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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic characteristics in a sample of Ugandan men.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Testosterone, a male reproductive hormone, affects several physiological processes, such as sperm production, energy, strength, sexual behavior, sleep and the general well being of men. Normal levels of testosterone are necessary to effect these physiological processes. The objective of this study was to study the association between testosterone levels in a sample of Ugandan men with socio-demographic characteristics, and compare the testosterone levels of Ugandan men with that of men in other countries.
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Needle autopsy to establish the cause of death in HIV-infected hospitalized adults in Uganda: a comparison to complete autopsy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Minimal invasive but accurate methods to establish the cause of death in HIV-infected patients are needed. We studied the agreement in cause of death between blind and ultrasound-guided needle autopsy and complete autopsy in HIV-infected patients in Uganda.
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Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for 20 to 25% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related deaths in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for survival; however, the question of when ART should be initiated after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis remains unanswered.
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Prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the small membrane filtration method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity, and there is a need to improve its performance since it is commonly used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the small membrane filtration (SMF) method, an approach that uses a vacuum manifold and is designed to concentrate bacilli onto a filter that can be examined microscopically. We enrolled hospitalized adults suspected to have pulmonary TB in Kampala, Uganda. We obtained a clinical history and three spontaneously expectorated sputum specimens for smear microscopy (direct, concentrated, and SMF), MGIT (mycobacterial growth indicator tube) 960 and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) cultures, and Xpert MTB/RIF testing. We performed per-specimen (primary) and per-patient analyses. From October 2012 to June 2013, we enrolled 212 patients (579 sputum specimens). The participants were mostly female (63.2%), and 81.6% were HIV infected; their median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/?l. Overall, 19.0%, 20.4%, 27.1%, 25.2%, and 25.9% of specimens tested positive by direct smear, concentrated smear, MGIT culture, LJ culture, and Xpert test, respectively. In the per-specimen analysis, the sensitivity of the SMF method (48.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.4 to 59.6) was lower than those of direct smear (60.9%; 51.4 to 70.5 [P = 0.0001]) and concentrated smear (63.3%; 53.6 to 73.1 [P < 0.0001]). Subgroup analyses showed that SMF performed poorly in specimens having a low volume or low bacterial load. The SMF method performed poorly compared to standard smear techniques and was sensitive to sample preparation techniques. The optimal laboratory SMF protocol may require striking a fine balance between sample dilution and filtration failure rate.
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Multi-Media Educational Tool Increases Knowledge of Clinical Trials in Uganda.
J Clin Res Bioeth
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Informed consent is premised on the participants' understanding the scope of the research and the associated risks and benefits. The objective was to evaluate the improvement in knowledge in a population unfamiliar with clinical trial concepts about "what it means to be part of a clinical trial" using an innovative educational tool called the 'Speaking Book'.
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Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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In settings of high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis control and patient management are hindered by lack of accurate, rapid tuberculosis diagnostic tests that can be performed at point-of-care. The Determine TB LAM Ag (TB LAM) test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test for detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine. Our objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of the TB LAM test for tuberculosis diagnosis.
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CD4 T-cell activation and reduced regulatory T-cell populations are associated with early development of cataracts among HIV-infected adults in Uganda.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Cataracts contribute 12% of visual loss among HIV-infected adults in Uganda. Immuno-pathogenesis of cataracts may differ among HIV-infected individuals; thus the need for innovative therapeutic interventions among HIV-infected adults.
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Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB suspects is unknown.
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Prevalence and factors associated with use of herbal medicine among women attending an infertility clinic in Uganda.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Infertility is a public health problem associated with devastating psychosocial consequences. In countries where infertility care is difficult to access, women turn to herbal medicines to achieve parenthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use by women attending the infertility clinic.
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Clinical utility of a novel molecular assay in various combination strategies with existing methods for diagnosis of HIV-related tuberculosis in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Low income, high-tuberculosis burden, countries are considering selective deployment of Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) due to high cost per test. We compared the diagnostic gain of the Xpert add-on strategy with Xpert replacement strategy for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-infected adults to inform its implementation.
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Point-of-care lateral flow assays for tuberculosis and cryptococcal antigenuria predict death in HIV infected adults in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mortality in hospitalized, febrile patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is high due to HIV-infected, severely immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic co-infection, particularly disseminated tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcal disease. We sought to determine if a positive lateral flow assay (LFA) result for urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and cryptococcal antigenuria was associated with mortality.
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Antenatal Syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted.
