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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Efficacy and safety of solifenacin plus tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a meta-analysis.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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We performed a meta-analysis to compare treatment with a combination of solifenacin plus tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (TOCAS) with placebo or TOCAS monotherapy. The aim of the meta-analysis was to clarify the efficacy and safety of the combination treatments method for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We searched for trials of men with LUTS that were randomized to combination treatment compared with TOCAS monotherapy or placebo. We pooled data from three placebo-controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes of interest included changes in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and urinary frequency. We also assessed postvoid residual, maximum urinary ?ow rate, incidence of urinary retention (UR), adverse events. Data were pooled using random or fixed effect models for continuous outcomes and the Mantel-Haenszel method to generate risk ratio. Reductions in IPSS storage subscore and total urgency and frequency score (TUFS) were observed with solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS compared with placebo (P< 0.0001 and P< 0.0001, respectively). Reductions in IPSS storage subscore and TUFS were observed with solifenacin 9 mg plus TOCAS compared with placebo (P = 0.003 and P= 0.0006, respectively). Reductions in TUFS was observed with solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS compared with TOCAS (P = 0.01). Both combination treatments were well tolerated, with low incidence of UR. Solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS significantly improved total IPSS, storage and voiding symptoms compared with placebo. Solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS also improved storage symptoms compared with TOCAS alone. There was no additional benefit of solifenacin 9 mg compared with 6 mg when used in combination with TOCAS.
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Numb regulates the polarized delivery of cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in rod photoreceptor cilia.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The development and maintenance of protein compartmentalization is essential for neuronal function. A striking example is observed in light-sensing photoreceptors, in which the apical sensory cilium is subdivided into an inner and outer segment, each containing specific proteins essential for vision. It remains unclear, however, how such polarized protein localization is regulated. We report here that the endocytic adaptor protein Numb localizes to the inner, but not the outer segment of mouse photoreceptor cilia. Rod photoreceptor-specific inactivation of numb in vivo leads to progressive photoreceptor degeneration, indicating an essential role for Numb in photoreceptor cell biology. Interestingly, we report that loss of Numb in photoreceptors does not affect the localization of outer segment disk membrane proteins, such as rhodopsin, Peripherin-rds, Rom-1, and Abca4, but significantly disrupts the localization of the rod cyclic nucleotide-gated (Cng) channels, which accumulates on the inner segment plasma membrane in addition to its normal localization to the outer segments. Mechanistically, we show that Numb interacts with both subunits of the Cng channel and promotes the trafficking of Cnga1 to the recycling endosome. These results suggest a model in which Numb prevents targeting of Cng channels to the inner segment, by promoting their trafficking through the recycling endosome, where they can be sorted for specific delivery to the outer segment. This study uncovers a novel mechanism regulating polarized protein delivery in light-sensing cilia, raising the possibility that Numb plays a part in the regulation of protein trafficking in other types of cilia.
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Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.
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A Combination of HA and PA Mutations Enhances Virulence in a Mouse-adapted H6N6 Influenza A Virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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H6N6 viruses are commonly isolated from domestic ducks and avian-to-swine transmissions of H6N6 viruses have been detected in China. Whether subsequent adaptation of H6N6 viruses in mammals would increase their pathogenicity towards humans is not known. To address this, we generated a mouse-adapted swine influenza H6N6 virus (GDK6-MA) which exhibited greater virulence than the wild-type virus (GDK6). Amino acid substitutions in PB2 (E627K), PA (I38M) and HA (L111F, H156N and S263R) occurred in GDK6-MA. HA H156N resulted in enlarged plaque sizes on MDCK cells and enhanced early stage viral replication in mammalian cells. PA I38M raised polymerase activity in vitro but did not change virus replication in either mammalian cells or mice. These single substitutions had only limited effects on virulence, however, a combination of HA H156N, S263R and PA I38M in the GDK6 backbone led to a significantly more virulent variant. This suggests these substitutions can compensate for the lack of PB2-627K and modulate virulence, revealing a new determinant of pathogenicity for H6N6 viruses in mice, which might also pose a threat to human health.
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Calcineurin upregulates local Ca2+ signaling through ryanodine receptor-1 in airway smooth muscle cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Local Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+) sparks) play an important role in multiple cellular functions in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Protein kinase C? is known to downregulate ASMC Ca(2+) sparks and contraction; however, no complementary phosphatase has been shown to produce opposite effects. Here, we for the first time report that treatment with a specific calcineurin (CaN) autoinhibitory peptide (CAIP) to block CaN activity decreases, whereas application of nickel to activate CaN increases, Ca(2+) sparks in both the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Treatment with xestospogin-C to eliminate functional inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors does not prevent CAIP from inhibiting local Ca(2+) signaling. However, high ryanodine treatment almost completely blocks spark formation and prevents the nickel-mediated increase in sparks. Unlike CAIP, the protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor endothall has no effect. Local Ca(2+) signaling is lower in CaN catalytic subunit A? gene knockout (CaN-A?(-/-)) mouse ASMCs. The effects of CAIP and nickel are completely lost in CaN-A?(-/-) ASMCs. Neither CAIP nor nickel produces an effect on Ca(2+) sparks in type 1 ryanodine receptor heterozygous knockout (RyR1(-/+)) mouse ASMCs. However, their effects are not altered in RyR2(-/+) or RyR3(-/-) mouse ASMCs. CaN inhibition decreases methacholine-induced contraction in isolated RyR1(+/+) but not RyR1(-/+) mouse tracheal rings. Supportively, muscarinic contractile responses are also reduced in CaN-A?(-/+) mouse tracheal rings. Taken together, these results provide novel evidence that CaN regulates ASMC Ca(2+) sparks specifically through RyR1, which plays an important role in the control of Ca(2+) signaling and contraction in ASMCs.
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Low effective mass and carrier concentration optimization for high performance p-type Mg2(1-x)Li2xSi0.3Sn0.7 solid solutions.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Mg2Si1-xSnx solid solutions are promising thermoelectric materials for power generation applications in the 500-800 K range. Outstanding n-type forms of these solid solutions have been developed in the past few years with the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT as high as 1.4. Unfortunately, no comparable performance has been achieved so far with p-type forms of the structure. In this work, we use Li doping on Mg sites in an attempt to enhance and control the concentration of hole carriers. We show that Li as well as Ga is a far more effective p-type dopant in comparison to Na or K. With the increasing content of Li, the electrical conductivity rises rapidly on account of a significantly enhanced density of holes. While the Seebeck coefficient decreases concomitantly, the power factor retains robust values supported by a rather high mobility of holes. Theoretical calculations indicate that Mg2Si0.3Sn0.7 intrinsically possesses the almost convergent double valence band structure (the light and heavy band), and Li doping retains a low density of states (DOS) on the top of the valence band, contrary to the Ga doping at the sites of Si/Sn. Low temperature specific heat capacity studies attest to a low DOS effective mass in Li-doped samples and consequently their larger hole mobility. The overall effect is a large power factor of Li-doped solid solutions. Although the thermal conductivity increases as more Li is incorporated in the structure, the enhanced carrier density effectively shifts the onset of intrinsic excitations (bipolar effect) to higher temperatures, and the beneficial role of phonon Umklapp processes as the primary limiting factor to the lattice thermal conductivity is thus extended. The final outcome is the figure of merit ZT ? 0.5 at 750 K for x = 0.07. This represents a 30% improvement in the figure of merit of p-type Mg2Si1-xSnx solid solutions over the literature values. Hence, designing low DOS near Fermi level EF for given carrier pockets can serve as an effective approach to optimize the PF and thus ZT value.
