JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The i5k Workspace@NAL-enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of a Stationary Digital Breast Tomosynthesis System to Magnified 2D Mammography Using Breast Tissue Specimens.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) system to a conventional mammography system in a study of breast specimens. Radiologist evaluation of image quality was assessed in a reader study. This study represents the first human tissue imaging with the novel carbon nanotube-based s-DBT device.
Related JoVE Video
Lymph Node Ratio-based Staging System Outperforms the Seventh AJCC System for Gastric Cancer: Validation Analysis With National Taiwan University Hospital Cancer Registry.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On the basis of SEER data, in which most gastric cancer patients had limited lymph node dissection, node ratio-based staging system (TNrM) has been shown to have better accuracy than the AJCC TNM system. This study is to validate the result with patients from Taiwan, where D2 lymphadenectomy is routinely performed.
Related JoVE Video
Cdc6 cooperates with c-Myc to promote genome instability and epithelial to mesenchymal transition EMT in zebrafish.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aberration in DNA replication is a major cause to genome instability that is a hallmark of cancer cells. Cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6) and c-Myc have a critical role in the initiation of DNA replication. However, whether their interaction induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promotes tumorigenesis in in vivo animal model remains unclear. Since using zebrafish as a cancer model has been restricted by the late onset of tumorigenesis and extreme difficulty in transformation on skin, we tried to establish a novel non-melanoma skin model in zebrafish to study their role in tumorigenesis. A stable transgenic zebrafish was created by using tol2 transposon, in which cdc6 and c-myc were co-overexpressed in epidermis driven by a skin-specific krt4 promoter. Intriguingly, co-overexpression of cdc6 and c-myc in transgenic zebrafish skin triggered tumor-like transformation, apoptosis attenuation, genomic instability, and EMT, hallmarks of malignant tumorigenesis. Our findings and other characteristics of zebrafish, including optical clarity and small molecule treatment, provide the future utility of this model for easy and non-invasive detection and for identification of new anti-cancer drug.
Related JoVE Video
DNMT3L promotes quiescence in postnatal spermatogonial progenitor cells.
Development
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability of adult stem cells to reside in a quiescent state is crucial for preventing premature exhaustion of the stem cell pool. However, the intrinsic epigenetic factors that regulate spermatogonial stem cell quiescence are largely unknown. Here, we investigate in mice how DNA methyltransferase 3-like (DNMT3L), an epigenetic regulator important for interpreting chromatin context and facilitating de novo DNA methylation, sustains the long-term male germ cell pool. We demonstrated that stem cell-enriched THY1(+) spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells (SPCs) constituted a DNMT3L-expressing population in postnatal testes. DNMT3L influenced the stability of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), potentially by downregulating Cdk2/CDK2 expression, which sequestered CDK2-mediated PLZF degradation. Reduced PLZF in Dnmt3l KO THY1(+) cells released its antagonist, Sal-like protein 4A (SALL4A), which is associated with overactivated ERK and AKT signaling cascades. Furthermore, DNMT3L was required to suppress the cell proliferation-promoting factor SALL4B in THY1(+) SPCs and to prevent premature stem cell exhaustion. Our results indicate that DNMT3L is required to delicately balance the cycling and quiescence of SPCs. These findings reveal a novel role for DNMT3L in modulating postnatal SPC cell fate decisions.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of AST-120 on blood concentrations of protein-bound uremic toxins and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in chronic dialysis patients.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Removal of protein-bound uremic toxins by dialysis therapy is limited. The effect of oral adsorbent AST-120 in chronic dialysis patients has rarely been investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.
Related JoVE Video
Association of fatty liver disease with nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Nephron Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) is reportedly higher than that in healthy individuals. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether ultrasonographically documented fatty liver disease (FLD) is an independent risk factor for nonfatal CV events in patients undergoing HD.
Related JoVE Video
Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent cellulitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A significant proportion of patients who have had a first episode of erysipelas or uncomplicated cellulitis will subsequently develop a recurrence. There is disagreement about how effective antibiotic prophylaxis is for preventing recurrent cellulitis.
Related JoVE Video
Calcification of the aortic arch predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Cardiorenal Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiovascular calcification represents a marker of cardiovascular risk in chronic dialysis patients. In the general population, aortic arch calcification (AAC) can predict cardiovascular mortality. We conducted a prospective study to investigate factors associated with AAC in hemodialysis patients and examined its prognostic value in long-term outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Structural basis for DNA-mediated allosteric regulation facilitated by the AAA+ module of Lon protease.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lon belongs to a unique group of AAA+ proteases that bind DNA. However, the DNA-mediated regulation of Lon remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the ? subdomain of the Lon protease from Brevibacillus thermoruber (Bt-Lon) is presented, together with biochemical data, and the DNA-binding mode is delineated, showing that Arg518, Arg557 and Arg566 play a crucial role in DNA binding. Electrostatic interactions contributed by arginine residues in the AAA+ module are suggested to be important to DNA binding and allosteric regulation of enzymatic activities. Intriguingly, Arg557, which directly binds DNA in the ? subdomain, has a dual role in the negative regulation of ATPase stimulation by DNA and in the domain-domain communication in allosteric regulation of Bt-Lon by substrate. In conclusion, structural and biochemical evidence is provided to show that electrostatic interaction in the AAA+ module is important for DNA binding by Lon and allosteric regulation of its enzymatic activities by DNA and substrate.
Related JoVE Video
Downregulation of a putative tumor suppressor BMP4 by SOX2 promotes growth of lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SOX2 is a transcription factor essential for self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Recently, SOX2 was found overexpressed in the majority of the lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQC), in which it acts as a lineage-survival oncogene. However, downstream targets/pathways of SOX2 in lung SQC cells remain to be identified. Here, we show that BMP4 is a downstream target of SOX2 in lung SQC. We found that SOX2-silencing-mediated inhibition of cell growth was accompanied by upregulation of BMP4 mRNA and its protein expression. Meta-analysis with 293 samples and qRT-PCR validation with 73 clinical samples revealed an inversely correlated relationship between levels of SOX2 and BMP4 mRNA, and significantly lower mRNA levels in tumor than in adjacent normal tissues. This was corroborated by immunohistochemistry analysis of 35 lung SQC samples showing lower BMP4 protein expression in tumor tissues. Cell-based experiments including siRNA transfection, growth assay and flow cytometry assay, further combined with a xenograft tumor model in mice, revealed that reactivation of BMP4 signaling could partially account for growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in lung SQC cells upon silencing SOX2. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that SOX2 could negatively regulate BMP4 promoter activity, possibly through binding to the promoter located in the first intron region of BMP4. Collectively, our findings suggest that BMP4 could act as a tumor suppressor and its downregulation by elevated SOX2 resulting in enhanced growth of lung SQC cells.
