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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Establishment and Evaluation of a One-Step Microplate Chemiluminescence Immunoassay to Detect IgG Antibody Against Treponema Pallidum.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum is of particular importance in the diagnosis of syphilis. The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) has been widely used for clinical diagnosis because they remit no radical waste products, cause no enzyme precipitation, and exhibit an excellent sensitivity.
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LIN28 is involved in glioma carcinogenesis and predicts outcomes of glioblastoma multiforme patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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LIN28, an evolutionarily conversed RNA binding protein which can bind to the terminal loops of let-7 family microRNA precursors and block their processing to maturation, is highly expressed in several subsets of tumors that carry poor prognoses, such as ovarian carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, colon carcinoma and germ cell carcinoma. However, there has been no study on the expression of LIN28 in glioma tissues or their importance as a prognostic predictor of glioma patients. This study aimed to examine the expression of LIN28 in glioma and correlate the results to patient outcome. We found that LIN28 expression was significantly higher in the group of patients with a poor prognosis compared to patients with a good prognosis by gene microarray. Log-rank analysis showed patients with higher LIN28 expression level in tumor had a shorter progression-free survival and overall survival times compared to those with lower LIN28 expression level. Similar results were also obtained from the tissue microarray analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed high LIN28 expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in GBM patients. Furthermore in vitro experiments showed that down-regulation of LIN28 in U251 and U373 cells caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, delayed cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and resulted in fewer colonies compared to controls. Summarily, our data provides a potential target for cancer therapy as an approach to overcome the poor options currently available for GBM patients.
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Quantitative assessment of the effect of cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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CYP2C9 enzyme activity is involved in the metabolism of substances related to colorectal cancer (CRC), and it is functionally linked to a genetic polymorphism. Two allelic variants of the CYP2C9 gene, namely CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, differ from wild-type CYP2C9*1 by single amino acid substitutions. These mutated alleles encode enzymes with altered properties that are associated with impaired metabolism. In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the CYP2C9 polymorphism and CRC susceptibility, but the results were conflicting. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies involving a total of 20,879 subjects for CYP2C9*2 and *3 polymorphisms to evaluate the effect of CYP2C9 on genetic susceptibility for CRC. Overall, the summary odds ratio of CRC was 0.94 (95%CI: 0.87-1.03, P?=?0.18) and 1.00 (95%CI: 0.86-1.16, P?=?0.99) for CYP2C9 *2 and *3 carriers, respectively. No significant results were observed in heterozygous and homozygous when compared with wild genotype for these polymorphisms. In the stratified analyses according to ethnicity, sample size, diagnostic criterion, HWE status and sex, no evidence of any gene-disease association was obtained. Our result suggest that the *2, *3 polymorphisms of CYP2C9 gene are not associated with CRC susceptibility.
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Genetic polymorphism of glucokinase on the risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation: evidence based on 298,468 subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Glucokinase (GCK) is the key glucose phosphorylation enzyme which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D) based on its enzyme function as the first rate-limiting step in the glycolysis pathway and regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the past decade, the relationship between GCK and T2D has been reported in various ethnic groups. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship and the effect of factors that might modify the risk, we performed this meta-analysis.
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A meta-analysis of plate fixation versus intramedullary nailing for humeral shaft fractures.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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There is a lack of consensus on whether intramedullary nailing (IMN) or plating is superior for humeral shaft fractures.