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Efficient hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a three-dimensional microscale culture.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a novel source of hepatocytes for drug development, disease modeling studies, and regenerative therapy for the treatment of liver diseases. A number of protocols for generating functional hepatocytes have been reported worldwide; however, reproducible and efficient differentiation remained challenging under conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture. In this study, we describe an efficient differentiation protocol for generating functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPSC-derived homogenous hepatic endoderm cells combined with three-dimensional (3D) microscale culture system. First, hepatic endoderm cells (iPSC-HEs) were directly differentiated using two-step approaches, and then cultured in the 3D micropattern plate. Human iPSC-HEs quickly reaggregated and formed hundreds of round-shaped spheroids at day 4 of cell plating. The size distribution of iPSC-HEs derived spheroids was relatively uniform around 100-200 ?m in diameter. After 14 days, iPSC-HEs efficiently differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in terms of hepatic maker gene expression compared with conventional 2D approach. We conclude that our scalable and three-dimensional culture system would be one promising approach to generate a huge number of hepatocyte-like cells from human iPSCs aiming at future industrial and clinical applications.
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miR-29b suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma through PTEN-AKT signaling pathway by targeting Sp1.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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miR-29b has been implicated in various cancers. However, the role of miR-29b in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-29b in TSCC progression.
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Identification and profiling of Manduca sexta microRNAs and their possible roles in regulating specific transcripts in fat body, hemocytes, and midgut.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Significance of microRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation has been appreciated ever since its discovery. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, 164 conserved and 16 novel microRNAs have been identified experimentally (Zhang et al., 2012, 2014). To extend the list of microRNAs in this lepidopteran model species and further explore their possible regulatory roles, we constructed and sequenced small RNA libraries of M. sexta fat body, hemocytes and midgut, since transcriptomes of these tissues from the 5th instar larvae had been studied quite extensively. Each library represented a mixture of the same tissues from larvae that were naïve or induced by three different pathogens. From a total of 167 million reads obtained, we identified two new variants of conserved miR-281 and miR-305 and six novel microRNAs. Abundances of all microRNAs were normalized and compared to reveal their differential expression in these three tissues. Star strands of ten microRNAs were present at higher levels than the corresponding mature strands. From a list of tissue-specific transcripts, we predicted target sites in 3'-UTRs using preferentially expressed microRNA groups in each tissue and suggested possible regulatory roles of these microRNAs in energy metabolism, insecticide resistance, and some mitochondrial and immune gene expression. Examining manifold targets, microRNA regulations were suggested of multiple physiological processes. This study has enriched our knowledge of M. sexta microRNAs and how microRNAs potentially coordinate different physiological processes.
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Helical graphitic carbon nitrides with photocatalytic and optical activities.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Graphitic carbon nitride can be imprinted with a twisted hexagonal rod-like morphology by a nanocasting technique using chiral silicon dioxides as templates. The helical nanoarchitectures promote charge separation and mass transfer of carbon nitride semiconductors, enabling it to act as a more efficient photocatalyst for water splitting and CO2 reduction than the pristine carbon nitride polymer. This is to our knowledge a unique example of chiral graphitic carbon nitride that features both left- and right-handed helical nanostructures and exhibits unique optical activity to circularly polarized light at the semiconductor absorption edge as well as photoredox activity for solar-to-chemical conversion. Such helical nanostructured polymeric semiconductors are envisaged to hold great promise for a range of applications that rely on such semiconductor properties as well as chirality for photocatalysis, asymmetric catalysis, chiral recognition, nanotechnology, and chemical sensing.
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Neurotrophic Signaling Factors in Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats: Differential Modulation Pattern between Single-Time and Multiple Electroacupuncture Stimulation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been widely used for stroke-like disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous studies showed that single-time EA stimulation at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Shuigou" (GV 26) after the onset of ischemia can protect the brain against ischemic injury in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we further investigated the differential effects between multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation on ischemic injury. In the present study, we found that both single-time EA and multiple EA stimulation significantly reduced MCAO-induced ischemic infarction, while only multiple EA attenuated sensorimotor dysfunctions. Also, with PCR array screening and ingenuity gene analysis, we revealed that multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation could differentially induce expression changes in neurotrophic signaling related genes. Meanwhile, with western blotting, we demonstrated that the level of glia maturation factor ? (GMF?) increased in the early stage (day 1) of reperfusion, and this upregulation was suppressed only by single-time EA stimulation. These findings suggest that the short-term effect of single-time EA stimulation differs from the cumulative effect of multiple EA, which possibly depends on their differential modulation on neurotrophic signaling molecules expression.
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Metallothionein isoform 3 expression in human skin, related cancers and human skin derived cell cultures.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Human skin is a well known target site of inorganic arsenic with effects ranging from hyperkeratosis to dermal malignancies. The current study characterizes the expression of a protein known to bind inorganic, As(3+), metallothionein 3 (MT-3). Expression of this protein was assessed immunohistochemically with a specific MT-3 antibody on human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens in normal skin, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and melanoma. Assessment in normal skin using nine normal specimens showed moderate to intense MT-3 staining in epidermal karatinocytes with staining extending into the basal cells and moderate to intense staining in melanocytes of nevi. MT-3 immunoexpression was shown to be moderate to intense in 12 of 13 of SCC, low to moderate in 8 of 10 BCC, and moderate to intense in 12 melanoma samples. MT-3 expression in cell culture models (normal human epidermal keratinocytes, normal human melanocytes, and HaCaT cells) showed only trace expression of MT-3, while exposures to the histone deacytalase inhibitor, MS-275, partially restored expression levels. These results indicate that the epidermis of human skin and resulting malignancies express high level of MT-3 and potentially impact on the known association of arsenic exposure and the development of skin disorders and related cancers.
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Mitochondrial oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium leads to localized retinal degeneration.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Oxidative stress in the RPE is widely accepted as a contributing factor to AMD. We have previously shown that ribozyme-mediated reduction in the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) leads to some of the features of geographic atrophy in mice. To develop a mouse model independent of viral injection, we used a conditional knockout of the Sod2 gene in the RPE to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress in that cell layer.
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Partial hepatectomy for liver metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparative study and review of the literature.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The management of liver metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been extensively investigated. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcome of patients with liver metastases from NPC who were treated by a partial hepatectomy or transcatheter hepatic artery chemoembolization (TACE).
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KPT-330 inhibitor of XPO1-mediated nuclear export has anti-proliferative activity in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Exportin-1 (XPO1, CRM1) mediates the nuclear export of several key growth regulatory and tumor suppressor proteins. Cancer cells often overexpress XPO1 resulting in cytoplasmic mislocalization and aberrant activity of its target proteins. Orally bioavailable selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) that irreversibly bind to and inhibit the function of XPO1 have been recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the clinical staged, orally available, SINE compound, KPT-330 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses vasculogenic mimicry and proliferation of highly aggressive pancreatic cancer PaTu8988 cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a extremely low 5-year survival rate. Hence, the search for more effective anti-pancreatic cancer agents is urgent.
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Telomerase enzymatic component hTERT shortens long telomeres in human cells.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Telomere lengths are tightly regulated within a narrow range in normal human cells. Previous studies have extensively focused on how short telomeres are extended and have demonstrated that telomerase plays a central role in elongating short telomeres. However, much about the molecular mechanisms of regulating excessively long telomeres is unknown. In this report, we demonstrated that the telomerase enzymatic component, hTERT, plays a dual role in the regulation of telomere length. It shortens excessively long telomeres and elongates short telomeres simultaneously in one cell, maintaining the optimal telomere length at each chromosomal end for efficient protection. This novel hTERT-mediated telomere-shortening mechanism not only exists in cancer cells, but also in primary human cells. The hTERT-mediated telomere shortening requires hTERT's enzymatic activity, but the telomerase RNA component, hTR, is not involved in that process. We found that expression of hTERT increases telomeric circular DNA formation, suggesting that telomere homologous recombination is involved in the telomere-shortening process. We further demonstrated that shelterin protein TPP1 interacts with hTERT and recruits hTERT onto the telomeres, suggesting that TPP1 might be involved in regulation of telomere shortening. This study reveals a novel function of hTERT in telomere length regulation and adds a new element to the current molecular model of telomere length maintenance.
