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Inhibition of CYP1 by berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine: selectivity, kinetic characterization, and molecular modeling.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 1 family plays a primary role in the detoxification and bioactivation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 exhibit differential substrate specificity and tissue distribution. Berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine are protoberberine alkaloids present in several medicinal herbs, such as Coptis chinensis (Huang-Lian) and goldenseal. These protoberberines inhibited CYP1A1.1- and CYP1B1.1-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities, whereas CYP1A2.1 activity was barely affected. Kinetic analysis revealed that berberine noncompetitively inhibited EROD activities of CYP1A1.1 and CYP1B1.1, whereas palmatine and jatrorrhizine caused either competitive or mixed type of inhibition. Among protoberberines, berberine caused the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on CYP1B1.1 with the least Ki value of 44±16 nM. Berberine also potently inhibited CYP1B1.1 activities toward 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-methoxyresorufin, whereas the inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylation activity was less pronounced. Berberine inhibited the polymorphic variants, CYP1B1.3 (V432L) and CYP1B1.4 (N453S), with IC50 values comparable to that for CYP1B1.1 inhibition. Berberine-mediated inhibition was abolished by a mutation of Asn228 to Thr in CYP1B1.1, whereas the inhibition was enhanced by a reversal mutation of Thr223 to Asn in CYP1A2.1. This result in conjugation with the molecular modeling revealed the crucial role of hydrogen-bonding interaction of Asn228 on CYP1B1.1 with the methoxy moiety of berberine. These findings demonstrate that berberine causes a selective CYP1B1-inhibition, in which Asn228 appears to be crucial. The inhibitory effects of berberine on CYP1B1 activities toward structurally diverse substrates can be different.
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7-Ketocholesterol induces P-glycoprotein through PI3K/mTOR signaling in hepatoma cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC) is found at an elevated level in patients with cancer and chronic liver disease. The up-regulation of an efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) leads to drug resistance. To elucidate the effect of 7-KC on P-gp, P-gp function and expression were investigated in hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and HepG2 and in primary hepatocyte-derived HuS-E/2 cells. At a subtoxic concentration, 48-h exposure to 7-KC reduced the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of P-gp substrate doxorubicin in hepatoma cells, but not in HuS-E/2 cells. In Huh-7 cells, 7-KC elevated efflux function through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. 7-KC activated the downstream protein synthesis initiation factor 4E-BP1 and induced P-gp expression post-transcriptionally. The stimulation of efflux was reversible and could not be prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. Total cellular ATP content remained the same, whereas the lactate production was increased and fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NADH was shortened. These changes suggested a metabolic shift to glycolysis, but glycolytic inhibitors did not eliminate 7-KC-mediated P-gp induction. These results demonstrate that 7-KC induces P-gp through PI3K/mTOR signaling and decreased the cell-killing efficacy of doxorubicin in hepatoma cells.
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Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6 by chalepensin in recombinant systems, in human liver microsomes and in mice in vivo.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Chalepensin is a pharmacologically active furanocoumarin compound found in rue, a medicinal herb. Here we have investigated the inhibitory effects of chalepensin on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 in vitro and in vivo.
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New model system for testing effects of flavonoids on doxorubicin-related formation of hydroxyl radicals.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Doxorubicin belongs to anthracycline cytotoxic drugs and it is widely used as a major therapeutic agent in the treatment of various types of tumors. However,its therapeutic use is limited by the development of myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity after a specific cumulative dose is reached. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flavonoids, either natural or synthetic on doxorubicin-mediated formation of oxidative stress implicated in doxorubicin toxicity. Doxorubicin caused a concentration-dependent increase in the formation of hydroxyl radicals in minipig liver microsomes used as an in-vitro model system. When bacterial membranes heterologously expressing human NADPH cytochrome-P450 oxidoreductase were incubated with doxorubicin, formation of the superoxide radical under aerobic conditions and the doxorubicin–semiquinone radical under anaerobic conditions was detected. Forty different flavonoids were tested for their potency to prevent NADPH-induced or Fe2+-induced peroxidation of lipids in the microsomal system. According to the results, seven flavonoids were selected for evaluation of their potency to inhibit doxorubicin-dependent formation of hydroxyl radicals assessed by electron spin resonance. Myricetin, fisetin, and kaempferol were found to produce a significant protective effect against hydroxyl radicals in the minipig liver microsomal system. In conclusion, this study shows the use of a novel cost-effective in-vitro model system for preselection of antioxidants for testing of their protective effects against toxicity of anthracyclines and potentially other oxidative stress-inducing chemicals.
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Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450s by the herbal medicine Sophora flavescens extract in rats: impact on the elimination of theophylline.
