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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Trans-Resveratrol Attenuates High Fatty Acid-Induced P2X7 Receptor Expression and IL-6 Release in PC12 Cells: Possible Role of P38 MAPK Pathway.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Diabetic neuropathy (DNP) is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) have been recently recognized as major causes of inflammation and are relevant to the functional changes of nerve system in diabetes. Trans-resveratrol (RESV), a polyphenolic natural compound, has long been acknowledged to have anti-inflammation properties and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in diabetes, while the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. Our previous study on differential PC12 cells cultured with high FFAs has shown chronic FFAs overload increased PC12 interleukin (IL)-6 release mediated by P2X7 receptor, a ligand-gated cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP); a high FFA-induced activation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was pointed to be a potential underlying mechanism. Data from this study indicated that RESV, in a dose-dependent manner, reduced high FFA-induced IL-6 release by impeding the activation of P2X7 receptor, as shown by the results that both high FFA-elevated P2X7 receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression as well as high FFA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i in response to 3'-O-(4-benzoyl) benzoyl-ATP (a selective P2X7 receptor agonist) were significantly attenuated. Meanwhile, high FFA-induced activation of P38 MAPK, an essential prerequisite for high FFA-activated P2X7 receptor and subsequent IL-6 release, was also dose-dependently abrogated by RESV. Furthermore, RESV may hamper the activation of P38a MAPK (one paramount P38 isoform) via forming hydrogen bonding with Thr175 residue, surrounding the two residues (Thy180 and Tyr182) essential for canonical activation of P38a MAPK. Taken together, RESV could inhibit high FFA-induced inflammatory IL-6 release mediated by P2X7 receptor through deactivation of P38 MAPK signaling pathway. All these results outline the potential mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective roles of RESV and highlight the clinical application of RESV in treatment of inflammation in relation to DNP.
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Comparative study of contrast-enhanced ultrasound qualitative and quantitative analysis for identifying benign and malignant breast tumor lumps.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To compare the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) qualitative and quantitative analysis in the identification of breast tumor lumps.
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Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase 4 activities predict new-onset microalbuminuria in association with its proinflammatory effects in Chinese without diabetes: a four-year prospective study.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Recent evidence supports a protective role of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors in lowering microalbuminuria (MAU) in diabetes but till now few studies have investigated the associations between DPP4 activity and MAU in nondiabetic Chinese individuals. This study tested whether DPP4 activity could predict new-onset MAU in Chinese without diabetes.
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Rational design of signal-on biosensors by using photoinduced electron transfer between Ag nanoclusters and split G-quadruplex halves-hemin complexes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DNA-Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) and G-quadruplex halves-hemin has been used for building a new sensing platform for the signal-on detection of adenosine and RNA.
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[Effect of adjuvant therapy with Dingguier umbilical paste on intestinal flora of diarrhea infants and its action characteristics].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The applicator therapy is a unique method to treat infant diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicines and widely applied in clinical practice. Currently, many researchers have proved the rationality of the therapy based on the traditional Chinese medicine mechanism and on the data from clinical practice, but its action mechanism is uncertain at present. In this study, with the assistance of pediatric practitioners, the automated ribosomal intergenic-spacer analysis (ARISA) was adopted to study the effect of the adjuvant therapy with Dingguier umbilical paste on intestinal flora of diarrhea infants, in which Dingguier umbilical paste served as the adjuvant therapy in oral traditional Chinese medicines and fecal samples of infants with different diarrhea symptoms were collected and used as the study materials. The results showed that the adjuvant therapy had a significant effect on the shift of intestinal flora, which was associated with the decrease in the similarity difference to the normal control group and the increase in the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared with the normal control group. Additionally, adjuvant therapy with Dingguier umbilical paste also showed long action duration and increased OTUs number. These results indicated that Dingguier umbilical paste has the effect in restoring the micro-ecosystem of unbalanced intestinal bacteria. Intestinal flora may be one of major targets for the applicator therapy for the infant diarrhea, but not for the single oral traditional Chinese medicine for infant diarrhea.
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[Characteristics of optical absorption coefficients and their differences in typical seasons in Lake Qiandaohu].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Absorption characteristics of total suspended particulate, phytoplankton and tripton in Lake Qiandaohu are presented based on the in situ data collected in winter (from December 2012 to February 2013) and summer (from July to August 2013). The mean values of total suspended particle absorption coefficients at 440 nm [a(p) (440)] in winter and summer are (0.20 +/- 0.07) m(-1) and (0.24 +/- 0.17) m(-1). Correspondingly, the mean values of a(p) (675) are (0.07 +/- 0.02) m(-1) and (0.10 +/- 0.07) m(-1). In winter the absorption spectra of total suspended particulate matters can be divided into two cases: the absorption spectra are similar to those of phytoplankton in the northwest lake and to those of tripton in other lake regions. In summer, the absorption spectra of total suspended particles are similar to those of phytoplankton from 400 nm to 700 nm. The mean values of phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 nm [a(ph) (440)] are (0.10 +/- 0.03) m(-1) in winter, and (0.17 +/- 0.14) m(-1) in summer. Accordingly, the mean values of a(ph) (675) are (0.05 +/- 0.02) m(-1) and (0.08 +/- 0.07) m(-1). The mean values of Chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients (by the concentration of Chla) at440 nm a(*)(ph)(440) are (0.045 +/- 0.010) m2 x mg(-1) in winter and (0.039 +/- 0.013) m2 x mg(-1) in summer. At the same time, the mean values of a(*)(ph) (675) are (0.022 +/- 0.004) m2 x mg(-1) and (0.019 +/- 0.005) m2 x mg(-1). Significantly linear correlations are found between phytoplankton absorption coefficients and chlorophyll a concentration, trophic level index (TLI). Chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients vary with the chlorophyll a concentrations following a power function. The tripton absorption coefficients exponentially decrease from 400 nm to 700 nm. The correlation between tripton absorption coefficients and inorganic particles is significant in winter, whereas, the correlation between tripton absorption coefficients and the concentrations of total suspended particles and organic particles are significant in summer.
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Targeted high-throughput sequencing identifies pathogenic mutations in KCNQ4 in two large Chinese families with autosomal dominant hearing loss.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is highly heterogeneous, among them, KCNQ4 is one of the most frequent disease-causing genes. More than twenty KCNQ4 mutations have been reported, but none of them were detected in Chinese mainland families. In this study, we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation in a five generation Chinese family with 84 members and a known KCNQ4 mutation in a six generation Chinese family with 66 members. Mutation screening of 30 genes for ADNSHL was performed in the probands from thirty large Chinese families with ADNSHL by targeted region capture and high-throughput sequencing. The candidate variants and the co-segregation of the phenotype were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing in all ascertained family members. Then we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation p.W275R in exon 5 and a known KCNQ4 mutation p.G285S in exon 6 in two large Chinese ADNSHL families segregating with post-lingual high frequency-involved and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. This is the first report of KCNQ4 mutation in Chinese mainland families. KCNQ4, a member of voltage-gated potassium channel family, is likely to be a common gene in Chinese patients with ADNSHL. The results also support that the combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing is a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for autosomal dominant hereditary deafness.
