Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.
Cellular genetic materials, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), mRNAs and proteins, are packaged inside exosomes, small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular environment. These cellular genetic materials can be delivered into recipient cells, where they exert their respective biological effects. However, the miRNA profiles and biological functions of exosomes secreted by cancer cells remain unknown. The present study explored the miRNA expression profile and distribution characteristics of exosomes derived from human esophageal cancer cells through Solexa high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that 56,421 (2.94%) unique sequences in cells and 7727 (0.63%) in exosomes matched known miRNAs. A total of 342 and 48 known miRNAs were identified in cells and exosomes, respectively. Moreover, 64 and 32 novel miRNAs were predicted in cells and exosomes, respectively. Significant differences in miRNA expression profiles were found between human esophageal cancer cells and exosomes. These findings provided new insights into the characteristics of miRNAs in exosomes derived from human esophageal cancer cells and the specific roles of miRNAs in intercellular communication mediated by exosomes in esophageal cancer.
Previous studies have shown that formaldehyde (FA) could cause immunotoxicity by changing the number of T lymphocytes and that cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of T lymphocytes. However, the previously used cytokine detection methods are difficult to use in the measurement of several cytokines in a small amount of sample for one test. Therefore, the cytometric bead array (CBA) technique was used. CBA showed better analytical efficiency and sensitivity than the previous methods. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the control (normal saline), low FA concentration (0.5 mg/kg), and high FA concentration (2 mg/kg) for 1 week or 1 month. The contents of cytokines, including Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-?, and tumor necrosis factor), Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17A), were measured by using the BD FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer and analyzed by FCAP ArrayTM Software. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines showed a slightly decreasing trend after low FA exposure. Conversely, a significantly increasing trend was found after high FA exposure. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines all serve important functions in the immune reactions in mice after FA exposure.
This study aimed to observe the effect of intracerebrally injected nano-MnO2 on neurobehavior and the functions of dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. Nano-MnO2, 6-OHDA, and saline (control) were injected in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rat brains. The neurobehavior of rats was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in rat brain were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the escape latencies of nano-MnO2 treated rat increased significantly compared with control. The number of TH-positive cells decreased, GFAP- and iNOS-positive cells increased significantly in the lesion side of the rat brains compared with the contralateral area in nano-MnO2 group. The same tendencies were observed in nano-MnO2-injected rat brains compared with control. However, in the the positive control, 6-OHDA group, escape latencies increased, TH-positive cell number decreased significantly compared with nano-MnO2 group. The alteration of spatial learning abilities of rats induced by nano-MnO2 may be associated with dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and astrocyte activation.
DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological events and is associated with various diseases. Most traditional methods for detection of DNA methylation are based on the complex and expensive bisulfite method. In this paper, we report a novel fluorescence method to detect DNA and DNA methylation based on graphene oxide (GO) and restriction endonuclease HpaII. The skillfully designed probe DNA labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and optimized GO concentration keep the probe/target DNA still adsorbed on the GO. After the cleavage action of HpaII the labeled FAM is released from the GO surface and its fluorescence recovers, which could be used to detect DNA in the linear range of 50 pM-50 nM with a detection limit of 43 pM. DNA methylation induced by transmethylase (Mtase) or other chemical reagents prevents HpaII from recognizing and cleaving the specific site; as a result, fluorescence cannot recover. The fluorescence recovery efficiency is closely related to the DNA methylation level, which can be used to detect DNA methylation by comparing it with the fluorescence in the presence of intact target DNA. The method for detection of DNA and DNA methylation is simple, reliable and accurate.
In the present study, a well-defined glucose and guanidine based copolymer, galactosylated 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide-s-3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide (HPMA-s-GPMA) abbreviated as GGH was prepared and self-assembled with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in vitro to develop a shRNA carrier.
Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous compound used in a wide variety of industries, and is also a major indoor pollutant emitted from building materials, furniture, etc. Because FA is rapidly metabolized and endogenous to many materials, specific biomarkers for exposure have not been identified. In this study, we identified small metabolite biomarkers in urine that might be related FA exposure. Mice were allowed to inhale FA (0, 4, 8 mg/m3) 6 h per day for 7 consecutive days, and urine samples were collected on the 7th day of exposure. Liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine alterations of endogenous metabolites in urine. Additionally, immune toxicity studies were conducted to ensure that any resultant toxic effects could be attributed to inhalation of FA. The results showed a significant decrease in the relative rates of T lymphocyte production in the spleen and thymus of mice exposed to FA. Additionally, decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased reactive oxygen species levels were found in the isolated spleen cells of exposed mice. A total of 12 small molecules were found to be altered in the urine, and PCA analysis showed that urine from the control and FA exposed groups could be distinguished from each other based on the altered molecules. Hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine were identified in urine using exact mass and fragment ions. Our results suggest that the pattern of metabolites found in urine is significantly changed following FA inhalation, and hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine might represent potential biomarker candidates for FA exposure.
A reversible and regenerable electrochemical biosensor is fabricated for quantitative detection of antibody based on "triplex-stem" molecular switches. A hairpin-shaped oligonucleotide (hairpin DNA) labeled with ferrocene (Fc) at the 3'-end is fixed on the gold electrode serving as a signal transduction probe. Its hairpin structure leads Fc close to the surface of gold electrode and produces a strong current signal (on-state). A single-strand oligonucleotide modified with two digoxin molecules on the two arm segments (capture DNA) interact with hairpin DNA with the help of Ag(+) ions. The "triplex-stem" DNA forms, which separates Fc from the electrode and reduces the electrochemical signal (off-state). Binding of digoxin antibody to digoxin releases capture DNA from the hairpin DNA, creating an effective "off-on" current signal switch. The stability of the "triplex-stem" structure of hairpin/capture DNA is critical to the signal switch and the sensitivity of the method, which can be adjusted conveniently and efficiently by changing Ag(+) concentrations. Based on the "off-on" current signal switch, this biosensor is used to detect digoxin antibody sensitively in blood serum. The linear range is 1.0-500 pg with a correlation coefficient of 0.996, and the detection limit is 0.4 pg. Also, this biosensor shows excellent reversibility and reproducibility, which are significant requirements for practical biosensor applications.
Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial compounds or byproducts that can cause toxic effects after binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). But the mechanism about PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs binding to AhR is unclear. To study the interaction and significant amino acid residues in binding of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs to AhR, a docking-based Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) was performed on a set of structurally diverse PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs with known binding affinities. The docking-based CoMSIA model (non-cross-validated regression coefficient of 0.942 and cross-validated regression coefficient of 0.768) was developed and compared with previous report, the presented docking-based CoMSIA model showed good robustness and predictive performance. The obtained docking conformations and predictive CoMSIA model could provide clues to understand key residues and interactions between receptor and compounds of interest.
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a widely studied toxic peptide secreted by certain water blooms of cyanobacteria that exhibit hepatotoxicity and neural toxicity. This study aimed to observe the neurotoxic effects of low-dose MC-LR exposure by oral administration. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered orally every 2 days for 8 weeks with pure water and 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 ?g/kg MC-LR. The Morris water maze test was used to assess the spatial learning and memory capability of rats. The activation of astrocytes and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in rat hippocampus were analyzed. Slight liver dysfunction was observed in the 5.0 ?g/kg MC-LR-treated rats. Impairment of spatial learning and memory was also observed in the 5.0 ?g/kg MC-LR-treated rats. Astrocytes in the hippocampus of the 5.0 ?g/kg MC-LR-treated rats showed enhanced activation and cell density; the inflammatory indicators, NOS and NO, increased in accordance with astrocyte activation. This study showed that oral exposure of MC-LR had adverse affects on neurobehaviors, and induced inflammation in memory-related brain regions.
