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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ascorbic acid deficiency affects genes for oxidation-reduction and lipid metabolism in livers from SMP30/GNL knockout mice.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We sought to elucidate the effect of an ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency on gene expression, because the water soluble antioxidant AA is an important bioactive substance in vivo.
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Ascorbic acid prevents protein oxidation in livers of senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) mice are incapable of synthesizing L-ascorbic acid (AA) in?vivo. As AA is known to be a water-soluble anti-oxidant, we assessed protein oxidation levels in livers from SMP30/GNL KO mice maintained in an AA-insufficient condition.
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Exome sequencing of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) reveals deleterious mutations in degenerative disease-causing genes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene mutations have not yet been fully elucidated.
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Insufficient ascorbic acid intake during gestation induces abnormal cardiac dilation in fetal and neonatal SMP30/GNL knockout mice.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Despite the acknowledged importance of ascorbic acid (AA) in maintaining pregnancy and normal fetal development, its precise actions remain obscure. Therefore, we investigated the impact of maternal AA content on the growth of fetal mice during the gestation period using senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase (SMP30/GNL) knockout (KO) mice, which cannot synthesize AA in vivo.
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Abuse of people with cognitive impairment by family caregivers in Japan (a cross-sectional study).
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Caregiving is often stressful in an aging society. Our research questions were two. First, In Japan, how often does abusive behavior by the caregivers of elders with clinically mild cognitive dysfunction (mild cognitive impairment and clinically mild dementia) occur? Second, what risk factors affect the abusive behavior? We studied 123 Japanese caregivers and care recipients who had been referred to the Memory Clinic at Okayama University Hospital. We used the Japanese version of the modified Conflict Tactics Scale (m-CTS) to measure abusive behaviors. We estimate the prevalence of abusive behavior meeting threshold (m-CTS score of 2 or higher) for abuse case on the modified m-CTS. The prevalence of abusive behavior was 15.4%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the sex of caregivers and scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Zarit Caregiver Burden scale, and Addenbrookes Cognitive Examination had significant effects on the m-CTS scores. We demonstrated that in Japan, caregivers of the elderly with even clinically mild cognitive dysfunction exhibit abusive behavior toward them. The severity of the disease might reflect the prevalence of and factors that affect the abusive conflict score.
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Nanocomposite of silk fibroin nanofiber and montmorillonite: fabrication and morphology.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The purpose of our research is creating a new nanocomposite material. Generally silk fibroin (SF) is regarded as a promising base material for biomedical uses. The incorporation of montmorillonite (MMT) into SF fibers would improve physical properties of the SF fibers. We investigated a new method of combining electospun SF with MMT. Specifically, electrospun silk nanofibers were treated with methanol and dipped in a MMT suspension. We could obtain a nanosheet composite of silk nanofibers and MMT. Their ultrastructures were successfully visualized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This compound was comprised of individual silk nanofibers surrounded by thin layers of MMT, each with a thickness of about 1.2 nm. This structure was confirmed by elemental analysis. We also performed IR, NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses in conjunction with morphological data. Conclusively we obtained a new composite of silk nanofiber and MMT, which has never been reported. Using this unique nanocomposite biological tests of its application for a scaffold for tissue engineering are under way.
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Lepr(db/db) Mice with senescence marker protein-30 knockout (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-)) exhibit increases in small dense-LDL and severe fatty liver despite being fed a standard diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a 34 kDa protein originally identified in rat liver that shows decreased levels with age. Several functional studies using SMP30 knockout (Smp30(Y/-) ) mice established that SMP30 functions as an antioxidant and protects against apoptosis. To address the potential role of SMP30 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis, we established Smp30(Y/-) mice on a Lepr(db/db) background (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice). RESEARCH DESIGN/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice were fed a standard diet (340 kcal/100 g, fat 5.6%) for 16 weeks whereupon the lipid/lipoprotein profiles, hepatic expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were analyzed by HPLC, quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Changes in the liver at a histological level were also investigated. The amount of SMP30 mRNA and protein in livers was decreased in Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice compared with Lepr(db/+)Smp30(Y/+) mice. Compared with Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice, 24 week old Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice showed: i) increased small dense LDL-cho and decreased HDL-cho levels; ii) fatty liver accompanied by numerous inflammatory cells and increased oxidative stress; iii) decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (PPAR?) and lipoprotein uptake (LDLR and VLDLR) but increased CD36 levels; and iv) increased endoplasmic reticulum stress.