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Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling reveals candidate genes associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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DNA methylation plays a critical role during the development of acquired chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify candidate DNA methylation drivers of cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. Gene expression and methylation profiling were determined by high-throughput microarrays. Relationship of methylation status and DDP response was validated in primary tumor cell culture and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) samples. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and response to DDP were determined in vitro and in vivo. A total of 372 genes showed hypermethylation and downregulation in A549/DDP cells, and these genes were involved in most fundamental biological processes. Ten candidate genes (S100P, GDA, WISP2, LOXL1, TIMP4, ICAM1, CLMP, HSP8, GAS1, BMP2) were selected, and exhibited varying degrees of association with DDP resistance. Low dose combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) reversed drug resistance of A549/DDP cells in vitro and in vivo, along with demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes (GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2). Forced expression of GAS1 in A549/DDP cells by gene transfection contributed to increased sensitivity to DDP, proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis enhancement, and in vivo growth retardation. Together, our study demonstrated that a panel of candidate genes downregulated by DNA methylation induced DDP resistance in NSCLC, and showed that epigenetic therapy resensitized cells to DDP.
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Integration of [(Co(bpy)?]²? electron mediator with heterogeneous photocatalysts for CO? conversion.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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An efficient chemical system for electron generation and transfer is constructed by the integration of an electron mediator ([Co(bpy)3](2+); bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) with semiconductor photocatalysts. The introduction of [Co(bpy)3](2+) remarkably enhances the photocatalytic activity of pristine semiconductor photocatalysts for heterogeneous CO2 conversion; this is attributable to the acceleration of charge separation. Of particular interest is that the excellent photocatalytic activity of heterogeneous catalysts can be developed as a universal photocatalytic CO2 reduction system. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the integration of an electron mediator with semiconductors is a feasible process for the design and development of efficient photochemical systems for CO2 conversion.
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Investigating the role of retinal Müller cells with approaches in genetics and cell biology.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Müller cells are major macroglia and play many essential roles as a supporting cell in the retina. As Müller cells only constitute a small portion of retinal cells, investigating the role of Müller glia in retinal biology and diseases is particularly challenging. To overcome this problem, we first generated a Cre/lox-based conditional gene targeting system that permits the genetic manipulation and functional dissection of gene of interests in Müller cells. To investigate diabetes-induced alteration of Müller cells, we recently adopted methods to analyze Müller cells survival/death in vitro and in vivo. We also used normal and genetically altered primary cell cultures to reveal the mechanistic insights for Müller cells in biological and disease processes. In this article, we will discuss the applications and limitations of these methodologies, which may be useful for research in retinal Müller cell biology and pathophysiology.
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Simplified system to investigate alteration of retinal neurons in diabetes.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is traditionally considered as a microvascular complication in diabetic retinas. Emerging evidences suggest that the alteration of neuronal function and the death of retinal neurons are part of DR pathology. However, surprisingly little is known about how retinal neurons behave in DR. As diabetic animals are chronicle models that are difficult and expensive to maintain, we used a chemical hypoxia model that mimics the later stage of diabetes and investigated its potential in predicting retinal cell behaviors in diabetes in an efficient manner. In this chapter, we discuss the similarities and differences between diabetic and hypoxic models and the usefulness and limitation of the cobalt-chloride-generated hypoxia system in mice for studying retinal neurobiology in diabetes.
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Cu?-xSe@mSiO?-PEG core-shell nanoparticles: a low-toxic and efficient difunctional nanoplatform for chemo-photothermal therapy under near infrared light radiation with a safe power density.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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A low-toxic difunctional nanoplatform integrating both photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for killing cancer cells using Cu?-xSe@mSiO?-PEG core-shell nanoparticles is reported. Silica coating and further PEG modification improve the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of copper selenide nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu?-xSe@mSiO?-PEG nanoparticles not only display strong near infrared (NIR) region absorption and good photothermal effect, but also exhibit excellent biocompatibility. The mesoporous silica shell is provided as the carrier for loading the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, the release of DOX from Cu?-xSe@mSiO?-PEG core-shell nanoparticles can be triggered by pH and NIR light, resulting in a synergistic effect for killing cancer cells. Importantly, the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy driven by NIR radiation with safe power density significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy, and demonstrates better therapeutic effects for cancer treatment than individual therapy.
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Mutagen sensitivity as measured by induced chromatid breakage as a marker of cancer risk.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Risk assessment is now recognized as a multidisciplinary process, extending beyond the scope of traditional epidemiologic methodology to include biological evaluation of interindividual differences in carcinogenic susceptibility. Modulation of environmental exposures by host genetic factors may explain much of the observed interindividual variation in susceptibility to carcinogenesis. These genetic factors include, but are not limited to, carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair capacity. This chapter describes a standardized method for the functional assessment of mutagen sensitivity. This in vitro assay measures the frequency of mutagen-induced breaks in the chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutagen sensitivity assessed by this method has been shown to be a significant risk factor for tobacco-related maladies, especially those of the upper aerodigestive tract. Mutagen sensitivity may therefore be a useful member of a panel of susceptibility markers for defining high-risk subgroups for chemoprevention trials. This chapter describes methods for and discusses results from studies of mutagen sensitivity as measured by quantifying chromatid breaks induced by clastogenic agents, such as the ?-radiation mimetic DNA cross-linking agent bleomycin and chemicals that form so-called bulky DNA adducts, such as 4-nitroquinoline and the tobacco smoke constituent benzo[a]pyrene, in short-term cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.
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Development of Mandarin spoken language after pediatric cochlear implantation.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate early spoken language development in young Mandarin-speaking children during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation, as measured by receptive and expressive vocabulary growth rates. Growth rates were compared with those of normally hearing children and with growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants.
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Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium on podocytes in rats with diabetic nephropathy.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) and Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (TWP) on podocytes in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). DN rat models were established and divided randomly into normal control (group A), DN (group B), CS (group C), TWP (group D) and CS and TWP groups (group E). After 12 weeks, levels of 24-h urinary protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCR), white blood cells, blood glucose (GLU), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and kidney weight (KW)/body weight (BW) were determined. Renal pathological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas the structural changes in the podocytes were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The expression levels of nephrin and podocin were evaluated using immunofluorescence staining. Compared with group A, the SCR and BUN levels in group B were higher (P<0.05) and the GLU, KW/BW and the 24-h urine protein were markedly higher (P<0.01). Moreover, incidences of glomerular disorders, chronic tubulointerstitial damage and glomerular podocyte lesions in groups B, C, D and E were observed, compared with group A. The high cortical expression of nephrin and podocin protein decreased. Compared with group B, the KW/BW and 24-h urinary protein level in groups C, D and E were lower (P<0.01). The glomeruli, tubules and podocytes exhibited pathomorphological improvements and the nephrin and podocin protein expression levels were higher in the nephridial tissue. A decrease in KW/BW and the 24-h urinary protein level, as well as improvements in glomerular disorder, chronic tubulointerstitial damage and glomerular podocyte lesions, were observed in groups C, D and E. Therefore, the results demonstrated that CS and TWP exhibited a protective effect on the podocytes of rats with DN. Moreover, CS combined with TWP increased this protective effect.