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Risk of tuberculosis after antiretroviral treatment initiation: a comparison between efavirenz and nevirapine using inverse probability weighting.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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There is a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) early after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. This historical cohort study evaluated the association of efavirenz (EFV) compared to nevirapine (NVP) with post-ART TB among patients initiated on first-line ART from 2005 to 2009 in a large, urban HIV clinic in Uganda.
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Clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric tuberculosis treatment among sputum smear-negative HIV-infected adult TB suspects in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The existing diagnostic algorithms for sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) are complicated, time-consuming, and often difficult to implement. The decision to initiate TB treatment in resource-limited countries is often largely based on clinical predictors. We sought to determine the clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric TB treatment initiation in HIV-infected sputum smear-negative TB suspects using sputum culture as a reference standard.
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Operational implementation of LED fluorescence microscopy in screening tuberculosis suspects in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Light emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM) is an affordable, technology targeted for use in resource-limited settings and recommended for widespread roll-out by the World Health Organization (WHO). We sought to compare the operational performance of three LED FM methods compared to light microscopy in a cohort of HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB) suspects at an urban clinic in a high TB burden country.
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Among patients with sustained viral suppression in a resource-limited setting, CD4 gains are continuous although gender-based differences occur.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There is conflicting data on long-term CD4 immune recovery after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. Virologic suppression is rarely documented in cohorts from sub-Saharan Africa so objective evidence of adherence is biologically unsubstantiated. We sought to investigate long-term patterns of immune recovery in Ugandan patients on ART with sustained viral suppression.
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Urinary lipoarabinomannan as predictor for the tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), 15.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.7% to 24.5%] of tuberculosis (TB)-HIV-coinfected individuals experience paradoxical worsening of their clinical status with exuberant inflammation consistent with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We investigated whether a positive urinary TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test before ART initiation was associated with development of paradoxical TB-IRIS.
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Development and validation of systems for rational use of viral load testing in adults receiving first-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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World Health Organization (WHO) immunological and clinical criteria for monitoring first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) offer low accuracy for predicting viral failure. Targeting viral load assays to those at high risk has been recommended and a system to do this has been developed in Cambodia. Systems for use in sub-Saharan African populations were evaluated.
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Tuberculosis treatment default among HIV-TB co-infected patients in urban Uganda.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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To identify health facility and patient-specific factors associated with TB treatment default in HIV-infected patients, in a TB clinic on the campus of Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.
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Feasibility of magnetic bead technology for concentration of mycobacteria in sputum prior to fluorescence microscopy.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Direct sputum smear microscopy is the mainstay of TB diagnosis in most low and middle income countries, and is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in such settings. However it is limited by low sensitivity, particularly in HIV co-infected patients. Concentration by centrifugation has been reported to be more sensitive than direct smear preparation, but is only suitable for referral laboratories. Simpler concentration methods that could be applied in peripheral laboratories are urgently needed.
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Autopsy acceptance rate and reasons for decline in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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To determine the autopsy acceptance rate and reasons for decline at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
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Developing independent investigators for clinical research relevant for Africa.
Health Res Policy Syst
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Sustainable research capacity building requires training individuals at multiple levels within a supportive institutional infrastructure to develop a critical mass of independent researchers. At many African medical institutions, a PhD is important for academic promotion and is, therefore, an important focal area for capacity building programs. We examine the training at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) as a model for in-country training based on systems capacity building and attention to the academic environment. PhD training in Africa should provide a strong research foundation for individuals to perform independent, original research and to mentor others. Training the next generation of researchers within excellent indigenous academic centers of excellence with strong institutional infrastructure will empower trainees to ask regionally relevant research questions that will benefit Africans.
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The effects of an HIV project on HIV and non-HIV services at local government clinics in urban Kampala.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern in Uganda. There is widespread consensus that weak health systems hamper the effective provision of HIV/AIDS services. In recent years, the ways in which HIV/AIDS-focused programs interact with the delivery of other health services is often discussed, but the evidence as to whether HIV/AIDS programs strengthen or distort overall health services is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a PEPFAR-funded HIV/AIDS program on six government-run general clinics in Kampala.
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High T-cell immune activation and immune exhaustion among individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery after 4 years of antiretroviral therapy in an African cohort.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially corrects immune dysfunction associated with HIV infection. The levels of T-cell immune activation and exhaustion after long-term, suppressive ART and their correlation with CD4 T-cell count reconstitution among ART-treated patients in African cohorts have not been extensively evaluated.
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Evaluation of WHO Criteria for Viral Failure in Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings.
