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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To explore the mechanism and effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats.
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Super-resolution radially polarized-light pupil-filtering confocal sensing technology.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Radially polarized beams can be focused to a tighter spot in the focal plane with a high numerical-aperture objective when combined with an optimally designed pupil filter. Based on the unique characters, a novel super-resolution radially polarized-light pupil-filtering confocal sensing technology (SRPCST) is proposed, and a sensor based on SRPCST is developed. By using a radially polarized beam and pupil-filtering technology, SRPCST can effectively improve its lateral resolution. In SRPCST a strong longitudinal field component can be generated in the focal plane by focusing a radially polarized light with a high numerical-aperture objective. Pupil-filtering technology will modify the pupil function of the optical system by optimally designing the parameters of pupil filter to higher resolution. Theoretical analyses and packaged SRPCST sensor experiments indicate that the lateral resolution of SRPCST can be improved by 15.23% and 32.12% through super-resolution image restoration compared with confocal microscopy under the same conditions.
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Preparation, characterization, and DNA interaction studies of cationic europium luminescent copolymer.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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This paper proposed a simple synthetic strategy towards a novel cationic europium luminescent copolymer, poly(METAC-co-NIPAm-co-Eu(AA)3Phen) (PMNEu), and investigation about their complexation ability with DNA. In this approach, first, Eu(AA)3Phen complex monomer containing Eu(3+), acrylic acid (AA), and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) was synthesized, and subsequently, free radical copolymerization of Eu(AA)3Phen complex monomer with other two functional monomers, [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (METAC) and N-isopropylarylamide (NIPAm), was carried out in methanol using azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. (1)HNMR, GPC, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and TEM were used to investigate the chemical structures, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, fluorescence properties, UV spectra, and morphologies of PMNEu copolymer, respectively. Furthermore, the interaction of PMNEu with DNA was also studied with fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis. These results indicated that PMNEu could interact with DNA via an electrostatic bonding mode and the bonding constant was 2.2 × 10(5) L/mol. Additionally, TEM observation showed that pure PMNEu formed micelles in water solution, while the size-controllable aggregations of PMNEu with DNA were obtained when PMNEu was mixed with DNA at various concentration ratios. A good biocompability of PMNEu was demonstrated through in vitro cytotoxicity assays.
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Electrocatalytic H2 production from seawater over Co, N-codoped nanocarbons.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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One of the main barriers blocking sustainable hydrogen production is the use of expensive platinum-based catalysts to produce hydrogen from water. Herein we report the cost-effective synthesis of catalytically active, nitrogen-doped, cobalt-encased carbon nanotubes using inexpensive starting materials-urea and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl2·6H2O). Moreover, we show that the as-obtained nanocarbon material exhibits a remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER); and thus it can be deemed as a potential alternative to noble metal HER catalysts. In particular, the urea-derived carbon nanotubes synthesized at 900 °C (denoted as U-CNT-900) show a superior catalytic activity for HER with low overpotential and high current density in our study. Notably also, U-CNT-900 has the ability to operate stably at all pH values (pH 0-14), and even in buffered seawater (pH 7). The possible synergistic effects between carbon-coated cobalt nanoparticles and the nitrogen dopants can be proposed to account for the HER catalytic activity of U-CNT-900. Given the high natural abundance, ease of synthesis, and high catalytic activity and durability in seawater, this U-CNT-900 material is promising for hydrogen production from water in industrial applications.
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Methamphetamine induces a rapid increase of intracellular Ca(++) levels in neurons overexpressing GCaMP5.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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In this study, methamphetamine (Meth)- and glutamate (Glu)-mediated intracellular Ca(++) (Ca(++) i) signals were examined in real time in primary cortical neurons overexpressing an intracellular Ca(++) probe, GCaMP5, by adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 1. Binding of Ca(++) to GCaMP increased green fluorescence intensity in cells. Both Meth and Glu induced a rapid increase in Ca(++) i, which was blocked by MK801, suggesting that Meth enhanced Ca(++) i through Glu receptor in neurons. The Meth-mediated Ca(++) signal was also blocked by Mg(++) , low Ca(++) or the L-type Ca(++) channel inhibitor nifedipine. The ryanodine receptor inhibitor dantrolene did not alter the initial Ca(++) influx but partially reduced the peak of Ca(++) i. These data suggest that Meth enhanced Ca(++) influx through membrane Ca(++) channels, which then triggered the release of Ca(++) from the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytosol. AAV-GCaMP5 was also injected to the parietal cortex of adult rats. Administration of Meth enhanced fluorescence in the ipsilateral cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, Meth-induced green fluorescence was found in the NeuN-containing cells in the cortex, suggesting that Meth increased Ca(++) in neurons in vivo. In conclusion, we have used in vitro and in vivo techniques to demonstrate a rapid increase of Ca(++) i by Meth in cortical neurons through overexpression of GCaMP5. As Meth induces behavioral responses and neurotoxicity through Ca(++) i, modulation of Ca(++) i may be useful to reduce Meth-related reactions.
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AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses urate crystal-induced inflammation and transduces colchicine effects in macrophages.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is metabolic biosensor with anti-inflammatory activities. Gout is commonly associated with excesses in soluble urate and in nutrition, both of which suppress tissue AMPK activity. Gout is driven by macrophage-mediated inflammation transduced partly by NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1? release. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that AMPK activation limits monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation.
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Precise control of the coupling coefficient through destructive interference in silicon waveguide Bragg gratings.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We present waveguide Bragg gratings with misaligned sidewall corrugations on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The grating strength can be tuned by varying the misalignment between the corrugations on the two sidewalls. This approach allows for a wide range of grating coupling coefficients to be achieved with precise control, and substantially reduces the effects of quantization error due to the finite mask grid size. The experimental results are in very good agreement with simulations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.
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Clinical Application of High-pitch Excretory Phase Images during Dual-source CT Urography with Stellar Photon Detector.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Objective To retrospectively evaluate the clinical feasibility of high-pitch excretory phase images during dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector. Methods Totally 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with Stellar photon detector[80 kV,ref.92 mAs,CARE Dose 4D and CARE kV,pitch of 3.0,filter back projection reconstruction algorithm (FBP)](group A). Another 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with common detector(100 kV,ref.140 mAs,CARE Dose 4D,pitch of 3.0,FBP)(group B). Quantitative measurement of CT value of urinary segments(Hounsfield units),image noise(Hounsfield units),and effective radiation dose(millisievert)were compared using independent-samples t test between two groups. Urinary system subjective opacification scores were compared using Mann-Whitney U test between two groups. Results There was no significant difference in subjective opacification score of intrarenal collecting system and ureters between two groups(all P>0.05). The group A images yielded significantly higher CT values of all urinary segments(all P<0.01). There was no significant difference in image noise(P>0.05). The effective radiation dose of group A(1.1 mSv)was significantly lower than that of group B(3.79 mSv)(P<0.01). Conclusion High-pitch low-tube-voltage during excretory phase dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector is feasible,with acceptable image noise and lower radiation dose.