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Can HPV vaccine have other health benefits more than cancer prevention? A systematic review of association between cervical HPV infection and preterm birth.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Although the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical dysplasia as well as cervical cancer is well established, studies on the relationship between HPV infection and risk of preterm birth (PTB) have yielded inconclusive and inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between HPV infection and PTB. The electronic database was searched until July 1, 2014. Relevant studies reporting the association between HPV infection and the risk of PTB were included and for further evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed using Revmen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Six observational cohort studies and 2 case-control studies were included. A significant association between HPV infection and PTB was observed (odds ratio=2.12, 95% CI 1.51-2.98, P<0.001, random effect model). Stratification according to diagnostic methods indicated that both positive HPV DNA status and abnormal cervical cytology were associated with increased risk of PTB. Moreover, our data suggested a higher risk of PTB in Caucasian HPV-infected population, while no significant association was observed in the Asian population. Although the causality remains unclear, findings from our meta-analysis indicate that HPV infection might increase the risk of PTB. In the future, prospective cohorts with larger samples sizes are warranted to ascertain the causality and pathophysiological studies are required to explore the possible biological mechanisms involved.
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Kinetic models and pathways of ronidazole degradation by chlorination, UV irradiation and UV/chlorine processes.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Degradation kinetics and pathways of ronidazole (RNZ) by chlorination (Cl2), UV irradiation and combined UV/chlorine processes were investigated in this paper. The degradation kinetics of RNZ chlorination followed a second-order behavior with the rate constants calculated as (2.13 ± 0.15) × 10(2) M(-2) s(-1), (0.82 ± 0.52) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) and (2.06 ± 0.09) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1) for the acid-catalyzed reaction, as well as the reactions of RNZ with HOCl and OCl(-), respectively. Although UV irradiation degraded RNZ more effectively than chlorination did, very low quantum yield of RNZ at 254 nm was obtained as 1.02 × 10(-3) mol E(-1). RNZ could be efficiently degraded and mineralized in the UV/chlorine process due to the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The second-order rate constant between RNZ and hydroxyl radical was determined as (2.92 ± 0.05) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The degradation intermediates of RNZ during the three processes were identified with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization - mass spectrometry and the degradation pathways were then proposed. Moreover, the variation of chloropicrin (TCNM) and chloroform (CF) formation after the three processes were further evaluated. Enhanced formation of CF and TCNM precursors during UV/chlorine process deserves extensive attention in drinking water treatment.
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Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 2A promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via metastatic tumor antigen 1 and mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling induction.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), thereby increasing tumor invasion. Recently, the dysregulation of metastatic tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) was found to enhance tumor metastasis in a variety of cancers. A molecular connection between these two proteins has been proposed but not firmly established. In this study, we reported the overexpression of MTA1 in 29/60 (48.3%) NPC patients, and the overexpression of MTA1 significantly correlated with tumor metastasis. The overexpression of MTA1 promoted EMT via the Wnt1 pathway and ?-catenin activation. We demonstrated that LMP2A reinforces the expression of MTA1 via the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to promote EMT in NPC. Furthermore, by knocking down 4EBP1 in combination with the new mTOR inhibitor INK-128 treatment, we discovered that LMP2A expression activates the 4EBP1-eIF4E axis and increases the expression of MTA1 at the translational level partially independent of c-myc. These findings provided novel insights into the correlation between the LMP2A and MTA1 proteins and reveal a novel function of the 4EBP1-eIF4E axis in EMT of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Importance: Prevention of the recurrence and metastasis of NPC is critical to achieving a successful NPC treatment. As we all know, EMT has a vital role in metastasis of malignancies. LMP2A, an oncoprotein of Epstein-Barr virus, a well-known NPC activator, induces EMT and has been proved to exert a promoting effect in tumor metastasis. Our study demonstrated that LMP2A could induce EMT by activating MTA1 at the translational level via activating mTOR signaling and the 4EBP1-eIF4E axis. Taken together, our findings bridge the gap between the NPC-specific cell surface molecule and the final phenotype of the NPC cells. Additionally, our findings indicate that LMP2A and mTOR will serve as targets for NPC therapy in the future.
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Genetic convergence in the adaptation of dogs and humans to the high-altitude environment of the tibetan plateau.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau.
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Impact of microbubble enhanced, pulsed, focused ultrasound on tumor circulation of subcutaneous VX2 cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Intravascular microbubble-enhanced acoustic cavitation is capable of disrupting the vascular walls of capillaries and small vessels. This study was designed to investigate the impact of microbubble-enhanced, pulsed and focused ultrasound (MEUS) on the blood perfusion of subcutaneous VX2 tumors in rabbits.
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Increased Plasma DPP4 Activity Is Predictive of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Onset in Chinese Over a Four-Year Period: Result From the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The significance of associations between prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity in a Chinese population is not clear.
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Platycodin D inhibits tumor growth by antiangiogenic activity via blocking VEGFR2-mediated signaling pathway.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Platycodin D (PD) is an active component mainly isolated from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum. Recent studies proved that PD exhibited inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, invasion and xenograft growth of diverse cancer cell lines. However, whether PD is suppressive for angiogenesis, an important hallmark in cancer development, remains unknown. Here, we found that PD could dose-dependently inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, motility, migration and tube formation. PD also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Moreover, the antiangiogenic activity of PD contributed to its in vivo anticancer potency shown in the decreased microvessel density and delayed growth of HCT-15 xenograft in mice with no overt toxicity. Western blot analysis indicated that PD inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream protein kinase including PLC?1, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt in endothelial cells. Molecular docking simulation showed that PD formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain. The present study firstly revealed the high antiangiogenic activity and the underlying molecular basis of PD, suggesting that PD may be a potential antiangiogenic agent for angiogenesis-related diseases.
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Toughness condition for a graph to be a fractional (g, f, n)-critical deleted graph.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A graph G is called a fractional (g, f)-deleted graph if G - {e} admits a fractional (g, f)-factor for any e ? E(G). A graph G is called a fractional (g, f, n)-critical deleted graph if, after deleting any n vertices from G, the resulting graph is still a fractional (g, f)-deleted graph. The toughness, as the parameter for measuring the vulnerability of communication networks, has received significant attention in computer science. In this paper, we present the relationship between toughness and fractional (g, f, n)-critical deleted graphs. It is determined that G is fractional (g, f, n)-critical deleted if t(G) ? ((b (2) - 1 + bn)/a).
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Metadherin in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer: A systematic review.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Metadherin (MTDH) has been identified as an important oncogene in carcinogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis in numerous malignancies, through signal transduction pathways. MTDH is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in cancers. The present systematic review was performed to search for studies regarding MTDH and prostate, bladder and kidney cancer using several databases and the eligible studies were reviewed. MTDH expression was found to significantly increase in prostate, bladder and kidney cancers, not only in clinical tissue samples, but also in cancer cell lines. Reviewing the clinical and statistical analysis revealed that MTDH may be involved in urologic cancer progression, metastasis and prognosis. MTDH may be an independent or one of the cofactors in urologic cancers for prediction of patient survival, and may be involved in potential anticancer strategies. MTDH may be associated with several signal transduction pathways in urologic cancers, indicating latent targets to develop anticancer therapeutic strategy. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
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[A study of the value of high frequency chest wall oscillation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To explore the safety and efficacy of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) in invasive mechanical ventilation patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).
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Direct electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase on a functional nanocomplex modified glassy carbon electrode.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Direct electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was achieved by immobilizing HRP on a functional nanocomplex modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified electrode have a pair of well-defined redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of -26 ± 2 mV versus Ag/AgCl, in 0.05 M, pH7.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks) was calculated to be 1.94 s-1. The modified electrode response toward hydrogen peroxide was linear in the concentrations ranging from 0.28 ?M to 10 ?M, with a detection limit of 0.28 ?M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp) for H2O2 was 2.54 ?M. Moreover, results of biochemical computation showed that the amino acid residues (Ala34, Arg38, Ser73, Arg75, Ala140, Pro141, Phe172, Gly173, Lys174, Phe179, Arg31, Ser35, Lys174, Gln176) of HRP may playa crucial role in the improvement of electron transport between electro-active site (heme group) of an HRP molecule and nanocomplex modified GC electrode.
