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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The microRNAs as prognostic biomarkers for survival in esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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We performed this meta-analysis to summarize all the results from available studies, aiming delineating the prognostic role of miRNA in esophageal cancer.
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Inactivation of miR-34a by aberrant CpG methylation in Kazakh patients with esophageal carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor with dismal prognosis and high incidence and mortality in Kazakh population. MiR-34a, a direct p53 target gene, possesses tumor-suppressive properties as they mediate apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence. The reduced expression of miR-34a by methylation in various cancers has been reported.
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Absence of 19 known hotspot oncogenic mutations in soft tissue clear cell sarcoma: two cases report with review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of the tendons and aponeuroses is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that morphologically resembles cutaneous malignant melanoma but exhibits a distinct molecular profile. Gastrointestinal (GI) CCS is extremely rare. In this study, two cases of CCS were presented: (1) left thumb and (2) jejunum. Case 1 manifested the characteristic CCS morphology. Case 2 was morphologically unusual and difficult to diagnose. Immunohistochemically, the two cases of tumor cells were diffusely positive for S100, vimentin, NSE protein, focal expression of CgA, and CAM2.5 protein. In case 1, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for HMB45, focal expression of CD56, and melan A antigen. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results confirmed the presence of the EWS/ATF1 translocation (type 1) in the two cases. Then, we detected 19 hotspot oncogenes in the two cases. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to apply a high-throughput OncoCarta panel 1.0 and MassARRAY system to detect 238 known mutations in 19 hotspot oncogenes in soft tissue clear cell sarcoma. In this study, no mutations were observed in these hotspot oncogenes in the two cases.
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Significance of elevated ERK expression and its positive correlation with EGFR in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are activated by the MAPK pathway. ERKs are downstream effectors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinases family. Studies on the activation of the EGFR-ERK pathway in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been reported. Using immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays, we investigated the protein expression of EGFR and ERK in 90 ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC and 48 adjacent normal esophageal tissues (NETs). EGFR and ERK1 expression was localized in the cytoplasm, whereas ERK2 expression was localized in the nucleus. Both were more highly expression in the ESCC tissues than in the NETs, and the difference was considered significant (P=0.003, 0.002, and 0.005, respectively). ERK1 and EGFR expression was positively correlated with lymph nodes metastasis (P=0.011 and 0.013, respectively). ERK1 staining was also significantly associated with tumor-node-metastases stage of ESCC (P=0.044). ERK2 staining was significantly associated with Histological grade (P=0.012). Furthermore, ERK1 and EGFR expression in the ESCC tissues were positively correlated (r=0.413, P<0.001); EGFR was more highly expressed in the ESCC tissues with high ERK1 expression than in the ESCC tissues with low ERK1 expression (4.95±0.57 vs. 3.21±0.35, P=0.01). This study is thus far the first to demonstrate the correlation between EGFR overexpression and ERK overexpression in Kazakh patients with ESCC. This correlation suggests that the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway participates in ESCC progression and can thus be used as a prognostic marker.
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Overexpression of GEFT, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, predicts poor prognosis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with poor prognosis. Yet, there is lack of effective prognostic biomarkers for RMS. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore potential biomarkers for RMS based on our previous findings using array comparative genomic hybridization. We investigated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, at expression level in 45 RMS patients and 36 normal striated muscle controls using immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The expression rate of GEFT in RMS samples (42/45, 93.33%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (5/36, 13.89%). Moreover, the overexpression rate of GEFT in RMS (31/45, 68.89%) was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (0/36, 0.00%). Increased expression of GEFT correlated significantly with advanced disease stages (stages III/IV) (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.019), and distant metastasis (P=0.004), respectively, in RMS patients. In addition, RMS patients having overexpressed GEFT experienced worse overall survival (OS) than those having low levels of GEFT (P=0.001). GEFT overexpression was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poor OS in RMS patients (hazard ratio: 3.491, 95% confidence interval: 1.121-10.871, P=0.004). In conclusion, these observations provide the first evidence of GEFT overexpression in RMS and its correlations with disease aggressiveness and metastasis. These findings suggest that GEFT may serve as a promising biomarker predicting poor prognosis in RMS patients, thus implying its potential as a therapeutic target.