Brominated organic compounds are known as disinfection byproducts. Very recently, however, even natural brominated organic compounds (analyzed as adsorbable organic bromine; AOBr) have been found in decaying freshwater cyanobacteria blooms. Among the identified compounds was dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), which has proven to be neurotoxic at rather high concentrations in mammalian assays. Currently it is open how single compounds as well as complex mixtures impact organisms at environmentally realistic concentrations. Furthermore, it is also unclear how natural organic matter, mainly humic substances (HS), which are present in all freshwater systems, modulates the toxic impact of AOBr. Therefore, two AOBr compounds (DBAA and tetrabromobisphenol-A; TBBP-A) and AOBr-containing water samples were tested using a Caenorhabditis elegans neurotoxicity assay that measured autonomic and sensory functions. TBBP-A had an impact on three response variables of C. elegans and can be classified neurotoxic. In contrast to our expectations, DBAA led to neurostimulation of two autonomic functions, but had a temporary impact on the defecation interval. All surface water samples contained measurable amounts of AOBr. Exposure of C. elegans to concentrated water samples - one in particular - increased three of the four locomotion traits and left defecation activity and both sensory variables unchanged. This stimulation might be due to unidentified compounds in the samples or to a hormetic effect of the AOBr compounds. Thermotactic behavior was characterized by a temporary preference for the colder environment, indicating a temporary mild neurotoxicity. Overall, the set of relative simple phenotypic tests used in the current study revealed a meaningful neurotoxic or neurostimulative profile in response to chemical compounds or natural samples. Furthermore, it shows that the resulting response to natural AOBr compounds at environmentally realistic concentrations was not necessarily adverse, but instead, that the mixtures of natural AOBr were neurostimulatory.
The potential immune effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO?) are raising concern. Our previous study verified that nano-TiO? induce local immune response in lung tissue followed by intratracheal instillation administration. In this study, we aim to evaluate the systemic immune effects of nano-TiO?. Sprague Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation with nano-TiO? at doses of 0.5, 4, and 32 mg/kg body weight, micro-TiO? with 32 mg/kg body weight and 0.9% NaCl, respectively. The exposure was conducted twice a week, for four consecutive weeks. Histopathological immune organs from exposed animals showed slight congestion in spleen, generally brown particulate deposition in cervical and axillary lymph node. Furthermore, immune function response was characterized by increased proliferation of T cells and B cells following mitogen stimulation and enhanced natural killer (NK) cell killing activity in spleen, accompanying by increased number of B cells in blood. No significant changes of Th1-type cytokines (IL-2 and INF-?) and Th2-type cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) were observed. Intratracheal exposure to nano-TiO? may be one of triggers to be responsible for the systemic immune response. Further study is needed to confirm long-lasting lymphocyte responses and the potential mechanisms.
In fresh waters cyanobacterial blooms can produce a variety of toxins, such as microcystin variants (MCs) and anatoxin-a (ANA). ANA is a well-known neurotoxin, whereas MCs are hepatotoxic and, to a lesser degree, also neurotoxic. Neurotoxicity applies especially to invertebrates lacking livers. Current standardized neurotoxicity screening methods use rats or mice. However, in order to minimize vertebrate animal experiments as well as experimental time and effort, many investigators have proposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an appropriate invertebrate model. Therefore, four known neurotoxic compounds (positive compounds: chlorpyrifos, abamectin, atropine, and acrylamide) were chosen to verify the expected impacts on autonomic (locomotion, feeding, defecation) and sensory (thermal, chemical, and mechanical sensory perception) functions in C. elegans. This study is another step towards successfully establishing C. elegans as an alternative neurotoxicity model. By using this protocol, anatoxin-a adversely affected locomotive behavior and pharyngeal pumping frequency and, most strongly, chemotactic and thermotactic behavior, whereas MC-LR impacted locomotion, pumping, and mechanical behavior, but not chemical sensory behavior. Environmental samples can also be screened in this simple and fast way for neurotoxic characteristics. The filtrate of a Microcystis aeruginosa culture, known for its hepatotoxicity, also displayed mild neurotoxicity (modulated short-term thermotaxis). These results show the suitability of this assay for environmental cyanotoxin-containing samples.
A technique for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides has been developed using a suspension array based on silica-hydrogel hybrid microbeads (SHHMs). The main advantage of SHHMs, which consist of both silica and hydrogel materials, is that they not only could be distinguished by their characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of the photonic crystal but also have low non-specific adsorption of proteins. Using fluorescent immunoassay, the LODs for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion, carbaryl and metolcarb were measured to be 0.02ng/mL, 0.012ng/mL, 0.04ng/mL, 0.05ng/mL and 0.1ng/mL, respectively, all of which are much lower than the maximum residue limits, as reported in the European Union pesticides database. All the determination coefficients for these five pesticides were greater than 0.99, demonstrating excellent correlations. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The results for the detection of pesticide residues collected from agricultural samples using this method agree well with those from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that this simple method is suitable for simultaneous detection of these five pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables.
Benzene is identified as a carcinogen. Continued exposure of benzene may eventually lead to damage to the bone marrow, accompanied by pancytopenia, aplastic anemia or leukemia. This paper explores the variations of endogenous metabolites to provide possible clues for the molecular mechanism of benzene-induced hematotoxicity. Liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to investigate the variation of endogenous metabolites in bone marrow cells and plasma of male C3H/He mice. The mice were injected subcutaneously with benzene (0, 300, 600 mg/day) once daily for seven days. The body weights, relative organ weights, blood parameters and bone marrow smears were also analyzed. The results indicated that benzene caused disturbances in the metabolism of oxidation of fatty acids and essential amino acids (lysine, phenylalanine and tyrosine) in bone marrow cells. Moreover, fatty acid oxidation was also disturbed in plasma and thus might be a common disturbed metabolic pathway induced by benzene in multiple organs. This study aims to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in benzene hematotoxicity, especially in bone marrow cells.
In this report, galactosylated poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-st-3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide copolymers (galactosylated PEGMA-st-GPMA, GGP) are developed as siRNA carriers to inhibit Survivin mRNA expression. GGPs are combined with Survivin siRNAs to form siRNA/GGP polyplexes. The polyplexes particles were examined by a dynamic light scattering. It showed that GGP copolymers could condense siRNA to form particles with diameter from 128 to 423?nm and zeta potential value in the range from +2.4 to +14.9?mV at various charge ratios (N/P). The MTT assay data of siRNA/GGP polyplexes on human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) and human cervix epithelial carcinoma cells (HeLa) indicated that GGP copolymer had better cell viabilities than polyethyleimine (PEI). The transfection of siRNA/GGP polyplexes was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in HepG2 cell line. We found that the siRNA/GGP polyplexes could effectively silence Survivin mRNA expression in the serum-free media (p?0.01). In the presence of 10% serum medium, the Survivin mRNA expressed has significant difference between siRNA/GGP polyplexes and blank (p?0.05). The galactose competition assay showed that galactosylated PEGMA-st-GPMA (GGP) may provide the targeting to HepG2 cells mediating by asialoglycoproteins receptors (ASGP-R). Furthermore, Survivin siRNA/GGP polyplexes could significantly (p?0.01) inhibit both HepG2 tumor growth and Survivin protein expression in vivo studies in a xenograft mouse model.