AIDS Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Our objective was to evaluate outcomes in patients with sustained viral suppression compared to those with episodes of viremia. Methods. In a prospective cohort of patients started on ART in Uganda and followed for 48 months, patients were categorized according to viral load (VL): (1) sustained-suppression: (VL ?1,000 copies/mL) (2) VL 1,001-10,000, or (3) VL >10,000. Results. Fifty-Three (11.2%) and 84 (17.8%) patients had a first episode of intermediate and high viremia, respectively. Patients with sustained suppression had better CD4+ T cell count increases over time compared to viremic patients (P < .001). The majority of patients with viremia achieved viral suppression when the measurement was repeated. Only 39.6% of patients with intermediate and 19.1% with high viremia eventually needed to be switched to second line (P = .008). Conclusions. The use of at least one repeat measurement rather than a single VL measurement could avert from 60% to 80% of unnecessary switches.
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Stavudine toxicity in women is the main reason for treatment change in a 3-year prospective cohort of adult patients started on first-line antiretroviral treatment in Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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In resource-limited settings, there are only a few antiretroviral treatment (ART) options. Our objective was to evaluate the reasons for first-line ART changes in resource-limited settings.
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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-1-infected individuals: proposed clinical case definitions.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) may present as a clinical worsening or new presentation of cryptococcal disease after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and is thought to be caused by recovery of cryptococcus-specific immune responses. We have reviewed reports of cryptococcal IRIS and have developed a consensus case definition specifically for paradoxical crytopcoccal IRIS in patients with HIV-1 and known cryptococcal disease before ART, and a separate definition for incident cryptococcosis developed during ART (termed ART-associated cryptococcosis), for which a proportion of cases are likely to be unmasking cryptococcal IRIS. These structured case definitions are intended to aid design of future clinical, epidemiological, and immunopathological studies of cryptococcal IRIS, to standardise diagnostic criteria, and to facilitate comparisons between studies. As for definitions of tuberculosis-associated IRIS, definitions for cryptococcal IRIS should be regarded as preliminary until further insights into the immunopathology of IRIS permit their refinement.
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Performance of three LED-based fluorescence microscopy systems for detection of tuberculosis in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Direct smear microscopy using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining is the mainstay of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in most high burden countries, but is limited by low sensitivity in routine practice, particularly in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence settings.
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Antiretroviral treatment-associated tuberculosis in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients starting ART.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Commencement of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected persons is associated with unmasking of subclinical disease. The subset of patients that are diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) disease while on ART have been classified as ART-associated TB. Few studies have reported the incidence of ART-associated TB and unmasking TB-IRIS according to the International Network for the Study of HIV-Associated IRIS (INSHI) consensus definition. To determine the incidence and predictors of ART-associated TB, we screened 219 patients commencing ART at the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Kampala, Uganda for TB by symptoms, sputum microscopy, and chest X-rays and followed them for one year. Fourteen (6.4%) patients were diagnosed with TB during followup. Eight (3.8%) patients had ART-associated TB (incidence rate of 4.3 per 100 person years); of these, three patients fulfilled INSHI criteria for unmasking TB-associated IRIS (incidence rate of 1.6 per 100 person years). A body mass index of less than 18.5?kg/m(2) BMI (HR 5.85 95% CI 1.24-27.46, P = .025) and a C-reactive protein greater than 5?mg/L (HR 8.23 95% CI 1.36-38.33, P = .020) were risk factors for ART-associated TB at multivariate analysis. In conclusion, with systematic TB screening (including culture and chest X-ray), the incidence of ART-associated TB is relatively low in settings with high HIV and TB prevalence.
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Cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen screening to prevent deaths among HIV-infected persons with a CD4+ cell count < or = 100 cells/microL who start HIV therapy in resource-limited settings.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a common AIDS-defining illness in Africa and Asia. Subclinical cryptococcal antigenemia is frequently unmasked with antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to define the cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening to identify persons with subclinical cryptococcosis and the efficacy of preemptive fluconazole therapy.
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Baseline severe anaemia should not preclude use of zidovudine in antiretroviral-eligible patients in resource-limited settings.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Stavudine is no longer recommended as part of first-line therapy for patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. Most patients are currently initiated on zidovudine-containing regimens, which can induce anaemia. We investigated the risk factors for early severe anaemia in the first six months of ART initiation.
