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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
"V-junction": a novel structure for high-speed generation of bespoke droplet flows.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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We present the use of microfluidic "V-junctions" as a droplet generation strategy that incorporates enhanced performance characteristics when compared to more traditional "T-junction" formats. This includes the ability to generate target-sized droplets from the very first one, efficient switching between multiple input samples, the production of a wide range of droplet sizes (and size gradients) and the facile generation of droplets with residence time gradients. Additionally, the use of V-junction droplet generators enables the suspension and subsequent resumption of droplet flows at times defined by the user. The high degree of operational flexibility allows a wide range of droplet sizes, payloads, spacings and generation frequencies to be obtained, which in turn provides for an enhanced design space for droplet-based experimentation. We show that the V-junction retains the simplicity of operation associated with T-junction formats, whilst offering functionalities normally associated with droplet-on-demand technologies.
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Internal vs Fishhook Hairpin DNA: Unzipping Locations and Mechanisms in the ?-Hemolysin Nanopore.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Studies on the interaction of hairpin DNA with the ?-hemolysin (?-HL) nanopore have determined hairpin unzipping kinetics, thermodynamics, and sequence-dependent DNA/protein interactions. Missing from these results is a systematic study comparing the unzipping process for fishhook (one-tail) vs internal (two-tail) hairpins when they are electrophoretically driven from the cis to the trans side of ?-HL via a 30-mer single-stranded tail. In the current studies, fishhook hairpins showed long unzipping times with one deep blockage current level. In contrast, the internal hairpins demonstrated relatively fast unzipping and a characteristic pulse-like current pattern. These differences were further explored with respect to stem length and sequence context. Further, a series of internal hairpins with asymmetric tails were studied, for which it was determined that a second tail longer than 12 nucleotides results in internal hairpin unzipping behavior, while tail lengths of 6 nucleotides behaved like fishhook hairpins. Interestingly, these studies were able to resolve a current difference of ?6% between hairpin DNA immobilized in the nanopore waiting to unzip vs the translocating unzipped DNA, with the latter showing a deeper current blockage level. This demonstration of different currents for immobilized and translocating DNA has not been described previously. These results were interpreted as fishhook hairpins unzipping inside the vestibule, while the internal hairpins unzip outside the vestibule of ?-HL. Lastly, we used this knowledge to study the unzipping of a long double-stranded DNA (>50 base pairs) outside the vestibule of ?-HL. The conclusions drawn from these studies are anticipated to be beneficial in future application of nanopore analysis of nucleic acids.
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The Endoplasmic Reticulum-based Acetyltransferases, ATase1 and ATase2, Associate with the Oligosaccharyltransferase to Acetylate Correctly Folded Polypeptides.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has two membrane-bound acetyltransferases responsible for the endoluminal N(?)-lysine acetylation of ER-transiting and -resident proteins. Mutations that impair the ER-based acetylation machinery are associated with developmental defects and a familial form of spastic paraplegia. Deficient ER acetylation in the mouse leads to defects of the immune and nervous system. Here, we report that both ATase1 and ATase2 form homo- and heterodimers and associate with members of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. In contrast to the OST, the ATases only modify correctly folded polypetides. Collectively, our studies suggest that one of the functions of the ATases is to work in concert with the OST and "select" correctly folded from unfolded/misfolded transiting polypeptides.
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Improving Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Pretreated by Ethylene Glycol-Perchloric Acid-Water Mixture.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To improve the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, a mixture of ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) was used for pretreating corn stover in this study. After the optimization in oil-bath system, the optimum pretreatment temperature and time were 130 °C and 30 min, respectively. After the saccharification of 10 g/L pretreated corn stover for 48 h, the saccharification rate was obtained in the yield of 77.4 %. To decrease pretreatment temperature and shorten pretreatment time, ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) media under microwave irradiation was employed to pretreat corn stover effectively at 100 °C and 200 W for 5 min. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates containing glucose obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. These results would be helpful for developing a cost-effective pretreatment combined with enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol.
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[Diagnosis of the first imported case of Plasmodium ovale infection at Guangdong Port].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The first imported case of Plasmodium ovale infection in Guangdong Province was identified. The patient worked in Myanmar for one week and had a fever when he arrived at Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport. Epidemiological information and blood sample were collected. The detection was conducted by microscopy, right VIEW rapid malaria test (RDTs) and real-time PCR with Plasmodium genus-specific and species-specific primers and probes. The case showed weak positive RDT result, and was confirmed as P. ovale infection by microscopy and real-time PCR. After treatment with artemether, his symptoms improved.
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Size-Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles in Confined Nanoreactors.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Soluble conjugated polymeric nanoparticles are synthesized by Suzuki-type polycondensation of two monomers (Ax + By , x>2, y?2) in the channel of ordered mesoporous silica-supported carbon nanomembranes (nanoreactors). These synthesized soluble conjugated microporous polymers (SCMPs) exhibit uniform particle-size distributions and well-controlled particle sizes. The control of particle size stems from the fact that the polycondensations exclusively take place inside the mesochannels of the nanoreactors. Photoluminescence studies show that polymeric nanoparticles with tetraphenylethene and pyrene substructures are highly fluorescent. The combination of both physical stability and processability offered by the soluble polymeric nanoparticles makes them particularly attractive in light emitting and other optoelectronic applications.
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The levels of Ki-67 positive are positively associated with lymph node metastasis in invasive ductal breast cancer.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In this study, we evaluate the potential risk factors for lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer patients with axillary dissection. 147 patients were included into this prospective study. The prognostic biomarkers including Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), hormone receptor status, p53, and lymph node involvement were determined by immunohistochemistry. The association between lymph node metastasis and these biomarkers was analyzed. Lymph node metastasis was found in 62 patients out of 147 patients. The high levels of Ki-67 positive (greater than 20 %) were positively correlated with a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis, including the numbers of lymph nodes that contain tumor cells and the lymph node metastatic rate. The high rate of positive lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is associated with lymph node metastasis. However, the levels of Ki-67 positive were not correlated with the positive rate of LVI. There was also no association between lymph node metastasis and other prognostic biomarkers, such as HER-2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and p53. In addition, apart from p53, the levels of Ki-67 positive were correlated with other prognostic biomarkers. Our data suggest that Ki-67 positivity has value as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer and may be a valuable proliferation marker in routine diagnosis of breast cancer.