Related JoVE Video
Joint experimental and computational 17O solid state NMR study of Brownmillerite Ba2In2O5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Structural characterization of Brownmillerite Ba2In2O5 was achieved by an approach combining experimental solid-state NMR spectroscopy, density functional theory (DFT) energetics, and GIPAW NMR calculations. While in the previous study of Ba2In2O5 by Adler et al. (S. B. Adler, J. A. Reimer, J. Baltisberger and U. Werner, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1994, 116, 675-681), three oxygen resonances were observed in the (17)O NMR spectra and assigned to the three crystallographically unique O sites, the present high resolution (17)O NMR measurements under magic angle spinning (MAS) find only two resonances. The resonances have been assigned using first principles (17)O GIPAW NMR calculations to the combination of the O ions connecting the InO4 tetrahedra and the O ions in equatorial sites in octahedral InO6 coordination, and to the axial O ions linking the four- and six-fold coordinated In(3+) ions. Possible structural disorder was investigated in two ways: firstly, by inclusion of the high-energy structure also previously studied by Mohn et al. (C. E. Mohn, N. L. Allan, C. L. Freeman, P. Ravindran and S. Stølen, J. Solid State Chem., 2005, 178, 346-355), where the structural O vacancies are stacked rather than staggered as in Brownmillerite and, secondly, by exploring structures derived from the ground-state structure but with randomly perturbed atomic positions. There is no noticeable NMR evidence for any substantial occupancy of the high-energy structure at room temperature.
Related JoVE Video
The association of pioglitazone and urinary tract disease in type 2 diabetic Taiwanese: bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although studies have shown an association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer, the associated factors have not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that may link pioglitazone to bladder cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Biophysical analysis of astrocytes apoptosis triggered by larval E/S antigen from cerebral toxocarosis-causing pathogen Toxocara canis.
Anal Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toxocarosis is a zoonosis caused by the transmission of the Toxocara canis (T. canis) larvae to humans. Its infectious third-stage larvae can invade the brains of paratenic hosts. The resultant brain damage can result in cerebral toxocarosis (CT). Astrocytes have important neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions in the brain. Substantial studies have shown that astrocyte apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. We propose an alternation detection method, a combination of the astigmatic detection microscopy (ADM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, to investigate the apoptosis of astrocytes triggered with T. canis larval excretory/secretory (Tc E/S) antigen. The variation in the pathology of a cells morphological changes was investigated with ADM and AFM analyses and then confirmed by western blotting. The results showed that the round cells increased as the concentration of Tc E/S antigen and incubated time increased. In addition, the mean height of apoptotic cells was approximately twice that of untreated normal cells, which meant there was correlation between the Tc E/S antigen treatment and cell height. For each cleaved caspase-3 in the cells cocultured with Tc E/S antigen and incubated for 9 h, the corresponding intensities increased about 34-fold (34.4 ± 1.8) compared with those of the control cells. This method can provide researchers with a perspective for understanding the limited information on the mechanism of astroglial injury and death during a T. canis larval invasion in a brain infection.
Related JoVE Video
Cytokines and Chemokines in Irritant Contact Dermatitis.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Irritant contact dermatitis is a result of activated innate immune response to various external stimuli and consists of complex interplay which involves skin barrier disruption, cellular changes, and release of proinflammatory mediators. In this review, we will focus on key cytokines and chemokines involved in the pathogenesis of irritant contact dermatitis and also contrast the differences between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.
Related JoVE Video
Renin angiotensin system blockade ameliorates lead nephropathy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lead intoxication is usually insidious and may cause a variety of complications such as kidney damage and hypertension. The role of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in lead-induced nephropathy has not been investigated. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with water containing 250ppm of lead acetate (lead group) and deionized water (control group) for 4weeks. Another two groups started to receive intraperitoneal captopril (50mg/kg/d) or losartan (10mg/kg/d) after 2weeks of lead feeding and continued for another 2weeks. Immunoblotting was used to analyze the protein amount of intrarenal RAS components and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?). Compared with control group, lead exposure resulted in increased proteinuria after 2-week treatment (4.2±0.9mg/100g vs. 1.8±0.8mg/100g, p<0.05) and 4-week (5.2±1.7mg/100g, p<0.05). Serum creatinine level was increased (0.40±0.2 vs. 0.3 ±.04mg/dL, p<0.05) and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased (2.68±1.03 vs. 3.37±0.11mL/min, p<0.05). Intrarenal angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (ANG II), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) were upregulated in lead group. Captopril and losartan administration reduced proteinuria significantly (3.0±0.50mg/100g of captopril and 2.7±0.4mg/100g of losartan group) and lowered systolic blood pressure when compared with lead group. Furthermore, serum creatinine levels and GFR were improved by RAS blockade. Captopril treatment significantly reduced protein abundance of ACE, ANG II, AT1R and TGF-?. Losartan treatment also decreased ANG II and TGF-?. We concluded that lead exposure elicited intrarenal RAS activation with associated proteinuria and impaired renal function. RAS blockade was effective in alleviating lead-associated kidney injury and lowering blood pressure.
Related JoVE Video
The novel synthetic compound 6-acetyl-9-(3,4,5-trimetho-xybenzyl)-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis in human COLO 205 cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel synthetic compound 6-acetyl-9-(3,4,5-trimetho-xybenzyl)-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (HAC-Y6) demonstrated selective anticancer activity. In the present study, COLO 205 cells were treated with HAC-Y6 to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. HAC-Y6 induced growth inhibition, G2/M arrest and apoptosis in COLO 205 cells with an IC50 of 0.52±0.035 µM. Annexin V/PI double staining demonstrated the presence of apoptotic cells. JC-1 staining analysis showed that HAC-Y6 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in support of apoptosis. An immunostaining assay revealed that HAC-Y6 depolymerized microtubules. Treatment of COLO 205 cells with HAC-Y6 resulted in increased expression of BubR1 and cyclin B1 and decreased expression of aurora A, phospho-aurora A, aurora B, phospho-aurora B and phospho-H3. HAC-Y6 treatment increased protein levels of active caspase-3, caspase-9, Endo G, AIF, Apaf-1, cytochrome c and Bax, but treatment with the compound caused reduced levels of procaspase-3, procaspase-9, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Overall, our results suggest that HAC-Y6 exerts anticancer effects by disrupting microtubule assembly and inducing G2/M arrest, polyploidy and apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways in COLO 205 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Toxic epidermal necrolysis: the year in review.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening severe adverse drug reactions. Once thought to be idiosyncratic and unpredictable, there has been significant progress made in the understanding of the pathomechanism and pharmacogenetics of such reactions. These advances together with their clinical implications will be elaborated in this review.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of E-cadherin, Twist, and p53 and their prognostic value in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and p53 play important roles in controlling cancer invasion and metastasis. However, discrepancies still exist in the relationship between the expression of an epithelial marker E-cadherin and predicting short survival of patients in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels of E-cadherin, Twist, and p53 in tumor tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their clinical significances.
