JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Efficacy and Safety of TS-1Monotherapy for Advanced/Metastatic Breast Cancer - An Observational Study by the Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TS-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, is known to be effective for the treatment of various carcinomas including advanced/metastatic breast cancer.The Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)conducted an observational study, wherein, the efficacy and safety of TS-1 monotherapy was analyzed in 35 patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer.The median time to cancer progression was 3.7 months, overall response rate was 12%, and clinical benefit rate was 32%. Adverse events were observed in 27 patients(77%), and adverse events of Grade >3 were observed in 7 patients(20%). The rate of treatment-related Grade 3 and 4 adverse events increased, and was associated with poor levels of creatinine clearance(Ccr)ie <60mL/min.This study suggests that TS-1 monotherapy can potentially be used as a salvage treatment for advanced/metastatic breast cancer owing to its safety and efficacy.Measuring the level of Ccr before TS-1 therapy should be considered to avoid severe adverse events.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Jujube Seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid).
Related JoVE Video
Complete thoracoscopic diaphragm plication using carbon dioxide insufflation: report of a case.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diaphragm plication has become the accepted treatment for major respiratory impairment caused by diaphragmatic eventration and paralysis. Various open and minimally invasive plication techniques have been described and while video-assisted thoracoscopic diaphragm plication appears to be a safe and effective alternative to open surgery, the workspace is limited. We describe how we performed complete thoracoscopic diaphragm plication using carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation for a patient with unilateral diaphragmatic eventration. Using CO2 insufflation seems to dramatically improve the workspace.
Related JoVE Video
The localization of HER4 intracellular domain and expression of its alternately-spliced isoforms have prognostic significance in ER+ HER2- breast cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) are known to play a pivotal role in breast cancer, both as prognostic markers and as therapeutic targets. The importance of Her4 expression is, however, still controversially discussed; there are few reports on the clinical significance of HER4, its splice variants, and cleaved HER4 intracellular domains (4ICD) which function differently depending on their localization in breast cancer. In 238 primary invasive breast cancer patients, we analyzed the expression levels of HER4 extracellular (JM-a and JM-b) and intracellular (CYT-1 and CYT-2) domains as well as 4ICD localization, and tested the relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis. The predominantly-expressed extracellular domain was JM-a, and lower CYT-2 dominance was a factor related to better relapse-free survival. CYT-2-dominance with higher nuclear 4ICD expression was a favorable prognostic marker especially in patients with the ER+ HER2- subtype treated with endocrine therapy. The absence of cytoplasmic 4ICD staining was related to better prognosis in CYT-1-dominant patients. In conclusion, analysis of splicing variants and 4ICD localization should be considered when targeting HER4 as a novel ER+/HER2- breast cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
[Uretero-external iliac artery fistula with longterm indwelling of ureteral stent].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a case of a patient with a fistula between the right ureter and external iliac artery. The patient was a 75-year-old woman who had undergone abdominal radical hysterectomy for uterine cancer, and whole pelvis radiotherapy for right external iliac lymph node metastasis. Her post-operative course was complicated by hydronephrosis of the right kidney, which was treated by the insertion of a double-J stent. While removing the frequently obstructed double-J stent after percutaneous nephrostomy, arterial hemorrhage occurred from the external urethral meatus. Computed tomographic scan demonstrated right ureteral external iliac artery fistula formation located adjacent to the pseudoaneurysm. The patient was treated successfully with endovascular stent grafting and has showed no episode of hematuria since then.
