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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Traditional Chinese medication for cardiovascular disease.
Nat Rev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Traditional Chinese medication (TCM) is increasingly used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China and some other Asian countries. However, therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of TCM are difficult to evaluate because few large-scale, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling patients with CVD have been performed. In this Review, we critically examine the current evidence on the cardiovascular effects of TCM. We reviewed 68 RCTs that included a total of 16,171 patients. The methodological quality of the trials was generally low. Only three reports described adverse cardiovascular events specifically, although in most studies TCM was associated with significant improvements in surrogate end points for hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure. The risk of adverse effects was not increased compared with no intervention, placebo, or Western medications. However, whether TCM is effective in reducing the all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in patients with CVD remains unknown and must be tested in large-scale RCTs with adverse cardiovascular events as primary end points.
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Rapid diversification of five Oryza AA genomes associated with rice adaptation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Comparative genomic analyses among closely related species can greatly enhance our understanding of plant gene and genome evolution. We report de novo-assembled AA-genome sequences for Oryza nivara, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza barthii, Oryza glumaepatula, and Oryza meridionalis. Our analyses reveal massive levels of genomic structural variation, including segmental duplication and rapid gene family turnover, with particularly high instability in defense-related genes. We show, on a genomic scale, how lineage-specific expansion or contraction of gene families has led to their morphological and reproductive diversification, thus enlightening the evolutionary process of speciation and adaptation. Despite strong purifying selective pressures on most Oryza genes, we documented a large number of positively selected genes, especially those genes involved in flower development, reproduction, and resistance-related processes. These diversifying genes are expected to have played key roles in adaptations to their ecological niches in Asia, South America, Africa and Australia. Extensive variation in noncoding RNA gene numbers, function enrichment, and rates of sequence divergence might also help account for the different genetic adaptations of these rice species. Collectively, these resources provide new opportunities for evolutionary genomics, numerous insights into recent speciation, a valuable database of functional variation for crop improvement, and tools for efficient conservation of wild rice germplasm.
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Pt/C trapped in activated graphitic carbon layers as a highly durable electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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A thin nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon layer is elaborately introduced into the Pt/C surface to not only inhibit migration and dissolution of Pt nanoparticles, but also impart activity to the integral catalyst without blocking the inner Pt catalytic active sites. The corrosion of the carbon support can also be alleviated due to the outer graphitic coverage.
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[Effects of shade on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence of Ardisia violacea].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Ardisia violacea is one of the rare and endangered species, and distributes only in Zhejiang and Taiwan Provinces in China. In order to understand the light requirement and adaptability of A. violacea, the effects of different light intensities (shading rate of 90%, 60%, 25%, and the full light) on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence of A. violacea were studied. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) of A. violacea varied as a bimodal curve with a 'midday depression' phenomenon in full bright light, and as a unimodal curve in the shading treatments. With the increasing shading rate, the Pn and apparent quantum efficiency (AQY) first increased, and then decreased, the light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP) decreased, and the g(s), transpiration rate (Tr), original light energy conversion (Fv/Fm) and potential activity of PS II (Fv/Fo) increased. The total quantity of chlorophyll and the carotenoid (Car) content increased, and Chl a/b decreased under shading conditions. When the shading rate was 25%, the specific leaf mass (LMA) and root to shoot (R/T) ratio of A. violacea reached the maximum. A. violacea possessed a strong flexibility to different light environments, suggesting that light could not be the main limiting factor for natural regeneration of A. violacea populations.
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Six cases of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus enteritis.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The objective of this study was to explore the clinical manifestations and possible mechanisms of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE)-induced severe enteritis and extraenteric disseminations.
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Post-transcriptional regulation of MTA family by microRNAs in the context of cancer.
Cancer Metastasis Rev.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 20-24 nt small non-coding RNAs that regulate a wide range of biological processes through changing the stability and translation of their target messenger RNA (mRNA) genes. Shortly after their identification, many miRNA genes have been found dysregulated in a variety of human cancers, indicating a pathological function of this gene class in mediating cancer progression. Over the past decade, accumulated literature has shown that miRNAs participate in numerous cancer-relevant processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, metabolism, and importantly, metastasis, which accounts for the mortality of approximately 90 % of cancer patients. Several recent publications have linked miRNAs with metastasis-associated protein (MTA) family members. Given the fact that the MTA family members are widely overexpressed in human cancers and their nature of serving as both corepressor and coactivator in gene regulation, it is intriguing to study whether certain miRNAs regulate cancer progression through modulating the expression of MTA family members. In this review, we will focus on recent advances in understanding the regulatory relationship between certain miRNAs and MTA family members.
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Immunomodulatory Activity in Vitro and in Vivo of Verbascose from Mung Beans (Phaseolus aureus).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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In the present study, the immunostimulatory activity of verbascose from mung beans (Phaseolus aureus) was evaluated by using in vitro cell models and in vivo animal models. The results of in vitro experiments showed that verbascose could enhance the ability of devouring neutral red of peritoneal macrophages and promote the release of nitric oxide and immune reactive molecules such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, interferon (IFN)-?, and IFN-?. Treatment with verbascose at a dose of 200 ?g/mL exhibited the best effects. For assay in vivo, administration of verbascose at a medium dose of 90 mg/kg body weight could significantly increase the index of spleen, activity of lysozyme in spleen and serum, hemolysin level in serum, and swelling rate of earlap in the delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) of immunosuppressed mice. All of the results suggested that verbascose had potent immunostimulatory activity and could be explored as a potential natural immunomodulatory agent in functional foods.
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Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Nonlinear Systems With a Block-Triangular Pure-Feedback Control Structure.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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This paper presents adaptive neural tracking control for a class of uncertain multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems in block-triangular form. All subsystems within these MIMO nonlinear systems are of completely nonaffine pure-feedback form and allowed to have different orders. To deal with the nonaffine appearance of the control variables, the mean value theorem is employed to transform the systems into a block-triangular strict-feedback form with control coefficients being couplings among various inputs and outputs. A systematic procedure is proposed for the design of a new singularity-free adaptive neural tracking control strategy. Such a design procedure can remove the couplings among subsystems and hence avoids the possible circular control construction problem. As a consequence, all the signals in the closed-loop system are guaranteed to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the outputs of the systems are ensured to converge to a small neighborhood of the desired trajectories. Simulation studies verify the theoretical findings revealed in this paper.
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Phospholipid Transfer Protein Destabilizes Mouse Atherosclerotic Plaque.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. We examined the role of PLTP in atherosclerotic plaque stability.
