memory and stimuli-healable polymers (SMP and SHP) are two types of emerging smart materials. Among the many stimuli that can be used to control SMP and SHP, light is unique because of its unparalleled remote activation and spatial control. Generally, light-triggered shape memory and optically healable polymers are different polymers and it is challenging to endow the same polymer with the two light-triggered functions because of their structural incompatibility. In this paper, we describe a general polymer design that allows a single material to exhibit both light-controlled shape memory and optical healing capabilities. We show that by chemically cross-linking a crystalline polymer and loading it with a small amount of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the polymer displays optically controllable shape memory and fast optical healing based on the same localized heating effect arising from the surface plasmon resonance of AuNPs. The photothermal effect controls, on the one hand, the shape memory process by tuning the temperature with respect to Tm of the crystalline phase and, on the other hand, activates the damage healing through crystal melting and recrystallization. Moreover, we show that these two features can be triggered separately in a sequential manner.
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Facile Preparation of Well-Dispersed CeO2-ZnO Composite Hollow Microspheres with Enhanced Catalytic Activity for CO Oxidation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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In this article, well-dispersed CeO2-ZnO composite hollow microspheres have been fabricated through a simple chemical reaction followed by annealing treatment. Amorphous zinc-cerium citrate hollow microspheres were first synthesized by dispersing zinc citrate hollow microspheres into cerium nitrate solution and then aging at room temperature for 1 h. By calcining the as-produced zinc-cerium citrate hollow microspheres at 500 °C for 2 h, CeO2-ZnO composite hollow microspheres with homogeneous composition distribution could be harvested for the first time. The resulting CeO2-ZnO composite hollow microspheres exhibit enhanced activity for CO oxidation compared with CeO2 and ZnO, which is due to well-dispersed small CeO2 particles on the surface of ZnO hollow microspheres and strong interaction between CeO2 and ZnO. Moreover, when Au nanoparticles are deposited on the surface of the CeO2-ZnO composite hollow microspheres, the full CO conversion temperature of the as-produced 1.0 wt % Au-CeO2-ZnO composites reduces from 300 to 60 °C in comparison with CeO2-ZnO composites. The significantly improved catalytic activity may be ascribed to the strong synergistic interplay between Au nanoparticles and CeO2-ZnO composites.
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Assessment of the Risk of Blastomere Biopsy during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in a Mouse Model: Reducing Female Ovary Function with an Increase in Age by Proteomics Method.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is important for screening genetic and chromosome mutations in embryos so that the efficiency of assisted reproductive treatment can be increased and birth defects can be decreased; however, some studies have reported a risk from this technology as well as other assisted reproductive technologies. We have developed a blastomere biopsy mouse model to assess the potential effects of blastomere biopsy that was one key procedure in PGD on the fertility of female mice at different ages. We showed that female fertility was decreased in the biopsied mouse model with an increase in age. Moreover, the ovarian weight, serum hormone levels, and the number of primordial, primary, preantral, and antral stage follicles were also decreased in the middle-aged biopsied mouse model. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism, we did proteomics analysis on ovarian tissues from puberty biopsied and nonbiopsied mice of the 23 differentially expressed proteins that were screened for in both groups, 3 proteins (PSMB8, ALDH1A1, and HSPA4) were selected and identified by Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR methods, which showed the 3 proteins to regulate 12 cellular pathways. Furthermore, these three proteins were shown to be located in ovarian tissues, and the dynamic changes of expression profiling in middle-aged biopsied and nonbiopsied mice were demonstrated. The present study showed that blastomere biopsy technology impairs fertility when mice are middle-aged, which possibly resulted in abnormal expression profiling of PSMB8, ALDH1A1, and HSPA4 proteins. Thus, additional studies should be performed to assess the overall risk of blastomere biopsies during PGD procedures.