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Site-selective adsorption of phthalocyanine on h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Experiment and computer simulations were conducted in order to study the adsorption of the phthalocyanine molecules H2Pc and CuPc on the h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh. We combine STM investigations with the exploration of the potential energy surface as resulting from density functional theory calculations. Both approaches indicate a pronounced adsorption selectivity in the so called pore regions of the h-BN nanomesh, whereas the adsorption energy landscape in the pore turns out to be very shallow. This is seen by the inability to image the molecule stably at 77 K by scanning tunneling microscopy. Understanding the nature of the binding by rationalizing the site-selectivity and the mobility of the molecules is quite a challenge for both experiment and theory. In particular, we observe that the choice of the functional in the DFT description is crucial to be able to discriminate among adsorption sites that are very close in energy and to resolve low energy barriers. Our study reveals how the shape of the corrugated h-BN layer is the dominant factor that determines the subtle features of the potential energy surface for the adsorption of phthalocyanine.
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A new injectable in situ forming hydroxyapatite and thermosensitive chitosan gel promoted by Na?CO?.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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A new injectable in situ forming hydroxyapatite and thermosensitive chitosan gel (chitosan/HA/Na2CO3 gel) promoted by Na2CO3 was preliminarily synthesized. This study was the first to use Na2CO3 as coagulant to construct the chitosan thermosensitive gel. The sol–gel phase transition, degradation, and morphology of the gel were examined. We found that chitosan/HA/Na2CO3 sol with 1.4% Na2CO3 has a suitable gelation time (9 min) and degradation rate. SEM images of the dried gel show a porous netlike framework. TEM, EDS, and XRD were combined to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. In vitro cell culture was performed by using rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). rBMSCs survived well on the chitosan gel scaffold that formed in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the chitosan gel was a suitable substrate for the attachment and proliferation of rBMSCs. Subcutaneous implantation of the chitosan gel formed in situ into a nude mouse revealed that the chitosan gel loaded with rBMSCs could lead to angiogenesis.
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Is gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma a special subtype of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma? New insight based on clinicopathological features and EBV genome polymorphisms.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare entity that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, the EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms in gastric LELC have not been systematically explored.
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A comparative study on the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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To explore the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and/or surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during free-breathing.
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Autophagy promotes the survival and development of tumors by participating in the formation of vasculogenic mimicry.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Autophagy, type II nonapoptotic cell death, is characterized by the formation of double-membrane cytosolic vesicles, the recycling of damaged cytoplasmic content and the maintenance of genetic stability and cellular homeostasis, under conditions of nutrient starvation, hypoxia or other therapeutic stress. In the present study, we comprehensively discuss its indispensable role in the formation of vasculogenic mimicry (VM), capillary-like tubes consisting of cells from the tumor itself instead of vascular endothelial cells. A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to silence beclin1, an autophagy-specific gene, was designed, synthesized and subcloned into a vector to establish an autophagy-inhibited group, while negative control and blank groups were also established using human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells. We then investigated the VM formation ability of these three groups and detected changes in gene expression, survival and invasion correspondingly. The results showed that, following the formation of VM, the expression of pluripotent genes (c-myc, oct3/4, sox-2) and autophagy-specific genes (beclin1, ATG5, ATG7) were increased, which was consistent with the negative control cell group. However, the autophagy inhibited cell group did not form VM, and the expression of pluripotent genes was decreased. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy reduced the survival and invasive ability of cancer cells under stress. We suggest that during the formation of VM, the stable expression of genes and the maintenance of survival and invasion are indispensable. Under a stress environment, autophagy is activated to maintain the stability of gene expression, maintain survival and invasive ability and facilitate VM formation, which can provide nutrients, oxygen and invasive channels to tumors, facilitating survival and development under stress.
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Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007-12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water (Dw) can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the "structure-making" or "structure-breaking" effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends.
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The effect of simvastatin on chemotactic capability of SDF-1? and the promotion of bone regeneration.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the cooperative effects of simvastatin (SIM) and stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) on the osteogenic and migration capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and construct a cell-free bone tissue engineering system comprising SIM, SDF-1? and scaffold. We found that 0.2 ?m SIM significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05) of mouse bone marrow MSCs with no inhibition of cell proliferation, and enhanced the chemotactic capability of SDF-1? (P < 0.05). Next, we constructed a novel cell-free bone tissue engineering system using PLGA loaded with SIM and SDF-1?, and applied it in critical-sized calvarial defects in mice. New bone formation in the defect was evaluated by micro-CT, HE staining and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PLGA loaded with SIM and SDF-1? promoted bone regeneration significantly more than controls. We investigated possible mechanisms, and showed that SDF-1? combined with SIM increased MSC migration and homing in vivo, promoted angiogenesis and enhanced the expression of BMP-2 in newly-formed bone tissue. In conclusion, SIM enhanced the chemotactic capability of SDF-1? and the cell-free bone tissue engineering system composed of SIM, SDF-1? and scaffold promoted bone regeneration in mouse critical-sized calvarial defects.
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Immunohistochemical localization of Pax6 in the developing tooth germ of mice.
J. Mol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Recent studies have reported that supernumerary teeth were observed in the maxillary incisor area in several Pax6 homozygous mutant mouse and rat strains. To date, it remains unknown whether Pax6 is expressed during tooth development in any species. The study aimed to analyze the expression of Pax6 during mouse incisor and molar development. C57BL/6J mouse embryos on days E12.5, E13.5, E14.5, E16.5 and E18.5 were produced. Heads from these embryos, as well as from P1.5 mice, were processed for paraffin wax embedding (N ? 3 for each stage) and prepared for immunohistochemistry. Pax6 immunostaining was found in all tooth germs examined. At the E12.5 dental placode, E13.5 bud stage, E14.5 cap stage and E16.5 early bell stage, Pax6 was expressed in ectodermally derived tissues of tooth germs and oral epithelia adjacent to the tooth germs. Cells in the underlying dental ectomesenchyme that showed Pax9 expression were Pax6 negative. At E18.5 and P1.5, Pax6 was expressed in more differentiated ameloblasts and cells of the stratum intermedium and stellate reticulum that were derived from the oral epithelium, as well as in mesenchyme-derived differentiated odontoblasts. Pax6 expression was also observed in the submandibular gland, tongue filiform papilla and hair follicle at E16.5 and P1.5. The present study demonstrated that Pax6 was expressed in incisor and molar germs during mouse tooth development. The results provide a basis for exploring the function of Pax6 during tooth development.