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Validation of the revised Addenbrookes Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) for detecting mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a Japanese population.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Early detection of dementia will be important for implementation of disease-modifying treatments in the near future. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the revised Addenbrookes Cognitive Examination (ACE-R J) for identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia.
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Perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and brain perfusion imaging in mild Alzheimers disease.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has long been used to investigate deficits in executive function in humans. The majority of studies investigating deficient WCST performance focused on the number of categories achieved (CA) and the number of perseverative errors of the Nelson type (PEN). However, there is insufficient evidence that these two measures reflect the same neural deficits.
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with the M232R mutation in the prion protein gene in two cases showing different disease courses: a clinicopathological study.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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We report two autopsy cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with the M232R mutation of the prion protein (PrP) gene that exhibited different clinicopathological features (age at death, 64/54 years; disease duration, 13/26 months). Both cases showed myoclonus, hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted MRI, and increased 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. The initial sign in each case was memory disturbance and abnormal pharyngeal sensation, respectively. In the first case, the disease progressed rapidly with akinetic mutism developing 6 months after onset, while it occurred 23 months after onset in the second case. Pathologically, both cases had severe neuronal loss with gliosis and spongiform change in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. PrP deposition was the diffuse synaptic type in the first case, but the second case had both diffuse synaptic and perivacuolar types. PrP(sc) immunoblotting revealed a type 1 band pattern in the first case, but both types 1 and 2 in the second case. Based on these findings, together with the results in previous CJD cases with M232R, we noted the possibility that the presence of type 2 PrP(sc) may be associated with both morphological features of PrP deposition and slow disease progression in this genetic prion disease.
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Suicidal ideation among patients with gender identity disorder.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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In this study, we tried to clarify the prevalence of suicidal ideation and self-mutilation including suicide attempts among patients with gender identity disorder (GID) and the relationship of those behaviors to demographic characteristics. A total of 500 consecutive Japanese GID patients without any other psychiatric comorbidity were evaluated at the outpatient GID Clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The lifetime rate of suicidal ideation was 72.0% of the total sample. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of suicidal ideation among groups divided by sex, age, age at onset or education. The lifetime prevalence of self-mutilation including suicide attempts was 31.8% of the total sample. Low level of education was significantly related to self-mutilation among both male-to-female and female-to-male GID patients. Younger age at onset was a significant factor affecting self-mutilation only among MTF GID patients. A lack of strategies to cope with severe distress among persons with lower education might induce a high frequency of self-mutilation including suicidal attempt. GID patients with a low level education might be at high risk of self-mutilation and should be watched with special attention to self-mutilation.
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Coexistence of TDP-43 and tau pathology in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1 (NBIA-1, formerly Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome).
Neuropathology
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2011
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We report here an autopsy case of sporadic adult-onset Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1 (NBIA1), without hereditary burden. A 49-year-old woman died after a 27-year disease course. At the age of 22, she suffered from akinesia, resting tremor, and rigidity. At the age of 28, she was admitted to our hospital because of worsening parkinsonism and dementia. Within several years, she developed akinetic mutism. At the age of 49, she died of bleeding from a tracheostomy. Autopsy revealed a severely atrophic brain weighing 460 g. Histologically, there were iron deposits in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and numerous axonal spheroids in the subthalamic nuclei. Neurofibrillary tangles were abundant in the hippocampus, cerebral neocortex, basal ganglia, and brain stem. Neuritic plaques and amyloid deposits were absent. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which are immunolabeled by anti-?-synuclein, were absent. We also observed the presence of TDP-43-positive neuronal perinuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, with variable frequency in the dentate gyrus granular cells, frontal and temporal cortices, and basal ganglia. TDP-43-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions were also found with variable frequency in the frontal and temporal lobes and basal ganglia. The present case was diagnosed with adult-onset NBIA-1 with typical histological findings in the basal ganglia and brainstem. However, in this case, tau and TDP-43 pathology was exceedingly more abundant than ?-synuclein pathology. This case contributes to the increasing evidence for the heterogeneity of NBIA-1.