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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The roots of Sophora flavescens (Sf) have been widely used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and eczema. Cytochrome P450 (P450) forms including CYP1A2, CYP2B, CYP2E1, and CYP3A participate in the oxidative metabolism of theophylline, which is an important bronchodilation agent with a narrow therapeutic index. To assess the interaction of Sf with theophylline, the effects of Sf extract on theophylline-metabolizing P450s and on the pharmacokinetic profile of theophylline were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral treatment of rats with the Sf extract caused dose-dependent increases of liver microsomal oxidation activities toward 7-ethoxyresorufin, 7-pentoxyresorufin, and nifedipine. However, nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylation activity was not affected. The ingestion of Sf extract stimulated theophylline 8-oxidation and N-demethylation activities. The increases of oxidative activities were in consensus with the elevation of the protein levels of CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2C11, and CYP3A. Sf-treatment increased the clearance of theophylline and decreased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and the area under the moment curve (AUMC). These results demonstrate that Sf reduces blood theophylline concentration through facilitating the elimination of theophylline. In patients taking Sf, possible P450 induction-induced drug interaction should be noted to decrease the risk of therapeutic failure or adverse effects resulting from the use of additional therapeutic agents.
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Signal-transducing mechanisms of ketamine-caused inhibition of interleukin-1 beta gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Ketamine may affect the host immunity. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are pivotal cytokines produced by macrophages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ketamine on the regulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, especially IL-1 beta, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms. Administration of Raw 264.7 cells with a therapeutic concentration of ketamine (100 microM), LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. Exposure to 100 microM ketamine decreased the binding affinity of LPS and LPS-binding protein but did not affect LPS-induced RNA and protein synthesis of TLR4. Treatment with LPS significantly increased IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha gene expressions in Raw 264.7 cells. Ketamine at a clinically relevant concentration did not affect the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines, but significantly decreased LPS-caused increases in these cytokines. Immunoblot analyses, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and a reporter luciferase activity assay revealed that ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF kappaB). Administration of LPS sequentially increased the phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and IKK. However, a therapeutic concentration of ketamine alleviated such augmentations. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA reduced cellular TLR4 amounts and ameliorated LPS-induced RAS activation and IL-1 beta synthesis. Co-treatment with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA synergistically ameliorated LPS-caused enhancement of IL-1 beta production. Results of this study show that a therapeutic concentration of ketamine can inhibit gene expression of IL-1 beta possibly through suppressing TLR4-mediated signal-transducing phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and IKK and subsequent translocation and transactivation of NF kappaB.
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Differential inductive profiles of hepatic cytochrome P450s by the extracts of Sophora flavescens in male and female C57BL/6JNarl mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Sophora flavescens has been used as an antipyretic and analgesic agent. To assess the possible herb-drug interaction, effects of S. flavescens extracts on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes were studied.
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Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and blocks its carcinogenic effect.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Previously, we reported that glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout mice develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneously. For this study we used a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter to establish a GNMT transgenic (TG) mouse model. Animals were intraperitoneally inoculated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and monitored for 11 months, during which neither male nor female GNMT-TG mice developed HCC. In contrast, 4 of 6 (67%) male wild-type mice developed HCC. Immunofluorescent antibody test showed that GNMT was translocated into nuclei after AFB(1) treatment. Competitive enzyme immunoassays indicated that after AFB(1) treatment, the AFB(1)-DNA adducts formed in stable clones expressing GNMT reduced 51.4% compared to the vector control clones. Experiments using recombinant adenoviruses carrying GNMT cDNA (Ad-GNMT) further demonstrated that the GNMT-related inhibition of AFB(1)-DNA adducts formation is dose-dependent. HPLC analysis of the metabolites of AFB(1) in the cultural supernatants of cells exposed to AFB(1) showed that the AFM(1) level in the GNMT group was significantly higher than the control group, indicating the presence of GNMT can enhance the detoxification pathway of AFB(1). Cytotoxicity assay showed that the GNMT group had higher survival rate than the control group after they were treated with AFB(1). Automated docking experiments showed that AFB(1) binds to the S-adenosylmethionine binding domain of GNMT. Affinity sensor assay demonstrated that the dissociation constant for GNMT-AFB(1) interaction is 44.9 microM. Therefore, GNMT is a tumor suppressor for HCC and it exerts protective effects in hepatocytes via direct interaction with AFB(1), resulting in reduced AFB(1)-DNA adducts formation and cell death.