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) produced by harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) pose substantial threats to the ecosystem and public health due to their potential hepatotoxicity. Degradation of microcystins (MCs) by indigenous bacteria represents a promising method for removing MCs from fresh water without harming the aquatic environment, but only a few microcystin (MC)-degrading bacteria have been isolated and had their mechanisms reported. This study aimed to isolate indigenous bacteria from Lake Taihu, and investigate the capability and mechanism of MC degradation by these bacteria. During a Microcystis bloom, an indigenous MC-degrading bacterium designated MC-LTH2 was successfully isolated from Lake Taihu, and identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila based on phylogenetic analysis. In the presence of MC-LR together with MC-RR, the strain MC-LTH2 was capable of totally degrading both simultaneously in 8 days, at rates of 3.0 mg/(L?d) and 5.6 mg/(L?d), respectively. The degradation rates of MCs were dependent on temperature, pH, and initial MC concentration. Adda (3-amino-9-methoxy-2, 6, 8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4, 6-dienoic acid) was detected as an intermediate degradation product of MCs using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila capable of degrading two MC analogues and other compounds containing Adda residue completely under various conditions, although the mlrA gene in the strain was not detected. These results indicate the Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain MC-LTH2 possesses a significant potential to be used in bioremediation of water bodies contaminated by MC-LR and MC-RR, and is potentially involved in the degradation of MCs during the disappearance of the HCBs in Lake Taihu.
This study aims to bioconjugate anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody on the surface of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and to optimize the activated conditions of bioconjugation. Anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody bioconjugated carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles were performed through a coupling strategy of EDC and sulfo-NHS. The procedure was comprised of two steps by activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal antibody. The optimal activated parameters of bioconjugation were evaluated by single factor design and orthogonal array design. SDS-PAGE analysis and Bradford assay was used for testing and verifying the efficiency of activated conditions obtained from orthogonal array. The results show that pH value, temperature and reaction time were important factors that influence bioconjugated efficiency. The activated parameters with pH value 6.2, temperature 25 degrees C and reaction time 30 min were obviously optimal for activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal EMMPEIN antibody. This coupling strategy for anti-EMMPRIN mAb bioconjugated on SPIO nanoparticles was efficient, and may be further applied in the fields of medical or biological practices.
This study aimed to isolate and characterize an indigenous algicidal bacterium named LTH-1 and its algae-lysing compounds active against three Microcystis aeruginosa strains (toxic TH1, nontoxic TH2 and standard FACHB 905). The LTH-1 isolated from Lake Taihu, near Wuxi City in China, was identified as Aeromonas sp. based on its morphological characteristic features and phylogenetic analysis by sequencing of 16S rDNA. Extracellular compounds produced by LTH-1 showed strong algaelysing activity, and they were water-soluble and heat-tolerant, with a molecular mass lower than 2 kDa. Two algae-lysing compounds were isolated and purified from extracellular filtrate using silica gel column chromatography. One of these was identified as phenylalanine (C9H11NO2, m/z 166.0862) and the other (C8H16N2O3, m/z 189.1232) was unidentified by hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-IT-TOF) system. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of phenylalanine produced by LTH-1 against FACHB 905 was 68.2 +/- 8.2 microg mL(-1) in 48h. These results suggest that the algicidal Aeromonas sp. LTH-1 could play a role in controlling Microcystis blooms, and its extracellular compounds are also potentially useful for regulating blooms of the harmful M. aeruginosa.
In this report, a series of well-defined glucose- and guanidine-based cationic copolymers as gene carriers were developed to inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression. First of all, guandinylated 3-gluconamidopropyl methacrylamide-s-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide copolymers (guanidinylated GAPMA-s-APMA, abbreviated as GGA) were prepared via aqueous reversible addition--fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT). Then, three target hTERT siRNA TERT-1, TERT-2 and TERT-3 were designed and combined with GGA copolymers to form siRNA/GGA polyplexes. The polyplexes were examined by dynamic light scattering and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that GGA copolymers can condense siRNA effectively to form particles with the diameter from 157?nm to 411?nm and zeta potential values in the range from +3.7 to +15.8?mV at various charge ratios (N/P). The MTT assay data of siRNA/GGA polyplexes on human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) indicated that GGA copolymer had better cell viabilities than polyethylenimine (PEI). Furthermore, the transfection of siRNA/GGA polyplexes was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in HepG2. It was found that siRNA/GGA polyplexes could effectively silence hTERT mRNA expression in serum-free media (p<0.01). In the presence of serum, the hTERT mRNA expression in HepG2 cells have significant difference (p<0.01) between siRNA/GGA3 polyplexes and blank. The results showed that the GAPMA component can reduce the aggregation of protein in serum media. Therefore, the enhancement of transfection may be attributed to the combination of guadino groups and glucose component. And, the guandinylated 3-gluconamidopropyl methacrylamide-s-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide copolymers might be promise in gene delivery.
To determine the relevance of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2), and human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) in TP53 mutations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we employed methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technology and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze promoter hypermethylation of MGMT, hMSH2, and hMLH1, respectively, in 51 paired tumors and their adjacent normal tissues. The protein expression of the three proteins was also evaluated by Western blot analysis, and the PCR products of TP53, from exon 5 to exon 8, were directly sequenced to measure the mutation spectrum. Esophageal tumor tissues embraced statistically higher MGMT and hMSH2 promoter methylation level than normal tissue. The promoter methylation status of MGMT and hMSH2 corresponds positively with the protein expression level of MGMT and hMSH2. However, such relevance was not found for hMLH1. Furthermore, TP53 mutation status was well associated with MGMT and hMSH2 promoter methylation status, indicating that silencing of the two genes could lead to TP53 mutation in ESCC.
DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag(+)-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science.
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) are the two most common microcystins (MCs) present in fresh water posing a direct threat to public health because of their hepatotoxicity. A novel MC-degrading bacterium designated MC-LTH1 capable of degrading MC-LR and -RR was isolated, and the degradation rates and mechanisms of MC-LR and -RR for this bacterium were investigated. The bacterium was identified as Bordetella sp. and shown to possess a homologous mlrA gene responsible for degrading MCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mlrA gene detection in Bordetella species. MC-LR and -RR were completely degraded separately at rates of 0.31 mg/(L h) and 0.17 mg/(L h). However, the degradation rates of MC-LR and -RR decreased surprisingly to 0.27 mg/(L h) and 0.12 mg/(L h), respectively, when both of them were simultaneously present. Degradation products were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Adda (m/z 332.2215, C20H29NO3) commonly known as a final product of MC degradation by isolated bacteria was detected as an intermediate in this study. Linearized MC-LR (m/z 1013.5638, C49H76N10O13), linearized MC-RR (m/z 1056.4970, C49H77N13O13), and tetrapeptide (m/z 615.3394, C32H46N4O8) were also detected as intermediates. These results indicate that the bacterial strain MC-LTH1 is quite efficient for the detoxification of MC-LR and MC-RR, and possesses significant bioremediation potential.
Detection of DNA damage is significant for the evaluation of genotoxicity of new chemicals in the early stages of its development. An electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was fabricated to detect specific sequences of DNA by using CdTe@SiO2 as nanoprobes for signal amplification. This DNA biosensor was constructed by self-assembly of an aminated capture DNA on the glass carbon electrode. DNA detection was realized by outputting a remarkable ECL signal of the CdTe@SiO2 labeled probe DNA. When the target DNA was introduced into the system, it was complementary to the probe DNA at the one-half-segment and complementary to the capture DNA at the other half-segment, resulting in the formation of a stable duplex complex. As a result, the CdTe@SiO2 labeled probe was proximate to the electrode surface and the ECL was observed. This DNA biosensor was proved to have a low detection limit (0.03 nM) and a wide dynamic range (from 0.1 nM to 2 ?M). Most importantly, the sensing system could differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was successfully applied to study the damage to DNA caused by several genotoxicity chemicals, which was rapid, simple, reliable and sensitive compared to the classical biological methods.