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Calsyntenin3: Molecular Architecture and Interaction with Neurexin 1alpha.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Calsyntenin 3 (Cstn3 or Clstn3), a recently identified synaptic organizer, promotes the development of synapses. Cstn3 localizes to the postsynaptic membrane and triggers presynaptic differentiation. Calsyntenin members play an evolutionarily conserved role in memory and learning. Cstn3 was recently shown in cell-based assays to interact with neurexin 1alpha (n1?), a synaptic organizer that is implicated in neuropsychiatric disease. Interaction would permit Cstn3 and n1? to form a trans-synaptic complex and promote synaptic differentiation. However, it is contentious whether Cstn3 binds n1? directly. To understand the structure and function of Cstn3 we determined its architecture by electron microscopy and delineated the interaction between Cstn3 and n1? biochemically and biophysically. We show that Cstn3 ectodomains form monomers as well as tetramers that are stabilized by disulfide bonds and Ca(2+), and both are likely flexible in solution. We show further that the extracellular domains of Cstn3 and n1? interact directly and that both Cstn3 monomers and tetramers bind n1? with nanomolar affinity. The interaction is promoted by Ca2+ and requires minimally the LNS domain of Cstn3. Furthermore, Cstn3 uses a fundamentally different mechanism to bind n1? compared to other neurexin partners such as the synaptic organizer neuroligin 2 (NL2), because Cstn3 does not strictly require the sixth LNS domain of n1?. Our structural data suggest how Cstn3 as a synaptic organizer on the postsynaptic membrane, particularly in tetrameric form, may assemble radially symmetric trans-synaptic bridges with the presynaptic synaptic organizer n1? to recruit and spatially organize proteins into networks essential for synaptic function.
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Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Phlebopus portentous is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentous. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentous have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regis, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods.
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Structure and mass transportation model of slow-release organic carbon-source material for groundwater in situ denitrification.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Based on the theories of organic polymer and chemical kinetics, the structure and mass transportation model of slow-release organic carbon-source (SOC) material was developed in this study to reveal and predict the carbon release mechanisms of polymer carbon source, which was feasible for in situ denitrification in nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and starch, the SOC material formed the interlocking/disperse-phase structure. PVA performed as continuous phase and skeleton, whereas the starch or cellulose behaved as release component. Carbon release process was identified in two stages: solid-phase (inner) and interface (gel layer) diffusion. Solid-phase diffusion was affected by material porous medium parameters, for example, distance between the crosslinking points and starch free energy. The interface diffusion depended mostly on the groundwater dynamics and interface energy distribution. The interface diffusion was found as the limiting step of carbon release process, and the carbon release coefficient corresponded to kD,I as static coefficient and kC,I as dynamic coefficient. As the key indicator to evaluate carbon release capacity, kD,I and kC,I represented appropriate boundary conditions and interface properties. Sensitivity analysis showed that the key parameters of the carbon release model were the distance between the crosslinking points and the free energy of polymer, influenced by regulation of preparation technique, raw material composition and additive dosage.
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Trends in Aortic Dissection Hospitalizations, Interventions, and Outcomes Among Medicare Beneficiaries in the United States, 2000-2011.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The epidemiology of aortic dissection (AD) has not been well described among older persons in the United States. It is not known whether advancements in AD care over the last decade have been accompanied by changes in outcomes.
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Tuning nondoped carbon nanotubes to an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction by localizing the orbital of the nanotubes with topological defects.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Breaking the electron delocalization of sp(2) carbon materials by heteroatom doping is a practical strategy to produce metal-free electrocatalysts of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for fuel cells. Whether carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be efficiently tuned into ORR electrocatalysts only by intrinsic defects rather than heteroatom doping has not been well studied yet in experiment and theory. Here we introduce topological defects of nonhexagon carbon rings into CNTs to break the delocalization of their orbitals and make such type of CNTs to be a high-performance ORR catalyst. The electrochemical tests and theoretical studies indicate that the O2 chemisorption and the following electrocatalytic activity are promoted by the introduced topological defects and show a strong dependence on the defect amount. Such topological-defect CNTs (TCNTs) have an excellent ORR performance owing to a 3.8-electron-transferring process, ?4 times higher current density and ?120 mV more positive peak potential than normally straight CNTs. Moreover, TCNTs show a higher steady-state diffusion current density and much better stability and immunity to crossover effect as compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst. Hence, our results strongly suggest that tuning the surface structure of CNTs with nonhexagon carbon rings is a novel strategy for designing advanced ORR electrocatalysts for fuel cells.
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Confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration is proposed to obtain a fast and accurate measurement for submicrometer pore size of nuclear track-etched membranes (NTEMs). This method facilitates the online inspection of the pore size evolution during etching. Combining confocal microscopy with super-resolution image restoration significantly improves the lateral resolution of the NTEM image, yields a reasonable circle edge-setting criterion of 0.2408, and achieves precise pore edge detection. Theoretical analysis shows that the minimum measuring diameter can reach 0.19 ?m, and the root mean square of the residuals is only 1.4 nm. Edge response simulation and experiment reveal that the edge response of the proposed method is better than 80 nm. The NTEM pore size measurement results obtained by the proposed method agree well with that obtained by scanning electron microscopy.
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Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We demonstrate fully-etched fiber-waveguide grating couplers with sub-wavelength gratings showing high coupling efficiency as well as low back reflections for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. The power reflection coefficients for the TE and TM modes have been significantly suppressed to -16.2 dB and -20.8 dB, respectively. Focusing grating lines have also been used to reduce the footprint of the design. Our sub-wavelength grating couplers for the TE and TM modes show respective measured insertion losses of 4.1 dB and 3.7 dB with 1-dB bandwidths of 30.6 nm (3-dB bandwidth of 52.3 nm) and 47.5 nm (3-dB bandwidth of 81.5 nm), respectively.
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[Study on relations between transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and pungent property of traditional Chinese medicines].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The five-flavor theory of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and the flavor efficacy generation mechanism has long been focuses and difficulties in studies on traditional Chinese medicinal properties. In this paper, by using the pharmacophore-based virtual screening technique, the authors discussed the relations between the pungent property and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by studying the TCM components' role in regulating TRPV1 ion channel. The results showed that the matching relationship between TRPV1 agonist pharmacophore model and TCM chemical components could identify the active ingredients from pungent herbs. Therefore, the authors proposed that TRPV1 is one of the potential targets for efficient pungent herbs. The pungent property of TCMs is decided by its chemical components, and consistent with the inherited and additive characteristics.