Related JoVE Video
Double perovskites as a family of highly active catalysts for oxygen evolution in alkaline solution.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The electronic structure of transition metal oxides governs the catalysis of many central reactions for energy storage applications such as oxygen electrocatalysis. Here we exploit the versatility of the perovskite structure to search for oxide catalysts that are both active and stable. We report double perovskites (Ln?.?Ba?.?)CoO(?-?) (Ln=Pr, Sm, Gd and Ho) as a family of highly active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction upon water oxidation in alkaline solution. These double perovskites are stable unlike pseudocubic perovskites with comparable activities such as Ba?.?Sr?.?Co?.?Fe?.?O(?-?) which readily amorphize during the oxygen evolution reaction. The high activity and stability of these double perovskites can be explained by having the O p-band centre neither too close nor too far from the Fermi level, which is computed from ab initio studies.
Related JoVE Video
Risk interaction of obesity, insulin resistance and hormone-sensitive lipase promoter polymorphisms (LIPE-60 C > G) in the development of fatty liver.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) promoter (LIPE-60 C > G) polymorphism has been found to be involved in hepatic steatosis, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia. The precise interactions between these risk factors and genetic susceptibility that may affect non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still not fully determined.
Related JoVE Video
Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER ? Inhibition.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor ? (ER ? ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER ? protein levels, thereby suppressing ER ? transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER ? and increased ER ? ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER ? dissociation and ER ? ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER ? degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER ? degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER ? distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER ? protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of aortic arch calcification in apolipoprotein E-null mice using carbon nanotube-based micro-CT system.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging using a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based x-ray source to detect calcification in the aortic arch of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice.
Related JoVE Video
Conversion From Cephalic Vein to External Jugular Vein: Success Rate Increased on Totally Implantable Access Ports With Cut-down Method.
Surg Innov
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background. Totally implantable access ports (Port-A) can be inserted using 2 techniques: cut-down and percutaneous. The cut-down method is safer than the percutaneous method. However, the cut-down method has a higher failure rate. We report an alternative method to decrease the failure rate of the cut-down method. Patients and Methods. In all, 758 cases of Port-A implantation with cephalic vein cut-down were tried, and 56 cases failed. Of the 56 cases, 29 cases were converted to the percutaneous subclavian method (group A), and 27 cases were converted to the external jugular vein cut-down method (group B). The patients characteristics, causes of failure of cephalic vein cut-down, operating time, and complications were compared. Results. The failure rate of cephalic vein cut-down was 7.4%. The causes of failure of cephalic vein cut-down are described. There were 4 complications in group A, including one pneumothorax (1/29), one fracture of the catheter (1/29), one embolization of the catheter (1/29), and one hematoma formation in the port site (1/29); 2 complications occurred in group B, including one embolization of the catheter (1/27) and one hematoma in the port site (1/27). The total complications were 17.7%. Conclusion. Conversion to external jugular vein cut-down is safely and easily applied in cases of cephalic vein cut-down failure. This method did not take more time than the percutaneous subclavian method. However, placement of the port should be made more carefully to prevent angulation of the catheter. We provide an alternative method to deal with failure of cephalic vein cut-down.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison between calcitriol and calcitriol plus low-dose cinacalcet for the treatment of moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic dialysis patients.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aim: Uremic hyperparathyroidism (UHPT) has been shown to contribute to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder. UHPT is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients, and patients with UHPT are associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Cinacalcet is a novel agent that increases sensitivity to the calcium-sensing receptor and is approved for control of UHPT. Nevertheless, cinacalcet is costly and information regarding efficacy of low-dose cinacalcet on UHPT is limited. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate treatment with either low-dose calcitriol combined with low-dose cinacalcet (25 mg) (d-cinacalcet) or calcitriol alone (VitD) in dialysis patients with moderate to severe UHPT. A total of 81 dialysis patients were enrolled (40 subjects in d-cinacalcet group and 41 subjects in VitD group). Demographic data including age, gender, duration on dialysis and biochemical data were reviewed and recorded. Results: At the end of the study, the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels of the d-cinacalcet group declined significantly (from 1166.0 ± 469.3 pg/mL to 679.8 ± 421.6 pg/mL, p < 0.0001), while there was no significant change in the VitD group. Significant decrease of serum calcium (Ca: 9.9 ± 0.6 mg/dL vs. 9.6 ± 0.8 mg/dL, p = 0.002), phosphorus (P: 5.9 ± 1.3 mg/dL vs. 4.9 ± 0.9 mg/dL, p < 0.0001) and calcium phosphate product (Ca × P: 58.7 ± 15.0 mg2/dL2 vs. 46.9 ± 8.9 mg2/dL2, p < 0.0001) were observed in the d-cinacalcet group. In addition, the subjects in the d-cinacalcet group had a greater proportion to achieve Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI)-recommended biochemical targets than the subjects in the VitD group (Ca: 48% vs. 24%; P: 78% vs. 32%; Ca × P: 85% vs. 37%; iPTH: 15% vs. 0%). Conclusions: We conclude that combination therapy of low-dose cinacalcet and calcitriol is more effective than calcitriol alone as a treatment for moderate and severe UHPT in chronic dialysis patients. Furthermore, this therapy is associated with improvement in hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia.
Related JoVE Video
Biomarkers associated with vascular and valvular calcification in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiovascular calcification, including arterial intimal and medial calcification (AIC and AMC) and valvular calcification (VC) are important predictors of outcome in chronic dialysis patients. We aimed to compare their prevalence and analyze respective risk factors in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Rib fractures and death from deletion of osteoblast ?catenin in adult mice is rescued by corticosteroids.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ribs are primarily made of cortical bone and are necessary for chest expansion and ventilation. Rib fractures represent the most common type of non-traumatic fractures in the elderly yet few studies have focused on the biology of rib fragility. Here, we show that deletion of ?catenin in Col1a2 expressing osteoblasts of adult mice leads to aggressive osteoclastogenesis with increased serum levels of the osteoclastogenic cytokine RANKL, extensive rib resorption, multiple spontaneous rib fractures and chest wall deformities. Within days of osteoblast specific ?catenin deletion, animals die from respiratory failure with a vanishing rib cage that is unable to sustain ventilation. Increased bone resorption is also observed in the vertebrae and femur. Treatment with the bisphosphonate pamidronate delayed but did not prevent death or associated rib fractures. In contrast, administration of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone decreased serum RANKL and slowed osteoclastogenesis. Dexamethasone preserved rib structure, prevented respiratory compromise and strikingly increased survival. Our findings provide a novel model of accelerated osteoclastogenesis, where deletion of osteoblast ?catenin in adults leads to rapid development of destructive rib fractures. We demonstrate the role of ?catenin dependent mechanisms in rib fractures and suggest that glucocorticoids, by suppressing RANKL, may have a role in treating bone loss due to aggressive osteoclastogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Increased Cdc7 expression is a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma and overexpression of Cdc7 contributes to the resistance to DNA-damaging agents.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase (Dbf4-dependent kinase, DDK) is an essential factor of DNA replication and DNA damage response (DDR), which is associated with tumorigenesis. However, Cdc7 expression has never been associated to the outcome of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the mechanism underlying cancer cell survival mediated by Cdc7 remains unclear. The Cdc7 protein expression of 105 OSCC tumor and 30 benign tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry assay. Overall survival rates of 80 OSCC patients were measured using Kaplan-Meier estimates and the log-rank tests. Cdc7 overexpression by adenovirus system was used to scrutinize the underlying mechanism contributed to cancer cell survival upon DDR. In silico analysis showed that increased Cdc7 is a common feature of cancer. Cdc7 overexpression was found in 96 of 105 (91.4%) studied cases of OSCC patients. Patients with higher Cdc7 expression, either categorized into two groups: Cdc7 high expression (2+ to 3+) versus Cdc7 low expression (0 to 1+) [hazard ratios (HR)=2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.28-5.43; P=0.0087] or four groups (0 to 3+) [HR=1.71; 95% CI=1.20-2.44; P=0.0032], exhibited a poorer outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that Cdc7 is an independent marker for survival prediction. Overexpressed Cdc7 inhibits genotoxin-induced apoptosis to increase the survival of cancer cells. In summary, Cdc7 expression, which is universally upregulated in cancer, is an independent prognostic marker of OSCC. Cdc7 inhibits genotoxin-induced apoptosis and increases survival in cancer cells upon DDR, suggesting that high expression of Cdc7 enhances the resistance to chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Virally inactivated human platelet concentrate lysate induces regulatory T cells and immunosuppressive effect in a murine asthma model.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Platelet concentrate lysates (PCLs) are increasingly used in regenerative medicine. We have developed a solvent/detergent (S/D)-treated PCL. The functional properties of this preparation should be unveiled. We hypothesized that, due to transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) content, PCLs may exert immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions.