Related JoVE Video
Androgen deprivation induces phenotypic plasticity and promotes resistance to molecular targeted therapy in a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Castration-resistant prostate cancer is an incurable heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a complex multistep process involving different cellular and biochemical changes brought on by genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes lead to the activation or overexpression of key survival pathways that also serve as potential therapeutic targets. Despite promising preclinical results, molecular targeted therapies aimed at such signaling pathways have so far been dismal. In the present study, we used a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer to show that plasticity in castration-resistant tumors promotes therapeutic escape. Unlike castration-naïve tumors which depend on androgen receptor and PI3K/AKT signal activation for growth and survival, castration-resistant tumors undergo phenotypic plasticity leading to increased intratumoral heterogeneity. These tumors attain highly heterogeneous phenotypes that are characterized by cancer cells relying on alternate signal transduction pathways for growth and survival, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, and losing their dependence on PI3K signaling. These features thus enabled castration-resistant tumors to become insensitive to the therapeutic effects of PI3K/AKT targeted therapy. Overall, our findings provide evidence that androgen deprivation drives phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer cells and implicate it as a crucial contributor to therapeutic resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Therefore, incorporating intratumoral heterogeneity in a dynamic tumor model as a part of preclinical efficacy determination could improve prediction for response and provide better rationale for the development of more effective therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Calcium concentration in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during hypothermia.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between prognosis and the changes in serum-ionized calcium concentrations in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) before and during brain hypothermia (BHT).
Related JoVE Video
Long-term follow-up results of canal wall down tympanoplasty with mastoid obliteration using the bone pate plate for canal wall reconstruction in cholesteatoma surgery.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathogenesis of recurrent cholesteatoma can be roughly divided into residual lesions and re-retraction of the epithelium. To prevent both residual and re-retraction cholesteatoma, we performed canal wall down tympanoplasty with mastoid obliteration using the bone pate plate for canal wall reconstruction as a fundamental surgical treatment for patients with acquired cholesteatoma. We attempted to achieve the complete extirpation of cholesteatoma in the wide surgical field made by the canal wall down procedure and simultaneously prevent recurrent retraction cholesteatoma and regain the physiologic canal wall, in which patients can have a "maintenance-free ear."
Related JoVE Video
Acquired cholesteatoma in children: clinical features and surgical outcome.
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In general, cholesteatoma tends to recur more frequently in children than in adults. This has been suggested to be due to immature Eustachian tube function, underdeveloped mastoid air cells, and subsequent repetitive otitis media in children. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics of acquired cholesteatoma in children by comparison with that in adults.
Related JoVE Video
A case of adenomatous goiter involving diffuse, acute, and painful thyroid enlargement after fine-needle aspiration cytology.
Case Rep Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The patient was a 44-year-old woman who exhibited a diffuse goiter during health screening. Her medical history did not include any significant medication-based treatment. An echographic examination detected a solid cystic tumor, which measured 21 × 14 × 10?mm, in her right thyroid lobe; however, she displayed normal thyroid function. After fine-needle aspiration cytology had been performed with a 22?G injection needle, the patient immediately complained of compression and pain extending from the front of her neck to her lower chin, which was not accompanied by dyspnea. A second echographic examination revealed diffuse and edematous enlargement and increased internal blood flow in the bilateral thyroid lobes as well as a thyroid nodule. We immediately iced the patient's neck and administered 125?mg methylprednisolone via an intravenous infusion. Within one hour, her symptoms had markedly improved, but acute pain remained. Thus, we continued the steroid (prednisone) treatment, but the dose was gradually reduced from 10?mg/day to 5?mg/day at 1 week after the patient's symptoms disappeared. The mechanism responsible for the patient's condition remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Prolactin-Induced Protein on Human Skin: New Insight into the Digestive Action of This Aspartic Peptidase on the Stratum Corneum and Its Induction of Keratinocyte Proliferation.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human prolactin-induced protein (PIP) is a major protein found in exocrine fluids such as saliva and sweat. Intriguingly, PIP possesses residues (human PIP (hPIP): PIP (29-63)) that display similarity to the aspartic peptidase candidapepsin. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of PIP as a protease on normal skin structure. Using an adhesive tape-stripping technique, we applied hPIP peptide on the corneocytes of normal-appearing facial skin from infants with eczema and healthy infants and then analyzed the morphological structure of corneocytes with Nile Red fluorescence. We also repeatedly applied the hPIP peptide onto the surface of a three-dimensional (3-D) human skin model and then analyzed any changes to the stratum corneum and epidermis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In both infant groups, a decrease in hydrophobic lipids from the cornified envelope was observed after treatment with hPIP. The peptide hPIP appeared to digest the fine structure of the stratum corneum and induce a proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes within the 3-D human skin model. Our results suggest that aspartic peptidase of PIP found in sweat or saliva deteriorates the skin barrier in a de novo manner, which potentially leads directly to the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes without any external antigenic factors.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.448.