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Identification of four genotypes of H3N2 swine influenza virus in pigs from southern China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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In 2011, four H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated from nasal swabs of four pigs (800 nasal swabs were collected from pigs showing influenza-like symptoms) in Guangdong province, China. Four different genotypes of H3N2 appeared among pigs in southern China, including wholly human-like H3N2 viruses, intermediate (1975) double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses (resulting from reassortment between an early human lineage and a recent human lineage), recent double-reassortant human H3N2 viruses, and avian-like H3N2 viruses. Because pigs can support the reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses, our surveillance should be enhanced as a part of an overall pandemic preparedness plan.
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Clinical Pathway in the Treatment of Nocardial Brain Abscesses following Systemic Infections.
Case Rep Neurol Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Nocardial infections are commonly encountered in patients with immunocompromised states. Cerebral nocardiosis is an uncommon clinical entity, representing only 2% of all cerebral abscesses. It has a higher mortality rate, especially for multiple cerebral lesions in immunocompromised hosts following systemic infections. However, an optimal treatment policy to deal with these immunocompromised patients in Asia is still lacking. We retrospectively reviewed the subjects with nocardial brain abscesses from 2001 to 2011 at our medical center. All of them had multiple brain abscesses, underlying with immunocompromised state following systemic infections. All cases were under steroid control due to their comorbidities for more than six months. The comorbidities and misdiagnosis often lead to poor prognosis. The change in the environments of the microorganisms caused by immunosuppressive agents and multiple antibiotic uses may play an important role in this critical disorder. Aggressive craniotomy should be performed in time to avoid grievous neurological outcomes. Our conclusion is that early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic uses should be implemented promptly, and aggressive craniotomy should be performed for nocardial brain abscesses in subjects with systemic infections under an immunocompromised status.
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Epidemiology characteristics of respiratory viruses found in children and adults with respiratory tract infections in southern China.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The World Health Organization (WHO) ranks respiratory tract infection (RTI) as the second leading cause of death worldwide for children under 5 years of age. The aim of this work was to evaluate the epidemiology characteristics of respiratory viruses found in children and adults with RTI from July 2009 to June 2012 in southern China.
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Role of berberine in anti-bacterial as a high-affinity LPS antagonist binding to TLR4/MD-2 receptor.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid mainly extracted from Rhizoma Coptidis and has been shown to possess a potent inhibitory activity against bacterial. However, the role of berberine in anti-bacterial action has not been extensively studied.
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Piperlongumine induces apoptosis and synergizes with cisplatin or paclitaxel in human ovarian cancer cells.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., possesses the highly selective and effective anticancer property. However, the effect of PL on ovarian cancer cells is still unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrate that PL selectively inhibited cell growth of human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, PL notably induced cell apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest, and accumulation of the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acety-L-cysteine could totally reverse the PL-induced ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. In addition, low dose of PL/cisplatin or paclitaxel combination therapies had a synergistic antigrowth effect on human ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, our study provides new therapeutic potential of PL on human ovarian cancer.
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Ovarian cancer initially presenting with isolated ipsilateral superficial inguinal lymph node metastasis: a case study and review of the literature.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Isolated superficial inguinal metastases without any extended intra-abdominal spread is a rare event in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Here we report an isolated superficial inguinal metastasis in a patient with primary ovarian cancer. A 54-year-old Chinese patient with primary ovarian cancer, had an isolated painless enlarged right groin swelling (3×2cm) as the only manifestation, preoperative pathology confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic examination, transvaginal ultrasonography of the abdominopelvic cavity revealed a 5-cm mixed, right adnexal mass. At exploratory laparotomy, there was little intra-abdominal tumor dissemination but 100 ml of faint yellow peritoneal fluid and a 5-cm right ovarian tumor with intact capsule. Staging operation was performed and postoperative pathology confirmed adenocarcinoma located within right ovarian, with no evidence of involvement of other sites. Then the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy for Stage IVB. Five years later, the patient is currently still alive without evidence of recurrent disease. This case indicate that ovarian carcinoma isn't a disease localized only within the intra-peritoneal cavity, isolated superficial inguinal lymph node metastasis might occur in rare cases via potential lymphatic and (or) hematogenous route under special conditions. We propose the need to investigate the possible mechanisms, risk factors, metastatic patterns, the biology and natural history of such patients in a large-scale and multicenter analysis. Furthermore, efforts should be made for earlier and differential diagnosis and finally prolong survival time for such patients.
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Impact of dendrimer surface functional groups on the release of doxorubicin from dendrimer carriers.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers with acetyl (G5.NHAc), glycidol hydroxyl (G5.NGlyOH), and succinamic acid (G5.SAH) terminal groups were used to physically encapsulate an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Both UV-vis spectroscopy and multiple NMR techniques including one-dimensional NMR and two-dimensional NMR were applied to investigate the interactions between different dendrimers and DOX. The influence of the surface functional groups of G5 dendrimers on the DOX encapsulation, release kinetics, and cancer cell inhibition effect was investigated. We show that all three types of dendrimers are able to effectively encapsulate DOX and display therapeutic inhibition effect to cancer cells, which is solely associated with the loaded DOX. The relatively stronger interactions of G5.NHAc or G5.NGlyOH dendrimers with DOX than that of G5.SAH dendrimers with DOX demonstrated by NMR techniques correlate well with the slow release rate of DOX from G5.NHAc/DOX or G5.NGlyOH/DOX complexes. In contrast, the demonstrated weak interaction between G5.SAH and DOX causes a fast release of DOX, suggesting that the G5.SAH/DOX complex may not be a proper option for further in vivo research. Our findings suggest that the dendrimer surface functional groups are crucial for further design of multifunctional dendrimer-based drug delivery systems for various biomedical applications.
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Pharmacodynamic analysis of intravenous recombinant urate oxidase using an indirect pharmacological response model in healthy subjects.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Pharmacodynamic analysis of intravenous recombinant urate oxidase produced by Escherichia coli was performed in healthy subjects using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model.
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Adult supratentorial extra-pineal primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare malignant brain tumors, mostly undifferentiated, that tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Extra-pineal supratentorial PNET in adults are very rare. Published guidelines for adult PNET were not available until 2011, and at our institute surgeons and oncologists did not have consensus on imaging evaluation or treatment protocols between 1994 to 2008. Twenty-two consecutive adult patients with extra-pineal supratentorial PNET from this period were reviewed in this retrospective study. Their clinical profiles and radiologic images were evaluated. A pathological review based on the 2007 World Health Organization criteria was also conducted. Prognostic factors were analyzed. The 1 and 3 year overall survival rates were 64% and 32% for adult extra-pineal supratentorial PNET, respectively. Limited by the small number of tumors in this series, we suggest that negative prognostic factors are multiplicity at onset, initial CSF seeding, and tumor differentiation. Although age of onset, extent of resection, radiation and chemotherapy were assumed to be good prognostic factors, the analysis did not reveal strong significance for overall survival with univariate and multivariate analysis. We believe more detailed investigations on the genetic/molecular basis of supratentorial PNET and their clinical outcomes are warranted.
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Bitter tastants induce relaxation of rat thoracic aorta precontracted with high K(+).
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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It has been reported that bitter tastants decrease blood pressure and relax precontracted vascular smooth muscle. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism underlying the vasorelaxant effect of the bitter tastants. Thoracic aortic rings were isolated from Wistar rats and contractions were measured using an isometric myograph. Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in single rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle cells was recorded by calcium imaging. Calcium currents in single cells were recorded using patch-clamp techniques. High K(+) (140 mmol/L) induced contractions in rat thoracic aortic rings that were inhibited by 3 mmol/L chloroquine, 3 mmol/L denatonium and 10 ?mol/L nifedipine. In single rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle cells, high K(+) increased [Ca(2+)]i and this effect was also blocked by 3 mmol/L chloroquine and 10 ?mol/L nifedipine. Under Ca(2+) -free conditions, high K(+) failed to induce contractions in rat thoracic aortic rings. On its own, chloroquine had no effect on the muscle tension of rat aortic rings and [Ca(2+) ]i. The vasorelaxant effects of chloroquine on precontracted rat thoracic aortic rings were not altered by either 1 ?g/mL pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of G?o/i-protein, or 1 mmol/L gallein, an inhibitor of G??-protein. The results of patch-clamp analysis in single cells indicate that 1 mmol/L chloroquine blocks voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel (VDLCC) currents from both extracellular and intracellular sides. Together, the results indicate that chloroquine can block VDLCC, independent of PTX- and gallein-sensitive G-proteins, resulting in relaxation of high K(+)-precontracted thoracic aortic smooth muscle.
