Abstract Objective. This study aimed to investigate the surface roughness of composite resins subjected to thermal cycles procedure. Materials and methods. Two microfill, four microhybrid and four nanofill composites were used. The surface roughness (Ra) was initially measured in a profilometer using a cut-off 0f 0.25 mm, after 3000 and 10,000 thermal cycles. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Fischer's test (? = 0.05). Results. Overall, 3000 thermal cycles increased the surface roughness values for all materials and there was a trend in all groups to decrease the roughness after 10,000 thermal cycles. Conclusions. The composition of material, including the type of organic matrix, could be more relevant to roughness maintenance over time than the general behavior of composites based on particles fillers. The maintenance of smooth surface in resin-based composite restorations is totally dependent of organic composition of the material.
Abstract Background: The toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) may be related to the immune system. The objective of this study was to obtain information for immunotoxic mechanisms of MWCNT in situ.
The present investigation was undertaken to determine the distribution and accumulation of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) in the blood, lung, liver, kidney, and abdominal fat of rats during and after inhalation exposure. Male rats were exposed to 80 or 500 ppm (v/v) DCP vapor for 360 min and the concentrations of DCP in the blood and tissues during the inhalation exposure period and after the end of the exposure period were measured. DCP accumulation in the abdominal fat was much greater than that in the blood and other tissues. Eighteen hours after the end of inhalation exposure, DCP could still be detected in the abdominal fat in the 80-ppm group, and in the blood, liver, kidney, and abdominal fat in the 500-ppm group. Our results are valuable data pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of DCP and to human health risk assessment of exposure to DCP vapor by inhalation.
Abstract Cancer development due to fiber-like straight type of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has raised concerns for human safety because of its shape similar to asbestos. To set concentrations of MWCNT for a rat carcinogenicity study, we conducted a 13-week whole body inhalation study. F344 male and female rats, 6-week-old at the commencement of the study, were exposed by whole-body inhalation to MWCNT at concentrations of 0, 0.2, 1 and 5?mg/m(3) with a generation and exposure system utilizing the cyclone sieve method. Measured concentrations in the exposure chambers were 0.20?±?0.02, 1.01?±?0.11 and 5.02?±?0.25?mg/m(3) for 13 weeks. The MMAD (GSD) of MWCNT were 1.4-1.6??m (2.3-3.0), and mean width and length were 94.1-98.0?nm and 5.53-6.19??m, respectively, for each target concentration. Lung weights were increased 1.2-fold with 1?mg/m(3) and 1.3-fold with 5?mg/m(3) in both sexes compared to the controls. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analyses, inflammatory parameters were increased concentration-dependently in both sexes from 0.2?mg/m(3). Granulomatous changes in the lung were induced at 1 and 5?mg/m(3) in females and even at 0.2?mg/m(3) in males. Focal fibrosis of the alveolar wall was observed in both sexes at 1?mg/m(3) or higher. Inflammatory infiltration in the visceral pleural and subpleural areas was induced only at 5?mg/m(3). In conclusion, we determined 0.2?mg/m(3) as the low-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for respiratory tract toxicity in the present inhalation exposure study of rats.
The carcinogenicity of inhaled dichloromethane (DCM) was examined by exposing groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj: BDF1 mice of both sexes to 0, 1000, 2000, or 4000 ppm (w/w) DCM-containing aerosol for 2 years. Inhalation of DCM resulted in increased incidences of subcutis fibromas, mammary gland fibroadenoma, and peritoneum mesotheliomas in male rats; mammary gland fibroadenomas in female rats; and bronchiolar-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas in the lung and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male and female mice. These results clearly indicate that inhaled DCM is carcinogenic in F344/DuCrj (SPF) rats and Crj: BDF1 (SPF) mice.
The mechanical properties of the adhesive materials used in intraradicular treatments could vary according to the interaction between the restorative material and dentin substrate. An evaluation of these properties is essential to determine the success of the luting procedures performed on glass-fiber posts.