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Induction of apoptosis in osteosarcoma s180 cells by polysaccharide from dictyophora indusiata.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Polysaccharides have shown great importance in cancer therapy. The current study showed that a polysaccharide from Dictyophora indusiata (PDI) also possessed anti-cancer properties. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay revealed a dose-dependent reduction of osteosarcoma S180 growth in response to PDI treatment. Apoptosis was observed following treatments with PDI, as reflected by the appearance of the subdiploid fraction and DNA fragmentations. We then investigated effects of PDI on expression of apoptosis-associated genes and the results revealed an increase of expression of bcl-2 and decreases of cdk4 and p53 protein levels. Finally, PDI treatment significantly increased the activation of caspase-3, a key executioner of apoptosis. These findings indicate that PDI may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent in osteosarcoma cells by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Association between 5p12 genomic markers and breast cancer susceptibility: evidence from 19 case-control studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The association between polymorphisms on 5p12 and breast cancer (BC) has been widely evaluated since it was first identified through genome-wide association approach; however, the studies have yielded contradictory results. We sought to investigate this inconsistency by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis on two wildly studied polymorphisms (rs10941679 and rs4415084) on 5p12.
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Lack of association between methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk: evidence from 3,9327 subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of folate and methyl groups have been implicated with risk of digestive system cancer. Methionine synthase (MTR) plays a central role in folate metabolism, thereby affecting DNA methylation. The association between A2756G polymorphism (rs1805087) in MTR and digestive system cancer susceptibility was inconsistent in previous studies. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis.
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Ubiquitination of heat shock protein 27 is mediated by its interaction with Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 in A549 cells.
Exp. Lung Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is a crucial part of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) that regulates cellular signal transduction via ubiquitin-dependent degradation of some substrates and receptors. The biological function of Smurf2 in lung diseases, however, is not clear. In this study, the authors found that overexpression of Smurf2 altered the subcellular localization and distribution of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and induced a decrease of HSP27 protein levels through HSP27 degradation by the UPP in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549. Colocalized assay using confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitated reciprocally by either antibody indicated the interaction between Smurf2 and HSP27, which suggested that Smurf2 mediated ubiquitylation-dependent degradation of HSP27 through their interaction in A549 cells.
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Association between PON1 activity and coronary heart disease risk: a meta-analysis based on 43 studies.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. The relationship between PON1 activity and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in humans has been reported among various ethnic populations in the past decade. However, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To investigate this inconsistency, we conducted a meta-analysis of 43 studies involving a total of 20,629 subjects to evaluate the effect of PON1 activity on susceptibility for CHD. We also systematically explored potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Significant decreases paraoxonase activity of PON1 were observed in CHD patients compared with non-CHD controls with SMD of -0.78 (95% CI: -0.98, -0.57; P<0.001). Similar results were also found for arylesterase activity of PON1 with SMD of -0.50 (95% CI: -0.64, -0.36; P<0.001). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, CHD phenotype, sample size, source of controls, mean age and BMI of cases, significantly increased risks were also found. In addition, our analyses detected a possibility of publication bias with an overestimate of the true association by smaller studies. This meta-analysis demonstrated that decreasing in PON1 activity is a risk factor associated with increased CHD susceptibility. However, additional very large-scale studies are warranted to provide conclusive evidence on the effects of PON1 activity on risk of CHD.
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The power and the promise of liver cancer stem cell markers.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Recently, there has been growing support for the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, which states that primary tumors are initiated and maintained by a small subpopulation of cancer cells that possess "stem-like" characteristics. CSCs have been identified in many tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The dye, Hoechst 33342, has been used to enrich CSCs into a side population. Alternatively, liver CSCs (LCSCs) can be identified by several cell surface antigens, including CD133, CD90, CD44, EpCAM, and CD13. In this review, we summarized the recent evidence regarding LCSC markers and discussed the origin and function of these markers. LCSC markers are essential to identify and isolate these cells, to develop future therapies targeting CSCs, and to predict prognosis and efficacy of these therapies. However, definite LCSC markers are still controversial, because none of these markers is exclusively expressed by LCSCs in HCC. By combining several positive or negative markers, it may be possible to isolate and identify CSC fractions beyond the ability of each individual assay. By grouping LCSC markers according to their cellular origin, the properties of LCSC markers may be better studied and new markers may be found. Lastly, markers could be used to estimate the number of LCSCs and therefore predict outcomes. From our point of view, selecting HCC tissue samples from patients with different prognoses and detecting expression patterns of marker combinations may be a new method to identify new and unique markers.