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[Effects of antibiotics plus efflux pump inhibitors on mutant selection window of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To explore the effects of antibiotics plus efflux pump (EPI) inhibitors on mutant selection window of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
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EOL-1, the homolog of the mammalian Dom3Z, regulates olfactory learning in C. elegans.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Learning is an essential function of the nervous system. However, our understanding of molecular underpinnings of learning remains incomplete. Here, we characterize a conserved protein EOL-1 that regulates olfactory learning in Caenorhabditis elegans. A recessive allele of eol-1 (enhanced olfactory learning) learns better to adjust its olfactory preference for bacteria foods and eol-1 acts in the URX sensory neurons to regulate learning. The mammalian homolog of EOL-1, Dom3Z, which regulates quality control of pre-mRNAs, can substitute the function of EOL-1 in learning regulation, demonstrating functional conservation between these homologs. Mutating the residues of Dom3Z that are critical for its enzymatic activity, and the equivalent residues in EOL-1, abolishes the function of these proteins in learning. Together, our results provide insights into the function of EOL-1/Dom3Z and suggest that its activity in pre-mRNA quality control is involved in neural plasticity.
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Phosphatase and tension homolog overexpression in insulin resistant diabetic adipose tissue.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the expression of phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) in adipose tissue of KKAy diabetic mice, a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.
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Circulating microRNAs serve as novel biological markers for intracranial aneurysms.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Biological markers that can be used to predict the risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are not available.
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[Test methods of visual alarm signal for medical alarm systems].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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This paper introduces several test methods of characteristics of alarm indicator lights which can be used in the medical alarm system to verify the compliance of YY 0709-2009. These methods include the direct measurement of the pulse current supply of the alarm signals, image analysing of a video and reception by photoelectric sensor. After the comparation of the advantages and disadvantages among these methods, this paper proposes a new method of signal reception. This method which used a silicon photocell as the sensor with light filter in its front, and amplified circuit in the output end then used an oscillograph as the reviewer, has resolved the testing difficulties of the flashing signal simulating by LCD, and can be applied to test the alarm indicator lights in any medical electrical equipment.
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Adaptive fuzzy output-feedback controller design for nonlinear systems via backstepping and small-gain approach.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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This paper focuses on an input-to-state practical stability (ISpS) problem of nonlinear systems which possess unmodeled dynamics in the presence of unstructured uncertainties and dynamic disturbances. The dynamic disturbances depend on the states and the measured output of the system, and its assumption conditions are relaxed compared with the common restrictions. Based on an input-driven filter, fuzzy logic systems are directly used to approximate the unknown and desired control signals instead of the unknown nonlinear functions, and an integrated backstepping technique is used to design an adaptive output-feedback controller that ensures robustness with respect to unknown parameters and uncertain nonlinearities. This paper, by applying the ISpS theory and the generalized small-gain approach, shows that the proposed adaptive fuzzy controller guarantees the closed-loop system being semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded. A main advantage of the proposed controller is that it contains only three adaptive parameters that need to be updated online, no matter how many states there are in the systems. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by two simulation examples.
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Toll-Like Receptor 7 in Hepatitis C Virus Infection Patients from a High-Risk Chinese Population.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies in the outcomes depending on both viral and host factors. This study aims to investigate the associations of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), rs179016, rs5743733, and rs1634323, with susceptibility to HCV infection and clearance. The three SNPs were genotyped in a high-risk Chinese population, including 444 HCV spontaneous clearance cases, 732 persistent infection cases, and 1107 healthy controls. The G allele of rs1634323 was related to the protection from persistent infection among females (dominant model: odds ratio (OR)?=?0.558, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?0.348-0.894, P?=?0.015). This protective effect was more evident in blood donation and HCV non-1 genotype-infected subgroups (all P?50 years), hemodialysis (HD), and HCV-1 and HCV non-1 genotypes-infected subjects (all P?
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Efficient multiview depth coding optimization based on allowable depth distortion in view synthesis.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Depth video is used as the geometrical information of 3D world scenes in 3D view synthesis. Due to the mismatch between the number of depth levels and disparity levels in the view synthesis, the relationship between depth distortion and rendering position error can be modeled as a many-to-one mapping function, in which different depth distortion values might be projected to the same geometrical distortion in the synthesized virtual view image. Based on this property, we present an allowable depth distortion (ADD) model for 3D depth map coding. Then, an ADD-based rate-distortion model is proposed for mode decision and motion/disparity estimation modules aiming at minimizing view synthesis distortion at a given bit rate constraint. In addition, an ADD-based depth bit reduction algorithm is proposed to further reduce the depth bit rate while maintaining the qualities of the synthesized images. Experimental results in intra depth coding show that the proposed overall algorithm achieves Bjontegaard delta peak signal-to-noise ratio gains of 1.58 and 2.68 dB on average for half and integer-pixel rendering precisions, respectively. In addition, the proposed algorithms are also highly efficient for inter depth coding when evaluated with different metrics.
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Ambulatory surgery centers and outpatient procedure use among Medicare beneficiaries.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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There has been a strong push to move outpatient surgery from hospital settings to ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). Despite the efficiency advantages of ASCs, many are concerned that these facilities could increase overall utilization.
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Correlation analysis between the expressions of leptin and its receptor (ObR) and clinicopathology in endometrial cancer.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The expressions of leptin and its receptor (ObR) have been observed in human endometrial cancer (EC) cells, and leptin can promote the proliferation of EC cells. However, the correlation between leptin and ObR expressions in EC and the clinicopathology of EC is still unclear.
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Dual role of photosensitizer and carrier material of fullerene in micelles for chemo-photodynamic therapy of cancer.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Derivatives of fullerene (C60) as photosensitizers have rarely been studied as delivery carrier materials. The focus of this study was to explore the potential advantages of diadduct malonic acid-fullerene (DMA-C60) as delivery carrier materials and combination of chemo-phototherapy of some tumors. In this study, DMA-C60 and docetaxel (DTX) were coentrapped in micelles (MCs) (DMA-C60/DTX-MC). The addition of DMA-C60 could obviously improve static stability and decrease critical MC concentration of DTX-MC without hemolysis. The sustained release of DTX and DMA-C60 could be achieved, following Higuichi and first-order model, respectively. DMA-C60 could still produce reactive oxygen species efficiently in HeLa cells after encapsulation in MC. The addition of DMA-C60 under irradiation caused DTX-MC more stronger cytotoxicity, cell cycle changes, and more early apoptotic cells in vitro. More importantly, after intravenous injection, the addition of DMA-C60 in DTX-MC could result in 2.25-fold and 4.57-fold longer mean residence time compared with DTX-MC and Duopafei(®) , increase drug intratumoral distribution and decrease drug distribution in heart and kidney, and enhance antitumor effect under irradiation without body weight loss. These results suggested tremendous promise of DMA-C60 as carrier materials of MC and significant advantages in combination of chemo-phototherapy of some tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3225-3234, 2014.
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Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice.