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Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in Manduca sexta and their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta has served as a model for insect biochemical and physiological research for decades. However, knowledge of the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is still rudimentary in this species. Our previous study (Zhang et al., 2012) identified 163 conserved and 13 novel microRNAs in M. sexta, most of which were present at low levels in pupae. To identify additional M. sexta microRNAs and more importantly to examine their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes, we constructed four small RNA libraries using fat body and hemocytes from naïve or bacteria-injected larvae and obtained 32.9 million reads of 18-31 nucleotides by Illumina sequencing. Mse-miR-929 and mse-miR-1b (antisense microRNA of mse-miR-1) were predicted in the previous study and now found to be conserved microRNAs in the tissue samples. We also found four novel microRNAs, two of which result from a gene cluster. Mse-miR-281-star, mse-miR-965-star, mse-miR-31-star, and mse-miR-9b-star were present at higher levels than their respective mature strands. Abundance changes of microRNAs were observed after the immune challenge. Based on the quantitative data of mRNA levels in control and induced fat body and hemocytes as well as the results of microRNA target site prediction, we suggest that certain microRNAs and microRNA*s regulate gene expression for pattern recognition, prophenoloxidase activation, cellular responses, antimicrobial peptide synthesis, and conserved intracellular signal transduction (Toll, IMD, JAK-STAT, MAPK-JNK-p38, and small interfering RNA pathways). In summary, this study has enriched our knowledge on M. sexta microRNAs and how some of them may participate in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.
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Sex specific expression and distribution of small RNAs in papaya.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Regulatory function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) in response to environmental and developmental cues has been established. Additionally, sRNA, also plays an important role in maintaining the heterochromatin and centromere structures of the chromosome. Papaya, a trioecious species with recently evolved sex chromosomes, has emerged as an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, role of small RNA in papaya sex determination is yet to be explored.
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MiR-182 is up-regulated and targeting Cebpa in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that repress their targets at post transcriptional level. Existing studies have shown that miRNAs are important regulatory genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes. MiR-122 is normally downregulated in HCC and regarded as a tumor suppressor. Recently miR-122 has been reported to be regulated by CEBPA, which is then involved in a novel pathway to influence proliferation of tumor cells. However it is unknown whether CEBPA is regulated by miRNAs in HCC. In this study, we find that miR-182 is upregulated in HCC model rat, and represses CEBPA in both rat and human. This further improves the current CEBPA/miR-122 pathway that controls the proliferation of tumor cells. These results suggest that miR-182 is a potential oncogene in HCC and could be used as a diagnostic marker and drug target of HCC.
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Avian influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among swine farm residents in China.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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In parts of southern China, some large-scale swine farms are adjacent to lakes and ponds that are home to many types of birds. Some swine farms will also raise poultry for consumption and sale. Swine farms in rural China may be the source of the AIV outbreak. A seroepidemiological study was conducted among swine farm residents to understand the prevalence of antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 in southern China. A total of 2,006 swine farm residents were sampled. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against H9N2 AIV by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. A total of 37 serum samples from swine farm residents were HI positive for A/chicken/Guangdong/V/2008(H9N2), and 24 serum samples (all of which were also HI positive) were microneutralization assays positive for A/chicken/Guangdong/V/2008(H9N2). Due to the special pig farming model in southern China, the residents are in close contact with different kinds of birds. Thus, controlling bird-to-human transmission of AIV in swine farms with poultry may be an important means of preventing widespread AIV infection in humans.
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Enhancement of Synthetic Trichoderma-Based Enzyme Mixtures for Biomass Conversion with an Alternative Family 5 Glycosyl Hydrolase from Sporotrichum thermophile.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars is a limiting step in the production of biofuels from biomass. We show here that combining enzymes from different microbial sources is one way to identify superior enzymes. Extracts of the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile (synonym Myceliophthora thermophila) gave synergistic release of glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) from pretreated corn stover when combined with an 8-component synthetic cocktail of enzymes from Trichoderma reesei. The S. thermophile extracts were fractionated and an enhancing factor identified as endo-?1,4- glucanase (StCel5A or EG2) of subfamily 5 of Glycosyl Hydrolase family 5 (GH5_5). In multi-component optimization experiments using a standard set of enzymes and either StCel5A or the ortholog from T. reesei (TrCel5A), reactions containing StCel5A yielded more Glc and Xyl. In a five-component optimization experiment (i.e., varying four core enzymes and the source of Cel5A), the optimal proportions for TrCel5A vs. StCel5A were similar for Glc yields, but markedly different for Xyl yields. Both enzymes were active on lichenan, glucomannan, and oat ?-glucan; however, StCel5A but not TrCel5A was also active on ?1,4-mannan, two types of galactomannan, and ?1,4-xylan. Phylogenetically, fungal enzymes in GH5_5 sorted into two clades, with StCel5A and TrCel5A belonging to different clades. Structural differences with the potential to account for the differences in performance were deduced based on the known structure of TrCel5A and a homology-based model of StCel5A, including a loop near the active site of TrCel5A and the presence of four additional Trp residues in the active cleft of StCel5A. The results indicate that superior biomass-degrading enzymes can be identified by exploring taxonomic diversity combined with assays in the context of realistic enzyme combinations and realistic substrates. Substrate range may be a key factor contributing to superior performance within GH5_5.
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miR-34a inhibits migration and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma via targeting MMP9 and MMP14.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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miR-34a is an important tumor suppressor gene in various cancer types. But little is known about the dysregulation of miR-34a in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). In this study, we investigate the expression and potential role of miR-34a in TSCC.
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Non-selective cation channels mediate chloroquine-induced relaxation in precontracted mouse airway smooth muscle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bitter tastants can induce relaxation in precontracted airway smooth muscle by activating big-conductance potassium channels (BKs) or by inactivating voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels (VDLCCs). In this study, a new pathway for bitter tastant-induced relaxation was defined and investigated. We found nifedipine-insensitive and bitter tastant chloroquine-sensitive relaxation in epithelium-denuded mouse tracheal rings (TRs) precontracted with acetylcholine (ACH). In the presence of nifedipine (10 µM), ACH induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation and cell shortening in single airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), and these changes were inhibited by chloroquine. In TRs, ACH triggered a transient contraction under Ca2+-free conditions, and, following a restoration of Ca2+, a strong contraction occurred, which was inhibited by chloroquine. Moreover, the ACH-activated whole-cell and single channel currents of non-selective cation channels (NSCCs) were blocked by chloroquine. Pyrazole 3 (Pyr3), an inhibitor of transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) channels, partially inhibited ACH-induced contraction, intracellular Ca2+ elevation, and NSCC currents. These results demonstrate that NSCCs play a role in bitter tastant-induced relaxation in precontracted airway smooth muscle.
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Simultaneous quantification of alternatively spliced transcripts in a single droplet digital PCR reaction.