A novel sensor for the rapid and label-free detection of imidacloprid was developed based on the combination of a colloidal crystal templating method and a molecular imprinting technique. The molecular imprinted photonic hydrogel film was prepared with methacrylic acid as monomers, ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate as cross-linkers and imidacloprid as imprinting template molecules. When the colloidal crystal template and the molecularly imprinted template was removed, the resulted MIPH film possessed a highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous structure with nanocavities. The response of the MIPH film to imidacloprid in aqueous solution can be detected through a readable Bragg diffraction red shift. When the concentration of imidacloprid increased from 10(-13) to 10(-7) g/mL, the Bragg diffraction peak shifted from 551 to 589 nm, while there were no obvious peak shifts for thiamethoxam and acetamiprid. This sensor which comprises of no label techniques and expensive instruments has potential application for the detection of trace imidacloprid.
Epidemiological studies indicated that esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still one of the most common causes of cancer incidence in the world. Searching for valuable markers including circulating endogenous metabolites associated with the risk of esophageal cancer, is extremely important A comparative metabolomics study was performed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze 53 pairs of plasma samples from ESCC patients and healthy controls recruited in Huaian, China. The result identified a metabolomic profiling of plasma including 25 upregulated metabolites and five downregulated metabolites, for early diagnosis of ESCC. With a database-based verification protocol, 11 molecules were identified, and six upregulated molecules of interest in ESCC were found to belong to phospholipids as follows: phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and sphinganine 1-phosphate. Clinical estimation of metabolic biomarkers through hierarchical cluster analysis in plasma samples from 17 ESCC patients and 29 healthy volunteers indicated that the present metabolite profile could distinguish ESCC patients from healthy individuals. The cluster of aberrant expression of these metabolites in ESCC indicates the critical role of phospholipid metabolism in the oncogenesis of ESCC and suggests its potential ability to assess the risk of ESCC development in addition to currently used risk factors.
A rapid sandwiched immunoassay of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in water is proposed with flow injection chemiluminescence detection. The magnetic beads (MBs) were first modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) by acylamide bond between the carboxyl group on the surface of MBs and the primary amine group in PEI, followed by immobilizing of anti-MC-LR (Ab1) onto PEI with glutaraldehyde as linkage. The resulting Ab1 modified MBs captured the target MC-LR in water, reacted with the horseradish peroxidase and anti-MC-LR co-immobilized silica nanoparticles, and were detected with flow injection chemiluminescence. When using PEI/MBs as the carrier of anti-MC-LR, the CL signal was greatly enhanced up to 9-fold compared to that using MBs without PEI modification. The CL signal was further amplified 13-fold when Si/Ab2 was used as the signal probe. Under the optimal conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a wide quantitative range from 0.02 to 200 ?g L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.006 ?g L(-1), which was much lower than the WHO provisional guideline limit of 1.0 ?g L(-1) for MC-LR in drinking water. The relative standard deviation was 4.8% and the recoveries for the spiked samples ranged from 84% to 115%, which indicated acceptable precision and accuracy for MC-LR. The present method is easier to perform and less time-consuming (the entire analysis process lasted about 40 minutes) and has been applied to the detection of MC-LR in different water samples successfully.
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause toxic effects after binding to an intracellular cytosolic receptor called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thymic atrophy, weight loss, immunotoxicity, acute lethality, and induction of cytochrome P4501A1 have all been correlated with the binding affinity to AhR. To study the key molecular features for determining binding affinity to AhR, a homology model of AhR ligand-binding domains was developed, a molecular docking approach was employed to obtain docking-based conformations of all molecules in the whole set, and 3-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methodology, namely, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), was applied. A partial least square analysis was performed, and QSAR models were generated for a training set of 59 compounds. The generated QSAR model showed good internal and external statistical reliability, and in a comparison with other reported CoMFA models using different alignment methods, the docking-based CoMFA model showed some advantages.
Recent studies have demonstrated the possible function of miR-139-5p in tumorigenesis. However, the exact mechanism of miR-139-5p in cancer remains unclear. In this study, the association of miR-139-5p expression with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was evaluated in 106 pairs of esophageal cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissue from ESCC patients. The tumor suppressive features of miR-139-5p were measured by evaluating cell proliferation and cell cycle state, migratory activity and invasion capability, as well as apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the target gene regulated by miR-139-5p. The mRNA level of NR5A2, the target gene of miR-139-5p, was determined in ESCC patients. Results showed that reduced miR-139-5p level was associated with lymph node metastases of ESCC. MiR-139-5p was investigated to induce cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and to suppress the invasive capability of esophageal carcinoma cells by targeting the 3UTR of oncogenic NR5A2. Cyclin E1 and MMP9 were confirmed to participate in cell cycle arrest and invasive suppression induced by NR5A2, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis further confirmed the significantly negative correlation between miR-139-5p and NR5A2 expression. The results suggest that miR-139-5p exerts a growth- and invasiveness-suppressing function in human ESCCs, which demonstrates that miR-139-5p is a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis and is a therapeutic target for ESCC.
A technique was developed for simultaneous detection of fenitrothion (FNT) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLT) using a photonic suspension array based on silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs). The SCCBs were encoded with the characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of colloidal crystal. This approach avoids the bleaching, fading or potential interference seen when encoding by fluorescence. SCCBs with a nanopatterned surface had increased biomolecule binding capacity and improved stability. Under optimal conditions, the proposed suspension array allowed simultaneous detection of the selected pesticides in the ranges of 0.25 to 1024 ng/mL and 0.40 to 735.37 ng/mL, with the limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25 and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The mean recoveries in tests in which samples were spiked with target standards were 82.35% to 109.90% with a standard deviation within 9.93% for CLT and 81.64% to 108.10% with a standard deviation within 8.82% for FNT. The proposed method shows a potentially powerful capability for fast quantitative analysis of pesticide residues.
The abnormal function of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is reported to be associated with the occurrence of various tumors and malignant tumor progression. However, little evidence is available to describe its role in esophageal carcinogenesis. To address this issue, we constructed a stable MGMT-silenced esophageal cancer cell line by RNA interference, and exposed the cells to N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to investigate the role that MGMT plays in toxicity. During this time, we also observed the malignant behavior of cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to detect and confirm the proteins that were differentially expressed in the MGMT-deficient and MGMT-proficient cells, which might be responsible for the malignant alteration of cells. Results showed that the IC(50) of MGMT-deficient and MGMT-proficient cells exposed to MNNG was 30 ?M and 65 ?M, respectively, and MGMT-deficient cells had more aggressive motility and invasive abilities compared with MGMT-proficient cells. Nineteen differentially expressed proteins were detected between the MGMT-deficient and MGMT-proficient cells, 14 of which were identified, including the membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein, Ezrin, which was confirmed by both mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. The correlation between MGMT, Ezrin expression, and the malignant behavior of one normal epithelial esophageal cell line and seven esophageal cancer lines is discussed. In conclusion, loss of MGMT expression leads EC109 esophageal cancer cells to have increased malignant behavior, which may correlate with its high Ezrin protein expression.
A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) coupled with an enhanced replacement method (ERM) was used as an alternative method to predict the carcinogenicity of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) in rats. This presented LDA based on the topological substructural molecular descriptors (TOPS-MODE) approach was developed to predict the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic activity on a data set of 111 NOCs with a good classification value of 90.1%. The predictive power of the LDA model was validated through an external validation set (37 compounds) with a prediction accuracy of 94.6% and a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure (LOOCV) with a good prediction of 86.5%. This methodology showed that the TOPS-MODE descriptors weighted, respectively, by bond dipole moment and Abraham solute descriptor dipolarity/polarizability affected the NOC carcinogenicity. The contributions of certain bonds and fragments to carcinogenicity were used to assess biotransformation and carcinogenic mechanisms. The positive contribution of the carbon-nitrogen single bond (between the N-nitroso group and ?-carbon to the N-nitroso group) indicated that the ?-hydroxylation reaction could occur at the ?-carbon or otherwise not occur. Similarly, the contributions from the molecular fragment could be applied to indicate whether the fragments generated an alkylating agent. These results suggested that this approach could discriminate between carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic NOCs, thereby providing insight into the structural features and chemical factors related to NOC carcinogenicity.