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Adaptive evolution and divergent expression of heat stress transcription factors in grasses.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate gene expression in response to heat and many other environmental stresses in plants. Understanding the adaptive evolution of Hsf genes in the grass family will provide potentially useful information for the genetic improvement of modern crops to handle increasing global temperatures.
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Preparation and Optimization of Resveratrol Nanosuspensions by Antisolvent Precipitation Using Box-Behnken Design.
AAPS PharmSciTech
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic component, has inspired considerable interest for its extensive physiological activities. However, the poor solubility of resveratrol circumscribes its therapeutic applications. The purpose of this study was to optimize and prepare resveratrol nanosuspensions using the antisolvent precipitation method. The effects of crucial formulation and process variables (drug concentration, stabilizer, and surfactant contents) on particle size were investigated by utilizing a three-factor three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) to perform this experiment. Different mathematical polynomial models were used to identify the impact of selected parameters and to evaluate their interrelationship for predictive formulation purposes. The optimal formulation consisted of drug 29.2 (mg/ml), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K17 0.38%, and F188 3.63%, respectively. The morphology of nanosuspensions was found to be near-spherical shaped by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles were in the amorphous state. Furthermore, in comparison to raw material, resveratrol nanosuspensions showed significantly enhanced saturation solubility and accelerated dissolution rate resulting from the decrease in particle size and the amorphous status of nanoparticles. Meanwhile, resveratrol nanosuspensions exhibited the similar antioxidant potency to that of raw resveratrol. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed that the C max and AUC0?? values of nanosuspension were approximately 3.35- and 1.27-fold greater than those of reference preparation, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that this study provides a beneficial approach to address the poor solubility issue of the resveratrol and affords a rational strategy to widen the application range of this interesting substance.
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Comparison of iodinated trihalomethanes formation during aqueous chlor(am)ination of different iodinated X-ray contrast media compounds in the presence of natural organic matter.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) formation during chlorination and chloramination of five iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) compounds (iopamidol, iopromide, iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate) in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) was evaluated and compared. Chlorination and chloramination of ICM in the absence of NOM yielded only a trace amount of I-THMs, while levels of I-THMs were enhanced substantially in raw water samples. With the presence of NOM, the order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chlorination was iopamidol > histodenz > iodixanol > diatrizoate > iopromide. During chloramination, I-THM formation was enhanced for hisodenz, iodixanol, diatrizoate, and iopromide. The order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chloramination was iopamidol > diatrizoate > iodixanol > histodenz > iopromide. With the exception of iopamidol, I-THM formation was favored at relatively low chlorine doses (?100 ?M) during ICM chlorination, and significant suppression was observed with high chlorine doses applied (?100 ?M). However, during chloramination, increasing monochloramine dose monotonously increased the yield of I-THMs for the five ICM. During chlorination of iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate, the yields of I-THMs exhibited three distinct trends as the pH increased from 5 to 9, while peak I-THM formation was found at circumneutral pH for chloramination. Increasing bromide concentration not only considerably enhanced the yield of I-THMs but also shifted the I-THMs towards bromine-containing ones and increased the formation of higher bromine-incorporated species (e.g., CHBrClI and CHBr2I), especially in chloramination. These results are of particular interest to understand I-THM formation mechanisms during chlorination and chloramination of waters containing ICM.
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Bioactive tyrosine-derived cytochalasins from fungus Eutypella sp. D-1.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Three new cytochalasins Z24 , Z25 , Z26 (1-3, resp.) and one known compound, scoparasin B (4), were isolated from the fungus Eutypella sp. D-1 isolated from the soil of high latitude of the Arctic. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (NMR, MS). These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against several human tumor cell lines. Among them, compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity toward human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line with IC50 of 9.33 ?M.
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Evaluating the quality of the educational environment for medical interns in an emergency department using the DREEM inventory.
Acta Med Iran
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Moving toward establishing more student center educational environment to meet the ever-changing learning expectations in a challenging climate like emergency department for under graduates is an intimidating task. In our newly founded academic emergency department, every step toward scoring as a dynamic and modern educational environment for both undergraduates and postgraduates would be a great success. The last 18 months of undergraduate medical education in Iran is considered as an internship. Interns have two months mandatory emergency department rotation during that period. This study has design to evaluate the medical students' conception about the educational environment using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire. 156 undergraduate interns during their two months emergency medicine rotation from October 2009 to March 2010 enrolled into a cross sectional observational study to anonymously fill up the DREEM questionnaire  on the last week of the course. The overall mean score of DREEM questionnaire was 134.79 out of 200 for the emergency department.  The mean scores are 135.37 in female (n=87) group and 131.56 in male (n=69) group.  There was not any significant difference between two genders (P>0.05). A score of 134.79 is compatible with the modern universities. Scores of 100 or less indicate serious problems and scores above 170 is compatible with ultimate student centered and modern educational environment. Such an achievement in the start of the new installed Emergency Medicine program is admirable, hence great effort must be put to pinpoint problems and fix them. DREEM questionnaire helped us moving toward a more student center environment in the emergency department.
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The role of P2X7 receptor in PC12 cells after exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation.
Auton Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role in signal transmission via acting on P2X receptors. P2X7 receptor is involved in pathophysiological changes of ischemic diseases. The PC12 cell line is a popular model system to study sympathetic neuronal function. In this study, the effects of P2X7 on the viability or [Ca(2+)]i in PC12 cells after exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were investigated. The results showed that the viability of PC12 cells was decreased under the condition of OGD. BzATP, a P2X7 agonist, decreased the viability, while P2X7 antagonist oxATP or P2X7 siRNA reversed the viability of PC12 cells under the condition of OGD. The expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in PC12 cells were up-regulated under the condition of OGD or BzATP treatment. The expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in OGD PC12 cells, which were pretreated with oxATP or P2X7 siRNA. It was also found that oxATP or P2X7 siRNA effectively suppressed the increase of [Ca(2+)]i induced by OGD. P2X7 agonist ATP or BzATP enhanced the [Ca(2+)]i rise induced by OGD in PC12 cells. The [Ca(2+)]i peak induced by ATP or BzATP in OGD group was decreased by ERK inhibitor U0126. Therefore, P2X7 antagonists or P2X7 siRNA could depress the sympathetic neuronal damage induced by ischemia.
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Puerarin alleviates aggravated sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia via regulating P2X3 receptor in rat superior cervical ganglia.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Myocardial ischemia elicits a sympathoexcitatory response characterized by increase in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Puerarin, a major active ingredient extracted from the traditional Chinese plant medicine Ge-gen, has been widely used in treatment of myocardial and cerebral ischemia. However, little is known about the mechanism. Our study was aimed to explore the effect of puerarin on sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemic injury and possible relationship with P2X3 receptor. Our results showed that puerarin alleviated systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and decreased the up-regulated of P2X3 mRNA and protein in SCG of myocardial ischemic rats. The amplitude of ATP-activated currents of SCG neurons was much larger in myocardial ischemic group than that in control group. Puerarin reduced ATP-activated currents in myocardial ischemic group and control group, and the inhibiting effects of puerarin in myocardial ischemic group were stronger than those in control group. Puerarin also significantly inhibited ATP-activated currents in HEK293 cells transfected with P2X3 receptor. These results suggest that puerarin can depress up-sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia via acting on P2X3 receptor in rat SCG to protect myocardium.
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Traditional Chinese medicine--sea urchin.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The sea urchin is an ancient, common, seafloor-dwelling marine invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Echinodermata. There are multiple species of sea urchin with resources that are widely distributed in China, where they were used in ancient times as Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating a variety of diseases. At present, it is known that the shell, spine and gonad of the sea urchin have many medicinal values determined through modern research. In this paper, we summarized the major chemical constituents and medicinal value of the sea urchin.