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A dual role for integrin-linked kinase and ?1-integrin in modulating cardiac aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Cardiac performance decreases with age, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in the aging human population, but the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac aging are still poorly understood. Investigating the role of integrin-linked kinase (ilk) and ?1-integrin (myospheroid, mys) in Drosophila, which colocalize near cardiomyocyte contacts and Z-bands, we find that reduced ilk or mys function prevents the typical changes of cardiac aging seen in wildtype, such as arrhythmias. In particular, the characteristic increase in cardiac arrhythmias with age is prevented in ilk and mys heterozygous flies with nearly identical genetic background, and they live longer, in line with previous findings in Caenorhabditis elegans for ilk and in Drosophila for mys. Consistent with these findings, we observed elevated ?1-integrin protein levels in old compared with young wild-type flies, and cardiac-specific overexpression of mys in young flies causes aging-like heart dysfunction. Moreover, moderate cardiac-specific knockdown of integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/integrin pathway-associated genes also prevented the decline in cardiac performance with age. In contrast, strong cardiac knockdown of ilk or ILK-associated genes can severely compromise cardiac integrity, including cardiomyocyte adhesion and overall heart function. These data suggest that ilk/mys function is necessary for establishing and maintaining normal heart structure and function, and appropriate fine-tuning of this pathway can retard the age-dependent decline in cardiac performance and extend lifespan. Thus, ILK/integrin-associated signaling emerges as an important and conserved genetic mechanism in longevity, and as a new means to improve age-dependent cardiac performance, in addition to its vital role in maintaining cardiac integrity.
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The spindle matrix protein, Chromator, is a novel tubulin binding protein that can interact with both microtubules and free tubulin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The chromodomain protein, Chromator, is localized to chromosomes during interphase; however, during cell division together with other nuclear proteins Chromator redistributes to form a macro molecular spindle matrix complex that embeds the microtubule spindle apparatus. It has been demonstrated that the CTD of Chromator is sufficient for localization to the spindle matrix and that expression of this domain alone could partially rescue Chro mutant microtubule spindle defects. Furthermore, the presence of frayed and unstable microtubule spindles during mitosis after Chromator RNAi depletion in S2 cells indicated that Chromator may interact with microtubules. In this study using a variety of biochemical assays we have tested this hypothesis and show that Chromator not only has binding activity to microtubules with a Kd of 0.23 µM but also to free tubulin. Furthermore, we have mapped the interaction with microtubules to a relatively small stretch of 139 amino acids in the carboxy-terminal region of Chromator. This sequence is likely to contain a novel microtubule binding interface since database searches did not find any sequence matches with known microtubule binding motifs.
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Base-Excision Repair Activity of Uracil-DNA Glycosylase Monitored Using the Latch Zone of ?-Hemolysin.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Nanopores have been investigated as a simple and label-free tool to characterize DNA nucleotides when a ssDNA strand translocates through the constriction of the pore. Here, a wild-type ?-hemolysin protein nanopore was used to monitor DNA repair enzyme activity based on base-specific interactions of dsDNA with the vestibule constriction "latch", a previously unrecognized sensing zone in ?-hemolysin specific for dsDNA structure. The presence of a single abasic site within dsDNA that is in proximity to the latch zone (±2 nucleotides) results in a large increase in ion channel current, allowing accurate quantitation of the kinetics of base repair reactions involving an abasic site product. Taking advantage of the high resolution for abasic site recognition, the rate of uracil-DNA glycosylase hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond, converting 2-deoxyuridine in DNA to an abasic site, was continuously monitored by electrophoretically capturing reaction substrate or product dsDNA in the ion channel vestibule. Our work suggests use of the nanopore as an enzymology tool and provides a means to identify single base structural changes in dsDNA.
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[Comparison of clinical features and co-infection between pneumonia caused by influenza virus A and pneumonia caused by influenza virus B among children].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To compare the clinical features and co-infection between pneumonia caused by influenza virus A (IVA) and pneumonia caused by influenza virus B (IVB) among children.
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Structural destabilization of DNA duplexes containing single-base lesions investigated by nanopore measurements.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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The influence of DNA duplex structural destabilization introduced by a single base-pair modification was investigated by nanopore measurements. A series of 11 modified base pairs were introduced into the context of an otherwise complementary DNA duplex formed by a 17-mer and a 65-mer such that the overhanging ends comprised poly(dT)23 tails, generating a representative set of duplexes that display a range of unzipping mechanistic behaviors and kinetic stabilities. The guanine oxidation products 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), guanidinohydantoin (Gh), and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) were paired with either cytosine (C), adenine (A), or 2,6-diaminopurine (D) to form modified base pairs. The mechanism and kinetic rate constants of duplex dissociation were determined by threading either the 3 or 5 overhangs into an ?-hemolysin (?-HL) channel under an electrical field and measuring the distributions of unzipping times at constant force. In order of decreasing thermodynamic stability (as measured by duplex melting points), the rate of duplex dissociation increases, and the mechanism evolves from a first-order reaction to two sequential first-order reactions. These measurements allow us to rank the kinetic stability of lesion-containing duplexes relative to the canonical G:C base pair in which the OG:C, Gh:C, and Sp:C base pairs are, respectively, 3-200 times less stable. The rate constants also depend on whether unzipping was initiated from the 3 versus 5 side of the duplex. The kinetic stability of these duplexes was interpreted in terms of the structural destabilization introduced by the single base-pair modification. Specifically, a large distortion of the duplex backbone introduced by the presence of the highly oxidized guanine products Sp and Gh leads to a rapid two-step unzipping. The number of hydrogen bonds in the modified base pair plays a lesser role in determining the kinetics of duplex dissociation.