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Effect of lead on apoptosis in cultured rat primary osteoblasts.
Toxicol Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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To investigate the effect of lead exposure on apoptosis of cultured rat primary osteoblasts (ROBs), which were derived from newborn calvariae of Sprague Dawley rat. They were identified by the staining of alkaline phosphatase and mineralized matrix. The ROBs were received at 0, 20, 40 and 80 ?M Pb2+ of lead acetate solution for 24 h, respectively, before being doubly marked by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide. The intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca2+](i)) was detected under the laser scan confocal microscope. The activities of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) were measured and the effect of lead exposure on the expression of PC-PLC was observed by immunoblotting assay. The results showed that when compared with that of the control group, lead exposure induced an increase of [Ca2+](i) of lead-treated ROBs, resulting in a significant development in apoptosis. In the meantime, a significant decline in protein level and enzymatic activities of PC-PLC were observed in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that lead can induce apoptosis in ROBs, and one of the mechanisms of lead-induced apoptosis may be that activating intracellular calcium stores by decreasing protein levels and enzymatic activities of PC-PLC can increase the [Ca2+](i), and consequently, the apoptotic signal pathway can be induced.
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The interaction between ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 and glucose-regulated protein 78 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH) is a subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes, which consists of four members: UCH-L1, UCH-L3, UCH37, and BRCA1-associated protein-1. Although there is growing evidence that UCH enzymes and human malignancies are closely correlated, there have been few studies on UCH37, especially on its interactions with other proteins. In the current study, a functional proteomic analysis was performed to screen UCH37-interacting proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and glucose-regulated protein 78 was identified as one interacting with UCH37, which was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, suggesting that their interaction could provide a new insight into the mechanism of HCC.
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Meta-analysis of the effect of HHEX gene polymorphism on the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the HHEX polymorphism and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the results have been inconclusive. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies dealing with the relationship between the HHEX polymorphism and T2D. In total, 22 association studies on two HHEX polymorphisms (rs1111875 and rs7923837) and risk of T2D published before April 2010, including a total of 36?695 T2D cases and 51?800 controls were included. We also explored potential sources of heterogeneity. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio (OR) for T2D of the rs1111875 and rs7923837 polymorphism was 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.21] and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18-1.28), respectively. The haplotype analysis also showed significant association in the pooled international populations with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.15-1.22). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found in Asians and Caucasians for these polymorphisms in almost all genetic models. Subgroup analysis also showed that ethnicity is the main source of heterogeneity between pooled studies. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk allele of HHEX polymorphisms (rs1111875 and rs7923837) is a risk factor for developing T2D. However, additional very large-scale studies are warranted to provide conclusive evidence on the effects of the HHEX gene on risk of T2D.
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Intracranial transplant of olfactory ensheathing cells in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Successful repair of damage in cerebral palsy (CP) needs effective clinical interventions other than simply symptomatic treatments. To elucidate the feasibility of using olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) to treat CP in children and adolescents, we conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) on 33 patients. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups (treatment group, n = 18; control group, n = 15), and OECs derived from aborted fetal tissue were injected into the bilateral corona radiata in the frontal lobes (a key point for neural network restoration, KPNNR). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) and the Caregiver Questionnaire Scale were used to evaluate the patients neurological function and overall health status. Among the 14 patients who completed the 6-month study, six received the cell transplantation and the other eight served as controls. In OEC treatment group, GMFM-66 scores were 26.67 +/- 25.33 compared with 19.00 +/- 20.00 for the control group. Concurrently, the Caregiver Questionnaire Scale score decreased to 77.83 +/- 15.99 in the treatment group in comparison to 138.66 +/- 64.06 of the control group. This trial, albeit small in sample size, indicates OEC KPNNR transplantation is effective for functional improvement in children and adolescents with CP, yet without obvious side effects. This small-scale study suggests that the procedure may be a plausible alternative method to treat this not yet curable disorder, and we urge further evaluation with a large-scale RCT.