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[Analysis on anti-hepatoma effect of medicine invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis based on warm-pungent-liver efficiency network].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The efficiency network is a complicated network for revealing the efficient mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and relations among efficiencies. The efficiency-property relations were used to establish a warm-pungent-liver efficiency network to explain the principle of treating hepatoma with medicines invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. Safflower, a warm-pungent medicine distributing along the live meridian, was taken for example to discuss the efficiency network' s application in the identification of active ingredients of TCMs and the combination.
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[Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along kidney meridian based on medicinal property combination].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To study the characteristics of pharmacological effects of property combinations of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) distributing in the stomach meridian based on medicinal property combination, in order to further define the association relationship between properties of TCMs and their pharmacological effects, and build a bridge for the interpenetration and combination between the medicinal property theory of TCMs and their pharmacological effects. On the basis of the studies on the medicinal property theory of TCMs distributing along the kidney meridian and their pharmacological effects, efforts were made to collect relevant data for medicinal properties and pharmacological effects and mine the characteristics of pharmacological effects that were corresponding to relevant medicinal property combination by processing materials related to medicinal properties and pharmacological effects with the association rules method. According to the analysis, TCMs distributing along the kidney meridian with different medicinal property combinations were significantly differentiated in the pharmacological effects, but shared identical pharmacological effects, such as immunological enhancement. In this study, TCMs distributing along the kidney meridian with different medicinal property combinations were taken as the carriers to closely integrate the traditional Chinese medicine theory with the modem study achievements, lay a solid foundation for further developing and enriching the traditional Chinese medical property theory, while providing a new perspective on the development of modem medicine.
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[Study on pharmacologic action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian based on medicinal properties combinations].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties.
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[Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along stomach meridian based on medicinal property combination].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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At present, studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) properties are mostly restricted to a single or two kinds of medicinal properties, but deviated from the holism of the theoretical system of TCMs. In this paper, the characteristics of pharmacological effects of different property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian were take as the study objective. The data of properties of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005). The data of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from all of literatures recorded in Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI) since 1980, Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Yan Zhenghua, People's Medical Publishing House, 2006) and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Gao Xuemin, Zhong Gansheng, Hebei Science and Technology Publishing House, 2005). The corresponding pharmacological effects of property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was mined by the method of association rules. The results of the association rules were consistent with the empirical knowledge, and showed that different medicinal property combinations had respective pharmacological characteristics, including differences and similarities in pharmacological effects of different medicinal property combinations. Medicinal property combinations with identical four properties or five tastes showed similar pharmacological effects; whereas medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes showed differentiated pharmacological effects. However, medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes could also show similar pharmacological effects. In this study, the medicinal property theory and the pharmacological effects of TCMs were combined to reveal the main characteristics and regularity of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian and provide a new way of thinking and method for revealing the mechanism action of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian and discovering the pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian.
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[Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along lung meridian based on medicinal property combination].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Medicinal properties are the basic attribute of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), while the medicinal property theory is the core theoretical foundation of TCM formula combination. In this particle, authors studied the characteristics of pharmacological effects of property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along meridians, with the aim to introduce the medicinal property combination regularity into the design and optimization process of compound TCMs, and bring the medicinal property theory into full play in guiding the formula combination.
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[Discovery of topiramate's new functions based on medicinal property combinations and study on its mechanism].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To study topiramate's new functions according to the medicinal property combinations, in order to apply the traditional Chinese medicinal theory in discovering new purposes of old drugs.
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[Formula method of medicated diet based on medicinal property combination patterns].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To propose a formula method of medicated diet based on medicinal property combination patterns in this paper under the context of lack of innovation in medicated diets. By analyzing the property combination patterns of traditional Chinese medicine and commonly used foods recorded in the pharmacopoeia, medicated diet formulae were optimized by using the greedy algorithm, with the property combination patterns of classical formulae based on the syndrome differentiation and treatment. In this paper, the Baihu Rensheng decoction, which is a classical formula for treating lung and stomach heat-derived diabetes, was taken for example in the formula design. As a result, totally 18 medicated diet formulae were developed and proved to be rational in the analysis on traditional Chinese medicines and nutriology. This method expands the way of thinking for personalized diet therapies and provides theoretical basis the industrial development and clinical application of medicated diets.
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[Design of traditional Chinese medicines with antihypertensive components based on medicinal property combination modes].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Multi-component traditional Chinese medicines are an innovative research mode for traditional Chinese medicines. Currently, there are many design methods for developing multi-component traditional Chinese medicines, but their common feature is the lack of effective connection of the traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this paper, the authors discussed the multi-component traditional Chinese medicine design methods based on medicinal property combination modes, provided the combination methods with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine for the prescription combinations, and proved its feasibly with hypertension cases.
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[Study on prescription combination and design method based on dichotomy and greedy algorithm].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The prescription combinations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) focuses on the taste and channel tropism, the Qi movement, as well as the compatibility according to multiple combination principles and medicinal property and flavor combination of several traditional Chinese medicines. With the in-depth study on the prescription compatibility, researchers have realized that the medicinal property theory is the core of TCM combinations. However, there is no definite method for combinations based on medicinal properties. In this paper, the authors put forward an method for designing prescription combinations based on bipartite graph and the greedy algorithm. With the medicinal property combinations of Siweilurong Pills for example, the authors proved this method could provide ideas for quickly choosing herbal medicines for prescription combinations, and discussed the prospect of this method in substituting previous and endangered herbal medicines and banned medicinal materials.
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[Predictive study on properties of traditional Chinese medicine components based on pharmacological effects].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To study the relationship between pharmacological effects and properties of traditional Chinese medicine by the decision tree algorithm.
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[Study on self-similarity of property combination mode of traditional Chinese medicines].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The combination of medicinal properties refers to expression forms of elements with active properties combined according to a specific sequence. The mode of medicinal property combination refers to the compatible relationship multiple medicinal property combinations. In this paper, based on the mode, safflower, Taohong Siwu decoction, Xuefu Zhuyu decoction and Buyang Huanwu decoction were taken for example to study the characteristics of the compatibility among single herb, herbal pairs and prescriptions. The authors discovered the similarities and differences among them, interpreted the self-similarity in medicinal property combinations of traditional Chinese medicines, and analyzed the compatible relationship among multiple medicinal property combinations, so as to bring forth new ideas in discovering the correlation between the compatibility study mode of traditional Chinese medicines based medicinal property combinations and the efficient compatibility of medicinal property combination.
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[Study on self-similarity relationship between decoction pieces property and component property].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To predict part of medicinal properties of traditional Chinese medicine components and traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces by using the traditional Chinese medicinal property data prediction platform, in order to establish the relationship between properties of traditional Chinese medicine components and traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces.
