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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand transforms CpG into a multitask nanoparticulate TLR9 agonist.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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CpG DNA, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), has been one of the most promising immunotherapeutic agents. Although there are several types of potent humanized CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), developing "all-in-one" CpG ODNs activating both B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells forming a stable nanoparticle without aggregation has not been successful. In this study, we generated a novel nanoparticulate K CpG ODN (K3) wrapped by the nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG. In sharp contrast to K3 alone, K3-SPG stimulates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce a large amount of both type I and type II IFN, targeting the same endosome where IFN-inducing D CpG ODN resides without losing its K-type activity. K3-SPG thus became a potent adjuvant for induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly CTL induction, to coadministered protein antigens without conjugation. Such potent adjuvant activity of K3-SPG is attributed to its nature of being a nanoparticle rather than targeting Dectin-1 by SPG, accumulating and activating antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. K3-SPG acting as an influenza vaccine adjuvant was demonstrated in vivo in both murine and nonhuman primate models. Taken together, K3-SPG may be useful for immunotherapeutic applications that require type I and type II IFN as well as CTL induction.
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Contrasting infection susceptibility of the Japanese macaques and cynomolgus macaques to closely related malaria parasites, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Although the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is closely related to Asian Old World monkey malaria parasites, there are no reports of P. vivax infections in macaques. In this study, we compared the infectivity of P. vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The Japanese macaques were highly susceptible to P. cynomolgi but not to P. vivax, whereas cynomolgus macaques showed mild/limited P. cynomolgi infection and were, also, not susceptible to P. vivax. Serotyping and amino acid sequence comparison of erythrocyte surface Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC) indicates that the Japanese macaque DARC sequence is nearly identical to that of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques. This suggests that the macaques share a common mechanism for preventing P. vivax infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the Duffy-binding-like (DBL) domain from several different Plasmodium species suggests that P. vivax DBLs will not bind to macaque DARCs, which can explain the lack of P. vivax infectivity. The DBL sequence analyses also suggest that P. cynomolgi DBLs may target Japanese macaque erythrocytes through a DARC-independent interaction.
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Demonstration of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate model for secondary dengue virus infection: high levels of viraemia and serotype cross-reactive antibody responses consistent with secondary infection of humans.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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There are four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. Primary infection with one does not confer protective immunity against the others. We have previously reported that the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a useful primary DENV infection model. It has been reported that secondary DENV infection with a heterotypic serotype induces viremia kinetics and antibody responses that differ from those in primary infection. Thus, it is important to determine the utility of the marmoset as a model for secondary DENV infection. Marmosets were infected with heterologous DENV in secondary inoculation and, viremia kinetics and antibody responses were analyzed. Marmosets consistently developed high levels of viremia after secondary inoculation with heterologous DENV serotypes. IgM responses were lower as compared to primary inoculation, while IgG responses were rapid and, high levels of IgG was induced. Serotype cross-reactive neutralizing activities were detected as early as 4 days after inoculation. In addition, viremia titers were higher when assayed with Fc?R-expressing BHK cells, than when assayed with conventional Fc?R-negative BHK cells, suggesting the presence of infectious virus-antibody immune complex. After secondary infection with heterotypic DENV, marmosets demonstrated viremia kinetics, IgM and IgG responses, and high levels of serotype cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses, all of which were consistent with secondary DENV infection in humans. The results indicate the marmoset to be a useful animal for studying secondary, as well as primary, DENV infection.
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Induction of toxin-specific neutralizing immunity by molecularly uniform rice-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine without plant-associated sugar modification.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Plants have been used as expression systems for a number of vaccines. However, the expression of vaccines in plants sometimes results in unexpected modification of the vaccines by N-terminal blocking and sugar-chain attachment. Although MucoRice-CTB was thought to be the first cold-chain-free and unpurified oral vaccine, the molecular heterogeneity of MucoRice-CTB, together with plant-based sugar modifications of the CTB protein, has made it difficult to assess immunological activity of vaccine and yield from rice seed. Using a T-DNA vector driven by a prolamin promoter and a signal peptide added to an overexpression vaccine cassette, we established MucoRice-CTB/Q as a new generation oral cholera vaccine for humans use. We confirmed that MucoRice-CTB/Q produces a single CTB monomer with an Asn to Gln substitution at the 4th glycosylation position. The complete amino acid sequence of MucoRice-CTB/Q was determined by MS/MS analysis and the exact amount of expressed CTB was determined by SDS-PAGE densitometric analysis to be an average of 2.35 mg of CTB/g of seed. To compare the immunogenicity of MucoRice-CTB/Q, which has no plant-based glycosylation modifications, with that of the original MucoRice-CTB/N, which is modified with a plant N-glycan, we orally immunized mice and macaques with the two preparations. Similar levels of CTB-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies with toxin-neutralizing activity were induced in mice and macaques orally immunized with MucoRice-CTB/Q or MucoRice-CTB/N. These results show that the molecular uniformed MucoRice-CTB/Q vaccine without plant N-glycan has potential as a safe and efficacious oral vaccine candidate for human use.