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Radix Astragali Improves Dysregulated Triglyceride Metabolism and Attenuates Macrophage Infiltration in Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Male Rats through Activating mTORC1-PPAR ? Signaling Pathway.
PPAR Res
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Increased levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) and hypertriglyceridemia are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The effective fraction isolated from radix astragali (RA) has been reported to alleviate hypertriglyceridemia. The mechanism of this triglyceride-lowering effect of RA is unclear. Here, we tested whether activation of the mTORC1-PPAR ? signaling pathway is related to the triglyceride-lowering effect of RA. High-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) for 9-10 weeks, and 4?g/kg/d RA was administered by gavage. RA treatment resulted in decreased fasting triglyceride levels, FFA concentrations, and adipocyte size. RA treated rats showed improved triglyceride clearance and fatty acid handling after olive oil overload. RA administration could also decrease macrophage infiltration and expression of MCP-1 and TNF ? , but it may also increase the expression of PPAR ? in epididymal adipose tissue from RA treated rats. Consistently, expressions of PPAR ? and phospho-p70S6K were increased in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with RA. Moreover, RA couldnot upregulate the expression of PPAR ? at the presence of rapamycin. In conclusion, the mTORC1-PPAR ? signaling pathway is a potential mechanism through which RA exerts beneficial effects on the disturbance of triglyceride metabolism and dysfunction of adipose tissue in DIO rats.
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A new aromatic glycoside from Glehnia littoralis.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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A new aromatic glycoside (1) was isolated from the roots of Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidtex Miq. Its structure was elucidated as vanillic acid 1-O-[?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside] ester mainly by analysing the NMR and MS spectral data. In the in vitro assays, compound 1 displayed some TNF-? secretion inhibitory activity.
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[Prevalence and factors associated with the prevention and control of hypertension in Chinese Yi populations].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to identify factors associated with the prevention and control of hypertension in Chinese Yi populations.
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GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide (H?S) donor, shows potent anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity through blocking the STAT3 pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, exhibits anticancer activity by a combination of cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis, and inhibits tumor growth, however, the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we discovered that GYY4137-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tumor growth in a subcutaneous HepG2 xenograft model may be due to directly targeting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. We found that GYY4137 suppressed STAT3 activation by reducing p-STAT3 (Y705) levels effectively in HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. Altered expression levels of STAT3-regulated downstream proteins including Bcl-2, cyclin D1, Mcl-1, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) may contribute to the inhibition of G1/S cell cycle transition and angiogenesis. Increased cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage may induce cell apoptosis in HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. In vivo, GYY4137 significantly inhibited tumor growth in the subcutaneous HepG2 xenograft model by inhibiting STAT3 activation and its target gene expression. These results suggest that GYY4137-mediated suppression of HCC growth may be due to the inhibition of the STAT3 pathway.
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EGFR signaling-dependent inhibition of glioblastoma growth by ginsenoside Rh2.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, accounting for 52 % of all functional tissue brain tumor cases and 20 % of all intracranial tumors. The typical treatment involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, whereas it still achieves fairly poor patient survival. Ginsenoside Rh2 has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on some tumors, but its effect on glioblastoma has not been extensively evaluated. Here, we show that ginsenoside Rh2 can substantially inhibit the growth of glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model. Moreover, the inhibition of the tumor growth appears to result from combined effects on decreased tumor cell proliferation and increased tumor cell apoptosis. Further analyses suggest that ginsenoside Rh2 may have its antiglioblastoma effect through inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in tumor cells. In a lose-of-function experiment, recombinant EGFR was given together with ginsenoside Rh2 to the tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, which completely blocked the antitumor effects of ginsenoside Rh2. Thus, our data not only reveal an anti-glioblastoma effect of ginsenoside Rh2 but also demonstrate that this effect may function via inhibition of EGFR signaling in glioblastoma cells.
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IMP3 combined with CD44s, a novel predictor for prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is reported to be re-expressed in malignant tumors and can regulate the expression of multiple genes related to tumor invasion. CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) has been reported to play an important role in facilitating tumor invasion. In this text, we investigate the regulatory function of IMP3 on CD44s and the role of IMP3 and CD44s in predicting the outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Photodegradation kinetics of iopamidol by UV irradiation and enhanced formation of iodinated disinfection by-products in sequential oxidation processes.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The photochemical degradation of iopamidol with low-pressure UV lamps and the formation of iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) during sequential oxidation processes including chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide were investigated in this study. Iopamidol can be effectively decomposed by UV irradiation with pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The evaluated quantum yield was found to be 0.03318 mol einstein(-1). Results showed that iopamidol degradation rate was significantly increased by higher UV intensity and lower initial iopamidol concentration. However, the effect of solution pH was negligible. Degradation of iopamidol by UV photolysis was subjected to deiodination and hydroxylation mechanisms. The main degradation products including -OH substitutes and iodide were identified by UPLC-ESI-MS and UPLC-UV, respectively. Increasing the intensity of UV irradiation promoted the release of iodide. Destruction pathways of iopamidol photolysis were proposed. Enhanced formation of I-DBPs were observed after iopamidol photolysis followed by disinfection processes including chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide. With the increase of UV fluence, I-DBPs formation were significantly promoted.
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Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and glucose biosensing on a hydroxyl fullerenes modified glassy carbon electrode.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved when GOD-hydroxyl fullerenes (HFs) nano-complex was immobilized on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode and protected with a chitosan (Chit) membrane. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and circular dichroism spectropolarimeter (CD) methods were utilized for additional characterization of the GOD, GOD-HFs and Chit/GOD-HFs. Chit/HFs may preserve the secondary structure and catalytic properties of GOD. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified GC electrode showed a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with the formal potential (E°') of 353 ± 2 mV versus Ag/AgCl at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks) was calculated to be 2.7 ± 0.2s(-1). The modified electrode response to glucose was linear in the concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.0mM, with a detection limit of 5 ± 1 ?M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km(app)) was 694 ± 8 ?M. Thus, the modified electrode could be applied as a third generation biosensor for glucose with high sensitivity, selectivity and low detection limit.
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Selective eradication of tumor vascular pericytes by peptide-conjugated nanoparticles for antiangiogenic therapy of melanoma lung metastasis.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Antiangiogenic cancer therapy based on nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) is emerging as a promising new approach besides the proved molecular-targeted antiangiogenic agents. The current nano-DDS are restricted to the targeting to tumor vascular endothelial cells, but seldom efforts have been made to target the tumor vascular pericytes which are also actively involved in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new nano-DDS, TH10 peptide (TAASGVRSMH) conjugated nanoparticles loading docetaxel (TH10-DTX-NP) that can target the NG2 proteoglycan highly expressed in tumor vascular pericytes, for the investigation of therapeutic efficacy in the mice bearing B16F10-luc-G5 melanoma experimental lung metastasis. The results demonstrated that TH10-DTX-NP achieved controlled drug release in PBS and the mixture of rat plasma and PBS (1:1, v/v), and exhibited favorable in vivo long-circulating feature. TH10 peptide conjugation facilitated the nanoparticle internalization in pericytes via the interaction between TH10 and NG2 receptor, leading to more inhibition of pericyte viability and migration. TH10-conjugated nanoparticles could accurately target the vascular pericytes of B16F10-luc-G5 lung metastasis, where DTX-induced pronounceable pericyte apoptosis. TH10-DTX-NP significantly prolonged the mice survival with no obvious toxicity, and this enhanced antitumor effect was closely related with the decreased pericyte density and microvessel density in the lung metastases. The present research reveals the potency and significance of targeting tumor vascular pericytes using nano-DDS in antiangiogenic cancer therapy.