Harderian gland tumors are extremely rare in female F344 rats. An expansive enlarging lesion of the Harderian gland with compression, distortion and invasion of the surrounding muscle was found in a 110-week-old female F344/DuCrj rat, which was diagnosed as a Harderian gland adenocarcinoma. Epithelial growth patterns such as glandular, lobular, papillary and duct forming patterns were exhibited in most areas of the tumor. The tumor cells were pleomorphic and atypical. In one part of the tumor, poorly differentiated areas were found. This case was observed in the middle dose group of a carcinogenicity study of diphenylamine, which was not carcinogenic, we determine to be this case was a spontaneous tumor.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimers disease (AD). DLB is characterised by intracytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies that are often seen in the brainstem. Because modulation of the respiratory rhythm is one of the most important functions of the brainstem, patients with DLB may exhibit dysrhythmic breathing. This hypothesis has not yet been systematically studied. Therefore, we evaluated the association between DLB and dysrhythmic breathing.
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)s are suspected to induce pulmonary and pleural cancers due to their asbestos-like configurations. Therefore, accurate measurement of inhaled nanotubes in target organs is crucial for assessing cancer risk. Conventionally, nanotubes are measured after combustion at high temperature for conversion into CO2; however, the sensitivity is poor and the method lacks versatility. We have therefore developed a novel approach using hybrid markers for nanotube analysis, featuring high sensitivity and the capacity to conduct repeated analyses. The method involves adsorption of markers to nanotubes, followed by their desorption and assessment by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
The subchronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) in male and female B6D2F1 mice exposed to DCP by inhalation for 13 weeks or for 2 years was investigated. The DCP concentrations used were 50, 100, 200, 300 or 400?ppm (v/v) in the 13-week study, and 32, 80 or 200?ppm (v/v) in the 2-year study. Thirteen weeks inhalation exposure of mice to DCP caused death in the mice exposed to 300?ppm and above, and was found to induce hemolytic anemia and lesions of the liver, forestomach and heart. Two years exposure to DCP significantly increased the combined incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas in females and marginally increased the incidence of Harderian gland adenomas in males. As non-neoplastic lesion, atrophy and respiratory metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium, and respiratory metaplasia in the submucosal gland of the nasal cavity were increased. Thus, two years inhalation exposure to DCP is carcinogenic in female mice and there is a marginal evidence of carcinogenicity in males.
Carcinogenicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) was examined by an inhalation exposure of F344 rats and BDF1 mice of both sexes to TCE at 0, 200, 800 or 3200?ppm for 6?h/d, 5?d/week for 104 weeks. In male rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and peritoneal mesotheliomas were significantly increased in the 800 and 3200?ppm-exposed groups, respectively. The incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas in the 3200?ppm-exposed groups exceeded the range of historical control data in the Japan Bioassay Research Center. In female rats, the tumor incidences were not increased in any organs of the TCE-exposed groups. In male mice, a significant positive trend with dose was shown for incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinomas, combined incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas/carcinomas and hepatocellular adenomas. The incidence of Harderian gland adenomas was significantly increased in the 3200?ppm-exposed group, and malignant lymphomas of spleen at this highest dose exceeded the range of historical control data. In female mice, the combined incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas/carcinomas was significantly increased in the 3200?ppm-exposed group, and the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and combined incidences of hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas were significantly increased in the 200, 800 and 3200?ppm-exposed groups with dose dependence except the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in the 200?ppm-exposed group. The incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas in the 3200?ppm-exposed group and combined incidences of hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in the 200?ppm-exposed groups exceeded the ranges of historical control data. Thus, this study provided clear evidence of inhalation carcinogenicity for TCE in both rats and mice.
Abstract Because the primary route of human exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is via inhalation, a new dry MWCNT aerosol generation and exposure system for whole-body inhalation exposure using a cyclone and sieve has been developed. The system was tested for operational performance at 0.2, 1 and 5 mg/m(3). Additionally, it was examined whether this system can be employed in animal whole-body inhalation studies by exposing rats to MWCNT aerosol for 6 h at 5 mg/m(3). The system could consistently provide aerosols with a similar particle size distribution and configuration at all the target exposure concentrations. Almost all MWCNTs were fibrous, and the presence of many well-dispersed, nano-sized particles was confirmed. Additionally, the animal study revealed that large amounts of MWCNTs were inhaled into the lung, resulting in an inflammatory response, with increased LDH and albumin levels, and granulomatous change. Therefore, the aerosol generation and exposure system appears useful for MWCNT inhalation studies using rats.