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Dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus infection.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In this study, we examined the dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a marmoset model. Here, we found that DENV infection in marmosets greatly induced responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. Interestingly, the strength of the immune response was greater in animals infected with a dengue fever strain than in those infected with a dengue hemorrhagic fever strain of DENV. In contrast, when animals were re-challenged with the same DENV strain used for primary infection, the neutralizing antibody induced appeared to play a critical role in sterilizing inhibition against viral replication, resulting in strong but delayed responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. The results in this study may help to better understand the dynamics of cellular and humoral immune responses in the control of DENV infection.
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TLR9 adjuvants enhance immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the SE36/AHG malaria vaccine in nonhuman primate models.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The SE36 antigen, derived from serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5) of Plasmodium falciparum, is a promising blood stage malaria vaccine candidate. Ongoing clinical trials suggest the efficacy of the SE36 vaccine could be increased by the incorporation of more effective adjuvants into the vaccine formulation. In this study, we assessed the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of SE36/AHG formulated with TLR9 ligand adjuvants K3 CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides (CpG ODNs) (K3 ODN), D3 ODN or synthetic hemozoin, in two non-human primate models. SE36/AHG with or without each adjuvant was administrated to cynomolgus monkeys. A combination of TLR9 ligand adjuvant with SE36/AHG induced higher humoral and cellular immune response compared with SE36/AHG alone. Administration of a crude extract of P. falciparum parasite resulted in the induction of more SE36-specific IgG antibodies in monkeys vaccinated with a combination of SE36/AHG and adjuvant, as opposed to vaccination with SE36/AHG alone. The most effective TLR9 ligand, K3 ODN, was chosen for further vaccine trials in squirrel monkeys, in combination with SE36/AHG. All monkeys immunized with the combined SE36/AHG and K3 ODN formulation effectively suppressed parasitemia and symptoms of malaria following challenge infections. Furthermore, no serious adverse events were observed. Our results show that the novel vaccine formulation of K3 ODN with SE36/AHG demonstrates safety, potent immunogenicity and efficacy in nonhuman primates, and this vaccine formulation may form the basis of a more effective malaria vaccine.
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Long-Term Persistent GBV-B Infection and Development of a Chronic and Progressive Hepatitis C-Like Disease in Marmosets.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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It has been shown that infection of GB virus B (GBV-B), which is closely related to hepatitis C virus, develops acute self-resolving hepatitis in tamarins. In this study we sought to examine longitudinally the dynamics of viral and immunological status following GBV-B infection of marmosets and tamarins. Surprisingly, two of four marmosets but not tamarins experimentally challenged with GBV-B developed long-term chronic infection with fluctuated viremia, recurrent increase of alanine aminotransferase and plateaued titers of the antiviral antibodies, which was comparable to chronic hepatitis C in humans. Moreover, one of the chronically infected marmosets developed an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis as revealed by biochemical, histological, and immunopathological analyses. Of note, periodical analyses of the viral genomes in these marmosets indicated frequent and selective non-synonymous mutations, suggesting efficient evasion of the virus from antiviral immune pressure. These results demonstrated for the first time that GBV-B could induce chronic hepatitis C-like disease in marmosets and that the outcome of the viral infection and disease progression may depend on the differences between species and individuals.
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Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1) detected from a Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata).
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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We demonstrate here the identification and phylogenetic characterization of Babesia microti (B. microti)-like parasite detected from a splenectomized Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at a facility for laboratory animal science. On Day 133 after splenectomy, intra-erythrocytic parasites were found on light microscopic examination, and the level of parasitemia reached 0.3% on blood smear. Molecular characterization of the parasite using nested-polymerization chain reactions targeting the 18S rRNA, ?-tubulin, and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes were identified as a B. microti-like parasite, designated the Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1).
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Evaluation of the NOW Malaria Immunochromatographic Test for Quantitative Diagnosis of Falciparum and Vivax Malaria Parasite Density.
Trop Med Health
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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The NOW® Malaria Test, an immunochromatographic test (ICT), was evaluated to determine its ability to quantitatively detect malaria parasites using 100 blood samples from Thailand, including 50 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections and 50 P. vivax (Pv) infections. Intensities of the thickness of the visible bands of the positive ICT were compared with the parasite densities. In cases of Pf infection, the intensities of both HRP-2 bands (T1 bands: Pf specific bands) and aldolase bands (T2 bands: pan-Plasmodium bands) correlated with the parasite densities. The intensities of T2 bands in Pf positive samples showed better correlation with the parasite densities than the T1 bands. In the cases of Pv infection, the intensities of T2 bands were also well correlated with parasite density. These results suggest that the ICT is useful not only for rapid detection of malaria parasites but also for estimating parasite density.
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CD16(+) natural killer cells play a limited role against primary dengue virus infection in tamarins.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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CD16 is a major molecule expressed on NK cells. To directly assess the role of natural killer (NK) cells in dengue virus (DENV) infection in vivo, CD16 antibody-treated tamarins were inoculated with a DENV-2 strain. This resulted in the transient depletion of CD16(+) NK cells, whereas no significant effects on the overall levels or kinetics of plasma viral loads and antiviral antibodies were observed in the treated monkeys when compared to control monkeys. It remains elusive whether the CD16(-) NK subpopulation could play an important role in the control of primary DENV infection.