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Puerarin blocks the signaling transmission mediated by P2X3 in SG and DRG to relieve myocardial ischemic damage.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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P2X? receptors in stellate ganglia (SG) and cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are involved in sympathoexcitatory reflex induced by myocardial ischemic damage. Puerarin, a major active ingredient extracted from the traditional Chinese plant medicine Ge-gen, has been widely used in treatment of myocardial and cerebral ischemia. The present study is aimed to observe the effects of puerarin on the signaling transmission mediated by P2X? receptor in SG and DRG after myocardial ischemic damage. Our results showed that systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased, and the expression levels of P2X? mRNA and protein in SG and DRG were up-regulated after myocardial ischemic damage. Puerarin reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, relieved pain and decreased up-regulated expression of P2X? mRNA and protein in SG and DRG after myocardial ischemia. Puerarin inhibited the up-regulated ATP-activated currents in DRG neurons after myocardial ischemia. Thus, puerarin can relieve myocardial ischemic damage through blocking the P2X? signaling transmission and then depressed the aggravated sympathoexcitatory reflex.
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The Role of miR-34a in the Hepatoprotective Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Young and Old Rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, it is unknown whether H2S plays a role in the protection of hepatic I/R injury in both young and old patients. This study compared the protective effects of H2S in a rat model (young and old animals) of I/R injury and the mechanism underlying its effects. Young and old rats were assessed following an injection of NaHS. NaHS alone reduced hepatic I/R injury in the young rats by activating the nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, but it had little effect on the old rats. NaHS pretreatment decreased miR-34a expression in the hepatocytes of the young rats with hepatic I/R. Overexpresion of miR-34a decreased Nrf-2 and its downstream target expression, impairing the hepatoprotective effect of H2S on the young rats. More importantly, downregulation of miR-34a expression increased Nrf-2 and the expression of its downstream targets, enhancing the effect of H2S on hepatic I/R injury in the old rats. This study reveals the different effects of H2S on hepatic I/R injury in young and old rats and sheds light on the involvement of H2S in miR-34a modulation of the Nrf-2 pathway.
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Notch-1 and Ki-67 receptor as predictors for the recurrence and prognosis of Kimura's disease.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kimura's disease (KD) is a rare chronic disease with unknown origin. It remains controversial in KD's diagnosis, treatment, transformation and need further research. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathologic features of KD and the relationship between the expression of Notch-1, Ki-67 receptor and the recurrence of KD. The hematoxylin and eosin sections and clinical data of 40 patients diagnosed with KD were examined retrospectively. Specimens were available in these 40 cases. Notch-1 and Ki-67 expression were examined using IHC (immunohistochemistry staining) analysis. Of 40 cases of KD (average age, 38.4 years; median age, 36.0 years), 34 cases (85.0%) were clinically seen to involve swelling of the head and neck region. Notch-1 and Ki-67 have a high expression in recurrent patients. High expression of Notch-1 receptor and Ki-67 tended to be found in patients who relapsed. This is the first study to discuss the correlation among Notch-1, Ki-67 and recurrent KD. These results suggest both of the markers may act as promising predictors for the recurrence and prognosis of KD. However, Notch-1 immunoexpression had no statistically significant association with the Ki-67 proliferation index.
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Cantharidin exerts anti-hepatocellular carcinoma by miR-214 modulating macrophage polarization.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated form of cantharidin, has been used as a routine anticancer drug in China. In this study, the effect and mechanism of NCTD on anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was examined. In vivo antitumor activity was investigated in hepatoma-bearing mice by intraperitoneal injection of different concentration of NCTD. The levels of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA were detected by real-time PCR. The concentrations of IL-10 and IL-12 in BMDMs, Raw 264.7 cells or tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were measured with ELISA kit. The effects of TAMs on H22 cell survival and invasion were assayed via the CCK-8 and tumor invasion assay, respectively. Anti-miR-214 or pre-miR-214 was used to down-regulate or up-regulated miR-214 expression. The results showed that NCTD drastically impaired tumor growth in hepatoma-bearing mice, correlating with increased anti-tumor activity of TAMs. Moreover, NCTD stimulation led to an alteration of HCC microenvironment, reflected by a decrease in a shift from M2 to M1 polarization and the populations of CD4+/CD25+Foxp3 T cells. The activation of STAT3 was inhibited in TAMs from hepatoma-bearing mice injected with NCTD. Addition of NCTD to treat RAW264.7 or TAMs enhanced M1 polarization through increase of miR-214 expression. NCTD significantly inhibited ?-catenin expression, which could be reversed by miR-214 inhibitor. Conditioned media from TAMs in hepatoma-bearing mice treated with NCTD or TAMs transfected with pre-miR-214 inhibited survival and invasion of H22 cells. This finding reveals a novel role for NCTD on inhibition of HCC through miR-214 modulating macrophage polarization.
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Increased plasma DPP4 activity is an independent predictor of the onset of metabolic syndrome in Chinese over 4 years: result from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine whether fasting plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity and active Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) were predictive of the onset of metabolic syndrome.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs in ovary and testis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by using solexa sequencing technology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs which play important roles in the regulation of gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Thereinto, some specific miRNAs show regulatory activities in gonad development via translational control. In order to further understand the role of miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ovary and testis, two small RNA libraries of Nile tilapia were sequenced by Solexa small RNA deep sequencing methods. A total of 9,731,431 and 8,880,497 raw reads, representing 5,407,800 and 4,396,281 unique sequences were obtained from the sexually mature ovaries and testes, respectively. After comparing the small RNA sequences with the Rfam database, 1,432,210 reads in ovaries and 984,146 reads in testes were matched to the genome sequence of Nile tilapia. Bioinformatic analysis identified 764 mature miRNA, 209 miRNA-5p and 202 miRNA-3p were found in the two libraries, of which 525 known miRNAs are both expressed in the ovary and testis of Nile tilapia. Comparison of expression profiles of the testis, miR-727, miR-129 and miR-29 families were highly expressed in tilapia ovary. Additionally, miR-132, miR-212, miR-33a and miR-135b families, showed significant higher expression in testis compared with that in ovary. Furthermore, the expression patterns of the miRNAs were analyzed in different developmental stages of gonad. The result showed different expression patterns were observed during development of testis and ovary. In addition, the identification and characterization of differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries and testis of Nile tilapia provides important information on the role of miRNA in the regulation of the ovarian and testicular development and function. This data will be helpful to facilitate studies on the regulation of miRNAs during teleosts reproduction.
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FAT10, an Ubiquitin-like Protein, Confers Malignant Properties in Non-tumorigenic and Tumorigenic Cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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FAT10 is an ubiquitin-like modifier, which has been implicated in immune response and cancer development. In particular, the hypothesis of FAT10 as a mediator of tumorigenesis stems from its ability to associate with a spindle checkpoint protein, Mad2 during mitosis and cause aneuploidy, a hallmark of cancer cells. Furthermore, FAT10 is overexpressed in several carcinomas types, including that of liver and colon. Nevertheless, direct evidence linking FAT10 to cell malignant transformation and progression is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that high FAT10 expression enhanced the proliferative, invasive, migratory and adhesive functions of the transformed cell line, HCT116. These observations were consistently demonstrated in an immortalized, non-tumorigenic liver cell line NeHepLxHT. Importantly FAT10 can induce malignant transformation as evidenced from the anchorage-independent growth as well as in vivo tumor-forming abilities of FAT10-overexpressing NeHepLxHT cells, while in rapidly proliferating HCT116, increased FAT10 further augmented tumor growth. FAT10 was found to activate NF?B which in turn upregulated the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. Importantly, siRNA depletion of CXCR7 and CXCR4 attenuated cell invasion of FAT10-overexpressing cells, indicating that the CXCR4/7 is crucial for the FAT10-dependent malignant phenotypes. Taken together, our data reveals novel functions of FAT10 in malignant transformation and progression, via the NFB-CXCR4/7 pathway.