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Kana Pick-out Test and brain perfusion imaging in Alzheimers disease.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which was developed in Japan, is suitable for evaluating frontal lobe function and screening for mild dementia. However, the neural substrates involved remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to identify the regional perfusion patterns in the brain associated with performance scores on the KPT in patients with mild Alzheimers disease (AD), using brain perfusion assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
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Defective glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan contributes to podocyte flattening.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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In addition to skeletal muscle and the nervous system, ?-dystroglycan is found in the podocyte basal membrane, stabilizing these cells on the glomerular basement membrane. Fukutin, named after the gene responsible for Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, is a putative glycosyltransferase required for the post-translational modification of ?-dystroglycan. Chimeric mice targeted for both alleles of fukutin develop severe muscular dystrophy; however, these mice do not have proteinuria. Despite the lack of a functional renal defect, we evaluated glomerular structure and found minor abnormalities in the chimeric mice by light microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed flattening of podocyte foot processes, the number of which was significantly lower in the chimeric compared to wild-type mice. A monoclonal antibody against the laminin-binding carbohydrate residues of ?-dystroglycan did not detect ?-dystroglycan glycosylation in the glomeruli by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry. In contrast, expression of the core ?-dystroglycan protein was preserved. There was no statistical difference in dystroglycan mRNA expression or in the amount of nephrin and ?3-integrin protein in the chimeric compared to the wild-type mice as judged by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Thus, our results indicate that appropriate glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan has an important role in the maintenance of podocyte architecture.
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Psychiatric comorbidity among patients with gender identity disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Psychiatric comorbidity and mental instability seem to be important unfavorable prognostic factors for long-term psychosocial adjustment in gender identity disorder (GID). However, psychiatric comorbidity in patients with GID has rarely been assessed. In this study, we investigated the psychiatric comorbidity and life events of patients with GID in Japan.
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Repetitive questioning behavior in Alzheimers disease: relationship to regional cerebral blood flow.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Repetitive questioning is among the most common and burdensome of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimers disease (AD). Regardless of the clinical significance of the repetitive questioning, the neural substrates involved remain unclear. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with AD participated in this study. The score of repetitive questioning behavior was evaluated by multiplying the severity by the frequency of the behavior. They underwent brain SPECT with (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer. Scores of repetitive questioning behavior had a significant positive correlation with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral pericallosal regions. After removing the effect of memory test scores, we found a significant positive correlation of scores of repetitive questioning behavior to rCBF in the left pericallosal region. The pericallosal region includes the upper precuneus, cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortices on 3DSRT. Repetitive questioning behavior among AD patients might be a manifestation of mental state associated with a relative increase or preservation of rCBF in the left pericallosal region.
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Determination of dehydroascorbic acid in mouse tissues and plasma by using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride as reductant in metaphosphoric acid/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Ascorbic acid (AA) has a strong anti-oxidant function evident as its ability to scavenge superoxide radicals in vitro. Moreover, AA is an essential ingredient for post-translational proline hydroxylation of collagen molecules. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), the oxidized form of AA, is generated from these reactions. In this study, we describe an improved method for assessing DHA in biological samples. The use of 35 mM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) as a reductant completely reduced DHA to AA after 2 h on ice in a 5% solution of metaphosphoric acid containing 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 1.5. This method enabled us to measure the DHA content in multiple tissues and plasma of 6-weeks-old mice. The percentages of DHA per total AA differed markedly among these tissues, i.e., from 0.8 to 19.5%. The lung, heart, spleen and plasma had the highest levels at more than 10% of DHA per total AA content, whereas the cerebrum, cerebellum, liver, kidney and small intestine had less than 5% of DHA per total AA content. This difference in DHA content may indicate an important disparity of oxidative stress levels among physiologic sites. Therefore, this improved method provides a useful standard for all DHA determinations.