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[Clinical features and treatment of acute clenbuterol poisoning in children].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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To study clinical features, treatment and curative effects in children with acute clenbuterol poisoning, in order to provide a basis for early diagnosis and treatment.
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Expression and genomic imprinting of the porcine Rasgrf1 gene.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. The Rasgrf1 (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1) gene has been identified as an imprinted gene in mouse and rat. In the present study, we detected its sequence, imprinting status and expression pattern in the domestic pigs. A 228bp partial sequence located in exon 14 and a 193bp partial sequence located in exon 1 of the Rasgrf1 gene in domestic pigs were obtained. A G/A transition, was identified in Rasgrf1 exon 14, and then, the reciprocal Berkshire×Wannan black F1 hybrid model and the RT-PCR-RFLP method were used to detect the imprinting status of porcine Rasgrf1 gene at the developmental stage of 1-day-old. The expression profile results indicated that the porcine Rasgrf1 mRNA was highly expressed in brain, pituitary and pancreas, followed by kidney, stomach, lung, testis, small intestine, ovary, spleen and liver, and at low levels of expression in longissimus dorsi, heart, and backfat. The expression levels of Rasgrf1 gene in brain, pituitary and pancreas tissues were significantly different between the two reciprocal F1 hybrids. Imprinting analysis showed that porcine Rasgrf1 gene was maternally expressed in the liver, small intestine, paternally expressed in the lung, but biallelically expressed in brain, heart, spleen, kidney, stomach, pancreas, backfat, testis, ovary, longissimus dorsi and pituitary tissues.
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[The citation analysis of Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine from 2005 to 2011].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To evaluate the academic level of Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine by analyzing its citation status by using bibliometrics method.
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[An analysis of impact factor of Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine from 2008 to 2010].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To analyze the articles and citation published in the Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine from 2008 to 2010, in order to investigate the influence factors of impact factor (IF).
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One pot synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(hexadecyloxylallene) by sequential monomer addition.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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A series of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(hexadecyloxylallene) copolymers has been synthesized in one pot via sequential monomer addition by using Ni(dppp)Cl2 as a single catalyst. The copolymerization has been revealed to proceed by a controlled chain extension mechanism and the block copolymer can self-assemble into a well-defined supramolecular structure in solution and exhibit microphase separation in the solid state.
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CYP2C19 polymorphism and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in Chinese stroke patients.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Recently published data indicate that CYP2C19*2 allele is the major determinant of metabolic bioactivation of clopidogrel and thereby variability of antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in white or black patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement. The conclusion may not be fully generalized or extrapolated to the Chinese people due to significantly higher frequencies of the CYP2C19*2 or *3 variant alleles. We sought to investigate whether the CYP2C19*2 or *3 alleles affects platelet reactivity of clopidogrel in Chinese stroke patients. The study included 183 consecutive Chinese stroke patients after loading with clopidogrel 300 mg. Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate-induced (ADP 20 micromol/L) platelet aggregation and by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) after seven 75-mg maintenance doses of clopidogrel before discharge. CYP2C19*2 or *3 genotypes were determined by time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI/TOF-MS). In those patients who were carriers of 1 mutant allele (mutant heterozygotes, CYP2C19*1/*2 or *1/*3), ADP-induced maximum platelet aggregation (MPA) were significantly different compared with wild-type homozygous patients [37.2% (IQR, 19.6 to 50.5%) versus 23.6% (IQR, 14.0 to 35.4%), respectively; P=0.002]. In addition, in the patients who were carriers of 2 mutant allele (mutant homozygotes, CYP2C19*2/*2, *2/*3 or *3/*3,), MPA were also significantly different compared with wildtype homozygous patients [35.7% (IQR, 21.0 to 78.1%) versus 23.6% (IQR, 14.0 to 35.4%, respectively; P = 0.039]. By multivariable linear regression, CYP2C19*2 or *3 loss-of-function alleles were independently associated with ADP-induced MPA measurements (partial R2 = 0.138, P = 0.001). CYP2C19*2 or *3 allele does link to increased MPA and clopidogrel response.
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miR-1 and miR-206 target different genes to have opposing roles during angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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As miR-1 and miR-206 share identical seed sequences, they are commonly speculated to target the same gene. Here, we identify an mRNA encoding seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS), which is targeted by miR-1, but refractory to miR-206. SARS is increased in miR-1-knockdown embryos, but it remains unchanged in the miR-206 knockdown. Either miR-1 knockdown or sars overexpression results in a failure to develop some blood vessels and a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor Aa (VegfAa) expression. In contrast, sars knockdown leads to an increase of VegfAa expression and abnormal branching of vessels, similar to the phenotypes of vegfaa-overexpressed embryos, suggesting that miR-1 induces angiogenesis by repressing SARS. Unlike the few endothelial cells observed in the miR-1-knockdown embryos, knockdown of miR-206 leads to abnormal branching of vessels accompanied by an increase in endothelial cells and VegfAa. Therefore, we propose that miR-1 and miR-206 target different genes and thus have opposing roles during embryonic angiogenesis in zebrafish.
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Comparative methylomics between domesticated and wild silkworms implies possible epigenetic influences on silkworm domestication.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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In contrast to wild species, which have typically evolved phenotypes over long periods of natural selection, domesticates rapidly gained human-preferred agronomic traits in a relatively short-time frame via artificial selection. Under domesticated conditions, many traits can be observed that cannot only be due to environmental alteration. In the case of silkworms, aside from genetic divergence, whether epigenetic divergence played a role in domestication is an unanswered question. The silkworm is still an enigma in that it has two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT2) but their functionality is unknown. Even in particular the functionality of the widely distributed DNMT1 remains unknown in insects in general.
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Discovery of 1-(1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamides as inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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1-(1,3,5-Triazin-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase were identified from high through-put screening using encoded library technology. The triazine heterocycle proved to be a critical functional group, essential for high potency and P450 selectivity. Phenyl group substitution was important for reducing clearance, and establishing good oral exposure. Based on this lead optimization work, 1-[4-methyl-6-(methylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]-N-{[[4-bromo-2-(trifluoromethoxy)]-phenyl]methyl}-4-piperidinecarboxamide (27) was identified as a useful tool compound for in vivo investigation. Robust effects on a serum biomarker, 9, 10-epoxyoctadec-12(Z)-enoic acid (the epoxide derived from linoleic acid) were observed, which provided evidence of robust in vivo target engagement and the suitability of 27 as a tool compound for study in various disease models.