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[Systematic view on medicinal property theory based on self-similarity principle].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Studies on the prescription combination regularity based on medicinal tastes focus on the internal relations between the structure and hierarchy of the prescription combination system. In this paper, with the systematic and scientific self-similarity theory as the core ideology, authors systematically interpreted the self-similarity theory of medicinal properties, defined the self-similarity of prescriptions with identical or similar medicinal properties, and built the systematic view of medicinal property theory based on the prescription combination based on the entity grammar system. As a result, the system was conducive to integrating traditional Chinese medicinal knowledge of syndromes, therapeutic principles, efficacies, medicinal properties and tastes and achieving the automatic design and optimization process from symptoms to prescriptions, and providing scientific and feasible methods and technical systems for the application of the medicinal property theory, with a guiding significance to the technology, methodology and theory of decoction pieces compatibility, component compatibility and compound medicine design.
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[Clinical value of thoracoscopic extensive mediastinal lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of esophageal carcinoma].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To explore the safety and feasibility of extensive mediastinal lymphadenectomy during thoracoscopic esophagectomy in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma.
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[Determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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An analytical method for the determination of urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking was established based on stable isotope dilution by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and purified with chloroform. The extracts were determined by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The cotinine-d3 as an isotope internal standard was applied to quantify and confirm the urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking. The method had a good linearity from 0.1 microg/L to 10 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) > 0.998. The recoveries of the cotinine in blank urine were from 79.2% to 112.8% at spiked levels of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ L, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 2.1% to 5. 8%. The limit of quantification ( LOQ) of the method was 0.1 microg/L. The developed method is accurate, sensitive, rapid and can be applied to detect urinary cotinine of children exposed to passive smoking at home.
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Biochemical and Proteomic Analysis of Grape Berries (Vitis labruscana) during Cold Storage upon Postharvest Salicylic Acid Treatment.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.
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National trends in recurrent AMI hospitalizations 1 year after acute myocardial infarction in Medicare beneficiaries: 1999-2010.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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There are few data characterizing temporal changes in hospitalization for recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after AMI.
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Innovative slow-release organic carbon-source material for groundwater in situ denitrification.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Slow-release organic carbon-source (SOC) material, a new kind of electron donor for in situ groundwater denitrification, was prepared and evaluated in this study. With starch as a biologically utilized carbon source and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a frame, this material performed controllable carbon release rates and demonstrated stable behaviour during the simulated denitrification process. Raman spectrum analysis showed that the PVA skeleton formed cross-linking network structures for hydrogen-bonded water molecules reset in low temperatures, and the starchy molecules filled in the interspace of the skeleton to form a two-phase interlocking/disperse phase structure. In a static system, carbon release processes followed the Fickian law with (1.294-6.560)?×?10(-3)?mg?g(-1)?s(-1/2) as the release coefficient. Under domestication and in situ groundwater simulation conditions, SOC material played a favourable role during denitrification, with 1.049?±?0.165 as an average carbon-nitrogen ratio. The denitrification process followed the law of zero-order kinetics, while the dynamics parameter kN was 0.563-8.753?gN?m(-3)?d(-1). Generally, SOC material was suggested to be a potential carbon source (electron donor) suitable for in situ groundwater denitrification.
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Regulation of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase by lysine acetylation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is an NAD(+)-dependent tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine and is important in cell growth and the regulation of gene expression. Loss of SAHH function can result in global inhibition of cellular methyltransferase enzymes because of high levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine. Prior proteomics studies have identified two SAHH acetylation sites at Lys(401) and Lys(408) but the impact of these post-translational modifications has not yet been determined. Here we use expressed protein ligation to produce semisynthetic SAHH acetylated at Lys(401) and Lys(408) and show that modification of either position negatively impacts the catalytic activity of SAHH. X-ray crystal structures of 408-acetylated SAHH and dually acetylated SAHH have been determined and reveal perturbations in the C-terminal hydrogen bonding patterns, a region of the protein important for NAD(+) binding. These crystal structures along with mutagenesis data suggest that such hydrogen bond perturbations are responsible for SAHH catalytic inhibition by acetylation. These results suggest how increased acetylation of SAHH may globally influence cellular methylation patterns.
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The association between age, sex, and hospital-acquired infection rates: results from the 2009-2011 National Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To define the relationships between age, sex and hospital-acquired infection (HAI) rates in a national cohort of hospitalized patients.
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Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare-associated infections in the United States, 2009-2011.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Little is known about racial and ethnic disparities in the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in hospitalized patients.
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[Analysis on replacement of traditional Chinese medicine bear bile with bile acids based on drug properties].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To discuss the rationality of the clinical replacement of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) bear bile with bile acid constituents, and analyze the difference between these constituents and bear bile in drug properties.
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Magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation of functional bacteria in a complex microbial community.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Although uncultured microorganisms have important roles in ecosystems, their ecophysiology in situ remains elusive owing to the difficulty of obtaining live cells from their natural habitats. In this study, we employed a novel magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) method to recover metabolically active cells of a group of previously uncultured phenol degraders, Burkholderiales spp., from coking plant wastewater biosludge; five other culturable phenol degraders-Rhodococcus sp., Chryseobacterium sp. and three different Pseudomonas spp.-were also isolated from the same biosludge using traditional methods. The kinetics of phenol degradation by MMI-recovered cells (MRCs) was similar to that of the original sludge. Stable isotope probing (SIP) and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA from the 'heavy' DNA ((13)C-DNA) fractions indicated that Burkholderiales spp. were the key phenol degraders in situ in the biosludge, consistent with the results of MRCs. Single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied to probe individual bacteria in the MRCs obtained from the SIP experiment and showed that 79% of them were fully (13)C-labelled. Biolog assays on the MRCs revealed the impact of various carbon and nitrogen substrates on the efficiency of phenol degradation in the wastewater treatment plant biosludge. Specifically, hydroxylamine, a metabolite of ammonia oxidisation, but not nitrite, nitrate or ammonia, inhibited phenol degradation in the biosludge. Our results provided a novel insight into the occasional abrupt failure events that occur in the wastewater treatment plant. This study demonstrated that MMI is a powerful tool to recover live and functional cells in situ from a complex microbial community to enable further characterisation of their physiology.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 5 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.161.
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Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents' Self-Reported Smoking and Perceptions of Parenting Styles.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Adolescent smoking has been associated with general parenting style, although potential differences between fathers and mothers were seldom investigated, especially in non-Western populations.