In vivo behavior of nanoparticles and interactions between nanoparticles and organisms are key components of nanotoxicology. In this study, the biochemical compositions of rat serum exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) by intratracheal instillation at low (0.8 mg/kg), medium (4 mg/kg) and high doses (20 mg/kg) were investigated using 1H-NMR techniques with pattern recognition methods. Serum biochemical assays, as well as histopathological and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations of tissues were performed. 1H-NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses of nano-TiO2 treated animals showed increased serum levels of ketone bodies, choline, low density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine and GLU, and decreased levels of lactate, creatine and pyruvate. Clinical chemistry analyses of serum showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase, as well as increased levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating slight liver and kidney injury. Furthermore, TEM provided an analysis of particle-related structural changes of the lungs, liver and kidneys, and revealed that the localization of nanoparticles within cells induced apoptosis. The damage to the target organs was associated with the perturbation of energy metabolism. Serum 1H-NMR spectra, in combination with pattern recognition techniques, proved to be an efficient and simple metabonomic method to depict the metabolic changes produced by intratracheally-instilled nano-TiO2.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is an important metabolizing enzyme involved in oxidative stress responses to benzene, a chemical associated with bone marrow toxicity and leukemia. We aimed to identify the CYP2E1 genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to benzene toxicity in support of environmental and occupational exposure prevention, and to test whether a model using immortal human lymphocytes might be an efficient tool for detecting genetic biomarkers.
The objective of the present study was to develop a practical method to prepare a stable dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles for biological studies. To address this matter a variety of different approaches for suspension of nanoparticles were conducted. TiO2 (rutile/anatase) dispersions were prepared in distilled water following by treated with different ultrasound energies and various dispersion stabilizers (1.0% carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M, 100% fetal bovine serum, and 2.5% bovine serum albumin). The average size of dispersed TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles was measured by dynamic light scattering device. Agglomerate sizes of TiO2 in distilled water and 100% FBS were estimated using TEM analysis. Sedimentation rate of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles in dispersion was monitored by optical absorbance detection. In vitro cytotoxicity of various stabilizers in 16-HBE cells was measured using MTT assay. The optimized process for preparation of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles dispersion was first to vibrate the nanoparticles by vortex and disperse particles by ultrasonic vibration in distilled water, then to add dispersion stabilizers to the dispersion, and finally to sonicate the nanoparticles in dispersion. TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles were disaggregated sufficiently with an ultrasound energy of 33 W for 10 min. The formation of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) agglomerates in distilled water was decreased obviously by addition of 1.0% CMC, 0.5% HPMC K4M, 100% FBS and 2.5% BSA. For the benefit of cell growth, FBS is the most suitable stabilizer for preparation of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) particle dispersions and subsequent investigation of the in vivo and in vitro behavior of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles. This method is practicable to prepare a stable dispersion of TiO2 (rutile/anatase) nanoparticles for at least 120 h.
Small-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (< 10 nm) are widely used in both industry and daily life due to their enhanced thermomagnetic and photocatalytic properties and surface activity. However, their increasing use increases the health risk of people exposed to these particles, either occupationally or environmentally. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of small-sized TiO2 nanoparticles on the immune function of rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages in vivo. Forty-two rats were intra-tracheally instilled with 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg of NP-1 and F-1 TiO2 primary particles with a median size of 5 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained from lung lavage fluids using a closed chest technique. Cells were assessed for morphology, phagocytic ability and chemotactic ability, Fc receptor expression, MHC-class II molecule expression, and expression of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The result showed that the inhalation of NP-1 TiO2 particles induced the membrane and ultrastructure damage of PAMs. The phagocytic ability of the macrophages increased when they were exposed to low dose of NP-1 TiO2 and decreased when they were exposed to high dose of NP-1 TiO2. Exposure to NP-1 TiO2 also decreased the chemotactic ability of the macrophages as well as decreasing the expression of Fc receptors and MHC-class II on the cell surface. The mechanism responsible for these changes was mediated via altering NO and TNF-alpha expression by the PAMs. The amount of NO and TNF-alpha secreted by macrophages gradually increased as the dosage of TiO2 nanoparticles increased. Small-sized TiO2 nanoparticles (but not the fine counterpart) elicited stronger NO and TNF-alpha production. The present study suggests that both damage to the cell structure and pulmonary alveolar macrophage dysfunction may occur, leading to a reduction in both non-specific and specific immune responses in individuals exposed to small-sized TiO2 nanoparticles.
Nanoparticle in vivo characteristics and interactions between nanoparticles and organisms are key components of nanotoxicology. 1H NMR was used to analyze rat urine metabolites exposed to TiO, nanopartcles by intratracheal instillation in low (0.8 mg/kg), medium (4 mg/kg) and high doses (20 mg/kg). Significant metabolite (Acetate, Valine, Dimethylamine, Taurine, Hippurate, and 2-Oxoglutarate) changes were only observed in the low dose group. These compensatory changes resolve within seven days, and the results of serum biochemical assays also implied no parenchymal damages in the liver or kidney. Rats exposed to medium and high dose nanoparticles had pulmonary inflammation because most of the instilled particles aggregated into larger sizes and accumulated in lung tissue. We conclude that low dose instillation of nano-TiO, can recoverably impact metabolic function because the scattered nanoparticles can migrate from the lung to liver or kidney, but particles in higher doses will aggregate and deposit in the lung without migration.
The functional modification of the outer surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is likely to improve their biocompatibility. Therefore, CNTs have attracted great attention not only in electrical, optical and mechanical applications but also in biological and pharmaceutical applications. Thus, it is important to examine the biodistribution and kinetics of the carbon-based nanotubes when they are introduced into living systems. Here, we synthesized and characterized tyrosine-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Tyr), and assessed the biodistribution profile of CNTs-Tyr in mice, following three different administrations by the 125I radioisotope tracer method. CNTs-Tyr was delivered quickly around the entire body, and different absorbtion and biodistribution profiles of CNTs-Tyr were observed with different routes of administration. Following intravenous injection, CNTs-Tyr accumulated within 24 h mainly in the lungs and slightly in the spleen and liver, and may be eliminated primarily through the kidneys. After administration via gavage, most of the CNTs-Tyr were eliminated through the intestine, and rarely delivered into the organs. After intraperitoneal injection, CNTs-Tyr accumulated in the spleen and were rapidly eliminated from the other organs within 24 h. The blood circulation half-life of CNTs-Tyr was about 4.4 h. The behavior of CNTs-Tyr in mice is somewhat different from the results reported previously. This suggests that the functionalized group may affect the affinity of carbon nanotubes for particular organs. The results provide basic biological information for the biomedical application and risk assessment of CNTs.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes coding metabolizing enzymes modulate gene functions and cellular toxicity in response to chemicals. Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an important detoxification enzyme involved in the catabolism of 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), a benzene metabolite believed to be associated with bone-marrow toxicity and leukemia. Gene function was evaluated in immortalized human B lymphocytes derived from a Chinese Han population with independent genotypes at 2 NQO1 SNP sites. 1,4-Benzoquinone was incubated with these immortalized lymphocytes of differing genotypes. Among the genotypes of 2 SNP examined, cell lines with rs1800566CC showed a higher NQO1 enzymic activity after a 48 h of treatment with 10 muM 1,4-BQ, and a lower comet rate compared with cells of CT/TT genotypes. Data suggested that NQO1 rs1800566 might serve as a functional genetic marker for benzene toxicity in the Chinese Han population. The immortalized B lymphocytes derived from different populations might thus be used as a biomarker to detect functional genetic markers related to exposure to environmental chemicals.