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Incident tuberculosis during antiretroviral therapy contributes to suboptimal immune reconstitution in a large urban HIV clinic in sub-Saharan Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively decreases tuberculosis (TB) incidence long-term, but is associated with high TB incidence rates in the first 6 months. We sought to determine the incidence and the long-term effects of TB during ART on HIV treatment outcome, and the risk factors for incident TB during ART in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda.
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Tuberculosis genes expressed during persistence and reactivation in the resistant rabbit model.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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As previously published, after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, New Zealand white rabbits established infection with active bacillary replication, but later contained disease to a paucibacillary state through an effective adaptive response consistent with latency. Despite the heterogeneity among outbred rabbits, the resistant response was uniform. Immunosuppression resulted in reactivation with increased lung bacillary burden. Using this rabbit model, we isolated bacillary RNA from infected rabbit lungs and assessed transcriptional profiles of bacillary genes using RT-PCR to examine genes differentially regulated during active replication, persistence, steroid-induced reactivation, and post-steroid immune reconstitution. Genes involved in hypoxia response (fdxA), resuscitation promoting factors (rpfB), and DNA repair pathways (Rv2191) may be important in bacillary persistence. Further investigation into these gene pathways is warranted.
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Cause-specific mortality and the contribution of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the first 3 years after antiretroviral therapy initiation in an urban African cohort.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Although many studies have reported high early mortality among patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa-particularly among those individuals with advanced immunodeficiency-few studies have reported the most common causes of these early deaths.
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Resurrecting the triple threat: academic social responsibility in the context of global health research.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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As a result of the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus infection, more academic physicians involved in research are working in resource-limited settings, especially in the field of infectious diseases. These researchers are often located in close proximity to health care facilities with serious workforce shortages. Because institutions and funders support global health research, they have the opportunity to make a lasting impact on the health system by training local health workers where the research is being conducted. Academic researchers who spend clinical time in local health care centers and who teach and mentor students as part of academic social responsibility will build capacity, an investment that will yield dividends for future generations.
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Role of the dosR-dosS two-component regulatory system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in three animal models.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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The Mycobacterium tuberculosis dosR gene (Rv3133c) is part of an operon, Rv3134c-Rv3132c, and encodes a response regulator that has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia and other in vitro stress conditions and may be important for bacterial survival within granulomatous lesions found in tuberculosis. DosR is activated in response to hypoxia and nitric oxide by DosS (Rv3132c) or DosT (Rv2027c). We compared the virulence levels of an M. tuberculosis dosR-dosS deletion mutant (DeltadosR-dosS [DeltadosR-S]), a dosR-complemented strain, and wild-type H37Rv in rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice infected by the aerosol route and in a mouse hollow-fiber model that may mimic in vivo granulomatous conditions. In the mouse and the guinea pig models, the DeltadosR-S mutant exhibited a growth defect. In the rabbit, the DeltadosR-S mutant did not replicate more than the wild type. In the hollow-fiber model, the mutant phenotype was not different from that of the wild-type strain. Our analyses reveal that the dosR and dosS genes are required for full virulence and that there may be differences in the patterns of attenuation of this mutant between the animal models studied.
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Unmasked tuberculosis and tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory disease: a disease spectrum after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has beneficial effects on mortality and lowers the incidence of diseases caused by opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis (TB). Although ART has sustained long-term benefits, the risk of TB is high during the first 3 months after ART initiation. Among cases of ART-associated TB, we define "unmasked TB" as that which occurs in patients with reactivation disease who develop clinically recognizable TB after ART with the restoration of previously acquired TB antigen-specific functional immune responses. TB cases with clinical evidence of an inflammatory syndrome are a subset of these unmasked cases, which we define as "unmasked TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome." With more widespread use of ART in areas with a high prevalence of TB, unmasked TB will likely become more common. TB diagnostics with improved sensitivity and specificity are urgently needed to detect subclinical TB before it is unmasked.
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Implementation of provider-based electronic medical records and improvement of the quality of data in a large HIV program in Sub-Saharan Africa.
PLoS ONE
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Starting in June 2010 the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinic (a large urban HIV out-patient facility) switched to provider-based Electronic Medical Records (EMR) from paper EMR entered in the database by data-entry clerks. Standardized clinics forms were eliminated but providers still fill free text clinical notes in physical patients files. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of errors in the database before and after the introduction of the provider-based EMR.
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Virologic versus immunologic monitoring and the rate of accumulated genotypic resistance to first-line antiretroviral drugs in Uganda.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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Viral load monitoring (VLM) to identify individuals failing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not widely available in resource-limited settings. We compared the genotypic resistance patterns between clients with VLM versus immunological monitoring (IM).