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Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from the gut of the rhinoceros beetle Allomyrina dichotoma.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Two strains representing Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov. were isolated from the gut of Allomyrina dichotoma (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) collected from the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Nanyan, Henan Province, China. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene revealed that this novel species was located in the Wickerhamiella clade (Saccharomycetes, Saccharomycetales), with three described species of the genus Candida, namely Candida musiphila, Candida spandovensis and Candida sergipensis, as the most closely related species. The novel species differed from these three species by 9.3-9.8?% sequence divergence (35-45 nt substitutions) in the D1/D2 sequences. The species could also be distinguished from the closely related species, C. musiphila, C. spandovensis and C. sergipensis, by growth on vitamin-free medium and at 37 °C. The type strain is Wickerhamiella allomyrinae sp. nov. NYNU 13920(T) (?=?CICC 33031(T)?=?CBS 13167(T)).
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Down-regulation of WWOX is associated with poor prognosis in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma after Curative Resection.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Down-regulation of the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) has been reported to be involved in tumorigenesis in several neoplasms. This study sought to investigate the expression and role of WWOX in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) METHODS: WWOX expression was measured by qRT-PCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The role of WWOX in proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, gene expression regulation and tumorigenesis was assessed by WWOX re-expression using lentivirus. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was performed to evaluate the methylation status of the WWOX gene regulatory region. A DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA), was used to activate the endogenous WWOX gene in ICC cells both in vitro and in vivo.
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Using S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine capture compounds to characterize S-adenosyl-l-methionine and S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine binding proteins.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is recognized as an important cofactor in a variety of biochemical reactions. As more proteins and pathways that require SAM are discovered, it is important to establish a method to quickly identify and characterize SAM binding proteins. The affinity of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) for SAM binding proteins was used to design two SAH-derived capture compounds (CCs). We demonstrate interactions of the proteins COMT and SAHH with SAH-CC with biotin used in conjunction with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase. After demonstrating SAH-dependent photo-crosslinking of the CC to these proteins, we used a CC labeled with a fluorescein tag to measure binding affinity via fluorescence anisotropy. We then used this approach to show and characterize binding of SAM to the PR domain of PRDM2, a lysine methyltransferase with putative tumor suppressor activity. We calculated the Kd values for COMT, SAHH, and PRDM2 (24.1±2.2?M, 6.0±2.9?M, and 10.06±2.87?M, respectively) and found them to be close to previously established Kd values of other SAM binding proteins. Here, we present new methods to discover and characterize SAM and SAH binding proteins using fluorescent CCs.
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Facile fabrication of a well-ordered porous Cu-doped SnO2 thin film for H2S sensing.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Well-ordered Cu-doped and undoped SnO2 porous thin films with large specific surface areas have been fabricated on a desired substrate using a self-assembled soft template combined with simple physical cosputtering deposition. The Cu-doped SnO2 porous film gas sensor shows a significant enhancement in its sensing performance, including a high sensitivity, selectivity, and a fast response and recovery time. The sensitivity of the Cu-doped SnO2 porous sensor is 1 order of magnitude higher than that of the undoped SnO2 sensor, with average response and recovery times to 100 ppm of H2S of ? 10.1 and ? 42.4 s, respectively, at the optimal operating temperature of 180 °C. The well-defined porous sensors fabricated by the method also exhibit high reproducibility because of the accurately controlled fabrication process. The facile process can be easily extended to the fabrication of other semiconductor oxide gas sensors with easy doping and multilayer porous nanostructure for practical sensing applications.
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Trends in hospitalizations and outcomes for acute cardiovascular disease and stroke, 1999-2011.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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During the past decade, efforts focused intensely on improving the quality of care for people with, or at risk for, cardiovascular disease and stroke. We sought to quantify the changes in hospitalization rates and outcomes during this period.
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Combinatorial immunotherapy of sorafenib and blockade of programmed death-ligand 1 induces effective natural killer cell responses against hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Sorafenib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Herein, we report that the combinatorial therapy of sorafenib and anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) can be implemented with good results for HCC. Cancer mouse models were used to evaluate therapeutic efficacy and examine the immunologic mechanisms of the sorafenib/anti-PD-L1 mAb therapy. The combined administration of sorafenib and anti-PD-L1 mAb into tumor-bearing mice generated potent immune responses resulting in the complete eradication or remarkable reduction of tumor growth. In some instances, the sorafenib/anti-PD-L1 mAb therapy induced long-lasting protection against tumor rechallenges. The results indicate that NK cells but not CD4T cells or CD8 cells mediated the therapeutic efficacy of this combinatorial therapy. The overall results suggest that immunotherapy consisting of the combination of sorafenib/anti-PD-L1 mAb could be a promising new approach for treating patients with HCC.
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Hyper-coupling between working memory task-evoked activations and amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in first-episode schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Working memory (WM) deficit is an important component of impaired cognition in schizophrenia. However, between-studies inconsistencies as to the specific functional substrate imply that inter-individual variability (IIV) in the WM performance is associated with IIV in brain activity in schizophrenia. To examine the neural substrate of this WM IIV, we studied whether the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in WM capacity are the same in schizophrenia patients and healthy people. We correlated the IIV of the task-evoked brain activity and task performance during an n-back WM task with the IIV of the moment-to-moment variability in intrinsic resting-state activity, as measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and further compared this relationship between 17 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 18 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons of the correlation patterns indicated aberrant ALFF-WM activation correlations and ALFF-WM performance correlations in the FES patients, but no significant changes were detected in any single measurement of these three characteristics. Specifically, we found increased positive ALFF-WM activation correlations in the bilateral lateral prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortices and fusiform gyri in the FES patients. We also observed significant increases in positive ALFF-WM performance correlations in the bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortices in the FES patients. This hyper-coupling between the ALFF and fMRI measures during a WM task may indicate that it was difficult for the patients to detach themselves from one state to transition to another and suggests that the inefficient cortical function in schizophrenia stems from the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain.
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Muscle synergies in preparation to a step made with and without obstacle.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To study multi-muscle synergies during preparation in making a step (self-paced level stepping vs. obstacle crossing stepping).
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A huge neoplasm occupying the right hemithorax in a pregnancy.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Germ cell tumors, like teratoma, typically occur in young adults in their second to fourth decade with equal sex distribution. We firstly report a very rare case of a huge tumor compressed the vital structures of the mediastinum that was diagnosed in a 21-year-old woman at 39 weeks of gestation during a routine prenatal examination. The patient underwent complete en-bloc resection and the size of the tumor was extremely large although no invasion to the vessels or to the airway had occurred. Adherence to the adjacent right pulmonary artery and right main bronchus was present, but without erosion or fistulization. The patient has remained well for over 2 months after the treatment without any signs of disease recurrence.