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Stem Cell-Like Side Populations in Esophageal Cancer: A Source of Chemotherapy Resistance and Metastases.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Dye-effluxing side population (SP) cells can be resistant to chemotherapy and are thought to resemble cancer stem cells. We characterized the relevance of the SP subpopulation in esophageal cancer cell lines and their relation to chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. The SP subpopulation was detected using Hoechst 33342 staining in five esophageal cancer cell lines OE19, OE21, OE33, PT1590, and LN1590. CTx-resistant cell lines were developed after long-term exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin and validated by analysis of resistance markers, thymidylate synthase and ERCC1. While neither LN1590 nor PT1590 had detectable SP cells, OE19, OE21, and OE33?cells were found to contain varying levels of SP cells. With increasing duration of 5-FU or cisplatin therapy, the SP subpopulation substantially emerged in PT1590 and LN1590. OE19-SP cells displayed significant higher tumorigenicity than OE19- non-SP (NSP) cells after subcutaneous tumor cell injection in vivo. SP cells isolated from OE19 and OE19/5-FUres were subsequently analyzed by an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) polymerase chain reaction array. Interestingly, the SP fraction of OE19/5-FUres showed a dramatic upregulation of EMT-related genes compared to the SP fraction of OE19. Our results provide evidence that (1) the proportion of SP cells is different in esophageal cancer, (2) SP cells exhibit stem cell properties and are associated to chemotherapy resistance, and (3) long-term CTx selects for SP cells with an upregulated EMT gene profile, which might be the source of systemic disease relapse. Further investigations are necessary to ideally target these EMT-associated SP cells in esophageal cancer.
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p300-Dependent Acetylation of ATF5 Enhances C/EBP? Transactivation of C/EBP? During 3T3-L1 Differentiation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Adipogenesis is a multistep process by which 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes through mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) and terminal differentiation. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? is an important transcription factor that takes part in both of these processes. C/EBP? not only transactivates C/EBP? and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, which cause 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to enter terminal adipocyte differentiation, but is also required to activate cell cycle genes necessary for MCE. The identification of potential cofactors of C/EBP? will help to explain how C/EBP? undertakes these specialized roles during the different stages of adipogenesis. In this study, we found that activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) can bind to the promoter of C/EBP? via its direct interaction with C/EBP? (which is mediated via the p300-dependent acetylation of ATF5) leading to enhanced C/EBP? transactivation of C/EBP?. We also show that p300 is important for the interaction of ATF5 with C/EBP? as well as the binding activity of this complex on the C/EBP? promoter. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of ATF5 and an acetylated ATF5 mimic both promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, whereas siRNA-mediated ATF5 down-regulation inhibited this process. Furthermore, we show that the elevated expression of ATF5 is correlated with an obese phenotype in both mice and humans. In summary, we have identified ATF5 as a new cofactor of C/EBP? and examined how C/EBP? and ATF5 (acetylated by a p300-dependent mechanism) regulate the transcription of C/EBP?.
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CO2-stimulated diversiform deformations of polymer assemblies.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Use of a given physiological stimulus to delicately deform polymer assemblies is a challenging topic. Here we develop synthetic block copolymers to construct a series of CO2-sensitive self-assembled nanostructures that can simulate controllable deformations of the organelles in different ways. By controlling the CO2 stimulation levels, one can modulate the size, shape, and morphology of the polymer aggregates, which is conducive to understanding the stimuli-triggered dynamic reshaping process of polymer assemblies in aqueous solution.
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Cell cycle changes mediated by the p53/miR-34c axis are involved in the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by benzo[a]pyrene.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Characterization of aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression during carcinogen-induced cell transformation will lead to a better understanding of the role of miRNAs in cancer development. In this investigation, we evaluated changes in p53 function and its downstream target miRNAs in benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Chronic exposure to BaP induced malignant transformation of cells, in which there were increased levels of mutant p53 (mt-p53) and reduced expression of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) and phosphorylated p53 (p-p53). With acute (12h) exposure to BaP, p-p53 was increased, and with increasing time of exposure (24h), the increase in p-p53 at a concentration of 1?M BaP was followed by a decline with increasing concentrations; wt-p53 and mt-p53 did not change. With prolonged exposure (48h), p-p53 and wt-p53 decreased, but mt-p53 increased. At different exposure times, the levels of miR-34c were consistent with p-p53. Over-expression of miR-34c resulted in inhibition of the BaP-induced G1-to-S transition and diminished up-regulation of cyclin D. Further, up-regulation of miR-34c or silencing of cylin D prevented BaP-induced malignant transformation. Thus, changes in the cell cycle mediated by the p53/miR-34c axis are involved in the transformation cells induced by BaP.