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Multivitamin supplementation in HIV infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: the protocol for a randomized double blinded placebo controlled efficacy trial.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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Use of multivitamin supplements during the pre-HAART era has been found to reduce viral load, enhance immune response, and generally improve clinical outcomes among HIV-infected adults. However, immune reconstitution is incomplete and significant mortality and opportunistic infections occur in spite of HAART. There is insufficient research information on whether multivitamin supplementation may be beneficial as adjunct therapy for HIV-infected individuals taking HAART. We propose to evaluate the efficacy of a single recommended daily allowance (RDA) of micronutrients (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E) in slowing disease progression among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in Uganda.
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Unrecognised tuberculosis at antiretroviral therapy initiation is associated with lower CD4+ T cell recovery.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To investigate whether an unrecognised diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) influences subsequent CD4+ T cell (CD4) count recovery in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda.
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Cost-effectiveness of early initiation of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy in Uganda.
BMC Public Health
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Ugandan national guidelines recommend initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at CD4+ T cell (CD4) count below 350 cell/?l, but the implementation of this is limited due to availability of medication. However, cART initiation at higher CD4 count increases survival, albeit at higher lifetime treatment cost. This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of initiating cART at a CD4 count between 250-350 cell/?l (early) versus <250 cell/?l (delayed).
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Implementation and effect of intensified case finding on diagnosis of tuberculosis in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda: a retrospective cohort study.
BMC Public Health
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Increased detection of tuberculosis (TB) using intensified or active case finding (ICF) is one of the cornerstones of the Stop TB Strategy, and contrasts with passive case finding (PCF) which relies on self-reported symptoms. There is no clear guidance on implementation strategies. We implemented ICF in addition to ongoing PCF in our large urban HIV clinic in July 2010 using a twice-daily announcement screen method by a trained peer educator, asking waiting patients to self-refer to a trained peer supporter for screening of TB symptoms. We sought to determine the associated effect on TB case detection.
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Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Uganda.
Bull. World Health Organ.
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To model the cost-effectiveness in Uganda of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naïve HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
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Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals Joint AIDS Program (MJAP) or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900). Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml) were found in 75/204 (36.8%). Twenty-one of 204 (10.3%) had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml) while 54/204 (26.5%) had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml). Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03). Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1) vs. 83 fl (± 8.4) vs. 82 fl (± 8.4) for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017). Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1) vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02). Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl) with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145) vs. 22 (± 115) cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal vitamin B-12, and explore the role of vitamin B-12 supplementation in immune recovery.
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Rifampicin for continuation phase tuberculosis treatment in Uganda: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
PLoS ONE
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In Uganda, isoniazid plus ethambutol is used for 6 months (6HE) during the continuation treatment phase of new tuberculosis (TB) cases. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using isoniazid plus rifampicin for 4 months (4HR) instead of 6HE. We compared the impact of a continuation phase using 6HE or 4HR on total cost and expected mortality from the perspective of the Ugandan national health system.
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Evaluation of portable point-of-care CD4 counter with high sensitivity for detecting patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
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Accurate, inexpensive point-of-care CD4+ T cell testing technologies are needed that can deliver CD4+ T cell results at lower level health centers or community outreach voluntary counseling and testing. We sought to evaluate a point-of-care CD4+ T cell counter, the Pima CD4 Test System, a portable, battery-operated bench-top instrument that is designed to use finger stick blood samples suitable for field use in conjunction with rapid HIV testing.
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An autopsy study describing causes of death and comparing clinico-pathological findings among hospitalized patients in Kampala, Uganda.
PLoS ONE
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Information on causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is mainly derived from observational cohort and verbal autopsy studies. Autopsy is the gold standard to ascertain cause of death. We conducted an autopsy study to describe and compare the clinical and autopsy causes of death and contributory findings in hospitalized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients in Uganda.
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Integration of HIV and TB services results in improved TB treatment outcomes and earlier prioritized ART initiation in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to evaluate associated TB and HIV treatment outcomes.
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Regional differences in predictive accuracy of WHO immunologic failure criteria.
AIDS
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We compared the performance of the WHO immunologic criteria for treatment failure among Uganda and American patients. Antiretroviral treatment-naive patients with a CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/?l or AIDS at enrollment on a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors-based regimen for more than 1 year were selected. For all criteria, the positive predictive value was significantly higher in the American compared with the Ugandan patients. Population-specific guidelines should be developed using large African cohorts to identify more specific and sensitive criteria.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.