Glutathione S-transferases (GST) belong to a superfamily of phase II enzymes believed to be associated with enhanced frequency of esophageal carcinoma. This study was performed to evaluate whether the GST family was associated with susceptibility to esophageal carcinoma in China. Ninety-seven patients with newly diagnosed, untreated esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 97 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and residence were recruited in this community-based case-control study. Null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Ile105Val polymorphism in the fifth exon, mRNA level, CpG island hypermethylation of promoter, and protein levels of GSTP1 gene were measured with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that GSTM1 null genotype and GSTT1 null genotype were significantly associated with increased risk for esophageal cancer in Chinese population. Compared with the control, the relative expression levels of mRNA were significantly reduced in ESCC patients. The conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that increased risk for esophageal cancer was associated with CpG island hypermethylation of promoter of GSTP1 gene. GSTP1 protein levels also showed significant decrease in ESCC when adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and alcohol use. An individual with GSTM1 or GSTT1 null genotype may thus be more susceptible to esophageal cancer development. Reduced expression in mRNA and protein levels were the main manifestations noted in aberrant function of GSTP1 gene. Data thus suggest that the CpG island hypermethylation of promoter gene may serve as a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma development.
Carbon nanotubes have attracted attention not only due to electrical, optical, and mechanical applications but also due to their presence in biological and pharmaceutical products. In this study, modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were used as a model to evaluate potential subchronic effects of carbon nanotubes on mice. ICR mice were treated with phosphorylcholine-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-PC) daily for 28 d at 10, 50, or 250 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal (ip) route. Subchronic exposure to MWCNT-PC did not produce any apparent systemic effects in mice. The body weight of the high-dose group was significantly lower than control in male mice, whereas tissue to body weight ratios of liver, spleen, and lung rose significantly with increase of dose of MWCNT-PC. There were significant differences between high-dose exposure and control groups. Accumulation of carbon nanotubes and inflammation response in liver, spleen, and lung were observed in the high-dose exposure group. No systemic toxicity and histopathological changes were found in 10-mg/kg exposure groups. Data in the present study support the view that MWCNT in vivo do not exert apparent marked effects in mice and that MWCNT products are relatively safe for human consumption.
Apart from the liver disruption, embryotoxicity and genotoxicity, microcystin (MC)-LR also could cause neurotoxicity. Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was explored as a model to study the neurotoxicity. In the present study, we provided evidence to indicate the neurotoxicity on chemotaxis to NaCl and diacetyl, and thermotaxis from MC-LR exposure to C. elegans. As a result, higher concentrations of MC-LR caused significantly severe defects of chemotaxis to NaCl and diacetyl, and thermotaxis. The neurotoxicity on chemotaxis to NaCl and diacetyl, and thermotaxis from MC-LR exposure might be largely mediated by the damage on the corresponding sensory neurons (ASE, AWA, and AFD) and interneuron AIY The expression levels of che-1 and odr-7 were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in animals exposed to MC-LR at concentrations lower than 10 microg/L, whereas the expression levels of ttx-1 and ttx-3 could be significantly (P < 0.01) lowered in animals even exposed to 1 microg/L of MC-LR. Moreover, both the chemotaxis to NaCl and diacetyl and the thermotaxis were more significantly reduced in MC-LR exposed mutants of che-1(p674), odr-7(ky4), ttx-1(p767), and ttx-3(ks5) than those in exposed wild-type N2 animals at the same concentrations.
Among more than 75 variants of microcystin (MC), microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the most common toxins. In this study, the feasibility of using Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate MC-LR toxicity was studied. C. elegans was treated with MC-LR at different concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 80 Ig/L. The results showed that MC-LR could reduce lifespan, delay development, lengthen generation time, decrease brood size, suppress locomotion behavior, and decreases hsp-16-2-gfp expression. The endpoints of generation time, brood size, and percentage of the population expressing hsp-16-2-gfp were very sensitive to 1.0 microg/L of MC-LR, and would be more useful for the evaluation of MC-LR toxicity. Furthermore, the tissue-specific hsp-16-2-gfp expressions were investigated in MC-LR-exposed animals, and the nervous system and intestine were primarily affected by MC-LR. Therefore, the generation time, brood size, and hsp-16-2-gfp expression in C. elegans can be explored to serve as valuable endpoints for evaluating the potential toxicity from MC-LR exposure.
Development of gastric cancer is a multistage, multifactorial process. This study determined the population attributable risk for environmental and genetic risk factors in development of gastric cancer. A 1:1 cancer case-control study was undertaken in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. A conditional-logistic regression model was used to determine environmental and genetic risk factors and calculate attributable risk (AR%) for each environmental and genetic risk factor in gastric cancer. In addition, the summary attributable risk (sAR) for all of the risk factors among 503 cases of gastric cancer patients and controls was determined. The environmental risk factors for gastric cancer in the Nanjing area were family history of tumor, consumption of pickled food, engorgement after hunger, irregular dietary habits, and lack of fruit intake. The genetic risk factors included the following genotypes: CYP2E1 wild, NAT2 M1 mutation, NAT2 slow-acetylators, XRCC1 194 mutation, MTHFR A1298C mutation, and IL-1B mutation. Combining environmental and genetic risk factors, sAR was 76.34%. Data suggest that genetic polymorphisms and environmental risk factors play concurrent roles in the development of gastric cancer. The results of this study indicate preventive strategies to avoid development of gastric cancer based on identified genetic polymorphisms and control of environmental risk factors.
As titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles are widely used commercially, the potential effects of TiO(2) nanoparticles on humans are a concern. To evaluate the effects of TiO(2) nanoparticles on hepatic and renal functions and correlate changes to oxidative stress, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with TiO(2) particles of two different specific surface areas (TiO(2-S50): 50 m(2)/g, and TiO(2-S210): 210 m(2)/g) at 0.5, 5, or 50 mg/kg body weight by intratracheal instillation. After 7 d, TiO(2) nanoparticles produced no obvious acute toxicity on hepatic and renal functions. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity of kidney in the low-dose TiO(2-S210) group were significantly decreased. After TiO(2-S210) exposure, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of liver and kidney in intermediate and high-dose groups were significantly increased. This change only appeared in liver after TiO(2-S50) exposure. Furthermore, SOD activity in liver and kidney and GSH-PX activity in kidney with low TiO(2-S210) exposure group were significantly less than with low TiO(2-S50). No apparent pathological changes in liver and kidney were observed. Intratracheal exposure to TiO(2) nanoparticles may induce oxidative stress in liver and kidney, but does not influence hepatic or renal functions. There was no apparent evidence that TiO(2-S210) was more toxic than TiO(2-S50). In general, intratracheal exposure to TiO(2) did not markedly affect extrapulmonary tissue functions.
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Polymorphisms in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism may modulate risk of disease. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) detoxifies polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and is the most highly expressed glutathione S-transferase in lung tissue. A polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene, an A-to-G transition in exon 5 (Ile105Val, 313A --> 313G), results in lower activity among individuals who carry the valine allele. The authors present a meta- and a pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between this polymorphism in GSTP1 and lung cancer risk (27 studies, 8,322 cases and 8,844 controls and 15 studies, 4,282 cases and 5,032 controls, respectively). Overall, the meta-analysis found no significant association between lung cancer risk and the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism. In the pooled analysis, there was an overall association (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.21) between lung cancer and carriage of the GSTP1 Val/Val or Ile/Val genotype compared with those carrying the Ile/Ile genotype. Increased risk varied by histologic type in Asians. There appears to be evidence for interaction between amount of smoking, the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism, and risk of lung cancer in whites.