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In vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, EPHX2) metabolizes eicosanoid epoxides, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and leukotoxin (LTX) to leukotoxin diol (LTX diol). EETs, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, exhibit potentially beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory effects and vasodilation. A novel, potent, selective inhibitor of recombinant human, rat and mouse sEH, GSK2256294A, exhibited potent cell-based activity, a concentration-dependent inhibition of the conversion of 14,15-EET to 14,15-DHET in human, rat and mouse whole blood in vitro, and a dose-dependent increase in the LTX/LTX diol ratio in rat plasma following oral administration. Mice receiving 10 days of cigarette smoke exposure concomitant with oral administration of GSK2256294A exhibited significant, dose-dependent reductions in pulmonary leukocytes and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC, CXCL1) levels. Mice receiving oral administration of GSK2256294A following 10 days of cigarette smoke exposure exhibited significant reductions in pulmonary leukocytes compared to vehicle-treated mice. These data indicate that GSK2256294A attenuates cigarette smoke-induced inflammation by both inhibiting its initiation and/or maintenance and promoting its resolution. Collectively, these data indicate that GSK2256294A would be an appropriate agent to evaluate the role of sEH in clinical studies, for example in diseases where cigarette smoke is a risk factor, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease.
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A Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Human Foot Complex in the Sagittal Plane during Level Walking.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%-33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning.
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Rapid functional divergence of a newly evolved polyubiquitin gene in Drosophila and its role in the trade-off between male fecundity and lifespan.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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The cost of reproduction is a pivotal trade-off with various biological processes during the evolution of organisms. However, the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of balancing reproductive capacity and its cost are still largely unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the evolution, expression, and biological functions of a newly evolved pair of X-linked polyubiquitin tandemly duplicated genes, CG32744 and CG11700, of which the duplication event occurred in Drosophila melanogaster lineage after the split from D. simulans clade. We found that CG32744 retains conserved polyubiquitin-coding sequences across Drosophila species and is ubiquitously expressed, whereas CG11700 has accumulated numerous amino acid changes and shows a male-specific expression pattern. Null mutants of CG11700 have a higher male fecundity but shorter lifespan, whereas its overexpression decreases male fecundity. In contrast, the null mutants of the peptide-conserved CG32744 do not exhibit such phenotypes. These results suggest that CG11700 might have experienced neofunctionalization and evolved important functions in the trade-off between male fecundity and lifespan and that CG32744 likely has retained the ancestral function.
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[Significance of serum golgi protein 73 (GP73), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) expresssion in primary hepatic carcinoma].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To explore the alone and joint diagnostic value of serum golgi protein 73 (GP73), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and the percentage of lectin-reactive aipha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) of primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC), and provide a novel method for diagnosis for PHC and screening for high-risk population.
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Lentzea jiangxiensis sp. nov., isolated from acidic soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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A novel actinomycete, designated strain FXJ1.034(T), was isolated from acidic soil collected in Jiangxi Province, South-east China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FXJ1.034(T) belonged to the genus Lentzea and showed high sequence similarities to Lentzea kentuckyensis NRRL B-24416(T) (98.5%) and Lentzea albida NBRC 16102(T) (98.3%). Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics supported its assignment to the genus Lentzea. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the novel strain from closely related species. Based on the evidence presented here, strain FXJ1.034(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lentzea, for which the name Lentzea jiangxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FXJ1.034(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.6609(T) ?=?NBRC 106680(T)).
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[Effect of electroacupuncture and acupoint injection on expression of plasma proinflammatory cytokines and motilin for patients with early postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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To verify the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) and acupoint injection on early postoperative intestinal obstruction and explore its mechanism.
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Evolution of vertebrate central nervous system is accompanied by novel expression changes of duplicate genes.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The evolution of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most striking changes during the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates. As a major source of genetic novelties, gene duplication might play an important role in the functional innovation of vertebrate CNS. In this study, we focused on a group of CNS-biased genes that duplicated during early vertebrate evolution. We investigated the tempo-spatial expression patterns of 33 duplicate gene families and their orthologs during the embryonic development of the vertebrate Xenopus laevis and the cephalochordate Brachiostoma belcheri. Almost all the identified duplicate genes are differentially expressed in the CNS in Xenopus embryos, and more than 50% and 30% duplicate genes are expressed in the telencephalon and mid-hindbrain boundary, respectively, which are mostly considered as two innovations in the vertebrate CNS. Interestingly, more than 50% of the amphioxus orthologs do not show apparent expression in the CNS in amphioxus embryos as detected by in situ hybridization, indicating that some of the vertebrate CNS-biased duplicate genes might arise from non-CNS genes in invertebrates. Our data accentuate the functional contribution of gene duplication in the CNS evolution of vertebrate and uncover an invertebrate non-CNS history for some vertebrate CNS-biased duplicate genes.
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The chromodomain-containing NH(2)-terminus of Chromator interacts with histone H1 and is required for correct targeting to chromatin.
Chromosoma
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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The chromodomain protein, Chromator, can be divided into two main domains, a NH(2)-terminal domain (NTD) containing the chromodomain (ChD) and a COOH-terminal domain (CTD) containing a nuclear localization signal. During interphase Chromator is localized to chromosomes; however, during cell division Chromator redistributes to form a macro molecular spindle matrix complex together with other nuclear proteins that contribute to microtubule spindle dynamics and proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. It has previously been demonstrated that the CTD is sufficient for targeting Chromator to the spindle matrix. In this study, we show that the NTD domain of Chromator is required for proper localization to chromatin during interphase and that chromosome morphology defects observed in Chromator hypomorphic mutant backgrounds can be largely rescued by expression of this domain. Furthermore, we show that the ChD domain can interact with histone H1 and that this interaction is necessary for correct chromatin targeting. Nonetheless, that localization to chromatin still occurs in the absence of the ChD indicates that Chromator possesses a second mechanism for chromatin association and we provide evidence that this association is mediated by other sequences residing in the NTD. Taken together these findings suggest that Chromators chromatin functions are largely governed by the NH(2)-terminal domain whereas functions related to mitosis are mediated mainly by COOH-terminal sequences.