BioTechniques
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is an essential component required for telomerase activity and telomere maintenance. Several alternatively spliced forms of hTERT mRNA have been reported in human primary and tumor cells. Currently, however, there is no sensitive and accurate method for the simultaneous quantification of multiple alternatively spliced RNA transcripts, such as in the case of hTERT. Here we show droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) provides sensitive, simultaneous digital quantification in a single reaction of two alternatively spliced single deletion hTERT transcripts (?-/?+ and ?+/?-) as well as the opportunity to manually quantify non-deletion (?+/?+) and double deletion (?-/?-) transcripts. Our ddPCR method enables direct comparison among four alternatively spliced mRNAs without the need for internal standards or multiple primer pairs specific for each variant as real-time PCR (qPCR) requires, thus eliminating potential variation due to differences in PCR amplification efficiency.
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Hepatitis E virus serosurvey among pet dogs and cats in several developed cities in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions.
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Efficient induction of productive Cre-mediated recombination in retinal pigment epithelium.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To dissect gene functions in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), we previously generated a tetracycline-inducible RPE-specific Cre mouse line. Although this Cre mouse line was useful for several conditional gene targeting studies that were conducted by different laboratories, its potential has not been fully exploited, presumably due to a lack of knowledge or procedure for inducing Cre expression appropriately in this mouse line. The goal of the current study is to establish a procedure that will improve the reproducibility of Cre-mediated recombination in this mouse line.
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[Study on the FTIR spectra of OH in olivines from mengyin kimberlite].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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The results of FTIR spectra study of OH in olivines from Mengyin kimberlite show that there are more than 60 OH absorption peaks in the range of 3800-3000 cm(-1). We identified four major spectral features in the OH absorption bands of kimberlitic olivines. One is with nuOH in the range of 3800-3700 cm(-1), which is caused by the vapour of the room circumstance, and can not be regarded as intrinsic or non-intrinsic nuOH of the olivines. Another one is with nuOH in the range of 3710-3620 cm(-1), which belongs to three "water"-bearing minerals including serpentine, talc and Mg-bearing amphiboles, which is the non-intrinsic nuOH of the olivines. There is the possibility that H in hydrous minerals mainly entered into olivines during post-emplacement processes of the kimberlite magma. The third one is with nuOH in the range of 3620-3425 cm(-1), which originated from H occupying the Si-defect in the olivine structure, forming humite-like defects, and/or the defects that H occupies (Mg,Fe)-depletion, which is certainly attributed to the intrinsic nuOH of the olivines. In this case, H possibly entered into olivines following its immersion in the high temperature and rich fluid kimberlite magma in the mantle circumstance. The last one is with nuOH in the range of 3425-3000 cm(-1). In this area, nuOH is assigned to fluid inclusions of the olivines, and is the non-intrinsic nuOH of olivines. Fluid inclusions can enter into the olivines either during post-emplacement processes of the kimberlite magma or during the periods that olivines were formed in the mantle.
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Evaluation of speech perception in competing noise conditions for normally hearing children.
Noise Health
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Evaluation of speech perception in noisy environments for normally hearing children was conducted in order to provide normal data for speech perception testing in children with hearing impairments thus improving early intervention alternatives for Mandarin-speaking children with hearing impairments. The speech perception abilities of 174 developmentally normal children ranging aged 2-5 years, in four age groups, were evaluated in environments that were quiet or with high levels of competing noise using the Mandarin pediatric speech intelligibility (MPSI) test. The mean score of MPSI between the four age groups showed notable statistical differences, including a variation in mean score between the four age groups, clearly indicating that the speech perception abilities of young children in noisy environments improved greatly with age, most notably between the ages of 3 and 4 years old. Speech perception ability in noisy environments was shown to be significantly, but weakly, related to age, implying the presence of other, possibly environment factors, in speech perception development. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference between boys and girls was noted in the experimental MPSI scores. The ability of children to increasingly perceive speech in environments containing high competing noise levels was shown to gradually and progressively increase with age. These results indicated that the developing Mandarin speech perception abilities in noisy environments in normal hearing children develops substantially after the age of 3-4 years, suggesting that similar age ranges may be even more critical intervention points for children with hearing impairments. More studies are still needed to confirm that.
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Genetic polymorphisms in NQO1 and SOD2: Interactions with smoking, schistosoma infection, and bladder cancer risk in Egypt.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Bladder cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in men among Egyptians, for whom tobacco smoke exposure and Schistosoma haematobium (SH) infection are the major risk factors. We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in
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Triterpenoids as reversal agents for anticancer drug resistance treatment.
Drug Discov. Today
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cells results in multidrug resistance (MDR), which is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of cancer patients. None of the strategies to overcome MDR has been successfully applied in the clinic until now. Plenty of evidence shows that some triterpenoids function as reversal agents of MDR for anticancer drug resistance treatment. Here, we review the latest findings of reversing cancer MDR with triterpenoids. Findings are summarized showing that triterpenoids are MDR modulators and potential chemosensitizers. Finally, we contemplate future prospects of modulating MDR in the clinic.
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Preparation and antibacterial property of waterborne polyurethane/Zn-Al layered double hydroxides/ZnO nanocomposites.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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In this work, a novel environmental-friendly waterborne polyurethane/ZnAl-layered double hydroxides/ZnO nanoparticles composite (WPU/ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO) was synthesized via in-situ polymerization. ZnAl-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO were synthesized by refluxing in an oil bath. In order to disperse ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO homogeneously into WPU matrix, ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO was firstly functionalized by isophorone diisocyanate. The incorporated content of ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO in the composite has profound effect on such physical properties as mechanical strength, thermal stability and water swelling. It is demonstrated that appropriate amount of ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO with good dispersion in the WPU matrix significantly improves the physical performance of the composites. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the composite was tested against G(-) Escherichia coli and G(+) Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that WPU incorporated with ZnAl-LDHs/ZnO shows strong antibacterial activity upon contact.
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[The result of BAHA fitting in single sided deafness].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To learn the benefit of the unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss patients wear bone conduction hearing aid BAHA.
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[Outcome analysis of hearing aids fitting for 2 635 hearing-impaired people].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To investigate the reasons that hearing-impaired patients who owned the indication of hearing aid fitting but were not successfully fitted.
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Belinostat and panobinostat (HDACI): in vitro and in vivo studies in thyroid cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Advanced thyroid cancer responds poorly to most therapies. New therapies and combinations are needed. The aim of this study was to examine both in vitro and in vivo activity of two relatively new histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), belinostat and panobinostat, and a variety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against a panel of nine human thyroid cancer cell lines.
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[Effect of recombinant human S100A8 on the proliferation and migration of periodontal ligament cells].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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To investigate the effect of S100A8 on the proliferation and migration of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), and to learn the role of S100A8 in the development of periodontitis.
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Cloning and enzymatic characterization of four thermostable fungal endo-1,4-?-xylanases.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Endo-1,4-?-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) hydrolyze the 1,4-?-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans, the most abundant hemicellulose in plant cell walls. Xylanase enzymes have numerous industrial applications, including the manufacturing of animal feed, bread, juice and wine, pulp and paper, and biofuels. In this study, two glycosyl hydrolase family 10 members designated GtXyn10A and GtXyn10B and two glycosyl hydrolase family 11 members, OpXyn11A and CcXyn11C, were functionally expressed and subjected to biochemical characterization. The K M , V max, and k cat values of the four xylanases, determined using birchwood xylan, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/mL, 130 to 980 ?mol/min/mg, and 109 to 344 s(-1), respectively, where OpXyn11A gave the highest and GtXyn10B the lowest values for all three parameters. Substrate specificity studies and analysis of the products released during the degradation of xylo-oligosaccharides and three types of xylan revealed significant differences in catalytic properties, particularly between OpXyn11A and the other xylanases and between the family 10 and the family 11 xylanases. Molecular modeling suggests that the unique substrate specificity of OpXyn11A can be attributed to the presence of a serine rather that an asparagine or aspartate residue at the +1 substrate binding site. Additionally, all four xylanases exhibited biochemical characteristics of interest for various commercial applications.