Related JoVE Video
RNA polymerase I stability couples cellular growth to metal availability.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zinc is an essential cofactor of all major eukaryotic RNA polymerases. How the activity of these enzymes is coordinated or regulated according to cellular zinc levels is largely unknown. Here we show that the stability of RNA polymerase I (RNAPI) is tightly coupled to zinc availability in vivo. In zinc deficiency, RNAPI is specifically degraded by proteolysis in the vacuole in a pathway dependent on the export in Xpo1p and deubiquitination of the RNAPI large subunit Rpa190p by Ubp2p and Ubp4p. RNAPII is unaffected, which allows for the expression of genes required in zinc deficiency. RNAPI export to the vacuole is required for survival during zinc starvation, suggesting that degradation of zinc-binding subunits might provide a last resort zinc reservoir. These results reveal a hierarchy of cellular transcriptional activities during zinc starvation and show that degradation of the most active cellular transcriptional machinery couples cellular growth and proliferation to zinc availability.
Related JoVE Video
Notch ligand delta-like 4-pretreated dendritic cells alleviate allergic airway responses by enhancing IL-10 production.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Notch pathway plays a role in the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which affect the development and function of various organs. Dendritic cells (DCs), as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), induce T cell activation and promote T cell differentiation by antigen stimulation. Research has shown that Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4) in APCs is associated with stimulation of a Th1-type response. However, the regulatory roles of Dll4 in the activation and function of DCs have yet to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of Dll4-pretreated bone marrow-derived DCs by performing ovalbumin (OVA) stimulation expressed a high level of interleukin (IL)-10 without diminishing IL-12 production. By contrast, the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, decreased in Dll4-pretreated DCs by performing either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or OVA stimulation. Compared to fully mature DCs, lower levels of MHC class II CD40 and higher levels of CD80 and CD86 molecules were expressed in these semi-mature like DCs. Dll4 Notch signaling also enhanced Notch ligand mRNA expression of Dll1, Dll4, and Jagged1 in DCs. Dll4-modified DCs exhibited a reduced capacity to stimulate the proliferation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells, but actively promoted large amounts of IL-10 production in these activated T cells. Furthermore, immunomodulatory effects of Dll4-modified DCs were examined in an established asthmatic animal model. After adoptive transfer of OVA-pulsed plus Dll4-pretreated DCs in OVA-immunized mice, OVA challenge induced lower OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and higher IgG2a antibody production, lower eotaxin, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), IL-5, and IL-13 release in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, attenuated airway hyper-responsiveness, and promoted higher IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-? production in the spleen. In summary, our findings elucidate the new role of Dll4 in the phenotype and function of DCs and provide a novel approach for manipulating T cell-driven deleterious immune diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Aclacinomycin A sensitizes K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells to imatinib through p38MAPK-mediated erythroid differentiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Expression of oncogenic Bcr-Abl inhibits cell differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Differentiation therapy is considered to be a new strategy for treating this type of leukemia. Aclacinomycin A (ACM) is an antitumor antibiotic. Previous studies have shown that ACM induced erythroid differentiation of CML cells. In this study, we investigate the effect of ACM on the sensitivity of human CML cell line K562 to Bcr-Abl specific inhibitor imatinib (STI571, Gleevec). We first determined the optimal concentration of ACM for erythroid differentiation but not growth inhibition and apoptosis in K562 cells. Then, pretreatment with this optimal concentration of ACM followed by a minimally toxic concentration of imatinib strongly induced growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to that with simultaneous co-treatment, indicating that ACM-induced erythroid differentiation sensitizes K562 cells to imatinib. Sequential treatment with ACM and imatinib induced Bcr-Abl down-regulation, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, and caspase-3 activation, as well as decreased Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL expressions, but did not affect Fas ligand/Fas death receptor and procaspase-8 expressions. ACM/imatinib sequential treatment-induced apoptosis was suppressed by a caspase-9 inhibitor and a caspase-3 inhibitor, indicating that the caspase cascade is involved in this apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ACM induced erythroid differentiation through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The inhibition of erythroid differentiation by p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190, p38MAPK dominant negative mutant or p38MAPK shRNA knockdown, reduced the ACM/imatinib sequential treatment-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis. These results suggest that differentiated K562 cells induced by ACM-mediated p38MAPK pathway become more sensitive to imatinib and result in down-regulations of Bcr-Abl and anti-apoptotic proteins, growth inhibition and apoptosis. These results provided a potential management by which ACM might have a crucial impact on increasing sensitivity of CML cells to imatinib in the differentiation therapeutic approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Dbf4 is direct downstream target of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) protein to regulate intra-S-phase checkpoint.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dbf4/Cdc7 (Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK)) is activated at the onset of S-phase, and its kinase activity is required for DNA replication initiation from each origin. We showed that DDK is an important target for the S-phase checkpoint in mammalian cells to suppress replication initiation and to protect replication forks. We demonstrated that ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) proteins directly phosphorylate Dbf4 in response to ionizing radiation and replication stress. We identified novel ATM/ATR phosphorylation sites on Dbf4 and showed that ATM/ATR-mediated phosphorylation of Dbf4 is critical for the intra-S-phase checkpoint to inhibit DNA replication. The kinase activity of DDK, which is not suppressed upon DNA damage, is required for fork protection under replication stress. We further demonstrated that ATM/ATR-mediated phosphorylation of Dbf4 is important for preventing DNA rereplication upon loss of replication licensing through the activation of the S-phase checkpoint. These studies indicate that DDK is a direct substrate of ATM and ATR to mediate the intra-S-phase checkpoint in mammalian cells.