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Nonomuraea jiangxiensis sp. nov., isolated from acidic soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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An actinomycete, designated FXJ1.102(T), was isolated from acidic soil collected in Jiangxi Province, south-east China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FXJ1.102(T) belonged to the genus Nonomuraea and was most closely related to Nonomuraea candida HMC10(T), Nonomuraea turkmeniaca DSM 43926(T), Nonomuraea antimicrobica YIM 61105(T) and Nonomuraea aegyptia S136 (98.9, 98.3, 97.9 and 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively). The morphological characteristics were typical of the genus Nonomuraea. The chemotaxonomic properties, such as cell-wall chemotype IIIB, phospholipid type IV, MK-9(H(4)) as the major menaquinone and iso-C(16:0) (22.2 %) as the major fatty acid, supported the assignment of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. DNA-DNA relatedness and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain FXJ1.102(T) from its closest phylogenetic relatives. The isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Nonomuraea jiangxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FXJ1.102(T) ( = CGMCC 4.6533(T) = NBRC 106679(T)).
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Investigation of h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh interacting with water and atomic hydrogen.
Chimia (Aarau)
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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Recent STM experiments show that by exposing h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh to water or atomic hydrogen interesting phenomena can be observed. We investigated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) the structure of bare nanomesh as well as in the presence of water clusters and atomic hydrogen. Our simulations allow the correct interpretation of the observed modifications of the STM topography under different tested conditions. For example, we could determine that the frequently observed three protrusions within the pore appearing in STM images obtained after dosing small amounts of water, are most likely determined by water hexamers. We also could confirm that the flattening of the h-BN overlayer after dosing atomic hydrogen is determined by the intercalation of the latter between BN and metal, which prevents the effective binding between N and Rh.
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Epstein-Barr virus genome polymorphisms of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in gastric remnant carcinoma in Guangzhou, southern China, an endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a subset of gastric carcinoma which was defined as EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). The proportion of EBVaGC in gastric remnant carcinoma (GRC) was apparently higher than that in conventional gastric carcinoma (CGC) which occurs in the intact stomach. To clarify the possible mechanisms, 26 GRC cases from Guangzhou were investigated for the presence of EBV, and the EBV genome polymorphisms of EBVaGC in GRC were analyzed. Besides, the clinicopathologic characteristics, EBV latency pattern of EBVaGC in GRC were also investigated. Eight (30.8%) out of 26 cases were identified as EBVaGCs. Type A strain, prototype F, type I, mut-W1/I1, XhoI- and del-LMP1 variants were predominant among EBVaGC patients, accounting for 7 (87.5%), 7 (87.5%), 8 (100%), 6 (75%), 5 (62.5%) and 8 (100%) cases, respectively. All EBVaGC cases were male and with the histology of diffuse-type carcinoma. The tumor cells expressed EBNA1 (87.5%) and LMP2A (62.5%) but not LMP1, EBNA2 and ZEBRA. Thus, the EBV latency pattern was latency I. These were similar to those in CGC, except for the significantly higher proportion of EBVaGC in GRC than in CGC, suggesting that there is no more aggressive EBV variant in EBVaGC in GRC, and the injuries of gastric mucosa and/or changes of the microenvironment within the remnant stomach may be involved in the development of EBVaGC in GRC. This, to our knowledge, is the first study concerning about the EBV genome polymorphisms of EBVaGC in GRC in the world.
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[Comparative studies on the composition and antibiotic-resistance of pathogenic bacteria between children with community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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This research was to explore the difference between children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in the composition and antibiotic-resistance of pathogenic bacteria.
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[Characteristics and the prevalence of respiratory viruses and the correlation with climatic factors of hospitalized children in Suzhou childrens hospital].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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To study the epidemiological characteristics of respiratory virus infection and its relations to climatic factors in Suzhou.
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[Characteristics of human metapneumovirus respiratory tract infection in children and the relationship between the infection and meteorological conditions].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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To study the epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection in children and its relations with meteorological conditions in Suzhou.
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[Case-control study on the treatment of Hawskins type II fractures of talar neck with minimally invasive or traditional approach].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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To compare the differences of radiographical and functional outcomes between traditional and minimally invasive approach in treating Hawskins type I fractures of the talar neck.
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17?-estradiol aggravates temporomandibular joint inflammation through the NF-?B pathway in ovariectomized rats.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Women of childbearing age are more likely than men to experience temporomandibular disorders, with pain as the main symptom. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation is believed to be a major reason for TMJ pain. Whether sex hormones are involved in the sexual dimorphism of TMJ inflammation and pain remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether estrogen affects TMJ inflammation and pain via the NF-?B pathway.
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Efficient manganese luminescence induced by Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer in rare earth fluoride and phosphate nanocrystals.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Manganese materials with attractive optical properties have been proposed for applications in such areas as photonics, light-emitting diodes, and bioimaging. In this paper, we have demonstrated multicolor Mn2+ luminescence in the visible region by controlling Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer in rare earth nanocrystals [NCs]. CeF3 and CePO4 NCs doped with Mn2+ have been prepared and can be well dispersed in aqueous solutions. Under ultraviolet light excitation, both the CeF3:Mn and CePO4:Mn NCs exhibit Mn2+ luminescence, yet their output colors are green and orange, respectively. By optimizing Mn2+ doping concentrations, Mn2+ luminescence quantum efficiency and Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer efficiency can respectively reach 14% and 60% in the CeF3:Mn NCs.
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Chest imaging findings in children with influenza A H1N1.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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To assess imaging findings at presentation in children diagnosed with influenza A (H1N1) infection.
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[The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture.
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[A comparison of skeletal changes between adult and adolescent with skeletal class II malocclusions before and after therapy].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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To compare skeletal changes after orthodontic treatment between adults and adolescents skeletal class II malocclusions with average mandible plane angle.
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[Application of elastic intramedullary nail in treating bilateral femoral shaft fractures in children].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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To explore the curative effects and complications of elastic intramedullary nail in treating childrens bilateral femoral shaft fractures.
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Association between fifteen risk factors and progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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The mortality and disability associated with progressing ischemic stroke are much higher than general ischemic stroke. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.