Quantum dots are being widely used in physics and in the biomedical industry in recent years due to their excellent optical characteristics. However, studies have shown that cadmium selenide core-shell quantum dots exhibit cytotoxicity. The present study investigates the induction of apoptosis and the signal pathways involved in this process by cadmium selenide-core quantum dots in JB6 cells. We found that cadmium selenide-core quantum dots exhibited high cytotoxicity and caused apoptosis and necrosis of JB6 cells. Cell cycle detection showed an increase in the percentage of G1 phase cells but a decrease in the percentage of S and G2 phase cells after JB6 cells treated with various concentrations of cadmium selenide core-shell quantum dots for 24 h. At the same time, western-blot analysis showed an activation of pro-apoptotic factors including FAS, BAX and BID. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), full length and cleaved caspase-6 and -8 were up-regulated. The current study provides a guide for the safe use of QDs as a new kind of biological fluorescence material for biological and medical applications.
In this work, an effective sensing platform based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from quantum dots (QDs) to graphene oxide (GO) was developed. Firstly, the aptamer of MUC-1 protein was coupled to CdTe QDs. The interactions between MUC-1 aptamer and GO made CdTe QDs close to GO, which quenched the fluorescence of QDs because of the FRET. However, the stronger interaction between MUC-1 and aptamer weakened the interaction between aptamer and GO, which led to the release of CdTe QDs from GO and thus, the recovery of QDs fluorescence. Based on this, the method was used to detect MUC-1. This approach was successfully extended to detect MCF-7 cells through its interaction with MUC-1 aptamer. The detection limits of MUC-1 and MCF-7 cells were 16 nM and 36 cells/mL, respectively. The method could be extended for detection of other biomolecules by substituting aptamer and the corresponding target.
Single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to generate electricity from fermented primary sludge. Fermentation (30 °C, 9 days) decreased total suspended solids (26.1-16.5 g/L), volatile suspended solids (24.1-15.3g/L) and pH (5.7-4.5), and increased conductivity (2.4-4.7 mS/cm), soluble COD (2.66-15.5 g/L), and volatile fatty acids (1.9-10.1g/L). To lower the COD and increase pH, fermentation supernatant was diluted with primary effluent before being used in the MFCs. The maximum power density was 0.32 ± 0.01 W/m(2), compared to 0.24 ± 0.03 W/m(2) with only primary effluent. Power densities were higher with phosphate buffer added to the supernatant (1.03 ± 0.06 W/m(2)) or the solution (0.87 ± 0.05 W/m(2)). Coulombic efficiencies ranged from 18% to 57%, and sCOD removals from 84% to 94%. These results demonstrated that sludge can effectively be used for power generation when fermented and then diluted with only primary effluent.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. To reduce the high morbidity and mortality of the disease, sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection are urgently needed. Tumor-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) seem to be potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this study, differentially expressed miRNAs in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were detected by miRNA microarrays. Stem-loop real-time reverse transcription PCR was conducted to verify the candidate miRNAs discovered by microarray analysis. The data showed that hsa-miR-338-3p, hsa-miR?218 and hsa-miR-139-5p were downregulated in tumor tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues, while hsa-miR?183, hsa-miR-574-5p, hsa-miR-21* and hsa-miR?601 were upregulated in tumor tissues. Multiple regression analysis revealed the aberrant expression of hsa-miR-338-3p, hsa?miR-139-5p, hsa-miR?574-5p and hsa-miR-601 increased the risk of esophageal cancer. Furthermore, we found hsa-miR-21* was significantly increased in heavy drinking patients. Therefore, there is a set of differentially expressed miRNAs in esophageal cancer which may be associated with the incidence and development of ESCC. Differential expression profiles of miRNAs in ESCC may be promising biomarkers for the early screening of high-risk populations and early detection.
This study aimed to determine the most significant molecular features associated with the liver specificity of the carcinogenicity of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs). Accordingly, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed to extract molecular information from NOCs using a topological substructural molecular descriptor (TOPS-MODE) approach. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model of a series of NOCs for rat liver was developed using TOPS-MODE descriptors to predict nonliver- and liver-carcinogenic NOCs. Two descriptors exclusively calculated from the molecular structures of the compounds were selected by a genetic algorithm. The descriptors were then weighted with bond distances as well as the Abraham solute descriptor partition between water and aqueous solvent systems to indicate the importance of their roles in liver specificity. The performances of the LDA model were rigorously validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and external validation, with the prediction accuracy reaching 88.3% and 80.0%, respectively. The contributions of the different molecular fragments to rat-liver specificity were computed. The results served as important information related to liver specificity and were analyzed from the chemical-molecular perspective. The resulting model can provide an efficient method to discriminate between as well as extrapolate nonliver- and liver-carcinogenic NOCs. The contribution of the entire nitrosamine molecule was determined as being responsible for the liver specificity of nitrosamine carcinogenicity. Although the QSAR showed limitations in complex hepatocarcinogenicity, the proposed method may considerably help elucidate the role of nitrosamines in liver specificity from the chemical-molecular perspective. The nature of these enzyme-substrate interactions is characterized. Insight into the chemical-structural and biological factors related to the liver-specific biological activity of NOCs is also provided.
Previous studies have not examined the adverse effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) at environmental relevant concentrations on the development and functions of nervous system. The neurotoxic effects of MC-LR exposure on neurotransmitter systems were investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans. After exposing L1 larvae to 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?g?l(-1) of MC-LR for 8 and 24 h, the adverse effects on GABAergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurons were examined. The expression levels of genes required for development and functions of GABAergic neurons were further investigated. Body bend frequency and head thrash frequency decreased significantly after MC-LR exposure for 8 h at concentrations more than 1 ?g?l(-1) and after MC-LR exposure for 24 h at concentrations more than 0.1 ?g?l(-1). Loss of GABAergic neurons increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner after MC-LR exposure at concentrations more than 0.1 ?g?l(-1). In contrast, no obvious neuronal losses or morphologic changes were observed in cholinergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurons in MC-LR-exposed nematodes. Quantitative real-time PCR assay further showed that expression levels of unc-30, unc-46, unc-47, and exp-1 genes required for development and function of GABAergic neurons decreased significantly in nematodes exposed to MC-LR at concentrations more than 0.1 or 1 ?g?l(-1). MC-LR at environmental relevant concentrations caused neurobehavioral defects, which may be largely due to the neuronal loss and the alterations of expression level of genes required for GABAergic neurotransmitter system in C. elegans.
A disposable amperometric immunosensor for sensitive detection of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM) has been developed by combining dual signal amplification of platinum colloid with an enzymatic catalytic reaction. The immunosensor was fabricated by modification of the screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) with nanocomposites made by skillful doping of bovine serum albumin conjugated chlorpyrifos-methyl antigen (BSA-Ag) and platinum colloid into silica sol-gel. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and electrochemical measurements showed that platinum colloid domains in the nanocomposite material could enhance electron transfer and change the brittleness of the silica sol-gel. The immobilisation of BSA-Ag on the nanocomposite retained its immunoactivities, which allowed the immobilised BSA-Ag to effectively capture unbound Ab-HRP in the detection solution. A linear response to CM concentration was exhibited, ranging from 0.4 to 20ng/mL. Detection of CM with the presented method in soil or grape samples treated with CM matched the reference values well, which indicated that the proposed disposable immunosensor hold promising applications in environmental and food monitoring.
The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) for rat liver was developed by a topological sub-structural molecular-descriptors (TOPS-MODE) approach to predict non-liver-carcinogenic and liver-carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds based on a data set of 108 NOCs. Three descriptors calculated solely from the molecular structures of the compounds were selected by enhanced replacement method (ERM) and were weighted, respectively, with atomic weight, bond dipole moments and Abraham solute descriptor partition between water and aqueous solvent systems to indicate the importance of their roles in liver specificity. A detailed discussion on these three descriptors was carried out, and the contributions of different fragments to rat-liver specificity and the interactions among fragments were analyzed. Such results can offer some useful theoretical references for understanding the chemical structural and biological factors related to the liver-specific biological activity of NOCs.