Related JoVE Video
Ab initio and empirical defect modeling of LaMnO(3±?) for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sr doped LaMnO(3) is a perovskite widely used for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Therefore, there is significant interest in its defect chemistry. However, due to coupling of defect reactions and inadequate constraints of the defect reaction equilibrium constants obtained from thermogravimetry analysis, large discrepancies (up to 4 eV) exist in the literature for defect energetics for Sr doped LaMnO(3). In this work we demonstrate how ab initio energetics and empirical modelling can be combined to develop a defect model for LaMnO(3). Defect formation enthalpies, including concentration dependence due to defect interactions, are extracted from ab initio energies calculated at various defect concentrations. Defect formation entropies for the defect reactions in LaMnO(3) involving O(2-)(solid) ? ½O(2)(gas) + 2e(-) are shown to be accessible through combining the gas phase thermodynamics and simple models for the solid phase vibrational contributions. This simple treatment introduces a useful constraint on fitting defect formation entropies. The predicted defect concentrations from the model show good agreement with experimental oxygen nonstoichiometry vs. P(O(2)) for a wide range of temperatures (T = 873-1473 K), suggesting the effectiveness of the ab initio defect energetics in describing the defect chemistry of LaMnO(3). Further incorporating a temperature dependent charge disproportionation energy within 0.0-0.2 eV, the model is capable of describing both defect chemistry and oxygen tracer diffusivity of LaMnO(3). The model suggests an important role for defect interactions which are typically excluded from LaMnO(3) defect models, and sensitivity of the oxygen defect concentration to the charge disproportionation energy in the high P(O(2)) region. Similar approaches to those used here can be used to model the defect chemistry for other complex oxides.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of androgen receptor and prostate cancer growth by cyclin-dependent kinase 5.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed male malignancy. The normal prostate development and prostate cancer progression are mediated by androgen receptor (AR). Recently, the roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its activator, p35, in cancer biology are explored one after another. We have previously demonstrated that Cdk5 may regulate proliferation of thyroid cancer cells. In addition, we also identify that Cdk5 overactivation can be triggered by drug treatments and leads to apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study is to investigate how Cdk5 regulates AR activation and growth of prostate cancer cells. At first, the data show that Cdk5 enables phosphorylation of AR at Ser-81 site through direct biochemical interaction and, therefore, results in the stabilization of AR proteins. The Cdk5-dependent AR stabilization causes accumulation of AR proteins and subsequent activation. Besides, the positive regulations of Cdk5-AR on cell growth are also determined in vitro and in vivo. S81A mutant of AR diminishes its interaction with Cdk5, reduces its nuclear localization, fails to stabilize its protein level, and therefore, decreases prostate cancer cell proliferation. Prostate carcinoma specimens collected from 177 AR-positive patients indicate the significant correlations between the protein levels of AR and Cdk5 or p35. These findings demonstrate that Cdk5 is an important modulator of AR and contributes to prostate cancer growth. Therefore, Cdk5-p35 may be suggested as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer in the near future.
Related JoVE Video
Association between interleukin-10 gene polymorphism -592 (A/C) and peritoneal transport in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this analysis was to know whether these three cytokine polymorphisms, including interleukin-6 (IL-6; -572 G/C), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?; -308 G/A), and IL-10 (-592 A/C) have an effect on baseline peritoneal transport property and longitudinal evolution of peritoneal function.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of NDRG1 promotes migration of cancer cells during reoxygenation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One characteristic of tumor microenvironment is oxygen fluctuation, which results from hyper-proliferation and abnormal metabolism of tumor cells as well as disorganized neo-vasculature. Reoxygenation of tumors can induce oxidative stress, which leads to DNA damage and genomic instability. Although the cellular responses to hypoxia are well known, little is known about the dynamic response upon reoxygenation. In order to investigate the transcriptional responses of tumor adaptation to reoxygenation, breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured under 0.5% oxygen for 24 h followed by 24 h of reoxygenation in normoxia. Cells were harvested at 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h during reoxygenation. The transcriptional profile of MCF-7 cells upon reoxygenation was examined using Illumina Human-6 v3 BeadChips. We identified 127 differentially expressed genes, of which 53.1% were up-regulated and 46.9% were down-regulated upon reoxygenation. Pathway analysis revealed that the HIF-1-alpha transcription factor network and validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation were significantly enriched in these differentially expressed genes. Among these genes, a subset of interest genes was further validated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. In particular, human N-MYC down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was highly suppressed upon reoxygenation. NDRG1 is associated with a variety of stress and cell growth-regulatory conditions. To determine whether NDRG1 plays a role in reoxygenation, NDRG1 protein was overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. Upon reoxygenation, overexpression of NDRG1 significantly inhibited cell migration. Our results revealed the dynamic nature of gene expression in MCF-7 cells upon reoxygenation and demonstrated that NDRG1 is involved in tumor adaptation to reoxygenation.
Related JoVE Video
Three-dimensional computed tomography for evaluation and management of children with complex chest wall anomalies: useful information or just pretty pictures?
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shaded surface display (SSD) technology, with 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction, has been reported in a few small series of patients with congenital or acquired chest wall deformities. Shaded surface display images are visually attractive and educational, but many institutions are hesitant to use these secondary to cost and image data storage concerns. This study was designed to assess the true value of SSD to the patient, family, and operating surgeon, in the evaluation and management of these children.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of modulatory effect of simvastatin on indoxyl sulfate-induced activation of cultured endothelial cells.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endothelial dysfunction is a common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The protein-bound uremic toxins have emerged as important factors associated with cardiovascular disease and the outcome of CKD. The effect of indoxyl sulfate (IS) on endothelial cells remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Amicrobial pustulosis-like rash in a patient with Crohns disease under anti-TNF-alpha blocker.
Dermatology (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (APF) is a recently described entity characterized by relapsing pustular lesions predominantly involving the cutaneous flexures and scalp. This disease typically occurs in association with systemic lupus erythematosus and a variety of other autoimmune diseases. We here describe an APF-like pustular eruption predominantly affecting the scalp, face and trunk, occurring during long-term infliximab treatment for Crohns disease. Immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsy specimens for myxovirus resistance protein A, a marker for type 1 interferon-inducible proteins, showed increased staining in the epidermis and dermal mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Our observation further extends the spectrum of cutaneous adverse reactions potentially related to anti-tumor necrosis factor-?, the clinical context in which APF can occur as well as its clinical presentations.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective respiratory gated carbon nanotube micro computed tomography.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Challenges remain in the imaging of the lungs of free-breathing mice. Although computed tomographic (CT) imaging is near optimal from a contrast perspective, the rapid respiration rate, limited temporal resolution, and inflexible x-ray pulse control of most micro-CT scanners limit their utility in pulmonary imaging. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have permitted the development of field emission cathodes, with rapid switching and precise pulse control. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of a CNT-based micro-CT system for application in quantitative pulmonary imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Competitive edge of laparoscopic appendectomy versus open appendectomy: a subgroup comparison analysis.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the advances in laparoscopic instruments and surgical techniques, the use of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has been increasing rapidly in recent years. In this retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine the competitive edge of LA versus open appendectomy (OA) in different settings of disease complexity, gender, and age difference.