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Quantitative assessment of the effect of FGFR2 gene polymorphism on the risk of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is a member of the family of individually distinct fibroblast growth factor receptors involved in cell proliferation, invasiveness, motility, and angiogenesis. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer (BC) susceptibility gene in populations of European and Asian descent. After that, a number of studies reported that the rs2981582, rs1219648, and rs2420946 polymorphism in FGFR2 has been implicated in BC risk. However, studies on the association between these polymorphism and BC remain conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis of 46,747 cases and 87,342 controls from 16 published case-control studies was performed. Overall, significantly elevated BC risk was associated with rs2981582, rs1219648, and rs2420946 risk allele when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. Significant results were also observed in heterozygous and homozygous when compared with wild genotype for these polymorphisms. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, source of controls, significantly increased risks were found for these polymorphisms in all genetic model. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that rs2981582, rs1219648, and rs2420946 polymorphisms in FGFR2 are associated with elevated BC risk.
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Cell-cycle-dependent PC-PLC regulation by APC/C(Cdc20)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is involved in the cell signal transduction, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The mechanism of its action, however, has not been fully understood, particularly, the role of PC-PLC in the cell cycle. In the present study, we found that cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) and PC-PLC were co-immunoprecipitated reciprocally by either antibody in rat hepatoma cells CBRH-7919 as well as in rat liver tissue. Using confocal microscopy, we found that PC-PLC and Cdc20 were co-localized in the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum region (the "juxtanuclear quality control" compartment, JUNQ). The expression level and activities of PC-PLC changed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and were inversely correlated with the expression of Cdc20. Intriguingly, Cdc20 overexpression altered the subcellular localization and distribution of PC-PLC, and caused PC-PLC degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). Taken together, our data indicate that PC-PLC regulation in cell cycles is controlled by APC/C(Cdc20)-mediated UPP.
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Association between cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 polymorphism and type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Gene
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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is an important mediators of T-cell activation in autoimmune diseases. The association of polymorphisms of CTLA gene with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has widely been reported; however, the results are inconsistent. To obtain further insight into this topic, we performed a meta-analysis of 52 studies involving a total of 11,017 cases and 14,191 controls for 49A/G (rs231775) polymorphism of the CTLA-4 gene to evaluate the effect of CTLA-4 on genetic susceptibility for T1D. An overall random effects odds ratio of 1.41 (95% CI: 1.31-1.53, p<10(-5)) was found for G allele versus A allele. Significant results were also observed for heterozygous (OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.16-1.45, p<10(-5)) and homozygous (OR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.66-2.31, p<10(-5)). When stratified by ethnicity, sample size, diagnostic criterion, HWE status, genotyping method, and onset types, significantly increased risks were found for the polymorphism in almost all genetic models. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression was used to identify potential source of heterogeneity. There was strong evidence of heterogeneity, which largely disappeared after stratification by ethnicity. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the G allele of rs231775 of CTLA-4 is a risk factor associated with increased T1D susceptibility.
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A meta-analysis of nucleos(t)ide analogues in patients with decompensated cirrhosis due to hepatitis B.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
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The effect of nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis remains unclear.
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The role of cancer stem cells in cancer metastasis: new perspective and progress.
Cancer Epidemiol
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Recent studies have identified the important role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in carcinogenesis and relapse. However, with respect to multistage cancer metastasis, the role of CSCs has not been well-defined. In several human cancers, data showed that some phenotypic subsets of CSCs were responsible for cancer metastasis. In this review, we surveyed recent advances in the role and mechanism of metastatic CSCs.
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Expression and clinical significance of UCH37 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
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Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 37 (UCH37), a member of the DUBs, was found to play an important role in oncogenesis through promoting some Proto-oncogenes expression and stem cell-like characteristics in the cell in previous research. The aim of this study was to assess the value of UCH37 in predicting tumor recurrence after curative resection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients.