To evaluate pulmonary toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), F344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to 0.2, 1 or 5 mg/m(3) MWCNT aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks using a whole-body exposure system. At the end of the 2-week exposure period, one-half of the rats were necropsied, and at the end of an additional 4-week postexposure period, the remaining rats were necropsied. MWCNTs were deposited in the lungs of all MWCNT-exposed groups and mostly remained in the lungs throughout the 4-week postexposure period. Granulomatous changes in the lung were found in the rats exposed to 5 mg/m(3) MWCNTs, and these changes were slightly aggravated at the end of the 4-week postexposure period. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the numbers of neutrophils, percentages of bi- and multinucleated alveolar macrophages, levels of ALP activity and concentrations of total protein and albumin were elevated in the rats exposed to 1 and 5 mg/m(3) MWCNTs. At the end of the 4-week postexposure period, the values of the BALF parameters tended to remain elevated. In addition, goblet cell hyperplasias in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx were observed in the rats exposed to 1 and 5 mg/m(3) MWCNTs, but these lesions had largely regressed by the end of the postexposure period. Based on the histopathological and inflammatory changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for inhalation of MWCNTs for 2 weeks was 0.2 mg/m(3).
The biologic width is an essential dental space that always needs to be maintained to ensure periodontal health in any dental prosthetic restorations. An iatrogenic partial fixed prosthesis constructed in lower posterior teeth predisposed the development of subgingival caries, which induced violation of the biologic width in involved teeth, resulting in an uncontrolled inflammatory process and periodontal tissue destruction. This clinical report describes a periodontal surgical technique to recover a violated biologic width in lower posterior teeth, by crown lengthening procedure associated with free gingival graft procedure, to ensure the possibility to place a modified partial fixed prosthesis in treated area. The procedure applied to recover the biologic width was crown lengthening with some modifications, associated with modified partial fixed prosthesis to achieve health in treated area. The modified techniques in both surgical and prosthetic procedures were applied to compensate the contraindications to recover biologic width by osteotomy in lower posterior teeth. The result, after 4 years under periodic control, seems to achieve the projected goal. Treating a dental diseased area is necessary to diagnose, eliminate, or control all etiologic factors involved in the process. When the traditional methods are not effective to recover destructed tissues, an alternative, compensatory, and adaptive procedure may be applied to restore the sequelae of the disease, applying a restorative method that respects the biology of involved tissues.
In order to assess the extrapulmonary effects of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), deposition of MWCNT and histopathologic changes in lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN) were examined in MWCNT-administered rats. At the age of 13 wk, male F344 rats were intratracheally instilled with MWCNT at a dose of 0 (vehicle), 40 or 160 ?g/rat. The rats were sacrificed on Day 1, 7, 28 or 91 after instillation and light microscopic examinations were performed on LALN tissues. MWCNT was translocated to right and left posterior mediastinal lymph nodes and parathymic lymph nodes. Deposition of MWCNT was greater in the posterior mediastinal lymph node than in the parathymic lymph node, and the amount of MWCNT deposited in these two lymph nodes increased gradually and dose-dependently with time. MWCNT was phagocytosed by nodal macrophages, and some of the MWCNT-laden macrophages were aggregated. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation confirmed the presence of MWCNT fibers with a characteristic multi-walled cylindrical structure.