Related JoVE Video
The association of diabetes mellitus with liver, colon, lung, and prostate cancer is independent of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and gout in Taiwanese patients.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies have shown an association between diabetes and cancer in Western countries; but this, as well as the influence of associated metabolic factors, must be confirmed by a prospective study in other population groups. This study aimed to investigate whether the strong association of cancer and diabetes is independent from the influence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and gout in the Taiwanese population. A total of 985,815 study subjects were identified from the National Health Insurance in 1997 and followed up from 1998 to 2009. The demographic characteristics between patients with diabetes and cancer, including age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and gout, were analyzed using the ?(2) test. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of diabetes on the risks of cancer. A total of 104,343 diabetic patients were followed up from 1998 to 2009. After adjusting for sex, age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and gout, the incidences of cancer at any site and in the liver, colon, lungs, and prostate in diabetic patients were independently higher, with risk ratios of 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.71), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.39-2.01), 1.75 (95% CI, 1.49-2.06), 1.54 (95% CI, 1.26-1.88), and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.19-2.04), respectively. Only breast cancer did not show any clinical significance. There was an increased incidence of cancer at any site in the diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic subjects. The most common cancers were liver, colon, lung, breast, and prostate cancer; and except for breast cancer, their incidences increased independently of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and gout in patients with diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice using carbon nanotube field emission x-ray.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source technology has recently been investigated for diagnostic imaging applications because of its attractive characteristics including electronic programmability, fast switching, distributed source, and multiplexing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of this technology for high-resolution prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Obtusilactone A and (-)-sesamin induce apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by inhibiting mitochondrial Lon protease and activating DNA damage checkpoints.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several compounds from Cinnamomum kotoense show anticancer activities. However, the detailed mechanisms of most compounds from C. kotoense remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of obtusilactone A (OA) and (-)-sesamin in lung cancer. Our results show that human Lon is upregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, and downregulation of Lon triggers caspase-3 mediated apoptosis. Through enzyme-based screening, we identified two small-molecule compounds, obtusilactone A (OA) and (-)-sesamin from C. kotoense, as potent Lon protease inhibitors. Obtusilactone A and (-)-sesamin interact with Ser855 and Lys898 residues in the active site of the Lon protease according to molecular docking analysis. Thus, we suggest that cancer cytotoxicity of the compounds is partly due to the inhibitory effects on Lon protease. In addition, the compounds are able to cause DNA double-strand breaks and activate checkpoints. Treatment with OA and (-)-sesamin induced p53-independent DNA damage responses in NSCLC cells, including G(1) /S checkpoint activation and apoptosis, as evidenced by phosphorylation of checkpoint proteins (H2AX, Nbs1, and Chk2), caspase-3 cleavage, and sub-G(1) accumulation. In conclusion, OA and (-)-sesamin act as both inhibitors of human mitochondrial Lon protease and DNA damage agents to activate the DNA damage checkpoints as well induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells. These dual functions open a bright avenue to develop more selective chemotherapy agents to overcome chemoresistance and sensitize cancer cells to other chemotherapeutics.
Related JoVE Video
Matching visual saliency to confidence in plots of uncertain data.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Conveying data uncertainty in visualizations is crucial for preventing viewers from drawing conclusions based on untrustworthy data points. This paper proposes a methodology for efficiently generating density plots of uncertain multivariate data sets that draws viewers to preattentively identify values of high certainty while not calling attention to uncertain values. We demonstrate how to augment scatter plots and parallel coordinates plots to incorporate statistically modeled uncertainty and show how to integrate them with existing multivariate analysis techniques, including outlier detection and interactive brushing. Computing high quality density plots can be expensive for large data sets, so we also describe a probabilistic plotting technique that summarizes the data without requiring explicit density plot computation. These techniques have been useful for identifying brain tumors in multivariate magnetic resonance spectroscopy data and we describe how to extend them to visualize ensemble data sets.
Related JoVE Video
A secure authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.
J Med Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The telecare medicine information system enables or supports health-care delivery services. In recent years, the increased availability of lower-cost telecommunications systems and custom made physiological monitoring devices for patients have made it possible to bring the advantages of telemedicine directly into the patients home. These systems are moving towards an environment where automated patient medical records and electronically interconnected telecare facilities are prevalent. A secure authentication scheme will thus be needed to safeguard data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. Many schemes based on cryptography have been proposed for the goals. However, much of the schemes are vulnerable to various attacks, and are neither efficient, nor user friendly. Specially, in terms of efficiency, some schemes need the exponential computation resulting in high time cost. Therefore, we propose a novel authentication scheme that is added the pre-computing idea within the communication process to avoid the time-consuming exponential computations. Finally, it is shown to be more secure and practical for telecare medicine environments.
Related JoVE Video
Antioxidants from the leaves of Cinnamomum kotoense.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two novel antioxidants, obtusilactone A (1) and (-)-sesamin (2) have been identified in Cinnamomum kotoense Kanehira. Both showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared with vitamin C, and reducing power compared with BHA. These results suggest that these constituents of C. kotoense act as natural antioxidants and play a potential role in cancer prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus leading to fetal loss in a pregnant Chinese woman.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a case of diabetic ketoacidosis that lead to fetal loss during week 33 of gestation in a woman who had normal glucose tolerance 11 days previously. We believe this represents a case of fulminant type 1 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: analysis of cases managed in a tertiary hospital in Singapore.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ACUTE GENERALIZED EXANTHEMATOUS PUSTULOSIS: We reviewed eight cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis managed in a tertiary hospital in Singapore.
Related JoVE Video
Biochemical characterization of an acid phosphatase from Thermus thermophilus.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recombinant putative acid phosphatase from Thermus thermophilus was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The recombinant phosphatase displayed activities in a broad range of temperature, from 40 to 90 degrees C, with optimal temperature at 70 degrees C. In addition, the recombinant enzyme had activities in a wide range of pH, from 3.6 to 9.1, with optimal pH at 6 in acetate buffer and with optimal pH at 6.5 in Hepes buffer. Furthermore, it showed significant thermal stability and still possessed 44% residual activity after 70 degrees C treatment for 15 min. Moreover, the recombinant phosphatase showed broad substrates specificities for monophosphate esters, p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) being the most preferred substrate, and it was able to resist inhibition by sodium tartrate. Additionally, the recombinant protein formed stable oligomer under partially denatured conditions and required calcium ions for enzymic activity.
Related JoVE Video
Albuminuria is the stronger risk factor for peripheral arterial disease than eGFR decline in a type 2 diabetic Taiwanese population.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies have shown the identified risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in individuals with diabetes, but relatively little information has been provided regarding the risk factors for peripheral arterial disease especially in individuals with renal insufficiency and albuminuria.