Related JoVE Video
C6ORF97-ESR1 breast cancer susceptibility locus: influence on progression and survival in breast cancer patients.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genome-wide association studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The biology of one of the susceptibility locus C6ORF-ESR1 and whether it also contributes to progression of established disease has not yet been ascertained. We examined the association of rs2046210 and its six linkage disequilibrium SNPs with clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, and gene expression levels of ESR1 and the C6ORFs (C6ORF97:CCDC170, C6ORF211, C6ORF96:RMND1) in 344 breast cancer tissue samples and 253 corresponding samples of adjacent normal tissue. Tumor genotypes with homozygous risk alleles were more frequent than normal tissues. The tumor genotypes of rs2046210 and rs6929137 with homozygous risk alleles showed worse relapse-free survival (RFS, P=0.038 and P=0.031, respectively), whereas no notable associations were observed with either clinicopathological characteristics or expression of the peripheral genes. Higher C6ORF97 expression correlated with ER negativity (P<0.0001), highly proliferative characteristics (P=0.0005 for Ki67, P<0.0001 for nuclear grade) and worse RFS in the ER+/HER2- cohort (P=0.013), whereas the other two C6ORFs showed the inverse associations. Furthermore, C6ORF97 showed significant worse prognostic values especially in luminal B subtype in the publically available data sets. rs2046210 and the upstream gene C6ORF97 might have substantial roles not only in carcinogenesis but also in progression toward a more aggressive phenotype in breast cancer patients, which suggests that functional studies of this locus are imperative.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.219.
Related JoVE Video
Serum ANGPTL2 levels reflect clinical features of breast cancer patients: implications for the pathogenesis of breast cancer metastasis.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, and its metastasis is a major cause of disease mortality. Therefore, identification of the mechanisms underlying breast cancer metastasis is crucial for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. Our recent study of immunodeficient female mice transplanted with MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells demonstrated that tumor cell-derived angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) accelerates metastasis through both increasing tumor cell migration in an autocrine/paracrine manner, and enhancing tumor angiogenesis. To determine whether ANGPTL2 contributes to its clinical pathogenesis, we asked whether serum ANGPTL2 levels reflect the clinical features of breast cancer progression.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of erythropoietin receptor-derived peptides having the potential to induce cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from HLA-A24(+) patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Molecular targeting therapy with anti-angiogenic agents, including sunitinib and sorafenib, has been proven to be the first- and second-line standard treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) worldwide. Despite their significant antitumor effects, most of the patients with mRCC have not been cured. Under such circumstances, anti-cancer immunotherapy has been considered as a promising treatment modality for mRCC, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the most powerful effectors among several immune cells and molecules. Therefore, we previously conducted anti-cancer vaccine therapy with peptides derived from carbonic anhydrase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 as phase-I/II trials for mRCC patients and reported their clinical benefits. Alternatively, up-regulated expression of erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) in RCC has been reported, and their co-expression is involved in tumorigenesis. In order to increase options for peptide-based vaccination therapy, we searched for novel EpoR-peptides for HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Among 5 peptides derived from EpoR, which were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A24 allele, EpoR52-60 peptide had the potential to induce peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A24(+) RCC patients. Cytotoxicity toward HLA-A24(+) and EpoR-expressing RCC cells was ascribed to peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells. These results indicate that the EpoR52-60 peptide could be a promising candidate for a peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine for HLA-A24(+) mRCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Methodologic comparison of left ventricular stroke volumes in the early neonatal period by echocardiography.
Pediatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several methods for evaluating left ventricular stroke volume (SV) in neonates using echocardiography have been reported. However, no studies on methodologic comparison of SV with three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography are available. This is the first detailed report on a methodologic comparison of SV in the early neonatal period. The study group included 70 normal neonates (35 boys and 35 girls). An iE33 echocardiograph and Q-LAB supplied by Philips Electronics were used to examine and calculate volumes. Comparisons of SV were performed using Teichholz (T), the velocity time integral (VTI), Pombo (P), modified Simpson (MS), and 3D methods with normal neonates who had no persistent ductus arteriosus less than 7 days after birth. The mean SVs were 33.7 mL/m(2) (T), 30.6 mL/m(2) (VTI), 22.0 mL/m(2) (P), 17.5 mL/m(2) (3D), and 14.9 mL/m(2) (MS) using Haycock's formula of body surface area. The stroke volumes differed significantly depending on the different methods. The correlation coefficient was highest between the MS and 3D methods. The SVs of the T and VTI methods were significantly greater than those previously reported, and it seemed inappropriate to evaluate volumes in neonates. The 3D and MS methods were appropriate for measuring SV in neonates during the early neonatal period.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance of pretherapeutic Ki67 as a predictive parameter for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: is it equally useful across tumor subtypes?
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ki67 has been identified as a prognostic and predictive marker for breast cancer and it was suggested that it may contribute to pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It is unclear whether expression of Ki67 is particularly helpful for prediction of pCR across tumor subtypes.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance of CYLD downregulation in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cylindromatosis (CYLD) is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in familial cylindromatosis, a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated with numerous benign skin adnexal tumors. CYLD is now known to regulate various signaling pathways, including transforming growth factor-? signaling, Wnt/?-catenin signaling, and NF-?B signaling by deubiquitinating upstream regulatory factors. Downregulation of CYLD has been reported in several malignancies; however, the clinical significance of CYLD expression in many malignancies, including breast cancer, remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the clinical significance of CYLD in breast cancer and its roles in tumor progression. We evaluated CYLD expression in matched normal breast tissue samples and tumor breast tissue samples from 26 patients with breast cancer and in a series of breast cancer cell lines. In addition, by means of immunohistochemistry, we investigated CYLD protein expression and its clinical significance in 244 breast cancer cases. We also analyzed the effects of CYLD repression or overexpression on breast cancer cell viability, cell migration, and NF-?B activity with or without receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) stimulation. Breast cancer tissues demonstrated significantly reduced CYLD mRNA expression compared with normal breast tissues. Downregulation of CYLD promoted cell survival and migratory activities through NF-?B activation, whereas CYLD overexpression inhibited those activities in MDA-MB-231 cells. As an important finding, CYLD overexpression also inhibited RANKL-induced NF-?B activation. Our immunohistochemical analysis revealed that reduced CYLD protein expression was significantly correlated with estrogen receptor negativity, high Ki-67 index, high nuclear grade, decreased disease-free survival, and reduced breast cancer-specific survival in primary breast cancer. Moreover, reduced CYLD expression was an independent factor for poor prognosis in breast cancer. CYLD downregulation may promote breast cancer metastasis via NF-?B activation, including RANKL signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of silodosin in patients undergoing brachytherapy: a randomized trial involving a pressure flow study.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist (silodosin) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with interstitial (125)I implantation for prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Spondylocostal dysostosis with tetralogy of Fallot and herniation of the spleen through the diaphragm.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto)
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) is a very rare syndrome characterized by vertebral malformation and rib deformity. Some of the patients with SCD have other birth defects in the central nervous system, the genitourinary tract, diaphragm or heart and so forth. There have been reported SCD with complex congenital heart disease, such as pulmonary atresia, double outlet right ventricle, and d-transposition of great arteries. However, there have been no reported SCD patients with confirmed tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Here, a patient with SCD having a very rare combination of rib defects on the right side and left-sided scoliosis, tetralogy of Fallot, and diaphragmatic spleen herniation, which had not been reported before, was described.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in a postmenopausal woman treated with ethinyl estradiol].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The patient was 77-year-old woman whose breast cancer had metastasized to the bone and soft tissue 5 years after surgery. Although she had been sequentially treated with endocrine therapies following chemotherapies, new metastatic lesions in the pleura and skin appeared 8 years after recurrence. The biopsied skin tissue showed high positivity for estrogen receptor(ER), was negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2), and had a low Ki-67 labeling index. Following the treatment with exemestane(EXE)for 3months, ethinyl estradiol(EE2)was administered at 3mg/day. After 4 months of treatment, the lymph nodes shrunk to 35% of their size and pleural effusion disappeared. The efficacy of EE2 was observed for 10 months. Subsequently, fulvestrant was administered because the skin lesions showed progressive disease. Adverse events such as nausea and general fatigue were observed at the beginning of EE2 therapy. Pigmentation of the nipple and areola and cystic swelling of the cervical canal were observed after a few months. This therapy can be considered to be effective in patients with ER-positive metastatic breast cancer who have been heavily treated with endocrine therapies and chemotherapies.