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Analysis of molecular cytogenetic alteration in rhabdomyosarcoma by array comparative genomic hybridization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma with poor prognosis. The genetic etiology of RMS remains largely unclear underlying its development and progression. To reveal novel genes more precisely and new therapeutic targets associated with RMS, we used high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to explore tumor-associated copy number variations (CNVs) and genes in RMS. We confirmed several important genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). We then performed bioinformatics-based functional enrichment analysis for genes located in the genomic regions with CNVs. In addition, we identified miRNAs located in the corresponding amplification and deletion regions and performed miRNA functional enrichment analysis. aCGH analyses revealed that all RMS showed specific gains and losses. The amplification regions were 12q13.12, 12q13.3, and 12q13.3-q14.1. The deletion regions were 1p21.1, 2q14.1, 5q13.2, 9p12, and 9q12. The recurrent regions with gains were 12q13.3, 12q13.3-q14.1, 12q14.1, and 17q25.1. The recurrent regions with losses were 9p12-p11.2, 10q11.21-q11.22, 14q32.33, 16p11.2, and 22q11.1. The mean mRNA level of GLI1 in RMS was 6.61-fold higher than that in controls (p?=?0.0477) by QRT-PCR. Meanwhile, the mean mRNA level of GEFT in RMS samples was 3.92-fold higher than that in controls (p?=?0.0354). Bioinformatic analysis showed that genes were enriched in functions such as immunoglobulin domain, induction of apoptosis, and defensin. Proto-oncogene functions were involved in alveolar RMS. miRNAs that located in the amplified regions in RMS tend to be enriched in oncogenic activity (miR-24 and miR-27a). In conclusion, this study identified a number of CNVs in RMS and functional analyses showed enrichment for genes and miRNAs located in these CNVs regions. These findings may potentially help the identification of novel biomarkers and/or drug targets implicated in diagnosis of and targeted therapy for RMS.
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Parachordoma/myoepithelioma of the kidney: first report of a myxoid mimicry in an unusual location.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We report a case of parachordoma (or myoepithelioma) of the right upper kidney in a 56 year-old male patient. Light microscopic features of the tumor exhibited epithelioid, glomoid, and spindle cells with eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm as well as round to oval nuclei. These cells were embedded in a myxoid and hyaline stroma separated by a fibrous tissue with minimal cellular atypia and a few small nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen, calponin, vimentin, S-100, and type-IV collagen. All kidney and adrenal were resected, and the patient was carefully followed up. During the 11 months follow-up, recurrence and metastases were not observed. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document a case of parachordoma/myoepithelioma of the kidney. We add this new case to existing tumors and discuss its distinction from other types.
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Chromosomal and genetic imbalances in Chinese patients with rhabdomyosarcoma detected by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children. Although associations between ARMS tumorigenesis and PAX3, PAX7, and FKHR are well recognized, the complete genetic etiology underlying RMS pathogenesis and progression remains unclear. Chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) and the involved genes may play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies. Using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we examined 20 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) RMS tumors to explore the involvement of the relevant chromosomal regions with resident genes in RMS tumorigenesis. In RMS, frequent gains were identified on chromosome regions 12q13.3-q14.1, 12q24.31, 17q25.1, 1q21.1, and 7q11.23, whereas frequent losses were observed on chromosome regions 5q13.2, 14q32.33, and 15q11.2. Amplifications were observed on chromosome regions 9p13.3, 12q13.3-q14.1, 12q15, and 16p13.11, whereas deletions were detected on chromosome regions 1p36.33, 1p13.1, 2q11.1, 5q13.2, 8p23.1, 9p24.3, and 16p11.2. Frequent gains were detected in GLI1, GEFT, OS9, and CDK4 (12q13.3-q14.1), being 60% in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and 66.67% in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), respectively. However, frequent losses were detected in IGHG1, IGHM, IGHG3, and IGHG4 (14q32.33), being 70% in ERMS and 55.56% in and ARMS, respectively. Frequent gains were detected in TYROBP, HCST, LRFN3, and ALKBH6 (19q13.12) in ERMS but not in ARMS. The frequency of TYROBP, HCST, LRFN3, and ALKBH6 gains is significantly different in ERMS versus ARMS (P=0.011). The results suggest that novel TYROBP, HCST, LRFN3, and ALKBH6 genes may play important roles in ERMS. The technique used is a feasible approach for array comparative genomic hybridization analysis in archival tumor samples.