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Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of total flavonoid C-glycosides from Abrus mollis extracts.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of the total flavonoid C-glycosides isolated from Abrus mollis extracts (AME). In the anti-inflammatory tests, xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats were applied. The hepatoprotective effects of AME were evaluated with various in vivo models of acute and chronic liver injury, including carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatitis in mice, D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatitis in rats, as well as CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. In the acute inflammation experiment, AME significantly suppressed xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema, respectively. In the acute hepatitis tests, AME significantly attenuated the excessive release of ALT and AST induced by CCl4 and D-GalN. In CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis model, AME alleviated liver injury induced by CCl4 shown by histopathological sections of livers and improved liver function as indicated by decreased liver index, serum ALT, AST, TBIL, and ALP levels and hydroxyproline contents in liver tissues, and increased serum ALB and GLU levels. These results indicated that AME possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation models and hepatoprotective activity in both acute and chronic liver injury models. In conclusion, AME is a potential anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective agent and a viable candidate for treating inflammation, hepatitis, and hepatic fibrosis.
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Relationship between isolated mild tricuspid valve regurgitation in second-trimester fetuses and postnatal congenital cardiac disorders.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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In most cases, the clinical importance of fetal isolated mild tricuspid valve regurgitation is not known. This study evaluated the relationship between fetal isolated mild tricuspid regurgitation in the general obstetric population and postnatal congenital cardiac disorders.
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YY-39, a tick anti-thrombosis peptide containing RGD domain.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Ticks are obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites, which continuously attach to their hosts for 1-2 weeks. There are many biologically active compounds in tick salivary glands interfering host haemostatic system and to successfully obtain blood meal. Several platelet aggregation inhibitors have been identified from ticks. A family of conserved peptides, which were identified from transcriptome analysis of many tick salivary glands, were found to contain unique primary structure including predicted mature peptides of 39-47 amino acid residues in length and a Pro/Glu(P/E)-Pro/His(P/H)-Lys-Gly-Asp(RGD) domain. Given their unique structure and RGD domain, they are considered a novel family of disintegrins that inhibit platelet aggregation. One of them (YY-39) was tested for its effects on platelets and thrombosis in vivo. YY-39 was found effectively to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Furthermore, YY-39 blocked platelet adhesion to soluble collagen and bound to purified GPIIb/IIIa in a dose-dependent manner. In in vivo experiments, YY-39 reduced thrombus weight effectively in a rat arteriovenous shunt model and inhibited thrombosis in a carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis model. Combined with their prevalence in ticks and platelet inhibitory functions, this family of peptides might be conserved tick anti-haemostatic molecules.
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Understanding the Diffusion of Ambulatory Surgery Centers.
Surg Innov
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Background. Outpatient surgery is increasingly delivered at freestanding ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs), which are thought to deliver quality care at lower costs per episode. The objective of this study was to understand potential facilitators and/or barriers to the introduction of freestanding ASCs in the United States. Methods. This is an observational study conducted from 2008 to 2010 using a 20% sample of Medicare claims. Potential determinants of ASC dissemination, including population, system, and legal factors, were compared between markets that always had ASCs, never had ASCs, and those that had new ASCs open during the study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine characteristics of markets associated with the opening of a new facility in a previously naïve market. Results. New ASCs opened in 67 previously naïve markets between 2008 and 2010. ASCs were more likely to open in hospital service areas that were urban (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-10.96), had higher per capita income (adjusted OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.43-10.45), and had less competition for outpatient surgery (adjusted OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.02-4.45). Legal considerations and latent need, as measured by case volumes of hospital-based outpatient surgery in 2007, were not associated with the opening of a new ASC. Conclusions. Freestanding ASCs opened in advantageous socioeconomic environments with the least amount of competition. Because of their associated efficiency advantages, policy makers might consider strategies to promote ASC diffusion in disadvantaged markets to potentially improve access and reduce costs.
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NLRP3 gene silencing ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy in a type 2 diabetes rat model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with metabolic disorder and cell death, which are important triggers in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We aimed to explore whether NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to DCM and the mechanism involved.
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Myeloid-specific disruption of tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 promotes alternative activation of macrophages and predisposes mice to pulmonary fibrosis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The alternative activation of M2 macrophages in the lungs has been implicated as a causative agent in pulmonary fibrosis; however, the mechanisms underlying M2 polarization are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the ubiquitously expressed Src homology domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in this process. Shp2 inactivation augmented IL-4-mediated M2 polarization in vitro, suggesting that Shp2 regulates macrophage skewing and prevents a bias toward the M2 phenotype. Conditional removal of Shp2 in monocytes/macrophages with lysozyme M promoter-driven Cre recombinase caused an IL-4-mediated shift toward M2 polarization. Additionally, an increase in arginase activity was detected in Shp2(?/?) mice after i.p. injection of chitin, whereas Shp2-deficient macrophages showed enhanced M2 polarization and protection against schistosome egg-induced schistosomiasis. Furthermore, mutants were more sensitive than control mice to bleomycin-induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Shp2 was associated with IL-4R? and inhibited JAK1/STAT6 signaling through its phosphatase activity; loss of Shp2 promoted the association of JAK1 with IL-4R?, which enhanced IL-4-mediated JAK1/STAT6 activation that resulted in M2 skewing. Taken together, these findings define a role for Shp2 in alveolar macrophages and reveal that Shp2 is required to inhibit the progression of M2-associated pulmonary fibrosis.
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TGF-?1 mediates psoriasis-like lesions via a Smad3-dependent mechanism in mice.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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TGF-?1 signals through downstream Smad-dependent and independent pathways to exert its biological activities. It is reported that overexpression of TGF-?1 results in the development of psoriasis-like lesions in a mouse model of K5.TGF-? (WT) transgenic mice. However, signaling mechanisms by which TGF-?1 mediates psoriasis-like lesions remain undefined. In the present study, we hypothesized that TGF-?1 may mediate psoriasis-like lesions via a Smad3-dependent mechanism. This was tested in a mouse model of K5.TGF-? (WT) transgenic mice by blocking TGF-? signaling with a specific Smad3 inhibitor. Results showed that topical treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor markedly blocked TGF-?/Smad3 signaling and progressive psoriasis-like lesions in K5.TGF-? (WT) transgenic mice by reducing the skin severity score, DSFT score, infiltration of CD3(+) T cells and F4/80(+) macrophages, and degree of fibrosis in the dermis. This was associated with a marked reduction in TGF-?1, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-17A both locally in the skin plaque lesions and systemically in plasma, resulting in inhibition of a Th17 transcriptional factor ROR?t and CD4(+) IL-17A(+) cells accumulation within the skin plaque lesions. In conclusion, TGF-?1 mediates psoriasis-like lesions via a Smad3-dependent, Th17-mediated mechanism. Targeting TGF ?/Smad3 signaling with a Smad3 inhibitor may represent a novel and effective therapy for psoriasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Interleukin-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mediates the upregulation of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 in RAW264.7 cells-a process in which p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling has an important role.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR1) antagonizes angiogenesis by inhibiting the biological function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immature dendritic cells (imDCs) express high levels of sVEGFR1 during development and are antiangiogenic. This study aimed to investigate the changes in VEGFR1, sVEGFR1, and VEGF levels during the development of imDCs and explore the underlying signaling mechanisms.