Related JoVE Video
Meisoindigo is a promising agent with in vitro and in vivo activity against human acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meisoindigo, a derivative of Indigo naturalis, has been used in China for chronic myeloid leukemia. In vitro cell line studies have shown that this agent might induce apoptosis and myeloid differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we explored its mechanisms and potential in AML. NB4, HL-60, and U937 cells and primary AML cells were used to examine its effects and the NOD/SCID animal model was used to evaluate its in vivo activity. Meisoindigo inhibited the growth of leukemic cells by inducing marked apoptosis and moderate cell-cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase. It down-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and up-regulated pro-apoptotic Bak and Bax and cell-cycle related proteins, p21and p27. Furthermore, it induced myeloid differentiation, as demonstrated by morphologic changes, up-regulation of CD11b, and increased nitroblue tetrazolium reduction activity in all cell lines tested. In addition, meisoindigo down-regulated the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase and enhanced the cytotoxicity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, cytarabine and idarubicin. As with the results from cell lines, meisoindigo also induced apoptosis, up-regulated p21 and p27, and down-regulated Bcl-2 in primary AML cells. The in vivo anti-leukemic activity of meisoindigo was also demonstrated by decreased spleen size in a dose-dependent manner. Taking these results together, meisoindigo is a potential agent for AML.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of AITS laparoscopic training center on surgeons preference for appendectomy.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute appendicitis is the most common acute abdomen in general surgery. Show-Chwan Memorial Hospital began an AITS/IRCAD laparoscopic training program in late May 2008. In this retrospective analysis, we surveyed the impact of the AITS training program on surgeons preference for open appendectomy (OA) versus laparoscopic appendectomy (LA).
Related JoVE Video
4beta-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Binding and cleavage of E. coli HUbeta by the E. coli Lon protease.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Escherichia coli Lon protease degrades the E. coli DNA-binding protein HUbeta, but not the related protein HUalpha. Here we show that the Lon protease binds to both HUbeta and HUalpha, but selectively degrades only HUbeta in the presence of ATP. Mass spectrometry of HUbeta peptide fragments revealed that region K18-G22 is the preferred cleavage site, followed in preference by L36-K37. The preferred cleavage site was further refined to A20-A21 by constructing and testing mutant proteins; Lon degraded HUbeta-A20Q and HUbeta-A20D more slowly than HUbeta. We used optical tweezers to measure the rupture force between HU proteins and Lon; HUalpha, HUbeta, and HUbeta-A20D can bind to Lon, and in the presence of ATP, the rupture force between each of these proteins and Lon became weaker. Our results support a mechanism of Lon protease cleavage of HU proteins in at least three stages: binding of Lon with the HU protein (HUbeta, HUalpha, or HUbeta-A20D); hydrolysis of ATP by Lon to provide energy to loosen the binding to the HU protein and to allow an induced-fit conformational change; and specific cleavage of only HUbeta.
Related JoVE Video
Life-threatening hemobilia caused by hepatic pseudoaneurysm after T-tube choledochostomy: report of a case.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemobilia is a rare but lethal biliary tract complication. There are several causes of hemobilia which might be classified as traumatic or nontraumatic. Hemobilia caused by pseudoaneurysm might result from hepatobiliary surgery or percutaneous interventional hepatobiliary procedures. However, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports pertaining to hemobilia caused by hepatic pseudoaneurysm after T-tube choledochostomy.
Related JoVE Video
Compressive sampling based interior reconstruction for dynamic carbon nanotube micro-CT.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the computed tomography (CT) field, one recent invention is the so-called carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray technology. On the other hand, compressive sampling (CS) based interior tomography is a new innovation. Combining the strengths of these two novel subjects, we apply the interior tomography technique to local mouse cardiac imaging using respiration and cardiac gating with a CNT based micro-CT scanner. The major features of our method are: (1) it does not need exact prior knowledge inside an ROI; and (2) two orthogonal scout projections are employed to regularize the reconstruction. Both numerical simulations and in vivo mouse studies are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of our methodology.
Related JoVE Video
Administration of polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata modulates dendritic cell function and alleviates allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses in a mouse model of asthma.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation caused by the dysregulated production of cytokines secreted by allergen-specific type 2 T helper (Th2) cells. Antrodia camphorata is a commonly used fungus in Asian folk medicine, and A. camphorata polysaccharides are reported to possess anti-cancer activities. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of purified fractionated polysaccharides (GF2) from A. camphorata on dendritic cells (DCs) and their potential preventive effects against ovalbumin (OVA) -induced asthma were investigated. In the presence of GF2, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -activated DCs exhibited up-regulated expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and co-stimulatory molecules, as well as enhanced interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 production. GF2 treatment on LPS-activated DCs suppressed naïve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and Th2 cell polarization with IL-10 production in an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. In animal experiments, a high dose of GF2 efficiently reduced expression levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgE. However, lower doses of GF2 significantly enhanced OVA-specific IgG2a production. Our data also showed that administration of GF2 dose-dependently inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway eosinophilia and Th2 responses. OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells from higher doses of GF2-treated mice had significantly lower proliferative capacities compared with control mice. Moreover, treatment with GF2 significantly increased the high levels of IL-10 and low levels of interferon-gamma produced by T cells. Taken together, these data indicate that administration of A. camphorata polysaccharides (GF2) may have therapeutic potential when used as an adjuvant for the immunomodulatory treatment of allergic asthma.
Related JoVE Video
Infectivity and development of Metagonimus yokogawai in experimentally infected domestic ducks (Cairina moschata).
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Information concerning whether fowl such as duck is a suitable reservoir host of Metagonimus yokogawai is largely unclear to date. In the present study, the growth and development of M. yokogawai metacercaria (Mc) in domestic duck (Cairina moschata) was determined by worm recovery rate (WRR) and morphological changes e.g., the size of flukes body as well as their internal organs was assessed by using Semichons acetocarmine staining. Each duck was orally inoculated with 50 Mcs of M. yokogawai and infected ducks were deeply anesthetized with ether and killed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 14 days post-infection (DPI). On each date, two infected ducks were killed and the small intestines of each duck were separated into four parts then they were opened longitudinally to harvest the flukes. Results revealed that WRR of M. yokogawai from inoculated ducks increased during early infection with a peak as seen at 4 DPI (28.5+/-6.9%); thereafter it gradually decreased and a drastic decline was observed in 14 DPI (2.0+/-1.1%) in the trial. The preference sites for M. yokogawai were low portions of the small intestine; nevertheless the size of flukes body and organs developed increasingly with time and they maturated to produce ova from 4 DPI onward in the trial. However, present results indicated that ducks, based on the findings of this study, are not suitable hosts for establishment of M. yokogawai infection because most flukes were expelled from ducks intestine within 14 days. Nevertheless, it was proposed that ducks might play a certain role in transmitting M. yokogawai when they deposited the ova via feces into marsh where snails and fish were abundant since they could presumably establish transient and possibly patent infections with this parasite.