Benzene is known to produce hematotoxicity in occupational exposure workers. This study examined the utility of metabonomic biomarkers to ascertain subacute toxicity produced by benzene in male C3H/He mice. A 30-d intermittent collection of urine was obtained from mice in this experiment. The relative organ weights, blood parameters, and bone marrow smears were examined to identify specific changes of benzene-induced toxicity. In addition, an integrated analytical approach based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed to map metabolic responses in urine. Five endogenous metabolites, hypoxanthine, spermidine, 4-aminohippuric acid, indolelactic acid, and glutamylphenylalanine, were identified as potential biomarkers of benzene-induced toxicity, indicating that pathways of purine, spermidine, fatty acid, tryptophan, and peptides metabolism might be disturbed in benzene-exposed mice. Our findings showed that the use of urine metabonomics was a more sensitive tool to detect benzene-induced toxicity compared to body weight or blood parameter changes.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are postulated to play important roles in oncogenesis. Recently, extracellular miRNAs were detected in plasma or serum of diseased subjects. However, the role of circulating miRNAs in plasma/serum remains to be elucidated. In this study, the relative expressions of miR-155, miR-183, and miR-20a in esophageal tissue were found to be significantly associated with increased risk for esophageal cancer. The relative expressions of circulating miR-155 and miR-183 were significantly reduced in cancer patients. Circulating miR-155 showed significantly higher risk for esophageal cancer when adjusted by smoking status and alcohol use. Circulating miR-155 was found to have significant diagnostic value for esophageal cancer as evidenced by a receiver operating characteristic curve area of 66%. However, Pearson analysis showed no statistical correlation in the relative miRNAs expression between plasma and esophageal tissues, which suggested different origins of circulating miRNAs distinct from tumor cell miRNAs. In conclusion, results suggest that circulating miR-155 in plasma may serve as a reliable, novel, noninvasive biomarker for early diagnosis and detection of esophageal cancer.
Epidemiological studies have indicated that the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is associated with environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. To determine whether the basal expression level of genes involved in metabolism of carcinogens is associated with the risk of ESCC, a case-control study of 100 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated ESCC and 117 healthy controls was performed, and the relative expression levels of four metabolism genes (CYP2E1, GSTP1, MTHFR, and NQO1) were determined with quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Analyzed with the mean of relative expression level in the controls as the cut-off point, the result exhibited that the increased risk for ESCC was significantly associated with reduced expression of GSTP1 (odds ratio [OR]=3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.947-6.823) and NQO1 (OR=1.870, 95% CI: 1.046-3.345). When adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol use, the increased risk for ESCC was significantly associated with reduced expression of GSTP1, MTHFR, and NQO1, and GSTP1 mRNA showed a steady association with the risk for ESCC (OR=2.640) in the model of stepwise regression analysis. Reduced expression of GSTP1 in PBMCs was significantly associated with the risk for ESCC, suggesting an important etiology clue to the early progression of ESCC in the Huaian population of China.
To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of L-glutamic acid (Glu) coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles (hereafter refer as Glu@MNPs) on Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) cells using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, Oxidative stress markers, Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) assay. Results showed a low cytotoxicity with an IC50 was 254.739 microg/ml 36 h post incubation period in CHL cells. Furthermore, Cell redox status is slightly disturbed: Glu@MNPs exposure cause reactive oxygen species production, glutathione depletion and inactivation of some antioxidant enzymes: glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, but not catalase. Moreover, no significant genotoxic response was observed in CHL cells over concentration ranges from 8 to 128 microg/mL for all exposure time periods. The results suggest that the Glu@MNPs show biocompatibility In Vitro.
The increased application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has raised the level of public concern regarding possible toxicities. Using in vitro cellular assays, we were able to assess the immunotoxicity of pristine multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their derivatives, covalently functionalized with carboxyl (COOH) or polyethylene glycol (PEG), in rodent macrophage cells. Moreover, special focus was placed on the role of surface modification and nanotubes aggregation on toxicity. Results showed that pristine MWCNTs reduce cell viability compared with functionalized MWCNTs in RAW 264.7 macrophages when incubated at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 ?g/mL. However, in addition to causing cytotoxicity, functionalized MWCNTs induce serious inflammatory responses, as indicated by the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 at various MWCNTs concentrations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ?g/mL). Particle surface modification and dispersion status in biological medium were key factors in determining cytotoxicity. These findings imply that MWCNTs-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages may be associated with surface modification and aggregation of MWCNTs, which is reflected by alteration of inflammatory cytokine expression.
To date, knowledge on mechanisms regarding the chronic nanotoxicity is still largely minimal. In the present study, the effect of chronic (10-day) Al(2)O(3)-nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity on locomotion behavior was investigated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Exposure to 0.01-23.1 mg/L of Al(2)O(3)-NPs induced a decrease in locomotion behavior, a severe stress response, and a severe oxidative stress; however, these effects were only detected in nematodes exposed to 23.1 mg/L of bulk Al(2)O(3). Formation of significant oxidative stress in nematodes exposed to Al(2)O(3)-NPs was due to both the increase in ROS production and the suppression of ROS defense mechanisms. More pronounced increases in ROS, decreases in SOD activity, and decrease in expression of genes encoding Mn-SODs (sod-2 and sod-3) were detected in nematodes exposed to Al(2)O(3)-NPs compared with bulk Al(2)O(3). Moreover, treatment with antioxidants or SOD-3 overexpression not only suppressed oxidative stress but also prevented adverse effects on locomotion behaviors from Al(2)O(3)-NPs exposure. Thus, chronic exposure to Al(2)O(3)-NPs may have adverse effects on locomotion behaviors by both induction of ROS production and disruption of ROS defense mechanisms. Furthermore, sod-2 and sod-3 mutants were more susceptible than the wild-type to chronic Al(2)O(3)-NPs-induced neurotoxicity inhibition.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), 18-24 nt non-coding RNAs, are thought to play important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and development. Recent studies suggest that some of the known microRNAs map to a single genomic locale within a single polycistronic transcript. But the roles of the cluster remain to be known. In order to understand the role and mechanism of a cluster of miR-143 and miR-145 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the association of mature miR-143 and miR-145 expression with the risk for esophageal cancer was evaluated in ESCC patients with a case-control study, and target protein regulated by mature miRNA was analyzed in ESCC cell lines with 3UTR luciferase reporter assay. The expression levels of miR-143 and miR-145 were determined in 110 pairs of esophageal cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues using real-time reverse transcription PCR. The relative expression of miR-143 and miR-145 were statistically different between cancer tissues and matched controls. The combined expression of miR-143 and miR-145 was significantly associated with the risk for esophageal cancer. Meanwhile, the reduced expression of two miRNAs in tumor patient was supposed to have a trend of lymph node metastases. The co-expression pattern of miR-143 and miR-145 was analyzed with Pearson correlation. It showed a significant correlation between these two miRNAs expression both in tissues and tumor cell lines. 3UTR luciferase reporter assay indicated that Fascin Homolog 1 (FSCN1) could be co-regulated by miR-143 and miR-145. The protein level of FSCN1 showed no significant linear correlation with miR-143 and miR-145 expression in ESCC cell lines with Western blotting analysis. In conclusion, since miR-143 and miR-145 could regulate oncogenic FSCN1 and take part in the modulation of metastases, the result suggested the combination variable of miR-143 and miR-145 as a potential biomarker for earlier diagnosis and prognosis of esophageal cancer.
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