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A hierarchically structured graphene foam and its potential as a large-scale strain-gauge sensor.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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A hierarchically structured thermal-reduced graphene (ReG) foam with 0.5 S cm(-1) electrical conductivity is fabricated from a well-dispersed graphene oxide suspension via a directional freezing method followed by high-temperature thermal treatment. The as-prepared three-dimensional ReG foam has an ordered macroporous honeycomb-like structure with straight and parallel voids in the range of 30 ?m to 75 ?m separated by cell walls of several tens of nanometers thick. Despite its ultra-low density, the ReG foam has an excellent compression recovery along its in-plane direction. This property of the ReG foam can be attributed to its hierarchically porous structure, as demonstrated by the compression test. The excellent compression recovery and high conductivity provide the ReG foam with exceptional piezoresistive capabilities. The electrical resistance of the ReG foam shows a linearly decreasing trend with compressive strain increments of up to 60%, which cannot be observed in conventional rigid material-based sensors and carbon nanotube-based polymer sensors. Such intriguing linear strain-responsive behavior, along with the fast response time and high thermal stability, makes the ReG foam a promising candidate for strain sensing. We demonstrated that it could be used as a wearable device for real-time monitoring of human health.
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[Clinical and prognostic analyses of juvenile sudden sensorineural hearing loss].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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To explore the clinical profiles of juvenile sudden sensorineural hearing loss (JSSNHL) and examine its clinical characteristics and prognosis.
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[Clinical analysis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with different ages].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To investigate the clinical materials of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in different ages of patients, and explore their clinical characteristics and prognosis.
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Clinical significance and prognostic value of pentraxin-3 as serologic biomarker for lung cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Lung cancer is prevalent worldwide and improvements in timely and effective diagnosis are need. Pentraxin-3 as a novel serum marker for lung cancer (LC) has not been validated in large cohort studies. The aim of the study was to assess its clinical value in diagnosis and prognosis.
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Neferine inhibits the upregulation of CCL5 and CCR5 in vascular endothelial cells during chronic high glucose treatment.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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We investigated whether the expressions of CCL5 and CCR5 participate in dysfunctional changes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by chronic high glucose treatment and examined whether neferine exerts its therapeutic effects by blocking the development of dysfunctional vascular endothelium. HUVECs were cultured with control or high concentrations of glucose in the absence or presence of neferine for 5 days. Nitric acid reductase method was used to detect the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) released into culture media. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by fluorescent DCFH-DA probe. The expressions of 84 genes related to endothelial cell biology were assessed by Human Endothelial Cell Biology RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. The expressions of the chemokine CCL5 and its receptor CCR5 were further determined by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. PCR array indicated that CCL5 was the most significantly upregulated when HUVECs were exposed to chronic high glucose; the intracellular ROS level and the expressions of CCL5 and CCR5 at both mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased, whereas NO production was decreased simultaneously. The increased level of ROS and elevated expressions of CCL5 and CCR5 at high glucose were significantly inhibited by neferine; meanwhile the decreased NO production upon chronic high glucose treatment was relieved. An antioxidant (vitamin E) exerted similar beneficial effects. These data indicate that neferine can reduce the upregulation of CCL5 and CCR5 of vascular endothelium exposure to chronic high glucose and prevent or inhibit subsequent occurrence of inflammation in blood vessels possibly through antioxidation.
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[Clinical characteristics and surgical management of extensive cholesteatoma of external auditory canal].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To classify the external auditory canal cholesteatoma(EACC) by high-resolution temporal bone CT scans and the clinical findings of the patients, and to discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics and the surgical management of the extensive EACC.
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Aberrant overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 is associated with aggressive tumor features and the BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Many tumor cells predominantly generate energy through high rates of glycolysis. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been identified as being necessary for aerobic glycolysis.
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Principal component analysis to assess the composition and fate of impurities in a large river-embedded reservoir: Qingcaosha Reservoir.
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Qingcaosha Reservoir (QR) is the largest river-embedded reservoir in east China, which receives its source water from the Yangtze River (YR). The temporal and spatial variations in dissolved organic matter (DOM), chromophoric DOM (CDOM), nitrogen, phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were investigated from June to September in 2012 and were integrated by principal component analysis (PCA). Three PCA factors were identified: (1) phytoplankton related factor 1, (2) total DOM related factor 2, and (3) eutrophication related factor 3. Factor 1 was a lake-type parameter which correlated with chlorophyll-a and protein-like CDOM (r = 0.793 and r = 0.831, respectively). Factor 2 was a river-type parameter which correlated with total DOC and humic-like CDOM (r = 0.668 and r = 0.726, respectively). Factor 3 correlated with total nitrogen and phosphorus (r = 0.864 and r = 0.621, respectively). The low flow speed, self-sedimentation and nutrient accumulation in QR resulted in increases in PCA factor 1 scores (phytoplankton biomass and derived CDOM) in the spatial scale, indicating a change of river-type water (YR) to lake-type water (QR). In summer, the water temperature variation induced a growth-bloom-decay process of phytoplankton combined with the increase of PCA factor 2 (humic-like CDOM) in the QR, which was absent in the YR.
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Pimarane diterpenes from the Arctic fungus Eutypella sp. D-1.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Two new diterpenes, libertellenone G(1) and libertellenone H(2) were isolated from the fungus Eutypella sp. D-1 isolated from the soil of high latitude of Arctic, together with two known pimarane diterpenes (3-4). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and infrared). These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against seven human tumor cell lines. Compound 2 showed a range of cytotoxicity between 3.31 and 44.1??M. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 30 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ja.2013.104.
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Electrophysiological studies of upregulated P2X7 receptors in rat superior cervical ganglia after myocardial ischemic injury.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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Myocardial ischemic injury activates cardiac sympathetic afferent fibers and elicits a sympathoexcitatory reflex by exciting sympathetic efferent action, with resultant augmentation of myocardial oxygen consumption, leading to a vicious cycle of exaggerating myocardial ischemia. P2X7 receptor participates in the neuronal functions and the neurological disorders. This study examined the role of P2X7 receptor of superior cervical ganglia (SCG) in sympathoexcitatory reflex. Our results showed that the expression of P2X7 receptor at both mRNA and protein in SCG was increased after myocardial ischemic injury. P2X7 receptor agonists at the same concentration activated much larger amplitudes of the currents in the SCG neurons of myocardial ischemic rats than those in control rats. P2X7 receptor antagonist (brilliant blue G, BBG) significantly inhibited P2X7 receptor agonist-activated currents in the SCG neurons. Excessive phosphorylation of MAPK ERK1/2 upon the activation of P2X7 receptor might be a mechanism mediating the signal transduction after myocardial ischemic injury. Therefore, the sensitized P2X7 receptor in SCG was involved in the nociceptive transmission of sympathoexcitatory reflex induced by myocardial ischemic injury.
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Sensory-sympathetic coupling in superior cervical ganglia after myocardial ischemic injury facilitates sympathoexcitatory action via P2X7 receptor.