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Mild maternal iron deficiency anemia induces DPOAE suppression and cochlear hair cell apoptosis by caspase activation in young guinea pigs.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Iron deficiency (ID) anemia (IDA) alters auditory neural normal development in the mammalian cochlea. Previous results suggest that mild maternal IDA during pregnancy and lactation altered the hearing and nervous system development of the young offspring, but the mechanisms underlying the association are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of apoptosis in the development of sensory hair cells following mild maternal IDA during pregnancy and lactation. We established a maternal anemia model in female guinea pigs by using a mild iron deficient diet. The offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 9 and then was given the iron sufficient diet. Maternal blood samples were collected on gestational day (GD) 21, GD 42, GD 63 and PND 9, serum level of iron (SI) or hemoglobin (Hb) was measured. Blood samples of pups were collected on PND 9 for SI measurement. On PND 24, pups were examined the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) task, and then the cochleae were harvested for assessment of apoptosis by immunohistochemistry of cysteine-aspartic acid proteases 3/9 (caspase-3/9) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, and by double immunofluorescence for the colocalization of TUNEL and caspase-3. Blood samples of pups were collected on PND 24 for SI and Hb measurements. Here we show that mild maternal IDA during pregnancy and lactation resulted in hearing impairment, decreased hair cell number, caspase-3/9 activation and increased apoptotic cell number of young guinea pigs. These results indicate a key role for apoptosis in inhibition of hair cell development, caused by mild maternal IDA during pregnancy and lactation.
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Automatic needle detection and tracking in 3D ultrasound using an ROI-based RANSAC and Kalman method.
Ultrason Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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This article proposes a robust technique for needle detection and tracking using three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US). It is difficult for radiologists to detect and follow the position of micro tools, such as biopsy needles, that are inserted in human tissues under 3D US guidance. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a method that automatically reduces the processed volume to a limited region of interest (ROI), increasing at the same time the calculation speed and the robustness of the proposed technique. First, a line filter method that enhances the contrast of the needle against the background is used to facilitate the initialization of ROI using the tubularness information of the complete US volume. Then, the random sample consensus (RANSAC) and Kalman filter (RK) algorithm is used in the ROI to detect and track the precise position of the needle. A series of numerical inhomogeneous phantoms with a needle simulated from real 3D US volumes are used to evaluate our method. The results show that the proposed method is much more robust than the RANSAC algorithm when detecting the needle, regardless of whether or not the insertion axis corresponds to an acquisition plane in the 3D US volume. The possibility of failure is also discussed in this article.
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[Studies on fluorescence spectral characteristics of fulvic acid (FA) from Xingkai Lake sediments].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Four samples (sample No. HXXD, HXXX, HXDX and HXDB) were taken from Xingkai Lake Sediments in Heilongjiang province and fluorescence spectral characteristics of Fulvic acid (FA) from sediments were studied. Conventional and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) all indicated that FA from HXXD sediment exhibited primary peaks at longer wavelengths. The analysis of fluorescence characteristic parameters indicated that the degree of humification of FA from all sample points were in the order: HXXD > HXDX > HXDB > HXXX. Fluorescence index (f450/500) suggested that FA from HXXD mainly originated from terrestrial sources, while the FA from other samples mainly originated from aquatic organism sources and terrestrial sources. Based on EEM fluorescence regional integration (FIR), the percent fluorescence responses (P(i, n)) of five regions in 3EEMs was calculated. The distributions of P(V, n) (humic acid-like region) and P(III, n) (fulvic acid-like region) were the largest in all samples. The conclusion of the degree of humification of FA based on FIR was consistent with the analysis of conventional fluorescence parameters. The correlation analysis showed that, gamma(A, C) was significantly correlative with P(V, n)/P(III, n), (P(V, n) + P(III, n))/(P(I, n) + P(II, n) + P(III, n)) and P(V, n). The results suggest that gamma(A, C) index is a reasonable tool for assessing humification degree of FA from Xingkai Lake sediments.