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Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 regulates protein disulfide isomerase translation in oxidized low-density lipoprotein -activated endothelial cells.
Acta Physiol (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Endothelium-derived protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is required for thrombus formation in vivo. But, how to control PDI overproduction in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-activated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) is not well understood. In this study, we try to answer this question by using our newly identified activator of mTOC1 3-benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy) methyl)-dihydrofuran-2 (3H)-one (3BDO) that has been shown to protect VECs.
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Bioavailability and fate of sediment-associated trenbolone and estradiol in aquatic systems.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms have been observed in systems influenced by steroid hormones. Associating endocrine disruption with aqueous concentrations of steroids alone may overlook the influence of source-sink dynamics in sediments on steroid hormone bioavailability. The objective of this study was to determine the fate of 17?-estradiol and 17?-trenbolone in two field sediments and to evaluate the corresponding bioavailability of the compounds to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Steroid fate was evaluated using analytical chemistry and verified by assessing the biological activity using yeast based in vitro assays. Effective bioavailability of the steroids was inferred from changes in hepatic vitellogenin expression (increased expression in males exposed to 17?-estradiol, and reduced expression in females exposed to 17?-trenbolone). In experiments conducted with 17?-estradiol, no induction of hepatic vitellogenin mRNA expression was observed in male fish exposed to sediment-associated 17?-estradiol. In contrast, female minnows exposed to sediment-associated 17?-trenbolone experienced significant reductions in hepatic vitellogenin compared to negative controls. In both systems, the parent compounds were shown to degrade rapidly to the more persistent metabolites, estrone and trendione, both of which were found predominantly associated with the sediments. Results from the yeast estrogen screen indicate a reduction in biological activity as biotransformation of 17?-estradiol occurs; results from the yeast anti-estrogen screen were inconclusive and unable to substantiate 17?-trenbolone fate in aquatic systems. Collectively, these data support the contention that steroid hormones associated with the sediment can become bioavailable to fish, and that sediment characteristics influence the observed bioavailability of these compounds.
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Drug target mining and analysis of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research.
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Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against duck hepatitis type 1 virus VP1 protein.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The VP1 protein of duck hepatitis type 1 virus (DHV-1), one of the major structural proteins, is able to induce neutralizing antibody in ducks, but a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against VP1 protein has never been characterized. Four hybridoma cell lines secreting anti DHV-1A VP1 mAbs were prepared and designated 2D9, 2D10, 5F7, and 3E8. Immunoglobulin subclass tests differentiated them as IgG1 (2D9 and 2D10) and IgG2b (5F7 and 3E8). Dot blot and western blotting assays showed that mAbs reacted with His-VP1 protein in a conformation-independent manner. Competitive binding assays indicated that mAbs delineated three epitopes, namely A, B and C, of VP1. Immunofluorescence assays indicated that mAbs could specifically bind to duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells infected with DHV-1A. mAbs 2D9, 2D10, and 5F7 had universal reactivity to heterologous DHV-1As tested in an antigen-capture ELISA, suggesting that they are highly conserved among DHV-1As. An antigen-capture ELISA could detect DHV-1A protein VP1 with a clear difference in absorbance values between the liver samples of DHV-1A- and mock-infected birds, indicating that the mAb capture ELISA is a useful method for the detection of DHV-1A infections.
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Toll-like receptor 7 variations are associated with the susceptibility to HCV infection among Chinese females.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) play a crucial role in provoking an immune response in HCV infection. We aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR7, including rs179009, rs179010 and rs179012, affect the outcomes of HCV infection among the Chinese population. A total of 1767 Chinese Han individuals were enrolled. The distribution of SNP frequencies among three groups with different outcomes of HCV infection was assessed, including healthy controls, cases with spontaneous clearance and cases with viral persistence. Then TLR7 mRNA expression and the production of IFN-? and IL-6 after TLR7 agonist Imiquimod stimulation in vitro were determined. Our results suggested that rs179009 GG genotype was significantly associated with a higher risk of the susceptibility to HCV infection among female subjects (OR=2.42, 95% CI=1.24-4.71, P=0.01). Haplotype GCG was significantly associated with a high risk for HCV susceptibility (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.11-2.03, P=0.01) as compared with the reference haplotype ACG among females. In the functional research of rs179009, a lower IFN-? level was observed in GG genotype than in AA genotype (P=0.032). Our data indicate that TLR7 rs179009 GG genotype and haplotype GCG were associated with an increased risk of the susceptibility to HCV infection among Chinese females, which may be due to the impaired IFN-? response.
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Field dissipation and storage stability of glufosinate ammonium and its metabolites in soil.
Int J Anal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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A simple analytical method was developed to measure concentrations of glufosinate ammonium and its metabolites, 3-methylphosphinico-propionic acid (MPP) and 2-methylphosphinico-acetic acid (MPA), in field soil samples. To determine the minimum quantification limit, samples were spiked at different levels (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0?mg/kg). Soil samples were extracted with ammonium hydroxide solution 5% (v/v), concentrated, and reacted with trimethyl orthoacetate (TMOA) in the presence of acetic acid for derivatization. The derivatives were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) using a flame photometric detector (FPD). The linear correlation coefficients of glufosinate ammonium, MPP, and MPA in soil were 0.991, 0.999, and 0.999, respectively. The recoveries of this method for glufosinate ammonium, MPP, and MPA in soil were 77.2-95.5%, 98.3-100.3%, and 99.3-99.6% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.8-4.1%, 0.4-1.4%, and 1.3-2.0%, respectively. Glufosinate ammonium dissipated rapidly in soil to MPA in hours and gradually degraded to MPP. The half-life of glufosinate ammonium degradation in soil was 2.30-2.93 days in an open field. In soil samples stored at -20°C glufosinate ammonium was stable for two months. The results of this study should provide guidance for the safe application of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium to agricultural products and the environment.
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Biomethane production and dynamics of microflora in response to copper treatments during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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This study discussed the effects of different concentrations (0.625, 1.875 and 3.125 mM) of copper (Cu) in the form of CuSO4 on biomethane production and on the dynamics of microbial communities during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of cow manure. The effects on biomethane production were found to depend on CuSO4 concentrations. After 50 days of AD, treatment A3 (3.125 mM) had lower cumulative biomethane production than the no-Cu control. The maximum value of cumulative biomethane production was detected under treatment A2 (1.875 mM). These results suggested that the stimulation or inhibition to biomethane production might be related to the concentration and chemical forms of Cu. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to discuss the dynamics of microbial communities. Results revealed that different concentrations of CuSO4 had effects on the richness and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities. The predominance of Bacteroidetes bacterium (GU339485.1) was verified through the sequencing of the dominant DGGE bands. Furthermore, Bacteroidetes bacterium could be detected during the whole AD process and is adaptable to a certain concentration range of CuSO4.