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Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a primate model of dengue virus infection: development of high levels of viraemia and demonstration of protective immunity.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Dengue virus (DENV) causes a wide range of illnesses in humans: dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Animal models that constantly develop high levels of viraemia are required for the development of protective and preventive measures. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) demonstrated high levels of viraemia after inoculation with clinical isolates of four serotypes of DENV; in particular, over 10(6) genome copies ml(-1) after inoculation with DENV-2. Non-structural protein 1 and DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were consistently detected. The DENV-2 genome was detected in lymphoid organs including the lymph nodes, spleen and thymus, and also in non-lymphoid organs. DENV antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the liver and spleen from inoculated marmosets. Four marmosets were reinoculated with DENV-2 at 33 weeks after primary inoculation with DENV-2. The DENV-2 genome was not detected in any of these marmosets, indicating protection from a secondary infection. The results indicate that common marmosets are highly sensitive to DENV infection, and suggest that marmosets could be a reliable primate model for the evaluation of candidate vaccines.
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Serotype-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys after infection with multiple dengue virus serotypes.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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Neutralizing antibody responses were examined in monkeys after dengue virus infections. In monkeys that had been infected once or twice with DENV-2, neutralizing antibody was cross-reactive with all four serotypes after secondary or tertiary infection with DENV-3. In monkeys that had been inoculated with DENV-1 and DENV-2 in the primary and secondary infections, neutralizing antibody titers did not increase after tertiary infection with DENV-3. These results indicate that antibody responses after secondary and tertiary infections with different serotypes are cross-reactive with all four serotypes, consistent with what has been observed in humans, and suggest that monkeys are useful for determining neutralizing antibody responses.
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In vivo molecular imaging analysis of a nasal vaccine that induces protective immunity against botulism in nonhuman primates.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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Nasal administration is an effective route for a needle-free vaccine. However, nasally administered Ags have the potential to reach the CNS directly from the nasal cavity, thus raising safety concerns. In this study, we performed real-time quantitative tracking of a nasal vaccine candidate for botulism, which is a nontoxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoHc/A) effective in the induction of the toxin-neutralizing immune response, by using (18)F-labeled BoHc/A-positron-emission tomography, an in vivo molecular imaging method. This method provides results that are consistent with direct counting of [(18)F] radioactivity or the traditional [(111)In]-radiolabel method in dissected tissues of mice and nonhuman primates. We found no deposition of BoHc/A in the cerebrum or olfactory bulb after nasal administration of (18)F-labeled BoHc/A in both animals. We also established a real-time quantitative profile of elimination of this nasal vaccine candidate and demonstrated that it induces highly protective immunity against botulism in nonhuman primates. Our findings demonstrate the efficiency and safety of a nasal vaccine candidate against botulism in mice and nonhuman primates using in vivo molecular imaging.
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A rice-based oral cholera vaccine induces macaque-specific systemic neutralizing antibodies but does not influence pre-existing intestinal immunity.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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We previously showed that oral immunization of mice with a rice-based vaccine expressing cholera toxin (CT) B subunit (MucoRice-CT-B) induced CT-specific immune responses with toxin-neutralizing activity in both systemic and mucosal compartments. In this study, we examined whether the vaccine can induce CT-specific Ab responses in nonhuman primates. Orally administered MucoRice-CT-B induced high levels of CT-neutralizing serum IgG Abs in the three cynomolgus macaques we immunized. Although the Ab level gradually decreased, detectable levels were maintained for at least 6 mo, and high titers were rapidly recovered after an oral booster dose of the rice-based vaccine. In contrast, no serum IgE Abs against rice storage protein were induced even after multiple immunizations. Additionally, before immunization the macaques harbored intestinal secretory IgA (SIgA) Abs that reacted with both CT and homologous heat-labile enterotoxin produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and had toxin-neutralizing activity. The SIgA Abs were present in macaques 1 mo to 29 years old, and the level was not enhanced after oral vaccination with MucoRice-CT-B or after subsequent oral administration of the native form of CT. These results show that oral MucoRice-CT-B can effectively induce CT-specific, neutralizing, serum IgG Ab responses even in the presence of pre-existing CT- and heat-labile enterotoxin-reactive intestinal SIgA Abs in nonhuman primates.
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Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade.
Nat. Genet.
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P. cynomolgi, a malaria-causing parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of P. vivax, the most prevalent malaria-causing species in humans outside of Africa. Because P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biological and genetic characteristics with P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences for three P. cynomolgi strains and performed genomic analysis comparing them with the P. vivax genome, as well as with the genome of a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here, we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by copy-number variants (CNVs) in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation that can be used to map parasite traits and study parasite populations. The sequencing of the P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research and in counteracting the neglect of P. vivax.
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Changes in hematological and serum biochemical parameters in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after inoculation with dengue virus.
J. Med. Primatol.
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Marmosets are susceptible to dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, blood parameter data and clinical signs of DENV-infected marmosets are limited.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.