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Long-term calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Several studies have focused on the effects of calcium intake on serum lipid concentrations in postmenopausal women. However, many premenopausal women are taking calcium supplements in China. To our knowledge, no studies have assessed whether the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipids are similar between premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
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[Effects of land use structure on water quality in Xinanjiang River].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Take Xinanjiang upstream watershed as a case study. Based on data of interpreting TM orthophoto images and water quality monitoring in May 2010, the land use map of Xinanjiang River, which was categorized to cultivated land, forestland, grassland, water body, building site, was obtained. Using ArcGIS hydrological and spatial analysis function, Xinanjiang River was divided into eight sub-watersheds, and its watershed land use structure was analyzed. The water quality parameters such as TN, TP, permanganate index, fecal coliform bacteria were monitored from Jan 2010 to Dec 2010. The relations between water quality and land use were analyzed. The results showed that TN and NH4(+) -N had a significant temporal variation: dry season > wet season > normal river flow period, but other parameters did not vary significantly. In the space, Yuliang and Pukou were the most serious pollution sites. Cultivated land, water body, building site had a positive impact on water quality parameters, while there were negative correlation between the forestland and grassland. Annually, cultivated land had the most significantly important effect on TN, NH4(+) -N and permanganate index, and grassland had the most significantly important effect on TP. Cultivated land had the most prominently important impact on water quality parameters in dry season and wet season. Whats more, in the normal river flow, cultivated land, grassland and forestland had the most remarkably important influence on TN, TP and fecal coliform bacteria respectively.
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Management of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation and Subsequent Outcomes in Contemporary Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: Insights From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons CAPS-Care Atrial Fibrillation Registry.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a well-recognized complication of cardiac surgery; however, its management remains a challenge, and the implementation and outcomes of various strategies in clinical practice remain unclear.
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[Building and application of hospitals electronic film system].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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This paper describes the design process and implementation process of electronic film system. The establishment of electronic film system allowed us to aggressively reduce film use and costs and to demonstrate a positive return.
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Promoting role of an endophyte on the growth and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, a rare and threatened medicinal Orchidaceae plant.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Anoectochilus formosanus, commonly known as "Jewel Orchid", is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. The existence of A. formosanus is currently threatened by habitat loss, human and animal consumption, etc. The highly potent medicinal activity of A. formosanus is due to its secondary metabolites, especially kinsenosides and flavonoids. This orchid also has a unique mycorrhizal relationship. Most adult orchids rely on endophytes for mineral nutrition and have complex interactions with them, which are related to plant growth, yield and changes in secondary metabolites. This study investigated the promoting role of F-23 fungus (genus Mycena) on the biomass and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of A. formosanus in pot culture. The following were observed after 10 weeks of symbiotic cultivation: increased shoot height, shoot dry weight, and leaf numbers by 16.6%, 31.3%, and 22.5%, respectively; increased contents of kinsenosides, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside by 85.5%, 226.1%, and 196.0%, respectively; some hyphae in epidermal cells dyed red and/or reddish brown by safranine; and, significantly reduced number of starch grains in cortical cells. Moreover, F-23 fungus significantly improved the kinsenoside and flavonoid contents of A. formosanus. These findings supported the reports that endophytes can alter the production of secondary metabolites in their plant hosts, although further physiological, genetic and ecological analyses are warranted.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.