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Cyclic Hexapeptides from the Deep South China Sea-Derived Streptomyces scopuliridis SCSIO ZJ46 Active Against Pathogenic Gram-Positive Bacteria.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Three new cyclohexapeptides, desotamides B-D (2-4), and the known desotamide (1) were isolated from marine microbe Streptomyces scopuliridis SCSIO ZJ46. The sequences and absolute configurations of 2-4 were elucidated on the basis of high-resolution spectroscopic data, Marfey's method, and chiral-phase HPLC data. Desotamide C (3) contains a unique N-formyl-kynurenine residue, whereas 4 lacks formylation at the same site. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed notable antibacterial activities against strains of Streptococcus pnuemoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and structure activity relationship studies revealed the indispensability of the Trp component for antibacterial activity within this new scaffold.
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Generalized Nash Bargaining Solution to Rate Control Optimization for Spatial Scalable Video Coding.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Rate control (RC) optimization is indispensable for scalable video coding (SVC) with respect to bitstream storage and video streaming usage. From the perspective of centralized resource allocation optimization, the inner-layer bit allocation problem is similar to the bargaining problem. Therefore, bargaining game theory can be employed to improve the RC performance for spatial SVC. In this paper, we propose a bargaining game based one-pass RC scheme for spatial H.264/SVC. In each spatial layer (SL), the encoding constraints, such as bit rates, buffer size are jointly modeled as resources in the inner-layer bit allocation bargaining game. The modified rate-distortion (R-D) model incorporated with the inter-layer coding information is investigated. Then the generalized Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is employed to achieve an optimal bit allocation solution. The bandwidth is allocated to the frames from the generalized NBS adaptively based on their own bargaining powers. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed rate control algorithm achieves appealing image quality improvement and buffer smoothness. The average mismatch of our proposed algorithm is within the range of 0:19%2:63%.
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MICA/B expression is inhibited by unfolded protein response and associated with poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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BackgroundMICA/B are major ligands for NK cell activating receptor NKG2D and previous studies showed that the serum level of soluble MICA (sMICA) is an independent prognostic factor for advanced human hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the correlation between cellular MICA/B expression pattern and human hepatocellular carcinoma progression has not been well explored. The unfolded protein response is one of the main causes of resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in tumor cells. However, whether the UPR in HCC could regulate the expression levels of MICA/B and affect the sensitivity of HCC cells to NK cell cytolysis has not been established yet.MethodsMICA/B expression pattern was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was done to explore the relationship between MICA/B expression level and patient survival. The protein and mRNA expression levels of MICA/B in SMMC7721 and HepG2 cells treated by tunicamycin were evaluated by flow cytometry, Western Blot and RT-PCR. The cytotoxicity analysis was performed with the CytoTox 96 Non-Radioactive LDH Cytotoxicity Assay.ResultsMICA/B was highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and the expression level was significantly and negatively associated with tumor-node metastasis (TNM) stages. Patients with low level of MICA/B expression showed a trend of shorter survival time. The unfolded protein response (UPR) downregulated the expression of MICA/B. This decreased protein expression occurred via post-transcriptional regulation and was associated with proteasomal degradation. Moreover, decreased expression level of MICA/B led to the attenuated sensitivity of human HCC to NK cell cytotoxicity.ConclusionThese new findings of the connection of MICA/B, UPR and NK cells may represent a new concrete theory of NK cell regulation in HCC, and suggest that targeting this novel NK cell-associated immune evasion pathway may be meaningful in treating patients with HCC.
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DNA-based digital tension probes reveal integrin forces during early cell adhesion.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Mechanical stimuli profoundly alter cell fate, yet the mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction remain obscure because of a lack of methods for molecular force imaging. Here to address this need, we develop a new class of molecular tension probes that function as a switch to generate a 20- to 30-fold increase in fluorescence upon experiencing a threshold piconewton force. The probes employ immobilized DNA hairpins with tunable force response thresholds, ligands and fluorescence reporters. Quantitative imaging reveals that integrin tension is highly dynamic and increases with an increasing integrin density during adhesion formation. Mixtures of fluorophore-encoded probes show integrin mechanical preference for cyclized RGD over linear RGD peptides. Multiplexed probes with variable guanine-cytosine content within their hairpins reveal integrin preference for the more stable probes at the leading tip of growing adhesions near the cell edge. DNA-based tension probes are among the most sensitive optical force reporters to date, overcoming the force and spatial resolution limitations of traction force microscopy.
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Sugar demand of ripening grape berries leads to recycling of surplus phloem water via the xylem.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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We tested the common assumption that fleshy fruits become dependent on phloem water supply because xylem inflow declines at the onset of ripening. Using two distinct grape genotypes exposed to drought stress, we found that a sink-driven rise in phloem inflow at the beginning of ripening was sufficient to reverse drought-induced berry shrinkage. Rewatering accelerated berry growth and sugar accumulation concurrently with leaf photosynthetic recovery. Interrupting phloem flow through the peduncle prevented the increase in berry growth after rewatering, but interrupting xylem flow did not. Nevertheless, xylem flow in ripening berries, but not berry size, remained responsive to root or shoot pressurization. A mass balance analysis on ripening berries sampled in the field suggested that phloem water inflow may exceed growth and transpiration water demands. Collecting apoplastic sap from ripening berries showed that osmotic pressure increased at distinct rates in berry vacuoles and apoplast. Our results indicate that the decrease in xylem inflow at the onset of ripening may be a consequence of the sink-driven increase in phloem inflow. We propose a conceptual model in which surplus phloem water bypasses the fruit cells and partly evaporates from the berry surface and partly moves apoplastically to the xylem for outflow.
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Adiponectin reduces carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-/- mice: Roles of oxidative and nitrosative stress and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Adiponectin (APN) is an important anti?atherogenic adipocytokine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of adiponectin in atherosclerotic plaque formation and clarify its mechanisms. An atherosclerosis model was induced by in vivo perivascular constrictive silica collar placement on the left common carotid arteries in male apolipoprotein E?deficient (ApoE?/?) mice. All of the mice were fed a high?fat diet, and divided into phosphate?buffered saline, adenovirus (Ad)???galactosidase and Ad?APN treatment groups. Compared with treatment of Ad???gal or PBS, Ad?APN treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, decreased in nitric oxide/superoxide production, blocked peroxynitrite formation and reversed the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Adiponectin may be a natural molecule that reduces atherosclerosis by inhibiting iNOS and consequently diminishing oxidative/nitrative stress.