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Olfactory ensheathing cell neurorestorotherapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: benefits from multiple transplantations.
Cell Transplant
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Our previous series of studies have proven that olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation appears to be able to slow the rate of clinical progression after OEC transplantation in the first 4 months and cell intracranial (key points for neural network restoration, KPNNR) and/or intraspinal (impaired segments) implants provide benefit for patients (including both the bulbar onset and limb onset subtypes) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report the results of cell therapy in patients with ALS on the basis of long-term observation following multiple transplants. From March of 2003 to January of 2010, 507 ALS patients received our cellular treatment. Among them, 42 patients underwent further OEC therapy by the route of KPNNR for two or more times (two times in 35 patients, three times in 5 patients, four times in 1 patient, and five times in 1 patient). The time intervals are 13.1 (6-60) months between the first therapy and the second one, 15.2 (8-24) months between the second therapy and the third one, 16 (6-26) months between the third therapy and the fourth one, and 9 months between the fourth therapy and the fifth time. All of the patients exhibited partial neurological functional recovery after each cell-based administration. Firstly, the scores of the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) and ALS Norris Scale increased by 2.6 + 2.4 (0-8) and 4.9 + 5.2 (0-20) after the first treatment, 1.1 + 1.3 (0-5) and 2.3 + 2.9 (0-13) after the second treatment, 1.1 + 1.5 (0-4), and 3.4 + 6.9 (0-19) after the third treatment, 0.0 + 0.0 (0-0), and 2.5 + 3.5 (0-5) after the fourth treatment, and 1 point after the fifth cellular therapy, which were evaluated by independent neurologists. Secondly, the majority of patients have achieved improvement in electromyogram (EMG) assessments after the first, second, third, and fourth cell transplantation. After the first treatment, among the 42 patients, 36 (85.7%) patients EMG test results improved, the remaining 6 (14.3%) patients EMG results showed no remarkable change. After the second treatment, of the 42 patients, 30 (71.4%) patients EMG results improved, 11 (26.2%) patients showed no remarkable change, and 1 (2.4%) patient became worse. After the third treatment, out of the 7 patients, 4 (57.1%) patients improved, while the remaining 3 (42.9%) patients showed no change. Thirdly, the patients have partially recovered their breathing ability as demonstrated by pulmonary functional tests. After the first treatment, 20 (47.6%) patients pulmonary function ameliorated. After the second treatment, 18 (42.9%) patients pulmonary function improved. After the third treatment, 2 (28.6%) patients recovered some pulmonary function. After the fourth and fifth treatment, patients pulmonary function did not reveal significant change. The results show that multiple doses of cellular therapy definitely serve as a positive role in the treatment of ALS. This repeated and periodic cell-based therapy is strongly recommended for the patients, for better controlling this progressive deterioration disorder.
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Effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenases in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatitis model of rats.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) converts tryptophan to l-kynurenine, and it is noted as a relevant molecule in promoting tolerance and suppressing adaptive immunity. In this study, to investigate the effects of IDO in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) )-induced hepatitis model, the levels of IDO enzymic activities in the mock group, the control group and the 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1-MT)-treated group were confirmed by determination of l-kynurenine concentrations. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels in 1-MT-treated rats after CCl(4) injection significantly increased compared with those in mock and control groups. In CCl(4)-induced hepatitis models, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is critical in the development of liver injury. The mRNA expression and secretion levels of TNF-? in the liver from 1-MT-treated rats were more enhanced compared with those in the mock and the control groups. Moreover, the levels of cytokine and chemokine from mock, control group and 1-MT-treated rats after treated with CCl(4) were analyzed by ELISA, and the level of interleukin-6 was found to increase in 1-MT-treated rats. It was concluded that the deficiency of IDO exacerbated liver injury in CCl(4)-induced hepatitis and its effect may be connected with TNF-? and interleukin-6.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.