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of testicular tumor of ovarian epithelial type].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Testicular tumors of ovarian epithelial types are rare, and their etiology is unknown. Moreover, a clear treatment policy has not become settled. Under the diagnosis of a testicular tumor, this patient underwent a high orchiectomy, and the pathology revealed testicular tumor of ovarian epithelial type. CA125 was elevated for three years post-operatively and a recurrence was discovered in the left inguinal region by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Therefore, tumor extirpation was performed. The pathology result confirmed the recurrence of testicular tumor of ovarian epithelial type. After the surgery, the patient was given combined therapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin, which is a regimen of ovarian cancer, on a triweekly basis. After five courses of this therapy, the patient remains in remission.
Related JoVE Video
A case of synchronous bilateral breast cancer with different pathological responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with different biological character.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a case of synchronous locally advanced bilateral breast cancer with different pathological responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with different biological character. The patient had presented bilateral breast cancer: the left breast cancer was hormone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) positive, and classified as T4bN1M0, stage IIIb, while the right was hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative, and classified as T4bN0M0, stage IIIb. We administered four cycles of anthracycline-based therapy followed by 12 weekly cycles of taxane with trastuzumab for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We had achieved a significant left tumor reduction after each chemotherapy, but not right tumor. Bilateral modified radical mastectomies with axillary lymph-node dissection were performed. The therapeutic effect in the left was determined as a pathological complete response, in contrast to the right side. She has no recurrence for more than five years, though she had advanced cancer with oncologic emergency. This case could be an informative experience to understand the relation of tumor biology and response to systemic therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor responding to MEA therapy].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We experienced a case of testicular cancer that was successfully treated by salvage chemotherapy comprised of methotrexate, actinomycin D and etoposide (MEA). A 25-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of stage III B2 (JUA classification) testicular cancer. The patient had multiple lung metastases, and underwent a left orchiectomy. A histopathological examination revealed a choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, mature teratoma, and a yolk sac tumor. Tumor marker levels were elevated ; human chorionic gonadotropin ? was 46 mIU/ml and alpha fetoprotein was 437 ng/ml. Although he was treated post-operatively with two courses of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, four courses of high-dose carboplatin, etoposide and iphosphamide (VIP) therapy, and two courses of CPT-11? cisplatin therapy, tumor maker levels remained elevated and lung metastases were stable. Accordingly, he received three courses of MEA therapy. MEA therapy is regimen used to treat gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. After MEA therapy, levels of the tumor markers normalized. He then underwent a partial resection of lung and enucleation of lung metastasis by the video assisted thoracoscopic surgery method. Histopathological examination of the lung metastasis revealed only necrotic tissue. Tumor recurrence has not been observed in the 14 months since the MEA therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Purification and characterization of 1,3-?-D-glucan phosphorylase from Ochromonas danica.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
1,3-?-D-glucan phosphorylase (BGP) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of 1,3-?-glucosidic linkages to form ?-D-glucose 1-phosphate (G1P). Here we report on the purification and characterization of BGP from Ochromonas danica (OdBGP). The purified enzyme preparation showed three bands (113, 118, and 124 kDa) on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature were 5.5 and 25 °C-30 °C. OdBGP phosphorolysed laminaritriose, larger laminarioligosaccharides, and laminarin, but not laminaribiose. In the synthesis reaction, laminarin and laminarioligosaccharides served as good acceptors, but OdBGP did not act on glucose. Kinetic analysis indicated that the phosphorolysis reaction of OdBGP follows a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. The equilibrium of the enzymatic reaction indicated that OdBGP favors the reaction in the synthetic direction. Overnight incubation of OdBGP with laminaribiose and G1P resulted in the formation of precipitates, which were probably 1,3-?-glucans.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical behavior and pathogenesis of secondary acquired cholesteatoma with a tympanic membrane perforation.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathogenesis of secondary acquired cholesteatoma with a tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is very different from that of other types of cholesteatoma. This disease should be clearly categorized as a different type of cholesteatoma.