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Angiotensin(1-7) attenuates the progression of streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal injury better than angiotensin receptor blockade.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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To explore the potential therapeutic effects of angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7)), an endogenous ligand of the Mas receptor, on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a diabetic model group. After 12 weeks, the diabetic rats were divided into subgroups for 4-week treatments consisting of no-treatment group, small-, moderate-, and large-dose Ang(1-7) groups, a valsartan group, a large-dose Ang(1-7) plus valsartan group, and an A779 (antagonist of the Mas receptor) group, each with 15 rats. Ang(1-7) improved renal function, attenuated glomeruli sclerosis, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation, decreased the expression of collagen IV, TGF-?1, VEGF, NOX4, p47phox, PKC?, and PKC?1, and the phosphorylation of Smad3. In the rat mesangial HBZY-1 cell line, Ang(1-7) decreased high-glucose-induced oxidative stress, the proliferation and expression of NOX4, p47phox, and TGF-?1, the phosphorylation of Smad3, collagen IV, and VEGF, and the membrane translocation of PKC? and PKC?1. A779 blocked the effects of Ang(1-7) both in vivo and in vitro. The effects of large-dose Ang(1-7) alone and in combination with valsartan were superior to valsartan alone, but the combination had no significant synergistic effect compared with Ang(1-7) alone. Thus, Ang(1-7) ameliorated streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal injury. Large-dose treatment was superior to valsartan in reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting TGF?1/Smad3- and VEGF-mediated pathways.Kidney International advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.274.
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Sex-specific association of estrogen receptor 2 polymorphisms with hepatitis C virus infection outcomes in a high-risk Chinese Han population.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has different clinical and biological characteristics in women versus men, which suggests the potential involvement of estrogen. Estrogen signaling is mediated by the estrogen receptor, and genetic variations in the estrogen receptor gene might affect the pathology of HCV infection. We performed logistic regression analysis to explore the associations between rs1256049, rs4986938 and rs944459 polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor 2 gene (ESR2) and HCV infection outcomes. The variant A allele of rs4986938 was associated with an increased HCV infection susceptibility in the males (additive model: adjusted OR=1.493, P=0.010) and a significantly reduced risk of HCV infection in the female subgroup (GA vs. GG: adjusted OR=0.710, P=0.012; dominant model: adjusted OR=0.686, P=0.004; additive model: adjusted OR=0.703, P=0.002). In addition, females carrying the rs4986938 AA genotype appeared to clear HCV spontaneously more readily (adjusted OR=0.237, P=0.011), and additive model analyses showed that each additional allele contributed a decreased risk of approximately 34% for HCV chronicity (adjusted OR=0.659, P=0.006). Furthermore, a significant multiplicative interaction between the combined rs1256049 and rs4986938 genotypes was found to decrease HCV infection risk (adjusted OR=0.583, P=3.000×10(-4)). The area under the curve, based on the model and including age, gender, HCV genotypes and the three SNPs, was significantly related to the clearance of HCV (P=0.003). We provide here the first report that rs4986938 in the ESR2 gene played a potential sex-specific role in the etiology of HCV infection in a high-risk Chinese Han population, suggesting that ESR2 is a candidate susceptibility gene for HCV infection and viral clearance.
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Antimetastasis and antitumor efficacy promoted by sequential release of vascular disrupting and chemotherapeutic agents from electrospun fibers.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The vasculature in tumor microenvironment plays important roles in the tumor growth and metastasis, and the combination of vascular disrupting agents with chemotherapeutic drugs should be effective in inhibiting tumor progression. But the dosing schedules are essential to achieve a balance between vascular collapse and intratumoral uptake of chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study, emulsion and blend electrospinning were used to create compartmental fibers accommodating both combretastatin A-4 (CA4) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT). The release durations of CA4 and HCPT were modulated through the structure of fibers for dual drug loadings and the inoculation of 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin in fiber matrices. Under a noncontact cell coculture in Transwell, the sequential release of CA4 and HCPT indicated a sequential killing of endothelial and tumor cells. In an orthotopic breast tumor model, all the CA4/HCPT-loaded fibers showed superior antitumor efficacy and higher survival rate than fibers with loaded individual drug. Compared with fibrous mats with infiltrated free CA4 and fibers with extended release of CA4 for over 30 days, fibers with sustained release of CA4 for 3-7 days from CA4/HCPT-loaded fibers resulted in the most significant antitumor efficacy, tumor vasculature destruction, and the least tumor metastasis to lungs. A judicious selection of CA4 release durations in the combination therapy should be essential to enhance the tumor suppression efficacy and antimetastasis activity.
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All-trans retinoic acid suppresses apoptosis in PC12 cells injured by oxygen and glucose deprivation via the retinoic acid receptor ? signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Vitamin A (VA) has a number of important biological functions in human growth and development. Previous studies by our group demonstrated that the normal VA levels improved recovery of learning and memory function and decreased apoptosis in rats with hypoxic?ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, it has not been fully elucidated how VA regulates the apoptosis of neuronal cells. To investigate the anti?apoptotic effect of VA, an in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model in PC12 cells was treated with four concentrations of all?trans?retinoic acid (ATRA), an active in vivo product of VA. Following in vitro OGD injury in PC12 cells, the percentage of apoptosis and the fluorescence intensity of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were increased in the cells, and the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-associated X (Bax) were enhanced. ATRA treatment at 2?4 µmol/l for 24 h decreased the percentage of apoptosis and the MMP of the PC12 cells injured by OGD. ATRA at 4 µmol/l also reduced the expression levels of Bax and enhanced the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. Furthermore, RNA interference with retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) reversed the observed effect in PC12 cells following ATRA treatment at 4 µmol/l alone. In conclusion, the present study suggested that treatment with ATRA at 4 µmol/l suppressed apoptosis of PC12 cells following OGD injury, potentially through regulation of the RAR? signaling pathway.
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Construction of a chimeric lysin Ply187N-V12C with extended lytic activity against staphylococci and streptococci.
Microb Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Developing chimeric lysins with a wide lytic spectrum would be important for treating some infections caused by multiple pathogenic bacteria. In the present work, a novel chimeric lysin (Ply187N-V12C) was constructed by fusing the catalytic domain (Ply187N) of the bacteriophage lysin Ply187 with the cell binding domain (146-314aa, V12C) of the lysin PlyV12. The results showed that the chimeric lysin Ply187N-V12C had not only lytic activity similar to Ply187N against staphylococcal strains but also extended its lytic activity to streptococci and enterococci, such as Streptococcus?dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which Ply187N could not lyse. Our work demonstrated that generating novel chimeric lysins with an extended lytic spectrum was feasible through fusing a catalytic domain with a cell-binding domain from lysins with lytic spectra across multiple genera.
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Field dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in soil and apples.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in apples and soil was studied, and the half-life (DT50) was estimated in a field study carried out at three different locations for apples and four different locations for soil. Trifloxystrobin was sprayed on apples at 127 g a.i./ha for the dissipation study. Samples of apple and soil for the dissipation experiment were collected at time intervals of 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days after treatment. The quantification of residues was done by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The DT50 of trifloxystrobin ranged from 0.54 to 8.8 and 4.8 to 9.5 days in soil and apples at different latitude sites. Photolysis may be the main dissipation pathway for trifloxystrobin, and the number of sunshine hours may be the main factor affecting the trifloxystrobin dissipation rate in the field. For trifloxystrobin acid residues in soil and apples, it first increased and then began decreasing. It was indicated that the risk of trifloxystrobin application in shorter sunshine hour area should be considered.