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Smooth muscle cells from the anastomosed artery are the major precursors for neointima formation in both artery and vein grafts.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Accumulation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) results in neointima formation in injured vessels. Two graft models consisting of vein and artery grafts were created by anastomosing common carotid arteries to donor vessels. To identify the origin of the neointima cells from anastomosed arteries, we use Wnt1-Cre/reporter mice to label and track SMCs in the common carotid artery. The contribution of SMCs in the neighboring arteries to neointima formation was studied. On evaluating the artery grafts after 1 month, >90 % of the labeled neointima cells were found to have originated from the anastomosing host arteries. Most of the neointima cells were also smooth muscle ?-actin positive (SMA-?(+)) and expressed the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC), the SMC terminal differentiation marker. In vein grafts, about 60 % SMA-?-positive cells were from anastomosing arteries. Bone marrow cells did not contribute to neointima SMCs in vein grafts, but did co-stain with markers of inflammatory cells. Wnt1 expression was not detected in the neointima cells in the vein or artery grafts, or the injured femoral arteries. Neointima SMCs showed the synthetic phenotype and were positively labeled with BrdU in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with the IGF-1 receptor inhibitor suppressed SMC proliferation and neointima formation in vein grafts. Our results indicate that SMCs from the neighboring artery are predominantly present in the neointima formed in both vein and artery grafts and that Wnt1-Cre mice can be used to explore the role of SMCs originating from neighboring vessels in vascular remodeling.
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A mouse line for inducible and reversible silencing of specific neurons.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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BackgroundGenetic methods for inducibly and reversibly inhibiting neuronal activity of specific neurons are critical for exploring the functions of neuronal circuits. The engineered human glycine receptor, called ivermectin (IVM)-gated silencing receptor (IVMR), has been shown to possess this ability in vitro.ResultsHere we generated a mouse line, in which the IVMR coding sequence was inserted into the ROSA26 locus downstream of a loxP-flanked STOP cassette. Specific Cre-mediated IVMR expression was revealed by mis-expression of Cre in the striatum and by crossing with several Cre lines. Behavioral alteration was observed in Rosa26-IVMR mice with unilateral striatal Cre expression after systemic administration of IVM, and it could be re-initiated when IVM was applied again. A dramatic reduction in neuron firing was recorded in IVM-treated free moving Rosa26-IVMR;Emx1-Cre mice, and neuronal excitability was reduced within minutes as shown by recording in brain slice.ConclusionThis Rosa26-IVMR mouse line provides a powerful tool for exploring selective circuit functions in freely behaving mice.
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Conjugated Bile Acid Activated S1P Receptor 2 Is a Key Regulator of Sphingosine Kinase 2 and Hepatic Gene Expression.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Bile acids have been shown to be important hormones during the feed/fast cycle, allowing the liver to coordinately regulate nutrient metabolism. How they accomplish this has not been fully elucidated. Conjugated bile acids have been shown to activate both the ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways via S1PR2 in rodent hepatocytes and in vivo. Here, we report that feeding mice a high fat diet, infusion of taurocholate into the chronic bile fistula rat, or overexpression of the gene encoding S1PR2 in mouse hepatocytes significantly up-regulated hepatic SphK2, but not SphK1. Key genes encoding nuclear receptors/enzymes involved in nutrient metabolism were significantly down-regulated in livers of S1PR2(-/-) and SphK2(-/-) mice. In contrast, overexpression of the gene encoding S1PR2 in primary mouse hepatocytes differentially increased SphK2, but not SphK1, and mRNA levels of key genes involved in nutrient metabolism. Nuclear levels of S1P, an endogenous inhibitor of HDAC 1/2, as well as the acetylation of H3K9, H4K5 and H2BK12, were significantly decreased in hepatocytes prepared from S1PR2(-/-) and SphK2(-/-) mice. Both S1PR2(-/-) and SphK2(-/-) mice rapidly developed fatty livers on a high fat diet suggesting the importance of conjugated bile acids, S1PR2 and SphK2 in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. (Hepatology 2014;).
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Efficient, dual-stimuli responsive cytosolic gene delivery using a RGD modified disulfide-linked polyethylenimine functionalized gold nanorod.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Controlled-release systems capable of responding to external stimuli and/or unique internal environments have received great interests in site-specific gene and/or drug delivery. In this work, a functionalized gene nanocarrier for dual-stimuli triggered cytosolic gene delivery is developed and showing high gene delivery efficacy with low cytotoxicity. The nanocarrier is prepared by conjugating gold nanorod (GNR) with multiple disulfide cross-linked short PEIs to harness the advantageous properties of GNR based near infrared (NIR) laser induced photothermal heating and intracellular stimuli-triggered degradability of disulfide cross-linked short PEIs (DSPEI). The DSPEI is further grafted with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) section to afford high carrier stability in cell cultures and a terminal RGD peptide for specific targeting of cancer cells. The nanocarrier is found to effectively condense plasmid DNA to form a highly stable GNR-DSPEI-PEG-RGD/DNA complex with tumor cell-targeting ability that can be efficiently uptaken by cancer cells. Moreover, the loaded genes can be effectively released from the complex triggered by the high intracellular glutathione content and/or by photothermal effect of NIR irradiation at 808nm. Interestingly, the GNRs-based complex can easily escape from intracellular endo-/lyso-somal compartments and release the gene load into the cytosol upon exposure to NIR irradiation, resulting in significantly improved gene transfection efficiency. Our new gene carrier exhibits high gene transfection efficiency, comparable to or even better than that of high MW PEIs, but with a much lower cytotoxicity. Additionally, neither the GNR-based carrier nor the laser treatment shows any significant evidence of cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates a promising strategy for intracellular stimuli triggered, photothermal controllable gene delivery system, which can be further applied to many other nanomedicine fields.
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Smoking, MATRICS consensus cognitive battery and P50 sensory gating in a Han Chinese population.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The effects of smoking on cognitive performance have long been studied, with mixed results. P50 sensory gating has been used as endophenotype for studying nicotinic systems genetics, and P50 gating deficits have been reported to be a sensitive biomarker for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. This study examined the inter-relationship between P50 suppression, cognitive function, and smoking in a healthy Han Chinese population, which has not been reported before.
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The Ac124 protein is not essential for the propagation of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, but it is a viral pathogenicity factor.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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orf124 (ac124) of AcMNPV is one of the highly conserved unique genes in group I lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses. So far, its function remains unknown. In this study, infection with a virus expressing an ac124-gfp fusion showed that Ac124 localized to the cytoplasm throughout the infection. In addition, an ac124 knockout virus was generated to determine the role of ac124 in the baculovirus life cycle. Our results showed that an ac124 knockout AcMNPV could produce infectious budded viruses (BVs) and occlusion bodies (OBs) like those produced by the wild virus and ac124 repair virus. These three viruses had similar growth kinetics during the infection phase. There was no significant difference in nucleocapsids, occlusion-derived viruses and OBs visualized by electron microscopy. The ac124 deletion mutant did not reduce AcMNPV infectivity for S. exigua in an LD50 bioassay. However, it took 20 h longer for the ac124 deletion mutant to kill S. exigua than wild-type virus in the LT50 bioassay. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ac124 is not required for viral replication, but it accelerates the killing of infected larvae.