Purinergic Signal.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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P2X receptors participate in cardiovascular regulation and disease. After myocardial ischemic injury, sensory-sympathetic coupling between rat cervical DRG nerves and superior cervical ganglia (SCG) facilitated sympathoexcitatory action via P2X7 receptor. The results showed that after myocardial ischemic injury, the systolic blood pressure, heart rate, serum cardiac enzymes, IL-6, and TNF-? were increased, while the levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in SCG were also upregulated. However, these alterations diminished after treatment of myocardial ischemic (MI) rats with the P2X7 antagonist oxATP. After siRNA P2X7 in MI rats, the systolic blood pressure, heart rate, serum cardiac enzymes, the expression levels of the satellite glial cell (SGC) or P2X7 were significantly lower than those in MI group. The phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in SCG participated in the molecular mechanism of the sympathoexcitatory action induced by the myocardial ischemic injury. Retrograde tracing test revealed the sprouting of CGRP or SP sensory nerves (the markers of sensory afferent fibers) from DRG to SCG neurons. The upregulated P2X7 receptor promoted the activation of SGCs in SCG, resulting in the formation of sensory-sympathetic coupling which facilitated the sympathoexcitatory action. P2X7 antagonist oxATP could inhibit the activation of SGCs and interrupt the formation of sensory-sympathetic coupling in SCG after the myocardial ischemic injury. Our findings may benefit the treatment of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases.
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Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 (2-)/Al3 (+) mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5?×?10(5) to 20?×?10(5) Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r?=?0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L(-1)), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L(-1)?+?20 mg L(-1)). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.
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Degradation kinetics and chloropicrin formation during aqueous chlorination of dinoseb.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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The kinetics of chlorination of dinoseb and the corresponding formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) were studied between pH 4 and 9 at room temperature (25±1°C). The reactivity shows a minimum at pH 9, a maximum at pH 4 and a medium at neutral conditions. pH profile of the apparent second-order rate constant of the reaction of dinoseb with chlorine was modeled considering the elementary reactions of HOCl with dinoseb species and an acid-catalyzed reaction. The predominant reactions at near neutral pH were the reactions of HOCl with the two species of dinoseb. The rate constants of 2.0 (±0.8)×10(4)M(-2)s(-1), 3.3 (±0.6) and 0.5 (±0.1)M(-1)s(-1) were determined for the acid-catalyzed reaction, HOCl reacted with dinoseb and dinoseb(-), respectively. The main degradation by-products of the dinoseb formed during chlorination have been separated and identified by GC-MS with liquid-liquid extraction sample pretreatment. Six volatile and semi-volatile DBPs were identified in the chlorination products, including chloroform (CF), monochloroacetone, chloropicrin (TCNM), 1,1-dichloro-2-methy-butane, 1,2-dichloro-2-methy-butane, 1-chloro-3-methy-pentanone. A proposed degradation pathway of dinoseb during chlorination was then given. TCNM and CF formation potential during chlorination of dinoseb reached as high as 0.077 and 0.097?M?M(-1) dinoseb under the traditional condition (pH=7 and Cl2/C=2). Their yields varied with Cl2/C, pH and time. The maximum yields of TCNM appeared at molar ratio as Cl2/C=1 and pH 3, while the maximum of CF appeared at molar ratio as Cl2/C=4 and pH 7. [TCNM]/[CF] decreased with reaction time and increased solution pH.
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(Z)-3?-(2-Chloro-anilino)-17(20)-pregnene.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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In the pregnene fragment of the title compound, C27H38ClN, the three six-membered rings exhibit chair conformations and the five-membered ring has a distorted envelope form with the fused C atom not bearing a methyl group as the flap atom. The amino group is involved in the formation of an intra-molecular N-H?Cl hydrogen bond. The crystal packing exhibits no short inter-molecular contacts.
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Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products.
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A bystander cell-based GM-CSF secreting vaccine synergized with a low dose of cyclophosphamide presents therapeutic immune responses against murine hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secreting cellular tumor vaccines contribute to the induction of potent antitumor immune responses in murine models and patients suffering from cancers. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent and malignant cancers in China. We describe, for the first time, a GM-CSF releasing vaccine strategy that represents a step toward combating this type of cancer. In this study, a bystander cell-based GM-CSF secreting vaccine against murine HCC, Hepa1-6/B78H1-GM-CSF, was co-administered with a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CY). After challenging with tumor and vaccination, immunological assays demonstrated that the cellular antitumor immune responses were efficiently activated and that tumor development was significantly retarded, which was dependent on synergy with CY. The promising outcome of the anti-HCC vaccine in the murine model demonstrates the feasibility of a future clinical application for this treatment in HCC patients.
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The genomics of selection in dogs and the parallel evolution between dogs and humans.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The genetic bases of demographic changes and artificial selection underlying domestication are of great interest in evolutionary biology. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of multiple grey wolves, Chinese indigenous dogs and dogs of diverse breeds. Demographic analysis show that the split between wolves and Chinese indigenous dogs occurred 32,000 years ago and that the subsequent bottlenecks were mild. Therefore, dogs may have been under human selection over a much longer time than previously concluded, based on molecular data, perhaps by initially scavenging with humans. Population genetic analysis identifies a list of genes under positive selection during domestication, which overlaps extensively with the corresponding list of positively selected genes in humans. Parallel evolution is most apparent in genes for digestion and metabolism, neurological process and cancer. Our study, for the first time, draws together humans and dogs in their recent genomic evolution.
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High mechanical performance of layered graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The design and fabrication of strong, lightweight, and damage-resistant composite materials are major topics of studies on composites. Biomimetics, a developing multidisciplinary field, is now leading the fabrication of novel materials with remarkable mechanical properties. Graphene oxide (GO), a graphene derivative, possesses good mechanical properties, a high aspect ratio, and good solubility in aqueous solutions, indicating great potential in nanocomposite fields. In this work, bioinspired layered GO/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite films with remarkable mechanical performances are prepared by an environmental friendly, bottom-up assembly methodology. The structural analysis shows alternate piles of inorganic GO platelets and organic PVA binder. Tensile tests indicate that the borate-treated GO/PVA nanocomposite films display 360 MPa of strength, which is twofold to threefold higher than that of biological materials (e.g., nacre). Toughness of GO/PVA nanocomposites is also enhanced fourfold compared with nacre. To reveal the toughening function of the intercalated polymer in the nanocomposites, the influence of polymer with varied molecular weights (Mws) on the fracture mode of the nanocomposites is systematically investigated through quasi-static tensile and creep tests. The PVA molecules with a higher Mw can connect more neighboring GO platelets through inter- and intra-linkages than those with a lower Mw, resulting in efficient stress transfer along the GO plane direction. Thus, tensile strength and toughness are improved. This work illustrates the functions of bonding types between inorganic-organic phases and intercalated polymers with different Mws on the mechanical properties of the layered nanocomposites, including stiffness, strength, and toughness.
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Thermo-reversible gelation of atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) in poly(ethylene glycol) oligomers.
Eur Phys J E Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The temperature-concentration behavior of physical gel by atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (aPMMA) in poly(ethylene glycol) oligomer (PEG400) was investigated. A liquid-liquid demixing interferes with a glass transition during cooling. The combination of demixing and T g leads to the formation of amorphous gels at low temperature. We suggest that the gelation of aPMMA/PEG400 is a glassy gel, in which short-range attractive depletion interaction in the polymer/oligomer system was the driving force at molecular level.
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A novel cold-adapted ?-galactosidase isolated from Halomonas sp. S62: gene cloning, purification and enzymatic characterization.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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A novel 1,170 bp ?-galactosidase gene sequence from Halomonas sp. S62 (BGalH) was identified through whole genome sequencing and was submitted to GenBank (Accession No. JQ337961). The BGalH gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells, and the enzymatic properties of recombinant BGalH were studied. According to the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results and the sequence alignment analysis, BGalH is a dimeric protein and cannot be classified into one of the known ?-galactosidase families (GH1, GH2, GH35, GH42). The optimal pH and temperature were determined to be 7.0 and 45 °C, respectively; the K m and K cat were 2.9 mM and 390.3 s(-1), respectively, for the reaction with the substrate ortho-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside. At 0-20 °C, BGalH exhibited 50-70 % activity relative to its activity under the optimal conditions. BGalH was stable over a wide range of pHs (6.0-8.5) after a 1 h incubation (>93 % relative activity) and was thermostable at 50 °C and below (>60 % relative activity). The enzyme hydrolyzes lactose completely in milk over 24 h at 7 °C. The characteristics of this novel ?-galactosidase suggest that BGalH may be a good candidate for medical researches and food industry applications.