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A young Drosophila duplicate gene plays essential roles in spermatogenesis by regulating several Y-linked male fertility genes.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Gene duplication is supposed to be the major source for genetic innovations. However, how a new duplicate gene acquires functions by integrating into a pathway and results in adaptively important phenotypes has remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanism of the young kep1 gene family in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup to understand the origin and evolution of new genes with new functions. Sequence and expression analysis demonstrates that one of the new duplicates, nsr (novel spermatogenesis regulator), exhibits positive selection signals and novel subcellular localization pattern. Targeted mutagenesis and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis provide evidence that nsr is required for male reproduction associated with sperm individualization, coiling, and structural integrity of the sperm axoneme via regulation of several Y chromosome fertility genes post-transcriptionally. The absence of nsr-like expression pattern and the presence of the corresponding cis-regulatory elements of the parental gene kep1 in the pre-duplication species Drosophila yakuba indicate that kep1 might not be ancestrally required for male functions and that nsr possibly has experienced the neofunctionalization process, facilitated by changes of trans-regulatory repertories. These findings not only present a comprehensive picture about the evolution of a new duplicate gene but also show that recently originated duplicate genes can acquire multiple biological roles and establish novel functional pathways by regulating essential genes.
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[Effects of amino acid substitutions of penicillin-binding proteins 2B, 1A, 2X on minimal inhibitory concentration of beta-lactams against Streptococcus pneumoniae].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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To observe the effect of amino acid substitution in conserved sequence of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1A, 2B, 2X on antimicrobial activity of beta-lactams against Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP).
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Overexpression of PPAR? can down-regulate Skp2 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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Skp2 is frequent amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, making it a potential molecular target for cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of PPAR? overexpression on Skp2 expression in breast cancer cell lines. First, we investigated the role of PPAR? and Skp2 in human breast cancer progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of 70 specimens on formalin-fixed paraffin sections was performed. Furthermore in vitro, Western blot analysis was used to study the relationship between PPAR? and Skp2. We found that the expression of PPAR? and Skp2 expression was inverse correlation whether in vivo or in vitro. In addition, PPAR? overexpression can down-regulate the expression of Skp2 mRNA and protein in breast cancer cells. PPAR? overexpression decreased breast cancer cell proliferation and induced spontaneous apoptosis even in the absence of exogenous ligand. These PPAR?-overexpressing cells were dramatically more sensitive to PPAR? ligand-induced apoptosis compared with parental or Myc-control transfected cells. Overexpressing of Skp2 partially reversed PPAR?s pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative abilities. These results suggested that PPAR?s pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative abilities appear to be triggered at least in part by the modulation of Skp2.
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[Clinical observation on electroacupuncture combined with acupoint injection for treatment of early postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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To search for a better therapy for early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction (EPISBO).
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Indirubin-3-monoxime rescues spatial memory deficits and attenuates beta-amyloid-associated neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimers disease.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Indirubin and its derivatives have been shown to possess potent inhibitory effects on cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, two protein kinases involved in abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and amyloid precursor protein processing/beta-amyloid (Abeta) production. Here, we showed that systemic treatment of APP and presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice, a robust Alzheimers disease (AD) mouse model, with indirubin-3-monoxime (IMX; 20mg/kg; 3 times weekly), for as little as 2months, significantly attenuated spatial memory deficits. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in several AD-like phenotypes, including Abeta deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation, accumulation of activated microglia and astrocytes around Abeta plaques, and loss of synaptophysin immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that IMX is a potential therapeutic agent to combat AD.
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[Clinicopathologic features and protein expression study of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in Guangzhou].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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To investigate the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas in Guangzhou, their clinicopathologic features and related protein expressions including DNMT1, p16, and cyclin D1.
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Association of distinctive Epstein-Barr virus variants with gastric carcinoma in Guangzhou, southern China.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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To investigate the clinicopathologic features, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency pattern and genome polymorphism of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) in Guangzhou, an endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an in situ hybridization assay of EBV-encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1) was used to identify the presence of EBV in 676 consecutive gastric carcinoma cases. EBV-encoded proteins EBNA1, EBNA2, LMP1, and ZEBRA were detected by immunohistochemistry. EBV genome polymorphism was also analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Of the 676 cases, 45 EBV-positive cases (6.7%) were identified, including 37 (8.5%) male and 8 (3.3%) female cases. EBNA1 was detected in 42 cases (93.3%), while EBNA2, LMP1, and ZEBRA were all negative. In the EBV genome polymorphism analysis, type A strain, prototype F, type I, XhoI-, and del-LMP1 variants were predominant among EBVaGC patients, accounting for 44 (97.8%), 37 (82.2%), 45 (100%), 34 (75.6%), and 42 (93.3%) cases, respectively. Moreover, a new hotspot mutation in the BamHI-W1/I1 boundary region (148,972 T --> C) was found in 39 (86.7%) of the 45 cases. The predominant EBV variants in EBVaGC in Guangzhou are prototype F, type I, and XhoI-, which are different from those in NPC in this area (predominant variant-type "f") and in EBVaGC in Latin American countries (predominant type "i" and XhoI+), suggesting that the EBV variants are not only geographically distributed but also disease restricted, and the pathogenic role of EBV in different EBV associated epithelial malignancies in different areas may be distinct.
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[Prevalence and clinical features of human metapneumovirus infection in hospitalized pediatric patients with respiratory tract infection in Suzhou area].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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To determine whether human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was circulating in Suzhou area and the epidemiology and clinical features associated with hMPV infection.
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[Selective isolation and diversity of acidophilic filamentous actinomycetes from acidic soils].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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To establish effective methods for selective isolation of acidophilic filamentous actinomycetes from acidic soils, and to investigate their genus and species diversity.
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[Viral pathogens of acute respiratory infection in hospitalized children from Suzhou].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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To investigate the viral pathogens of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in hospitalized children from Suzhou of China.