Related JoVE Video
Suppression of myostatin with vector-based RNA interference causes a double-muscle effect in transgenic zebrafish.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myostatin belongs to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. We utilized microinjection of an antisense RNA-expressing vector to establish a hereditarily stable myostatin gene knockdown zebrafish strain with a double-muscle phenotype. Real-time PCR and immunostaining revealed that the myostatin messenger (m)RNA and protein levels in homozygous transgenic zebrafish were 33% and 26% those of the non-transgenic controls, respectively. Also, the mRNA levels of myogenic regulatory factor markers such as MyoD, myogenin, Mrf4, and Myf5 were dramatically elevated in myostatin-suppressed transgenic fish compared to the non-transgenic controls. Although there was no significant difference in body length, homozygous transgenic zebrafish were 45% heavier than non-transgenic controls. Histochemical analysis showed that the cross-sectional area of the muscle fiber of homozygous transgenic fish was twice as large as that of non-transgenic controls. This is the first model zebrafish with a hereditarily stable myostatin-suppressed genotype and a double-muscle phenotype.
Related JoVE Video
DNA-binding specificity of the Lon protease alpha-domain from Brevibacillus thermoruber WR-249.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lon protease has been well studied in many aspects; however, the DNA-binding specificity of Lon in prokaryotes has not been clearly identified. Here we examined the DNA-binding activity of Lon protease alpha-domains from Brevibacillus thermoruber (Bt), Bacillus subtilis (Bs), and Escherichia coli (Ec). MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy showed that the alpha-domain from Bt-Lon binds to the duplex nucleotide sequence 5-CTGTTAGCGGGC-3 (ms1) and protected it from DNase I digestion. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the Bt-Lon alpha-domain binds with ms1 double-stranded DNA tighter than Bs- and Ec-Lon alpha-domains, whereas the Bt-Lon alpha-domain has dramatically lower affinity for double-stranded DNA with 0 and 50% identity to the ms1 binding sequence. Our results indicated that Bt-Lon alpha-domain plays a critical role with ms1 sequence in the DNA-binding specificity.
Related JoVE Video
Vertical skeletal and facial profile changes after surgical correction of mandibular prognathism.
Chang Gung Med J
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mandibular prognathism is often corrected by surgical orthodontics. Correction of the sagittal facial profile has received wide attention. However, vertical changes remained undefined and thus, were investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Using instant messaging to enhance the interpersonal relationships of Taiwanese adolescents: evidence from quantile regression analysis.
Adolescence
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Even though use of the internet by adolescents has grown exponentially, little is known about the correlation between their interaction via Instant Messaging (IM) and the evolution of their interpersonal relationships in real life. In the present study, 369 junior high school students in Taiwan responded to questions regarding their IM usage and their dispositional measures of real-life interpersonal relationships. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and quantile regression methods were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that (1) IM helps define adolescents self-identity (forming and maintaining individual friendships) and social-identity (belonging to a peer group), and (2) how development of an interpersonal relationship is impacted by the use of IM since it appears that adolescents use IM to improve their interpersonal relationships in real life.
Related JoVE Video
Taiwanese native plants inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity after ultraviolet B irradiation.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medicinal plants have long been used as a source of therapeutic agents. They are thought to be important anti-aging ingredients in prophylactic medicines. The aim of this study was to screen extracts from Taiwanese plant materials for phenolic contents and measure the corresponding matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. We extracted biological ingredients from eight plants native to Taiwan (Alnus formosana, Diospyros discolor, Eriobotrya deflex, Machilus japonica, Pyrrosia polydactylis, Pyrus taiwanensis, Vitis adstricta, Vitis thunbergii). Total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. MMP-9 activities were measured by gelatin zymography. The extracted yields of plants ranged from 3.7 % to 16.9 %. The total phenolic contents ranged from 25.4 to 36.8 mg GAE/g dry material. All of these extracts (except Vitis adstricta Hance) were shown to inhibit MMP-9 activity of WS-1 cell after ultraviolet B irradiation. These findings suggest that total phenolic content may influence MMP-9 activity and that some of the plants with higher phenolic content exhibited various biological activities that could serve as potent inhibitors of the ageing process in the skin. This property might be useful in the production of cosmetics.
Related JoVE Video
L-band automatic-gain-controlled erbium-doped fiber amplifier utilizing C-band backward-amplified spontaneous emission and electrical feedback monitor.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new L-band automatic-gain-controlled (AGC) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing transmission systems is presented, in which a single 1480 nm laser with an internal thermoelectric cooler is used as a primary pump for stable amplification. All C-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is recycled by the secondary pump to enhance the gain efficiency. A fraction of the output signal is used as an electrical feedback monitor for the AGC to improve the gain-clamped (GC) flatness. Experimental results prove that the AGC EDFA has a gain flatness of better than 0.46 dB/40 nm, i.e., below 1.5%, and a higher gain of approximately 36.5 dB compared to that of approximately 35.3 dB for the conventional GC EDFA at -30 dBm input signal power. The best gain flatness of +/-0.25 dB can be achieved over the dynamic range greater than 20 dB. The dynamic range of noise figure is between 6.7 and 7.1. The 3 dB down bandwidth is more than 40 nm. Overall dynamics measurements for the AGC EDFA feedback stabilization have been carried out. The recorded corresponding rise time of 1.565 ms indicates that the system does not exhibit any overshoot of gain or ASE variation due to the signal at the beginning of the pulse.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 levels by ticlopidine in TNF-alpha stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atherosclerosis and its associated complications represent major causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized or Western countries. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is critical for the initiating and developing of atherosclerotic lesions. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a CXC chemokine, stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis. Ticlopidine is one of the antiplatelet drugs used to prevent thrombus formation relevant to the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis. In this study, we found that ticlopidine dose-dependently decreased the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-alpha-stimulated MCP-1, IL-8, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ticlopidine declined U937 cells adhesion and chemotaxis as compared to TNF-alpha stimulated alone. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects were neither due to decreased HUVEC viability, nor through NF-kB inhibition. These results suggest that ticlopidine decreased TNF-alpha induced MCP-1, IL-8, and VCAM-1 levels in HUVECs, and monocyte adhesion. Therefore, the data provide additional therapeutic machinery of ticlopidine in treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of ethanol on the release of growth factors in human blood-derived platelet gels.
Biologicals
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Platelet gels (PG) are new topical single-donor blood products which are attracting great interest in regenerative medicine. They are obtained by mixing a platelet-rich plasma fraction with thrombin to generate a fibrin gel enriched in platelet growth factors (GF). The type of thrombin preparation may affect PG reproducibility. We have determined the impact of 14.6% (v/v) ethanol-stabilized thrombin (EHT) on the release of GF by platelets. Various ratios of EHT and platelet concentrates were mixed to obtain from 2.43 to 7.96% ethanol concentration. Platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at 5, 120, and 300 min after PG formation. Protein profiles of thrombin and PG releasates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The amount of PDGF-AB, TGF-beta1, and VEGF released per platelet decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing ethanol concentrations but, however, not that of EGF. IGF-1 content was stable, consistent with its presence mostly in plasma. SDS-PAGE indicated that ethanol did not affect fibrin formation. In conclusion, ethanol has a significant impact on the amount of GF released by platelets and should be strictly controlled to standardize PG and optimize clinical benefits.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.