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Epigenetic downregulation of RUNX3 by DNA methylation induces docetaxel chemoresistance in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by activation of the AKT pathway.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The RUNX3 gene has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor gene implicated in various cancers, but its association with tumor chemoresistance has not been fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of epigenetic downregulation of RUNX3 in docetaxel resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma and its possible molecular mechanisms. RUNX3 was found to be downregulated by hypermethylation in docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells. Its overexpression could resensitize cells to docetaxel both in vitro and in vivo by growth inhibition, enhancement of apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. Conversely, knockdown of RUNX3 could lead to the decreased sensitivity of parental human lung adenocarcinoma cells to docetaxel by enhancing proliferative capacity. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of RUNX3 could inactivate the AKT/GSK3?/?-catenin signaling pathway in the docetaxel-resistant cells. Importantly, co-transfection of RUNX3 and constitutively active Akt1 could reverse the effects of RUNX3 overexpression, while treatment with the MK-2206 (AKT inhibitor) mimicked the effects of RUNX3 overexpression in docetaxel-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that decreased RUNX3 expression was correlated with high expression of Akt1 and decreased sensitivity of patients to docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Taken together, our results suggest that epigenetic downregulation of RUNX3 can induce docetaxel resistance in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by activating AKT signaling and increasing expression of RUNX3 may represent a promising strategy for reversing docetaxel resistance in the future.
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7-Ketocholesterol induces autophagy in vascular smooth muscle cells through Nox4 and Atg4B.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Oxidized lipoproteins stimulate autophagy in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. However, the mechanisms underlying autophagy induction and the role of autophagy in atherogenesis remain to be determined. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), a major component of oxidized lipoproteins, induces autophagy. This study was also designed to determine the effect of autophagy induction on apoptosis, a central event in the development of atherosclerosis. Exposure of human aortic smooth muscle cells to 7-KC increased autophagic flux. Autophagy induction was suppressed by treating the cells with either a reactive oxygen species scavenger or an antioxidant. Administration of 7-KC concomitantly up-regulated Nox4 expression, increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels, and inhibited autophagy-related gene 4B activity. Catalase overexpression to remove hydrogen peroxide or Nox4 knockdown with siRNA reduced intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels, restored autophagy-related gene 4B activity, and consequently attenuated 7-KC-induced autophagy. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy aggravated both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death in response to 7-KC. In contrast, up-regulation of autophagic activity by rapamycin had opposite effects. Finally, activation of autophagy by chronic rapamycin treatment attenuated ER stress, apoptosis, and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse aortas. In conclusion, we demonstrate that up-regulation of autophagy is a cellular protective response that attenuates 7-KC-induced cell death in human aortic smooth muscle cells.
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Reactive oxygen species induce a Ca(2+)-spark increase in sensitized murine airway smooth muscle cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of spontaneous, transient, localized Ca(2+) increases (known as Ca(2+) sparks) in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs) in an experimental allergic asthma mouse model has not yet been investigated. We used laser confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes to measure ROS levels and Ca(2+) sparks, and we found that both events were significantly increased in TSMCs obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/-challenged mice compared with control mice. ROS levels began to increase in TSMCs after the first OVA challenge, and this increase was sustained. However, this elevation and Ca(2+)-spark increase was abolished after the administration of the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) for 5days. Furthermore, a similar inhibition was also observed following the direct perfusion of NACA into cells isolated from the (OVA)-sensitized mice that were not treated with NACA. Moreover, we used 0.1-mM caffeine treatment to increase the Ca(2+) sparks in single TSMCs and observed cell shortening. In addition, we did not find increases in the mRNA levels of ryanodine (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3Rs) receptors in the tracheal smooth muscle cells of (OVA)-sensitized mice compared with controls. We concluded that ROS and Ca(2+) sparks increased in (OVA)-sensitized TSMCs. We found that ROS induces Ca(2+) sparks, and increased Ca(2+) sparks resulted in the contraction of (OVA)-sensitized TSMCs, resulting in the generation of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). This effect may represent a novel mechanism for AHR pathogenesis and might provide insight into new methods for the clinical prevention and treatment of asthma and asthmatic AHR.
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Efficacy and safety of thermal ablation in patients with liver metastases.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Thermal ablation is safe and effective for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it remains problematic with respect to liver metastases. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thermal ablation in patients with liver metastases.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six flavonoids separated from licorice.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Licorice, the roots and rhizomes of several Glycyrrhiza species (Leguminosae), is an important natural sweetening agent and a widely used herbal medicine. In this work, six flavonoids, 5-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone (1), licochalcone B (2), licochalcone A (3), echinatin (4), glycycoumarin (5) and glyurallin B (6), were isolated from the extracts of licorice (Glycyrrhiza inflata and Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods. To our knowledge, compound 1 was isolated from natural plants for the first time. All the isolates were tested by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 showed strong scavenging activity toward the ABTS(+) radical, and compounds 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes compared with the reference controls. Compounds 1-4 dose-dependently inhibited LPS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, compounds 1-5 were demonstrated to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Moreover, the contents of the six compounds, in different Glycyrrhiza species, were quantified by HPLC-MS.
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Distinct activity of BK channel ?1-subunit in cerebral and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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This study was designed to test a hypothesis that the functional activity of big-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels is different in cerebral and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs and PASMCs). Using patch-clamp recordings, we found that the activity of whole cell and single BK channels were significantly higher in CASMCs than in PASMCs. The voltage and Ca(2+) sensitivity of BK channels were greater in CASMCs than in PASMCs. Targeted gene knockout of ?(1)-subunits significantly reduced BK currents in CASMCs but had no effect in PASMCs. Western blotting experiments revealed that BK channel ?-subunit protein expression level was comparable in CASMCs and PASMCs; however, ?(1)-subunit protein expression level was higher in CASMCs than in PASMCs. Inhibition of BK channels by the specific blocker iberiotoxin enhanced norepinephrine-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration in CASMCs but not in PASMCs. Systemic artery blood pressure was elevated in ?(1)(-/-) mice. In contrast, pulmonary artery blood pressure was normal in ?(1)(-/-) mice. These findings provide the first evidence that the activity of BK channels is higher in cerebral than in PASMCs. This heterogeneity is primarily determined by the differential ?(1)-subunit function and contributes to diverse cellular responses in these two distinct types of cells.
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Growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells by Histone Deacetylase inhibitor belinostat through suppression of multiple pathways including HIF, NFkB, and mTOR signaling in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a devastating disease with few therapeutic options. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a novel therapeutic approach to cancer treatment; and two new pan-histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), belinostat and panobinostat, are undergoing clinical trials for advanced hematologic malignancies, non-small cell lung cancers and advanced ovarian epithelial cancers. We found that belinostat and panobinostat potently inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the growth of six (AsPc1, BxPc3, Panc0327, Panc0403, Panc1005, MiaPaCa2) of 14 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Belinostat increased the percentage of apoptotic pancreatic cancer cells and caused prominent G2 /M growth arrest of most pancreatic cancer cells. Belinostat prominently inhibited PI3K-mTOR-4EBP1 signaling with a 50% suppression of phorphorylated 4EBP1 (AsPc1, BxPc3, Panc0327, Panc1005 cells). Surprisingly, belinostat profoundly blocked hypoxia signaling including the suppression of hypoxia response element reporter activity; as well as an approximately 10-fold decreased transcriptional expression of VEGF, adrenomedullin, and HIF1? at 1% compared to 20% O2 . Treatment with this HDACi decreased levels of thioredoxin mRNA associated with increased levels of its endogenous inhibitor thioredoxin binding protein-2. Also, belinostat alone and synergistically with gemcitabine significantly (P?=?0.0044) decreased the size of human pancreatic tumors grown in immunodeficiency mice. Taken together, HDACi decreases growth, increases apoptosis, and is associated with blocking the AKT/mTOR pathway. Surprisingly, it blocked hypoxic growth related signals. Our studies of belinostat suggest it may be an effective drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancers when used in combination with other drugs such as gemcitabine. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A green and efficient protocol for large-scale production of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice roots by combination of polyamide and macroporous resin adsorbent chromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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A green and efficient method for large-scale preparation of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice roots was developed by combination of polyamide and macroporous resin. The entire preparation procedure consisted of two simple separation steps. The first step is to use polyamide resin to remove licorice flavoniods from the licorice crude extract. Subsequently, various macroporous resins were tried to purify glycyrrhizic acid, and HPD-400 showed the most suitable adsorption and desorption properties. Under the optimized conditions, a large-scale preparation of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice roots was carried out. A 20 kg raw material produced 0.43 kg of glycyrrhizic acid using green aqueous ethanol as the solvent. The purity of glycyrrhizic acid was increased from 11.40 to 88.95% with a recovery of 76.53%. The proposed method may be also extended to produce large-scale other triterpenoid saponins from herbal materials.
