We report metrics from complete genome capture of nuclear DNA from extinct mammoths using biotinylated RNAs transcribed from an Asian elephant DNA extract. Enrichment of the nuclear genome ranged from 1.06- to 18.65-fold, to an apparent maximum threshold of ?80% on-target. This projects an order of magnitude less costly complete genome sequencing from long-dead organisms, even when a reference genome is unavailable for bait design.
Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belong to a class of natural microbicidal molecules that have been receiving great attention for their lower propensity for inducing drug resistance, hence, their potential as alternative drugs to conventional antibiotics. By generating AMP libraries, one can study a large number of candidates for their activities simultaneously in a timely manner. Here, we describe a novel methodology where in silico designed AMP-encoding oligonucleotide libraries are cloned and expressed in a cellular host for rapid screening of active molecules. The combination of parallel oligonucleotide synthesis with microbial expression systems not only offers complete flexibility for sequence design but also allows for economical construction of very large peptide libraries. An application of this approach to discovery of novel AMPs has been demonstrated by constructing and screening a custom library of twelve thousand plantaricin-423 mutants in Escherichia coli. Analysis of selected clones by both Sanger-sequencing and 454 high-throughput sequencing produced a significant amount of data for positionally important residues of plantaricin-423 responsible for antimicrobial activity and, moreover, resulted in identification of many novel variants with enhanced specific activities against Listeria innocua. This approach allows for generation of fully tailored peptide collections in a very cost effective way and will have countless applications from discovery of novel AMPs to gaining fundamental understanding of their biological function and characteristics.
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