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Consumption of vegetables may reduce the risk of liver cancer: Results from a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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We conducted a meta-analysis of all published case-control and cohort studies to evaluate the relationship between vegetables intake and liver cancer risk.
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Dynamic metabolites profile of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion revealed by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics contributes to potential biomarkers.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Current metabolomic studies of ischemic brain mainly attach importance on a certain ischemic period, are lack of data about dynamic metabolites in ischemic stroke process, especially early period. Thus, in this study, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate biochemical changes in the early stages of rats' focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Serum samples of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h of reperfusion, based on multivariate data analyses, were tested to analyze the changing of metabolites during the early disease process. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis scores plots of the (1)H NMR data revealed clear differences among the experiment groups. Combination the results of loading plot and t-test, we found that 13 metabolites were changed significantly. Among that, malonic acid and glycine are the most noticeable variable metabolites. Dramatic changed malonic acid and glycine most probably served as biomarkers in this study. These findings help us understand the biochemical metabolite changes in early ischemic stroke stages, especially different periods. That may be conducive to distinguish at-risk individuals, benefit early diagnosis and understand the dynamic pathogenesis of early cerebral ischemia.
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Effects of repeated Cr(VI) intratracheal instillation on club (Clara) cells and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B pathway via oxidative stress.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] exposure is known to induce respiratory inflammation and contribute to lung cancer development, but little is known about its target cell type in lung. In the current study, we investigated the effects of repeated Cr(VI) intratracheal instillation on club (Clara) cells and club (Clara) cell secretory protein (CC16) in rats and explored whether the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) related pathway was involved. We also studied the role of orally delivered Zn against Cr-induced adverse health effects. For four weeks, sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats received weekly intratracheal instillation of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) at 0, 0.063 and 0.630mgCr/kg with or without daily intragastric administration of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) at 10mg Zn/kg. Results showed that exposure to Cr(VI) significantly increased the organ coefficient of lung (organ weight as a percentage of body weight), albumin and total protein level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), indicating lung injury and compromised bronchoalveolar/blood barrier (BA/BB) integrity. With increasing Cr(VI) dose, the secretion of CC16 decreased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that CC16 can serve as a peripheral biomarker for club cell damage during early lung injury induced by Cr(VI). Increased expression of NF-?B were observed in club cells in both Cr-exposed groups, indicating upregulation of NF-?B, which can be induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by club cells during Cr reduction with repetitive Cr(VI) exposure. Cr-induced DNA damage was also observed, as significant increase of 8-OHdG was found with Cr exposure at 0.630mg/kg week. Oral Zn supplementation did not alleviate changes in serum CC16 level under Cr(VI) exposure, indicating its failure in protecting against Cr(VI)-induced club cell damage.
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Bioavailability-based estimation of phytotoxicity of imazaquin in soil to sorghum.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The injury to sensitive rotational crops caused by residual herbicides from their applications has happened frequently. The assessment of activity of residual herbicide in soil has been of agronomic concern. To accurately determine the toxicity and obtain a comparable concentration that inhibits growth by 50 % (IC50) in different soils, the concentrations of imazaquin in CaCl2 (CCaCl2) and H2O (CH2O) extraction and in in situ pore water (CPW) were adopted for the estimation of IC50 to sorghum. The IC50 values based on CCaCl2 and CH2O were 0.06 mg L(-1) in soil Ansai (AS) to 0.13 mg L(-1) in soil Huajiachi (HJC), 0.32 mg L(-1) in soil AS to 0.71 mg L(-1) in soil HJC, respectively, with variation coefficients of 38.32 and 34.93 %. However, CPW-based IC50 values ranged from 0.90 mg L(-1) in soil Xiaoshan (XS) to 1.09 mg L(-1) in soil HJC with a variation coefficient of 6.96 %. This implies that the IC50 based on imazaquin concentration in in situ pore water is almost identical in the five soils. With further studies with more herbicides and plant species, this method might be expanded for the estimation of phytotoxicity of residual herbicide(s) to plant(s).
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In situ detrimental impacts of Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms on zooplankton in the East China Sea.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Large-scale algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) in recent decades. However, its impacts on the zooplankton in situ are still under not well understood. During a spring P. donghaiense bloom (April-May 2013) along the northern coast of Fujian Province (120°-121°30?E, 26°30?-28°N), we found that the bloom decreased the abundance of copepods and had no significant effect on chaetognaths and small jellyfish. However, the abundance of small jellyfish increased over the course of the study. The zooplankton community changed from being copepod and small jellyfish- to small jellyfish-dominated during the bloom. In the bloom areas, the copepod Calanus sinicus showed higher mortality and lower egg production rates (EPR) than those in the non-bloom areas. The results suggested that P. donghaiense blooms had detrimental effects on the structure of zooplankton community and the recruitments of C. sinicus.
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Electrical Stimulation of Dorsal Root Entry Zone Attenuates Wide-Dynamic-Range Neuronal Activity in Rats.
Neuromodulation
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Recent clinical studies suggest that neurostimulation at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) may alleviate neuropathic pain. However, the mechanisms of action for this therapeutic effect are unclear. Here, we examined whether DREZ stimulation inhibits spinal wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neuronal activity in nerve-injured rats.
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ZnPP reduces autophagy and induces apoptosis, thus aggravating liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in vitro.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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There is growing evidence indicating that autophagy plays a protective role in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Heme oxygenase?1 (HO?1) can also prevent liver IR injury by limiting inflammation and inducing an anti?apoptotic response. Autophagy also plays a crucial role in liver IR injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of HO?1 in liver IR injury and the association between HO?1, autophagy and apoptotic pathways. IR simulation was performed using buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells, and HO?1 activity was either induced by hemin (HIR group) or inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) (ZIR group). In the HIR and ZIR group, the expression of HO?1 and autophagy-related genes [light chain 3?? (LC3??)] was assessed by RT-qPCR and the protein expression of caspases, autophagy-related genes and genes associated with apoptotic pathways (Bax) was detected by western blot anlaysis. The results of RT?PCR revealed the genetically decreased expression of HO?1 and autophagy-related genes in the ZIR group. Similar results were obtained by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. An ultrastructural analysis revealed a lower number of autophagosomes in the ZIR group; in the HIR group, the number of autophagosomes was increased. The expression of Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c was increased, while that of Bcl?2 was decreased following treatment of the cells with ZnPP prior to IR simulation; the oppostie occurred in the HIR group. Cleaved caspase?3, caspase?9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein were activated in the IR and ZIR groups. The disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was also observed in the ZIR group. In general, the downregulation of HO?1 reduced autophagy and activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
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Integration of RAFT polymerization and click chemistry to fabricate PAMPS modified macroporous polypropylene membrane for protein fouling mitigation.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) grafting-to method was used to tether alkyne-terminated poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (alkyne-PAMPS) to the azide functionalized macroporous polypropylene membrane (MPPM-N3). Alkyne-PAMPS was synthesized by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) of AMPS with an alkyne-terminated trithiocarbonate served as a chain transfer agent. The combination of RAFT polymerization with click chemistry to graft polymer to the surface of polypropylene membrane produced relatively high grafting density and controllable grafting chain length. The structure and composition of the modified and unmodified MPPM surfaces were analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was employed to observe the morphological changes on the membrane surface. The permeation performances were tested by the filtration of protein dispersion. The experimental results show that with the grafting degree going up, the relative flux reduction decreases, while the relative flux recovery ratio increases, and the protein fouling is obviously mitigated by tethering PAMPS to the membrane surface. The modified membranes can be potentially applied for fouling reduction during the filtration of proteins.