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Effect of pulmonary vein isolation on atrial fibrillation recurrence after ablation of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in patients with high dispersion of atrial refractoriness.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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This study aimed to assess pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) efficacy on atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence and to determine a predictive dispersion of atrial refractoriness (dERP) value for performing PVI in paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) patients.
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Clinical and experimental study of castleman disease in children.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease that is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, especially in children. For this reason, we describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of CD in 11 children.
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Effect of parathyroid hormone on early chondrogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Treatment of articular cartilage injuries remains a difficult challenge due to the limited capacity for intrinsic repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into chondrocytes under certain culture conditions. This study focused on the modulatory effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on chondrogenic differentiation from MSCs.
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Rapid identification of polymer additives by atmospheric solid analysis probe with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A method using an atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) assisted by a pre-built MS library was found to be efficient in fast and direct analysis of additives for polymers. By this method, sample pretreatment could be eliminated from the additives identification process.
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HMGB1 mediates hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via ERK/Ets-1 signalling pathway.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Apoptosis is a key event involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The expression of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is up-regulated in diabetic mice. However, the molecular mechanism of high glucose (HG)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains obscure. We aimed to determine the role of HMGB1 in HG-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Treating neonatal primary cardiomyocytes with HG increased cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by elevated levels of HMGB1. Inhibition of HMGB1 by short-hairpin RNA significantly decreased HG-induced cell apoptosis by reducing caspase-3 activation and ratio of Bcl2-associated X protein to B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bax/bcl-2). Furthermore, HG activated E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (Ets-1), and HMGB1 inhibition attenuated HG-induced activation of Ets-1 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signalling. In addition, inhibition of Ets-1 significantly decreased HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Similar results were observed in streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice. Inhibition of HMGB1 by short-hairpin RNA markedly decreased myocardial cell apoptosis and activation of ERK and Ets-1 in diabetic mice. In conclusion, inhibition of HMGB1 may protect against hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by down-regulating ERK-dependent activation of Ets-1.
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UPR decreases CD226 ligand CD155 expression and sensitivity to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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NK cells play important roles in anti-tumor immunity. CD226 is a major NK-cell activating receptor, which transduces activating signals after binding ligands CD155 and CD112. Here, we demonstrated that activated unfolded protein response (UPR) attenuated the sensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) to NK-cell cytotoxicity by decreasing the expression level of CD226 ligand CD155 in HCC. The decreased expression level of CD155 was due to the involvement of the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?) pathways. In addition, the IRE1? pathway contributed to the increased expression level of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD)-related molecule HRD1 and facilitated the degradation of CD155. Moreover, we found that low levels of CD155 expression were significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Thus, our results provide molecular, cellular, and clinical evidence demonstrating a novel NK cell-associated immune evasion mechanism, and indicate that targeting this immune evasion pathway may be meaningful in treating patients with HCC.
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Lipopolysaccharide exposure augments isoniazide-induced liver injury.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Isoniazide (INH) is a classic antituberculosis drug associated with clinical idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. It has been hypothesized that the interaction between a drug and modest inflammation results in a decreased threshold for drug toxicity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that INH causes liver injury in rats when coadministered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Neither INH nor LPS alone caused liver injury. The coadministration of INH and LPS was associated with increases in serum and histopathological markers of liver injury. Tumour necrosis factor-? expression was significantly increased in the coadministered group. The downregulation of the bile acid transporter, bile salt export pump, and multidrug resistance protein 2 at both mRNA and protein levels was observed. Furthermore, the level of Farnesoid X receptor, which regulates the bile salt export pump and multidrug resistance protein 2, were clearly decreased. These results indicate that the coadministration of nontoxic doses of LPS and INH causes liver injury; the disruption of biliary excretion is considered the primary inflammation-related characteristic of INH-induced hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: 15-years' experience in a single center.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is known for its wide variability in biological behaviors and it is difficult to predict its malignant potential. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics and prognostic factors of GIST.
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A multiple-feature and multiple-kernel scene segmentation algorithm for humanoid robot.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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This technical correspondence presents a multiple-feature and multiple-kernel support vector machine (MFMK-SVM) methodology to achieve a more reliable and robust segmentation performance for humanoid robot. The pixel wise intensity, gradient, and C1 SMF features are extracted via the local homogeneity model and Gabor filter, which would be used as inputs of MFMK-SVM model. It may provide multiple features of the samples for easier implementation and efficient computation of MFMK-SVM model. A new clustering method, which is called feature validity-interval type-2 fuzzy C-means (FV-IT2FCM) clustering algorithm, is proposed by integrating a type-2 fuzzy criterion in the clustering optimization process to improve the robustness and reliability of clustering results by the iterative optimization. Furthermore, the clustering validity is employed to select the training samples for the learning of the MFMK-SVM model. The MFMK-SVM scene segmentation method is able to fully take advantage of the multiple features of scene image and the ability of multiple kernels. Experiments on the BSDS dataset and real natural scene images demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method.
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Direct detection of free fatty acids in edible oils using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Determination of free fatty acids (FFAs) in food products is of enormous interest mainly because they are related to the quality and authenticity of the oils. In this study, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), followed by an electrospray ionisation triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), is shown to provide a novel method for the separation and detection of FFAs in edible oils without any pretreatment. Eight FFAs were separated on a HSS C18 SB column with gradient elution within 3min. Effects of different columns, modifiers and column temperature changes were evaluated. The results indicated the feasibility of this method for the high-throughput determination of individual FFAs with satisfactory correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.994) and good reproducibility of RSD<13.5% (intraday) and <15.0% (interday). By combined with principal component analysis (PCA), different types of edible oil were successfully distinguished into several categories, showing a potential application for the determination of oil quality or authenticity.
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The association of homocysteine with metabolic syndrome in a community-dwelling population: homocysteine might be concomitant with metabolic syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both associated with cardiovascular disease, but the association between tHcy and MetS is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between tHcy and MetS.
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Asymptotic Properties of Pearson's Rank-Variate Correlation Coefficient under Contaminated Gaussian Model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This paper investigates the robustness properties of Pearson's rank-variate correlation coefficient (PRVCC) in scenarios where one channel is corrupted by impulsive noise and the other is impulsive noise-free. As shown in our previous work, these scenarios that frequently encountered in radar and/or sonar, can be well emulated by a particular bivariate contaminated Gaussian model (CGM). Under this CGM, we establish the asymptotic closed forms of the expectation and variance of PRVCC by means of the well known Delta method. To gain a deeper understanding, we also compare PRVCC with two other classical correlation coefficients, i.e., Spearman's rho (SR) and Kendall's tau (KT), in terms of the root mean squared error (RMSE). Monte Carlo simulations not only verify our theoretical findings, but also reveal the advantage of PRVCC by an example of estimating the time delay in the particular impulsive noise environment.