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Wisconsin card sorting test and brain perfusion imaging in early dementia.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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The presence of frontal or executive deficits in patients even at early stages of dementia is now widely recognized. We investigated the relationship between the scores of the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and brain perfusion in patients with early dementia.
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Stress-coping strategies of patients with gender identity disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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Previous research has not addressed gender differences in coping strategies among patients with gender identity disorder (GID). Nor has the relationship of coping strategies to other demographic characteristics ever been clarified in GID. In this study, we tried to clarify the relationship between stress-coping strategies and demographic characteristics among patients with GID.
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Frontal assessment battery and brain perfusion imaging in early dementia.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is reported to be a useful tool for screening frontal function. However, the neural substrates involved remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to identify the brain regions responsible for FAB performance in patients with early dementia. We sought a correlation between FAB scores and brain perfusion.
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Ascorbic acid enhances the expression of type 1 and type 4 collagen and SVCT2 in cultured human skin fibroblasts.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Ascorbic acid (AA) is essential for collagen biosynthesis as a cofactor for prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase and as a stimulus for collagen gene expression. Many studies have evaluated the relationship between AA and collagen expression in short- and long-term effects on cells after a single administration of AA into the culture medium. However, no such study has monitored in detail the stability of AA in medium or the alterations of intracellular AA levels during a protracted interval. Therefore, we examined here intracellular AA levels and stability throughout its exposure to human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Moreover, we determined the effects on type 1 and type 4 collagen and sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) gene expression when medium containing 100 ?M AA was replaced every 24h for 5 days to avoid depletion of AA. Throughout this long-term culture, intracellular AA levels remained constant; the expression of type 1 and type 4 collagens and SVCT2 mRNA was enhanced, and type 1 procollagen synthesis increased. Thus, these results indicate that human skin fibroblasts exposed to AA over time had rising levels of type 1/type 4 collagens and SVCT2 mRNA expression and type 1 procollagen synthesis.
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Factors predicting psychiatric co-morbidity in gender-dysphoric adults.
Psychiatry Res
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Persons with gender identity disorder (GID) often suffer from psychiatric co-morbidity, and it is an important prognostic factor for long-term psychosocial adjustment in GID. However, previous research has not addressed the risk factors of psychiatric co-morbidity. In this study, we tried to clarify the risk factors among individuals with GID in Japan. A total of 326 consecutive GID persons were evaluated independently by two senior psychiatrists at the GID clinic using personal clinical interviews and results of examinations. The prevalence of current psychiatric co-morbidity was 17.8% of the total sample. School refusal was significantly associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Sexual attraction to neither males nor females among GID persons and sexual attraction to females among male-to-female (MtF) GID persons were also significantly related to psychiatric co-morbidity. This is the first report to demonstrate a close relationship between patterns of sexual orientation and psychiatric co-morbidity among GID persons. We should pay more attention to psychiatric co-morbidity, especially among GID persons with non-homosexual sexual orientations.
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Picks disease.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
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Picks disease is a major clinicopathological disease having circumscribed atrophy in the frontotemporal lobe. Demented patients with frontotemporal atrophy are now clinically diagnosed as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Other underlying pathologies in patients with FTLD include FTLD with TDP-43-positive inclusions, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, basophilic inclusion body disease, neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease and argyrophilic grain disease. In this chapter, recent findings regarding the distinct clinical and histopathological features of these pathological disease entities are presented including the discussion on the possibility of future antemortem diagnosis of patients with the disease.In this chapter, recent findings regarding the distinct clinical and histopathological features of these pathological disease entities are presented including the discussion on the possibility of future antemortem diagnosis of patients with the disease.
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School refusal by patients with gender identity disorder.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
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The accumulating evidence suggests that school refusal behavior is associated with severe negative outcomes. However, previous research has not addressed school refusal by patients with gender identity disorder (GID). In this study, we tried to clarify the prevalence of school refusal among GID patients and the relationship of school refusal to demographic characteristics.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.