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A three generation reproduction study with Sprague-Dawley rats consuming high-amylose transgenic rice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and resistant starch (RS) was developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch-branching enzymes. Cereal starch with high amylose has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch. In order to evaluate the effect of transgenic rice on rats, the rats were fed diets containing 70% TRS rice flour, its near-isogenic rice flour or the standard diet as the control through three generations. In the present study, clinical performance, reproductive capacity and pathological responses including body weight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry components, organ relative weights and histopathology were examined. Some statistically significant differences were observed in rats consuming the high amylose rice diet when compared to rats fed the near-isogenic control rice diet or the conventional (non-rice) standard diet. These differences were generally of small magnitude, appeared to be random in nature, and were within normal limits for the strain of rat used, and were therefore not considered to be biologically meaningful or treatment related.
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Islet neogenesis-associated protein-related pentadecapeptide improves the function of allograft after islets transplantation.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Abstract Objective: To investigate the protective effects of a pentadecapeptide of islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP-PP) on transplanted islets function.
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Expression and distribution of immunoglobulin G in the normal liver, hepatocarcinoma and postpartial hepatectomy liver.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The liver has the extraordinary properties of regeneration and immune tolerance; however, the mechanisms governing these abilities are poorly understood. To address these questions, we examined the possible expression of immunoglobulins in the human and rat liver and the relationship of IgG expression to hepatocyte proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis and immune tolerance. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-guided microdissection and reverse transcription-PCR were performed to examine the expression of IgG in normal human and rat liver, severe combined immunodeficient mouse (SCID) liver and human liver cancers and corresponding cell lines. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into cultured hepatocarcinoma cells to downregulate the expression of IgG heavy chain genes. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed with flow cytometry. Cell metastasis was assayed with a Transwell cell assay. Partial hepatectomy (70%) was performed in rats to examine the relationship between hepatocyte IgG and hepatocyte proliferation. IgG, together with essential enzymes for its synthesis, were expressed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes of normal adult human and hepatoma patients and rat livers, SCID mouse liver and BRL-3A, L-02 and HepG-2 cell lines. Downregulation of IgG inhibited cell proliferation and metastasis and promoted apoptosis. Postsurgery livers expressed significantly more IgG than the livers before surgery and decreased to the original levels when hepatocytes stopped regeneration. IgA and IgM but not IgD and IgE were also positive in hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that normal and malignant hepatocytes are capable of synthesizing immunoglobulin, which has important roles in hepatocyte proliferation, apoptosis and cancer growth with profound clinical implications.
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Effect of salidroside on lung injury by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression in septic rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Successful drug treatment for sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI) remains a major clinical problem. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of salidroside on ameliorating cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced lung inflammation. Rats underwent CLP surgery to induce ALI and 800 mg/kg salidroside (i.v.) was administered 24 h after the CLP challenge. Subsequently, biochemical changes in the blood and lung tissues, as well as morphological and histological alterations in the lungs, that were associated with inflammation and injury were analysed. CLP was shown to significantly increase the serum levels of plasma tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, -1? and-10. In addition, CLP increased pulmonary oedema, thickened the alveolar septa and caused inflammation in the lung cells. These changes were ameliorated by the administration of 800 mg/kg salidroside (i.v.) 24 h after the CLP challenge. This post-treatment drug administration also significantly attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of nuclear factor-?? and increased the release of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in the lung tissue. Therefore, salidroside administered following the induction of ALI by CLP significantly prevented and reversed lung tissue injuries. The positive post-treatment effects of salidroside administration indicated that salidroside may be a potential candidate for the management of lung inflammation in CLP-induced endotoxemia and septic shock.
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Effect of melilotus extract on lung injury by upregulating the expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in septic rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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M. Suaveolens Ledeb has long been used in China to treat inflammatory infectious diseases. Melilotus is extracted from Melilotus Suaveolens Ledeb and its therapeutic potential is associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of melilotus extract in a rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced animal model of acute lung injury (ALI).
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Xuebijing exerts protective effects on lung permeability leakage and lung injury by upregulating Toll-interacting protein expression in rats with sepsis.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Xuebijing (XBJ) is a type of traditional Tibetan medicine, and previous pharmacological studies have shown that the ethanol extract is derived from Chuanxiong, Chishao, Danshen and Honghua. Chuanxiong, Chishao, Danshen and Honghua possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, and has been used in the treatment of inflammatory infectious diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on pulmonary permeability and lung injury in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)?induced sepsis in rats. A CLP sepsis model was established for the control and treatment groups, respectively. Approximately 2 h prior to surgery, an amount of 100 mg/kg XBJ injection was administered to the treatment group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PT-PCR) and western blot analysis were used to examine the expression of Toll?interacting protein (Tollip), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-?B65 (NF-?B65) and TNF receptor?associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in lung tissue. ELISA was applied to detect changes of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF??), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and von wille-brand factor (vWF) in serum. The number of neutrophils, albumin and total cells in the BAL fluid were measured. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains were evaluated. Lung permeability, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) and the lung pathology score were determined following the induction of ALI by CLP for 24 h. The results demonstrated that XBJ upregulated Tollip expression and blocked the activity of IRAK1, TLR4, NF-??65 and TRAF6. Additionally, the number of neutrophils and total cells were significantly decreased in the XBJ group compared to that in the control group. Lung permeability, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) and the lung pathology score were significantly decreased in the XBJ group. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuation effect of XBJ on CLP-induced lung inflammation. The results of the present study indicated that XBJ has a significantly reduced CLP-induced lung permeability by upregulating Tollip expression. The protective effects of XBJ suggest its therapeutic potential in CLP?induced acute lung injury treatment.
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