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Suppressive effect of tobacco smoke extracts on oral P-glycoprotein function and its impact in smoke-induced insult to oral epidermal cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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P-glycoprotein (Pgp) participates in the export of numerous toxins, drugs, and physiological compounds. To examine the involvement of Pgp in smoke-induced oral cell insult, the effects of extracts of the mainstream tobacco smoke (TS) on Pgp were studied in an oral epidermal carcinoma cell line, OECM-1. TS was first extracted with cyclohexane (CTS) and the residues were further extracted with isopropanol (ITS). For comparison, cells were exposed to CTS and ITS at the concentrations according to their relative extraction yield. ITS but not CTS decreased the efflux of a Pgp substrate, rhodamine (Rh) 123, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The efflux was also decreased by co-exposure to CTS and ITS. However, immunoblot analysis revealed that the protein level of Pgp was not affected by ITS. Naphthalene, mainly detected in the ITS, decreased Rh 123 efflux. However, the efflux activity was not affected by benzo(a)pyrene and nicotine, which were present in the CTS and both extracts, respectively. Co-exposure to CTS in combination with ITS, naphthalene, or verapamil enhanced cell insult compared to single exposure. These results demonstrated that smoke and its constituent, naphthalene, diminished Pgp-mediated efflux. The reduction in Pgp function could be a stimulatory factor of TS-induced oral cell insult.
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Sulfotransferase 1A1 haplotypes associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility in male Taiwanese.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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We have previously demonstrated that betel quid containing safrole induced DNA adducts are highly associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Taiwan. Sulfotransferase (SULT) is essential for the formation of these adducts. To elucidate the effects of SULT1A1 haplotypes on OSCC susceptibility, 160 male OSCC cases and 218 age- and sex-matched controls were screened for single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding region of SULT1A1 by sequencing. We found that 445C>T (His149Tyr) and 507C>T polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased risk of OSCC. Based on the genotype analysis, haplotypes were constructed for 445C>T (His149Tyr), 507C>T, 600G>C and 638G>A (Arg213His) using GENECOUNTING software. After adjustment for age, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, we found that haplotype c containing 445C>T (His149Tyr), 507C>T or 600G>C but not 638G>A (Arg213His) variant was significantly associated with increased risk of OSCC (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-6.68) when compared with the haplotype a (wild-type). We analyzed the activity in sulfonation of 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxysafrole of recombinant His149Tyr (445C>T) variant, which led to 51 and 33% reduced activity, respectively; Arg213His (638G>A) variant led to 72 and 54% reduced activity, respectively, when compared with the wild-type. Taken together, haplotype analysis provides a novel evaluation of the SULT1A1 gene as a risk modifier on environmental carcinogen in OSCC and the association of SULT1A1 haplotypes with the risk of OSCC might be modified by betel quid chewing.
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Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 by the furanocoumarin chalepensin.
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
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The cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 2A6 inhibitor chalepensin was found to inhibit human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A13, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 to different extents. CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 underwent pronounced mechanism-based inactivation by chalepensin and had the smallest IC50 ratios of inhibition with NADPH-fortified pre-incubation (IC50(+)) to that without pre-incubation (IC50(-)). CYP2E1 had the least susceptibility to mechanism-based inactivation. This inactivation of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 exhibited time-dependence, led to a loss of spectrophotometrically detected P450, and could not be fully recovered by dialysis. Pre-incubation with chalepensin did not affect NADPH-P450 reductase activity. Cytosol-supported glutathione conjugation protected CYP3A4 but not CYP1A1 against the inactivation by chalepensin. Cytosolic decomposition of chalepensin may contribute partially to the protection. The high epoxidation activities of CYP1A1, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4 were in agreement with their pronounced susceptibilities to mechanism-based inactivation by chalepensin. Considering both the IC50 values and inactivation kinetic parameters, the threshold concentrations of chalepensin for potential drug interactions through inhibition of CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 were estimated to be consistently low. These results demonstrate that chalepensin inhibits multiple P450s and that epoxidation activity is crucial for the potential drug interaction through mechanism-based inhibition.
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A dual function of the furanocoumarin chalepensin in inhibiting Cyp2a and inducing Cyp2b in mice: the protein stabilization and receptor-mediated activation.
Arch. Toxicol.
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Chalepensin, a furanocoumarin, is present in several medicinal Rutaceae plants and causes a mechanism-based inhibition of human and mouse cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 2A in vitro. To address the in vivo effect, we investigated the effects of chalepensin on multiple hepatic P450 enzymes in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of 10 mg/kg chalepensin to mice for 7 days significantly decreased hepatic coumarin 7-hydroxylation (Cyp2a) and increased 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (Cyp2b) activities, whereas activities of Cyp1a, Cyp2c, Cyp2e1, and Cyp3a were not affected. Without affecting its mRNA level, the decreased Cyp2a activity was accompanied by an increase in the immunodetected Cyp2a5 protein level. In chalepensin-treated mice, microsomal Cyp2a5 was less susceptible to ATP-fortified cytosolic degradation than that in control mice, resulting in the elevated protein level. The in vitro inactivation through NADPH-fortified pre-incubation with chalepensin also protected microsomal Cyp2a5 against protein degradation. Using cell-based reporter systems, chalepensin at a concentration near unbound plasma concentration activated mouse constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), in agreement with the observed induction of Cyp2b. These findings revealed that suicidal inhibition of Cyp2a5 and the CAR-mediated Cyp2b9/10 induction concurrently occurred in chalepensin-treated mice.
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