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Formation of iodinated disinfection by-products during oxidation of iodide-containing waters with chlorine dioxide.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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This study was to explore the formation of iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs), including iodoform (CHI3), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA), when iodide-containing artificial synthesized waters and raw waters are in contact with chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Among the investigated I-DBPs, CHI3 was the major species during ClO2 oxidation in artificial synthesized waters. Impact factors were evaluated, including the concentrations of ClO2, iodide (I(-)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH. Formation of CHI3, IAA and TIAA followed an increasing and then decreasing pattern with increased ClO2 or DOC concentration. I-DBPs yield was significantly affected by solution pH. High concentrations of I-DBPs were generated under circumneutral conditions with the maximum formation at pH 8. The increase of I(-) concentration can increase I-DBPs yields, but the increment was suppressed when I(-) concentration was higher than 50 ?M. When 100 ?g/L I(-)and ClO2 (7.5-44.4 ?M) were spiked to the raw water samples from Yangshupu and Minhang drinking water treatment plant, certain amounts of CHI3 and IAA were found under pH 7 and the concentrations were strongly correlated with ClO2 dosage and water qualities, however, no TIAA was detected. Finally, we investigated I-DBPs formation of 18 model compounds, including 4 carboxylic acids, 5 phenols and 8 amino acids, treating with ClO2 when I(-) was present. Results showed that most of these model compounds could form a considerable amount of I-DBPs, especially for propanoic acid, butanoic acid, resorcinol, hydroquinone, alanine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine and serine.
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Cloning, expression and functional characterization of a novel trehalose synthase from marine Pseudomonas sp. P8005.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Trehalose synthase (TreS) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of maltose and trehalose. A novel treS gene with a length of 3,369 bp, encoding a protein of 1,122 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 126 kDa, was cloned from a marine Pseudomonas sp. P8005 (CCTCC: M2010298) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence identities between this novel TreS and other reported TreS is relatively low. The purified recombinant TreS showed an optimum pH and temperature of 7.2 and 37 °C, respectively. The enzyme displayed a high conversion rate (70 %) of maltose to trehalose during equilibrium and had a higher catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) for maltose than for trehalose, suggesting its application in the production of trehalose. In addition to maltose and trehalose, this enzyme can also act on sucrose, although this activity is relatively low. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that enzymatic activity was reduced dramatically by individually substitution with alanine for D78, Y81, H121, D219, E261, H331 or D332, which implied that these residues might be important in P8005-TreS. Experiments using isotope-labeled substrates showed that [(2)H2]trehalose combined with unlabeled trehalose was converted to [(2)H2]maltose and maltose, but without any production of [(2)H]maltose or [(2)H]trehalose and with no incorporation of exogenous [(2)H7]glucose into the disaccharides during the conversion catalyzed by this enzyme. This finding indicated the involvement of an intramolecular mechanism in P8005-TreS catalyzing the reversible interconversion of maltose and trehalose.
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Origin of Chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Goldfish, Carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native Carassius. To locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (CR) and the entire cytochrome b (Cytb) mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy-body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin-were selected for hypothesis-testing to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.
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P2X(7) inhibition in stellate ganglia prevents the increased sympathoexcitatory reflex via sensory-sympathetic coupling induced by myocardial ischemic injury.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Purinergic signaling has been found to participate in the regulation of cardiovascular function. In this study, using a rat myocardial ischemic injury model, the sympathoexcitatory reflex mediated by P2X7 receptor via sensory-sympathetic coupling between cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) nerves and stellate ganglia (SG) nerves was explored. Our results showed that the systolic blood pressure, heart rate, serum cardiac enzymes concentrations, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) concentrations were increased, and the expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in DRG and SG were up-regulated after myocardial ischemic injury. Administration of brilliant blue G (BBG), a selective P2X7 antagonist, decreased the elevation of systolic blood pressure, heart rate, serum cardiac enzyme, IL-6 and TNF-?, and inhibited the up-regulated expression of P2X7 mRNA and protein in DRG and SG after myocardial ischemic injury. Retrograde tracing test showed that there were calcitonin gene-related peptide sensory nerves and substance P sensory nerves sprouting from DRG to SG, which played an important role in the development of myocardial ischemic injury. The up-regulated P2X7 receptor expression levels on the surface membrane of satellite glial cells contributed to the activation of sensory-sympathetic coupling, which in turn facilitated the sympathoexcitatory reflex. BBG can inhibit the activation of satellite glial cells and interrupt the generation of sensory-sympathetic coupling in the cervical sympathetic ganglia after the myocardial ischemic injury. Taken together, these findings may provide a new therapeutic approach for treating coronary heart disease, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.
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High fatty acids modulate P2X(7) expression and IL-6 release via the p38 MAPK pathway in PC12 cells.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Diabetic neuropathy (DNP) is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) have been recently recognized as a major cause of nervous system damage in diabetes. P2X receptors play a primary role in regulation of neuronal interleukin (IL)-6 release, which is of paramount relevance to the functional changes of nerve system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of high FFAs on the P2X7 expression and IL-6 release in PC12 cells. High FFAs induced P2X7 expression and IL-6 release significantly in PC12 cells. Moreover, high FFAs enhanced ATP or BzATP-induced Ca(2+) signals in PC12 cells. Inhibition of P2X7 by transfection with P2X7-siRNA or co-culture with BBG (a specific P2X7 inhibitor) at high concentrations of FFAs decreased ATP or BzATP-promoted Ca(2+) signals and IL-6 release in PC12 cells. High FFAs induced the phosphorylation of p38 in PC12 cells. Blockade of p38 pathways by SB-203580 inhibited P2X7 up-expression, ATP or BzATP-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises as well as IL-6 release in PC12 cells exposed to high FFAs. Therefore, high concentrations of FFAs increased the expression of P2X7 in PC12 cells via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which contributed to P2X7-mediated IL-6 release from PC12 cells.
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Expression and purification of human ARP1 protein and rapid preparation of polyclonal antibody.
Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Angiopoietin-related protein 1 (ARP1) is one of the antiangiogenic factors and plays an important role in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and blood vessel network formation. Here a rapid method to prepare ARP1 polyclonal antibody in 1 month was developed. The gene of fibrinogen homology domain (FD) for ARP1 was cloned and the protein was expressed in a soluble form of MBP-FD fused protein. The MBP-FD protein was purified using amylose affinity chromatography of maltose-binding protein. Polyclonal antibodies against MBP-FD were obtained through immunization in BALB/c mice. The titer was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the antibody specificity was assessed by Western blot. The full-length ARP1 protein in stable form expressed in transfected human large lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460 was detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC) analysis using ARP1 polyclonal antibodies. The result shows that the antibody possesses good specificity and sensitivity. This work provides a substantial base for the further studies of ARP1 function and associated mechanisms. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publishers online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.
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Bioactive natural products from the antarctic and arctic organisms.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Polar regions are remote and challenging areas on the earth. In view of the unique environment and the severe competition in polar regions, its considered that the ecological system might be the producer of new compounds with diversity biological activities. This review is an attempt to consolidate the studies about 97 natural products isolated from Antarctic and Arctic organisms including microbes, algae, sponges, bryozoans, and tunicates and so on published in the recent years. The emphasis is mainly about the new compounds, source organisms and biological activities, which signifies the immense competence of Antarctic and Arctic organisms as bioactive natural products producers.
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