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25-hydroxyvitamin d3-deficiency enhances oxidative stress and corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma exacerbation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oxidative stress plays a significant role in exacerbation of asthma. The role of vitamin D in oxidative stress and asthma exacerbation remains unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship between vitamin D status and oxidative stress in asthma exacerbation. Severe asthma exacerbation patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency (V-D deficiency) or 25-hydroxyvitamin D-sufficiency (V-D sufficiency) were enrolled. Severe asthma exacerbation with V-D-deficiency showed lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) compared to that with V-D-sufficiency. V-D-deficiency intensified ROS release and DNA damage and increased TNF-?, OGG1 and NF?B expression and NF?B phosphorylation in severe asthma exacerbation. Supplemental vitamin D3 significantly increased the rates of FEV1 change and decreased ROS and DNA damage in V-D-deficiency. Vitamin D3 inhibited LPS-induced ROS and DNA damage and were associated with a decline in TNF-? and NF?B in epithelial cells. H2O2 reduces nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines. V-D pretreatment enhanced the dexamethasone-induced nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines and monocytes from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency asthma patients. These findings indicate that V-D deficiency aggravates oxidative stress and DNA damage, suggesting a possible mechanism for corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma exacerbation.
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Meta-Analysis of Associations of IL1 Receptor Antagonist and Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects a number of different organs and tissues. Interleukin-1 (IL1) and estrogen are considered potential elements in the pathology of SLE. Recently, the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the IL1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1-RN) and PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) have been associated with a predisposition to SLE. However, the evidence for these associations is inconclusive. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to validate the roles of these polymorphisms in SLE susceptibility. We searched four databases and identified a total of 17 eligible articles comprising 24 studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to assess the qualities of the selected studies. We assessed the strengths of the associations using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Regarding the IL-1RN VNTR, the 2 allele significantly increased SLE susceptibility (2 vs. L: OR?=?1.34, 95% CI?=?1.03-1.73, P?=?0.03). The ESR1 PvuII CC/CT genotype was also associated with SLE susceptibility (CC/CT vs. TT: OR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?1.06-1.47, P?=?0.01), and the difference was especially pronounced among Asians (CC/CT vs. TT: OR?=?1.33, 95% CI?=?1.04-1.69, P?=?0.02). No significant association between the ESR1 XbaI polymorphism and SLE susceptibility was observed in the overall analysis. However, a marginally significant association between the GG/GA genotype was found in individuals of Asian descent (GG/GA vs. AA: OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.01-1.67, P?=?0.04). These results indicate that the IL1-RN VNTR 2 allele, ESR1 PvuII CC/CT genotype and ESR1 XbaI GG/GA genotype may increase SLE susceptibility, especially in Asian individuals.
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The effect of two novel amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles on survival in vascular endothelial cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and macrophages.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been popularly used in many fields. Recently, many kinds of MNPs are modified as new absorbents, which have attracted considerable attention and are promising to be applied in waste water. In our previous study, we synthesized two novel MNPs surface-coated with glycine or lysine, which could efficiently remove many anionic and cationic dyes under severe conditions. It should be considered that MNP residues in water may exert some side effects on human health. In the present study, we evaluated the potential nanotoxicity of MNPs in human endothelial cells, macrophages, and rat bone marrow stromal cells. The results showed that the two kinds of nanoparticles were consistently absorbed into the cell cytoplasm. The concentration of MNPs@Gly that could distinctly decrease survival was 15 ?g/ml in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 10 ?g/ml in macrophages. While the concentration of MNPs@Lys that obviously reduced viability was 15 ?g/ml in HUVECs or macrophages and 50 ?g/ml in BMSCs. Furthermore, cell nucleus staining and cell integrity assay indicated that the nanoparticles induced cell apoptosis, but not necrosis even at a high concentration. Altogether, these data suggest that the amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles exert relatively high cytotoxicity. By contrast, lysine-coated magnetic nanoparticles are more secure than glycine-coated magnetic nanoparticles.
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Angiotensin II upregulates endothelial lipase expression via the NF-kappa B and MAPK signaling pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angiotensin II (AngII) participates in endothelial damage and inflammation, and accelerates atherosclerosis. Endothelial lipase (EL) is involved in the metabolism and clearance of high density lipoproteins (HDL), the serum levels of which correlate negatively with the onset of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between AngII and EL is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of AngII on the expression of EL and the signaling pathways that mediate its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
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Specific matrix metalloproteinases play different roles in intraplaque angiogenesis and plaque instability in rabbits.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ectopic angiogenesis within the intima and media is considered to be a hallmark of advanced vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions. Some studies have shown that specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) might play different roles in angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the predominant effects of specific MMPs in intraplaque angiogenesis and plaque instability in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.
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Pharmacological treatment for memory disorder in multiple sclerosis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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This is an update of the Cochrane review "Pharmacologic treatment for memory disorder in multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 10).Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated, inflammatory, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) and can cause both neurological and neuropsychological disability. Both demyelination and axonal and neuronal loss are believed to contribute to MS-related cognitive impairment. Memory disorder is one of the most frequent cognitive dysfunctions and presents a considerable burden to people with MS and to society due to the negative impact on function. A number of pharmacological agents have been evaluated in many existing randomised controlled trials for their efficacy on memory disorder in people with MS but the results were not consistent.
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[The surgical strategy for laparoscopic approach in recurrent inguinal hernia repair: 213 cases report].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To evaluate the surgical strategy for laparoscopic approach in recurrent inguinal hernia repair.
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TFAP2A Regulates Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Growth and Survival by Targeting HIF-1? Signaling Pathway.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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TFAP2A is a transcription factor which orchestrates a variety of cell processes including cell growth and tissue differentiation. However, the regulation of TFAP2A in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumorigenesis and its precise mechanism of action remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological role and clinical significance of TFAP2A in NPC growth and progression and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that TFAP2A was highly expressed in various NPC cell lines and tumor tissue specimens and was significantly correlated with HIF-1? expression. A positive correlation of TFAP2A overexpression with advanced tumor stage, local invasion, clinical progression and poor prognosis of patients with NPCs were also observed. Moreover, we found that knockdown of TFAP2A expression by siRNA significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in NPC cell lines and in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model by targeting HIF-1?-mediated VEGF/PEDF signaling pathway. Treatment of NPC cells with TFAP2A siRNA dramatically inhibited the expression and the release of VEGF protein but did not change the level of PEDF protein, resulting in a significant reduction of the ratio of VEGF/PEDF. Pretreatment with a HIF-1? siRNA did not significantly change the TFAP2A siRNA-mediated inhibition in cell viability. Our results indicate that TFAP2A regulates nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth and survival through the modulation of the HIF-1?-mediated VEGF/PEDF signaling pathway, and suggest that TFAP2A could be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC treatment.
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Protection from renal fibrosis, putative role of TRIB3 gene silencing.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Renal fibrosis is thought to be the common pathway in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Recently, TRIB3 was found to play an important role in progression of cardiac fibrosis in an insulin-resistant state. We investigated whether TRIB3 might participate in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis in insulin-resistant rats.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.