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Anti-hepatitis B virus activity of ?-DDB-DU, a novel nucleoside analogue, in vitro and in vivo.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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?-DDB-DU, 2-deoxy-3-(4,4-dimethoxy-2-methoxycarbonyl-5,6,5,6-bis(methylenedioxy)-1,1-biphenyl-2-carboxyl)uridine, is a novel nucleoside analogue accomplished by linking ?-DDB (?-dimenthoxy dicarboxylate biphenyl) and DU (2-deoxyuridine) via an ester bond. In the current study, the anti-HBV activity and hepatoprotective effect of this compound were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. In the human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2.2.15, ?-DDB-DU effectively suppressed the secretion of the HBV antigens in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibition rate of 42.31% for HBsAg and 31.52% for HBeAg at 5 ?M on day 9. In addition, it could inhibit the viral DNA replication effectively at the concentration of 5 ?M, with 81.18% intracellular inhibition and 88.55% extracellular inhibition, respectively, on day 9. In the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected model, DHBV DNA levels were markedly reduced after treatment with the ?-DDB-DU at the dosages of 0.8 mg/kg day, 4 mg/kg day and 20 mg/kg day. The inhibition rate of ?-DDB-DU at the dose of 20 mg/kg day reached 93.75% and 89.43%, in duck serum and liver, respectively, on day 10. Furthermore, the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in both serum and livers were notably reduced on day 10 and histopathological evaluation of the animals livers indicated significant improvement. In conclusion, ?-DDB-DU possesses significant inhibitory activity against HBV replication and ameliorates hepatic pathology significantly.
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Autophagy protects the retina from light-induced degeneration.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Autophagy is a conserved feature of lysosome-mediated intracellular degradation. Dysregulated autophagy is implicated as a contributor in neurodegenerative diseases; however, the role of autophagy in retinal degeneration remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the photo-activated visual chromophore, all-trans-retinal, modulated autophagosome formation in ARPE19 retinal cells. Increased formation of autophagosomes in these cells was observed when incubated with 2.5 ?M all-trans-retinal, a condition that did not cause cell death after 24 h in culture. However, autophagosome formation was decreased at concentrations, which caused cell death. Increased expression of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), which indicates the activation of oxidative stress, was recorded in response to light illumination in retinas of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice, which showed delayed clearance of all-trans-retinal after light exposure. Expression of autophagosome marker LC3B-II and mitochondria-specific autophagy, mitophagy, regulator Park2, were significantly increased in the retinas of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice after light exposure, suggesting involvement of autophagy and mitophagy in the pathogenesis of light-induced retinal degeneration. Deletion of essential genes required for autophagy, including Beclin1 systemically or Atg7 in only rod photoreceptors resulted in increased susceptibility to light-induced retinal damage. Increased photoreceptor cell death was observed when retinas lacking the rod photoreceptor-specific Atg7 gene were coincubated with 20 ?M all-trans-retinal. Park2(-/-) mice also displayed light-induced retinal degeneration. Ultra-structural analyses showed mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum impairment in retinas of these model animals after light exposure. Taken together, these observations provide novel evidence implicating an important role of autophagy and mitophagy in protecting the retina from all-trans-retinal- and light-induced degeneration.
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Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.).
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop. It is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity and exceptional water repellency, known as the lotus effect. The latter property is due to the nanoscopic closely packed protuberances of its self-cleaning leaf surface, which have been adapted for the manufacture of a self-cleaning industrial paint, Lotusan.
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Characterization of small RNAs and their target genes in wheat seedlings using sequencing-based approaches.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Wheat is the most highly cultivated plant species for its grain production throughout the world. Because small RNA-dependent gene regulation is critical for successful completion of plant life cycle including its productivity, identification of not only miRNAs but also confirming their targets in wheat is important. To identify small RNAs including novel miRNAs as well as miRNA targets in wheat, we constructed small RNA and degradome libraries from wheat seedlings. Small RNA analysis resulted in identification of most conserved miRNAs including novel miRNAs that can be grouped into 32 miRNA families. The sequence analysis also led to the characterization of two abundantly expressed rRNA-derived small RNAs. To identify miRNA targets, degradome library was sequenced and the bioinformatic analysis confirmed 53 genes as targets for miRNAs and Tas3-siRNAs. Degradome analysis also confirmed a conserved fine-tuning mechanism of Tas3-siRNA abundance by siRNA-mediated silencing of TAS3 transcripts in diverse plant species. These findings added additional information to the small RNA knowledge-base in wheat.
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Development of a pyrG Mutant of Aspergillus oryzae Strain S1 as a Host for the Production of Heterologous Proteins.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The ease with which auxotrophic strains and genes that complement them can be manipulated, as well as the stability of auxotrophic selection systems, are amongst the advantages of using auxotrophic markers to produce heterologous proteins. Most auxotrophic markers in Aspergillus oryzae originate from chemical or physical mutagenesis that may yield undesirable mutations along with the mutation of interest. An auxotrophic A. oryzae strain S1 was generated by deleting the orotidine-5-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (pyrG) by targeted gene replacement. The uridine requirement of the resulting strain GR6 pyrG?0 was complemented by plasmids carrying a pyrG gene from either Aspergillus nidulans or A. oryzae. ? -Galactosidase expression by strain GR6 pyrG?0 transformed with an A. niger plasmid encoding a heterologous ? -galactosidase was at least 150 times more than that obtained with the untransformed strain. Targeted gene replacement is thus an efficient way of developing auxotrophic mutants in A. oryzae and the auxotrophic strain GR6 pyrG?0 facilitated the production of a heterologous protein in this fungus.
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New frontiers in the intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin system: a critical review of classical and new paradigms.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is well-recognized as one of the oldest and most important regulators of arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular, and renal function. New frontiers have recently emerged in the RAS research well beyond its classic paradigm as a potent vasoconstrictor, an aldosterone release stimulator, or a sodium-retaining hormone. First, two new members of the RAS have been uncovered, which include the renin/(Pro)renin receptor (PRR) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recent studies suggest that prorenin may act on the PRR independent of the classical ACE/ANG II/AT1 receptor axis, whereas ACE2 may degrade ANG II to generate ANG (1-7), which activates the Mas receptor. Second, there is increasing evidence that ANG II may function as an intracellular peptide to activate intracellular and/or nuclear receptors. Third, currently there is a debate on the relative contribution of systemic versus intrarenal RAS to the physiological regulation of blood pressure and the development of hypertension. The objectives of this article are to review and discuss the new insights and perspectives derived from recent studies using novel transgenic mice that either overexpress or are deficient of one key enzyme, ANG peptide, or receptor of the RAS. This information may help us better understand how ANG II acts, both independently or through interactions with other members of the system, to regulate the kidney function and blood pressure in health and disease.
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