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Design, synthesis and selection of DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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Biochemical combinatorial techniques such as phage display, RNA display and oligonucleotide aptamers have proven to be reliable methods for generation of ligands to protein targets. Adapting these techniques to small synthetic molecules has been a long-sought goal. We report the synthesis and interrogation of an 800-million-member DNA-encoded library in which small molecules are covalently attached to an encoding oligonucleotide. The library was assembled by a combination of chemical and enzymatic synthesis, and interrogated by affinity selection. We describe methods for the selection and deconvolution of the chemical display library, and the discovery of inhibitors for two enzymes: Aurora A kinase and p38 MAP kinase.
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[Influence of electroacupuncture of "Shuigou" (GV 26) on hippocampal CGRP and NPY contents in cerebral ischemia rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the contents of hippocampal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebral ischemia (CI) rats.
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A critical electrostatic interaction mediates inhibitor recognition by human asparagine synthetase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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The first sulfoximine-based inhibitor of human asparagine synthetase (ASNS) with nanomolar potency has been shown to suppress proliferation of asparaginase-resistant MOLT-4 cells in the presence of L-asparaginase. This validates literature hypotheses concerning the viability of human ASNS as a target for new drugs against acute lymphoblastic leukemia and ovarian cancer. Developing structure-function relationships for this class of human ASNS inhibitors has proven difficult, however, primarily because of the absence of rapid synthetic procedures for constructing highly functionalized sulfoximines. We now report conditions for the efficient preparation of these compounds by coupling sulfoxides and sulfamides in the presence of a rhodium catalyst. Access to this methodology has permitted the construction of two new adenylated sulfoximines, which were expected to exhibit similar binding affinity and better bioavailability than the original human ASNS inhibitor. Steady-state kinetic characterization of these compounds, however, has revealed the importance of a localized negative charge on the inhibitor that mimics that of the phosphate group in a key acyl-adenylate reaction intermediate. These experiments place an important constraint on the design of sulfoximine libraries for screening experiments to obtain ASNS inhibitors with increased potency and bioavailability.
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Chromator is required for proper microtubule spindle formation and mitosis in Drosophila.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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The chromodomain protein, Chromator, has been shown to have multiple functions that include regulation of chromatin structure as well as coordination of muscle remodeling during metamorphosis depending on the developmental context. In this study we show that mitotic neuroblasts from brain squash preparations from larvae heteroallelic for the two Chromator loss-of-function alleles Chro(71) and Chro(612) have severe microtubule spindle and chromosome segregation defects that were associated with a reduction in brain size. The microtubule spindles formed were incomplete, unfocused, and/or without clear spindle poles and at anaphase chromosomes were lagging and scattered. Time-lapse analysis of mitosis in S2 cells depleted of Chromator by RNAi treatment suggested that the lagging and scattered chromosome phenotypes were caused by incomplete alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate, possibly due to a defective spindle-assembly checkpoint, as well as of frayed and unstable microtubule spindles during anaphase. Expression of full-length Chromator transgenes under endogenous promoter control restored both microtubule spindle morphology as well as brain size strongly indicating that the observed mutant defects were directly attributable to lack of Chromator function.
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Spatiotemporal control of mitosis by the conserved spindle matrix protein Megator.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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A putative spindle matrix has been hypothesized to mediate chromosome motion, but its existence and functionality remain controversial. In this report, we show that Megator (Mtor), the Drosophila melanogaster counterpart of the human nuclear pore complex protein translocated promoter region (Tpr), and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protein Mad2 form a conserved complex that localizes to a nuclear derived spindle matrix in living cells. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments supports that Mtor is retained around spindle microtubules, where it shows distinct dynamic properties. Mtor/Tpr promotes the recruitment of Mad2 and Mps1 but not Mad1 to unattached kinetochores (KTs), mediating normal mitotic duration and SAC response. At anaphase, Mtor plays a role in spindle elongation, thereby affecting normal chromosome movement. We propose that Mtor/Tpr functions as a spatial regulator of the SAC, which ensures the efficient recruitment of Mad2 to unattached KTs at the onset of mitosis and proper spindle maturation, whereas enrichment of Mad2 in a spindle matrix helps confine the action of a diffusible "wait anaphase" signal to the vicinity of the spindle.
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[Umbilical hernia repair in conjunction with abdominoplasty].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
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To investigate the feasibility and clinical benefits of umbilical hernia repair in conjunction with abdominoplasty.
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Variations of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas from Guangzhou, southern China.
PLoS ONE
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein consistently expressed in all EBV-associated malignancies, and play a critical role in the onset, progression, and/or maintenance of these tumors. Based on the signature changes at amino acid residue 487, EBNA1 is classified into five distinct subtypes: P-ala, P-thr, V-leu, V-val and V-pro. In the present study, the sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and throat washing (TW) samples of healthy EBV carriers in Guangzhou, southern China, where nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic, were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. V-val subtype was the most predominant (53.6%, 15/28) in EBVaGC, followed by P-ala (42.9%, 12/28) and V-leu (32.1%, 9/28) subtypes. In TWs of healthy EBV carriers, V-val subtype was also predominant (85.7%, 18/21). The sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC were similar to those in TW of healthy EBV carriers (p>0.05), suggesting that the EBV strains in EBVaGC might originate from the viral strains prevalent within the background population. The predominance of V-val subtype in EBVaGC in Guangzhou was similar to that in EBVaGC in northern China and Japan, but was different from that in EBVaGC in America, suggesting that the variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC represent geographic-associated polymorphisms rather than tumor-specific mutations. In addition, the EBNA1 variations in EBVaGC in gastric remnant carcinoma were also determined. V-leu subtype was detected in all 4 (100%) cases, although 2 cases occurred as mixed infection with P-ala subtype. This is different from the predominant V-val subtype in EBVaGC in conventional gastric carcinoma, suggesting that V-leu might be a subtype that adapts particularly well to the microenvironment within the gastric stump and enters the remnant gastric mucosa epithelia easily. This, to our best knowledge, is the first investigation of EBNA1 polymorphisms in EBVaGC from endemic area of NPC.
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Imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells may play an important role in the development of chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression in mice.
Neuroimmunomodulation
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Recent data suggest that major depression is potentially associated with dysregulated cytokine production. However, the roles of T helper (Th) cells and their subsets in the development of depression still remain to be determined. The present study assessed changes in Th cell subsets and cytokines during the development of depression in a mouse model.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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