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Heterozygote of PLCE1 rs2274223 increases susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection in patients with esophageal carcinoma among the Kazakh populations.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous carcinoma remains undetermined. However, three genome-wide association studies of esophageal cancer have identified a shared susceptibility locus at 10q23 (rs2274223: A5780G) in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1). The current study aims to present a comprehensive and novel spectrum about the HPV genotype distribution of esophageal carcinoma in Kazakhs and assess its association with PLCE1 polymorphisms. The HPV genotypes in 183 patients with esophageal cancer and 89 controls selected from the Kazakh population were evaluated using the HPV gene chip. The PLCE1 rs2274223 variant was genotyped in esophageal carcinoma patients by MALDI-ToF Mass Spectrometry. The presence of seven HPV genotypes in esophageal carcinoma tissues-including HPV 16, 18, 35, 52, 6, 11, 43-was significantly higher at 31.7% than those in controls at 9.0% (P?
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Overexpression of HLA-G Is positively associated with Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang, China.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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HLA-G is a class I HLA that has gained much attention due to its multiple functions in the immune system. More important, some studies found HLA-G may be detrimental in tumors and viral infections, and the detection of HLA-G expression might serve as a clinical marker in the prediction of clinical outcomes for certain types of carcinoma. We assessed the association between the development of Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) harboring high-risk HPV infection and the expression of HLA-G. The expression of HLA-G was detected by S-P immunohistochemical staining in 60 cases of Kazakh ESCC tissues and 40 cases of Kazakh tumor adjacent normal tissues. HPV16 infection in ESCC was detected by genotype-specific polymerase chain reaction. HPV16 infection rate in Kazakh ESCC was 35.0%, significantly higher than that of the infection rate of the adjacent normal tissues 15% (p<0.05, OR=3.051; 95% CI: 1.103-8.438). The expression of HLA-G in Kazakh ESCC was 75.0% (45/60), significantly higher than that of tumor adjacent normal tissues (17.5%; p<0.05); expression of HLA-G was slightly higher in HPV16-positive than HPV16-negative ESCC, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The positive expression rate of HLA-G was closely related to depth of invasion and clinical stage (p<0.05 for all), but was not related to age, sex, tumor location, histologic grade, and nodal status (p>0.05 for all). Overexpression of HLA-G was a characteristic feature of Kazakh ESCC; HLA-G may be involved in Kazakh ESCC carcinogenesis and HPV infection.
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HLA-DRB1*1501 and HLA-DQB1*0301 alleles are positively associated with HPV16 infection-related Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang China.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
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Multiple determinant factors are involved in the occurrence and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism were identified as important factors. This study examined the associations between the development of Kazakh ESCC and the determinant factors including HLA-DRB1*0901, 1501; DQB1*0301, 0602; high-risk HPV infection in the area of Xinjiang, China. 200 Kazakh patients with ESCC and 150 controls were recruited, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect HLA-DRB1*0901, 1501 and DQB1*0301,0602 using sequence-specific primers (SSPs). HPV16 was detected in esophageal specimens using PCR. HPV16 infection rate in Kazakh ESCC case group was 41 %, significantly higher than that of control group 14 % (OR = 3.62; 95 % CI, 2.15-6.09; P < 0.001). A positive association between ESCC and HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 2.46, P < 0.0125) or HLA-DQB1*0301 (OR = 3.34, P < 0.0125) alleles was observed. Similar tendencies were observed for HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 3.095, P < 0.0125) and HLA-DQB1*0301 (OR = 2.410, P < 0.0125) alleles with HPV16-positive ESCC. HLA-DRB1*1501, HLA-DQB1*0301 and DQB1*0602 were significantly associated with ESCC when the age was ?55 years (P < 0.0125 for all), whereas only HLA-DQB1*0301 was significantly associated with ESCC when the age was <55 years (P < 0.0125). HLA-DRB1*1501 and HLA-DQB1*0301 were significantly associated with an increase in ESCC occurrence in females (P < 0.0125), whereas only HLA-DQB1*0301 was significantly associated with ESCC in males. Moreover, the occurrence of HLA-DQB1*0602 gene in poorly differentiated ESCC group (68.8 %) was slightly higher than that of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma group (31.2 %). The difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.0125). The study suggests that HLA-DRB1*1501 and HLA-DQB1*0301 may influence the immune response to specific tumor and HPV-encoded epitopes and affect the risk of Kazakh ESCC in XinJiang, China.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.