The toxicity and carcinogenicity of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) were examined by inhalation exposure of male and female F344 rats to DCP for either 13 wk or 2 years. In the 13-wk study, the DCP concentrations used were 125, 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 ppm (v/v), and in the 2-year study the DCP concentrations were 80, 200, or 500 ppm (v/v). Thirteen-week exposure to DCP induced hyperplasia in the respiratory epithelium and atrophy of the olfactory epithelium at 125 ppm and above. At the higher levels of exposure, hemolytic anemia and lesions of liver and adrenal gland were observed. Two-year exposure to DCP significantly increased incidences of papilloma in the nasal cavity of male and female rats exposed to 500 ppm DCP. In addition, three cases of esthesioneuroepithelioma were observed in the DCP-exposed male rats. Total nasal tumors increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium and squamous cell hyperplasia, both of which were morphologically different from the hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium observed in the 13-wk exposure study, occurred in a concentration-dependent manner; these lesions are considered to be preneoplastic lesions. Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium, inflammation of the respiratory epithelium, and squamous cell metaplasia were also seen in the 2-year study. These results demonstrate that DCP is a nasal carcinogen in rats. Lifetime cancer risks for humans exposed to DCP in the ambient air and work environment were quantitatively estimated, using both nonthreshold and threshold approaches, with the data obtained from the 2-year study.
The aim of the study was to verify the influence of surface sealants on the surface roughness of resin composite restorations before and after mechanical toothbrushing, and evaluate the superficial topography using atomic force microscope. Five surface sealers were used: Single Bond, Opti Bond Solo Plus, Fortify, Fortify Plus and control, without any sealer agent. The lowest values of surface roughness were obtained for control, Single Bond and Fortify groups before toothbrushing. Fortify and Fortify Plus were the sealer agents that support the abrasive action caused by the toothbrushing although Fortify Plus group remained with high values of surface roughness. The application of specific surface sealants could be a useful clinical procedure to maintain the quality of resin-based composite restorations.
In order to assess pulmonary toxicity of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), male F344 rats were intratracheally instilled with MWCNT suspension at a dose of 40 or 160 ?g/head or ?-quartz particles as a positive control at a dose of 160 ?g/head and sacrificed for lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analyses on Day 1, 7, 28 or 91 after instillation. Well-dispersed MWCNT brought about dose- or time-dependent changes in lung weight, total proteins, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in the BAL fluid, and pulmonary lesions including inflammation, Type II cell hyperplasia, microgranulomas and fibrosis. Phagocytosed and free forms of MWCNT were found in both bronchiolar and alveolar spaces. MWCNT deposition in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue gradually increased after instillation. Persistent infiltration of macrophages, transient infiltration of inflammatory cells primarily composed of neutrophils, microgranulomas associated with macrophages engulfing MWCNT, Type II cell hyperplasia and fibrosis with alveolar wall thickening as well as number of multinucleated alveolar macrophages increased dose-dependently. The MWCNT-induced lesions were more potent on Day 91 than the ?-quartz-induced ones at an equal mass dose. The present results for intratracheally instilled MWCNT were extrapolated to potential inhalation exposure of humans to MWCNT at workplaces based on several assumptions.
We report the findings regarding a 70-year-old man with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. He presented with a chief complaint of inability to recall any events. He had been well until one month before admission, and then he abruptly began to show progressive amnesia. At admission, the patients score on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R) showed a decline to 13/30, thus indicating the existence of severe disorientation and an impaired memory. The brain CT and EEG showed no specific abnormalities and an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed only a mild increase in the total protein level. A chest X-ray film revealed a mass in the right hilum, while a histological analysis of the biopsied specimen finally established a diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma. The FDG-PET and the enhanced brain MRI showed a single small metastatic lesion in the cerebellum. After the 1st course of chemotherapy and whole brain radiation, cognitive function, especially the short-term memory, remarkably improved and the HDS-R score increased to 21/30. However, the tumor again increased in size during the 3(rd) and 4(th) courses of chemotherapy. Interestingly, cognitive function also worsened again and the score of HDS-R declined to 15/30, 20 weeks after the start of chemotherapy. Limbic encephalitis can be associated with malignant tumors, such as small cell lung carcinoma, and some reported cases have shown a cognitive improvement after tumor therapy. In our case, we also observed a reworsening of the cognitive function in association with the acquired chemoresistence.
Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of 1,4-dioxane were examined by inhalation exposure of 50 male F344 rats to 1,4-dioxane vapor at 0 (clean air), 50, 250, or 1250 ppm (v/v) for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk, and 104 wk. Survival rates of 250 and 1250 ppm-exposed groups were decreased near the end of the 2-yr exposure period, due probably to the occurrence of malignant tumors. A statistically significant but marginal decrement of terminal body weight (<10%) was found in the 1250 ppm-exposed group, suggesting slight systemic toxicity. Significant changes in plasma levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and gamma-GTP and relative weight of the liver occurred in the 1250 ppm-exposed group. Dose-dependent and statistically significant increases in incidences of nasal squamous cell carcinomas, hepatocellular adenomas, and peritoneal mesotheliomas were found primarily in the 1250 ppm-exposed group. The incidences of renal cell carcinomas, fibroadenomas in the mammary gland, and adenomas in the Zymbal gland were also increased dose-dependently. Preneoplastic lesions occurred in the nasal cavity and liver of the 1,4-dioxane-exposed groups. As nonneoplastic lesions, the significantly increased incidences of nuclear enlargement, atrophy, and respiratory metaplasia in the nasal cavity were noted at 50 ppm and above. A LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level) was determined at 50 ppm for the nasal endpoint of general chronic toxicity. This study provides clear evidence of carcinogenicity for 1,4-dioxane in male rats. A cytotoxic-proliferative and in vivo genotoxic mode of action is suggested to operate in 1,4-dioxane-induced carcinogenesis.
The carcinogenicity of 1,4-dioxane was examined by giving groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj:BDF(1) mice of each sex 1,4-dioxane in the drinking-water for 2 years. The concentrations of 1,4-dioxane were 0 (control), 200, 1000 and 5000 ppm (wt./wt.) for rats and 0, 500, 2000 and 8000 ppm for mice. The highest dose levels did not exceed the maximum tolerated dose. In the rat, there was significant induction of nasal squamous cell carcinomas in females and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in males and females, peritoneal mesotheliomas in males, and mammary gland adenomas in females. In the mouse, there was significant induction of hepatocellular tumors in males and females. Two nasal tumors occurring in the 8000 ppm-dosed groups were spontaneously rare and, thus, were attributed to 1,4-dioxane exposure. The present studies provided clear evidence of carcinogenicity in rats and mice. Lifetime cancer risk of humans exposed to 1,4-dioxane through drinking-water was quantitatively estimated with a non-threshold approach by application of a linearized multistage model to dose-carcinogenic response relationships, in addition to a threshold approach for estimation of the tolerable daily intake using no-observed- or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels of the carcinogenic responses and uncertainty factors.
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), a ubiquitous contaminant in living and working environments, enters the human body by inhalation, as well as by oral and dermal routes of exposure. In order to provide bioassay data for carcinogenic risk assessment of humans exposed to DMF by multiple routes of exposure, hepatocarcinogenic effect of combined inhalation and oral exposures of rats to DMF was examined. A group of 50 male F344 rats, 6-week-old, was exposed by inhalation to 0 (clean air), 200, or 400 ppm (v/v) of DMF vapor-containing air for 6 hr/day and 5 days/week during a 104-week period, and each inhalation group was given ad libitum DMF-formulated drinking water at 0, 800 or 1,600 ppm (w/w) for 104 weeks. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas and their combined incidences were significantly increased in the combined-exposure groups compared with the untreated control group or each of the inhalation-alone and oral-alone groups with matching concentrations. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas induced by the combined exposures were greater than the sum of the two incidences of the hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas induced by the single-route exposures through inhalation and ingestion. The combined exposures enhanced tumor malignancy. It was concluded that the combined inhalation and oral exposures markedly enhance the incidences and malignancy of hepatocellular tumors, suggesting that the hepatocarcinogenic effect of the combined exposures is greater than the effect that would be expected under the assumption that the two effects of single-route exposures through inhalation and drinking are additive.
Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimers disease (AD), the clinical diagnosis is frequently difficult. Because both REM sleep behavior disorders and Parkinsons disease also have alpha-synucleinopathy similar to DLB, and show an increase in periodic limb movements (PLM), we evaluated the association between DLB and PLM, which may serve as an additional information to differentiate AD and DLB.
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