Related JoVE Video
Breast cancers with high DSS1 expression that potentially maintains BRCA2 stability have poor prognosis in the relapse-free survival.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic BRCA2 insufficiency is associated with breast cancer development; however, in sporadic breast cancer cases, high BRCA2 expression is paradoxically correlated with poor prognosis. Because DSS1, a mammalian component of the transcription/RNA export complex, is known to stabilize BRCA2, we investigated how the expression of DSS1 is associated with clinical parameters in breast cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluating the 21-gene assay Recurrence Score(®) as a predictor of clinical response to 24 weeks of neoadjuvant exemestane in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the results of the Recurrence Score (RS) assay and the clinical response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
[Penile metastasis from esophageal cancer: a case report].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 61-year-old man visited our department with the complaint ofa palpable hard mass in the penile shaft which showed a significant uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT). He had undergone a surgery for local invasive esophageal cancer and had received adjuvant chemotherapy. Open biopsy revealed metastases in the carvenous body and the glans of the penis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. He died from the cancer 5 months after the biopsy in spite of additional chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Novel Treatment Criteria for Persistent Ductus Arteriosus in Neonates.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The indications for ductus arteriosus ligation in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) with persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are unclear. Increased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) is commonly found in patients with PDA. Here, the enlargement of LVDd in term and preterm neonates without congenital heart disease was estimated by two-dimensional echocardiography.
Related JoVE Video
Primary paraganglioma in the facial nerve canal.
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe primary paraganglioma in the facial nerve canal and discuss the characteristics of facial nerve paraganglioma in contrast with other tumors. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old man developed gradually progressive right facial palsy as the initial symptom. One year later, he exhibited hearing loss without tinnitus in his right ear. CT demonstrated an enlarged facial nerve canal with irregular bony erosion of the circumference. MRI showed a well-enhanced heterogeneous mass with hypo-intensity spots inside it. During surgery, a blood-rich tumor was observed along the facial nerve: however, extensive bleeding interfered with tumor removal. The surgical specimen demonstrated paraganglioma. The tumor was completely removed in the second surgery in combination with arterial embolization. Facial nerve function was reconstructed with a free muscle flap more than one year following resection. CONCLUSION: Because paraganglioma is a blood-rich tumor, it is important to perform angiography and embolization. If preoperative facial nerve palsy is demonstrated, careful management of facial nerve function is needed. Paraganglioma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a facial nerve tumor.
Related JoVE Video
Species identification of Asini Corii Collas (donkey glue) by PCR amplification of cytochrome b gene.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asini Corii Collas (ACC; donkey glue) is a crude drug used to promote hematopoiesis and arrest bleeding. Because adulteration of the drug with substances from other animals such as horses, cattle, and pigs has been found, we examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. Two strategies for extracting DNA from ACC were compared, and the ion-exchange resin procedure was revealed to be more suitable than the silica-based one. Using DNA extracted from ACC by the ion-exchange resin procedure, PCR methods for species-specific detection of donkey, horse, cattle, and pig substances were established. When these species-specific PCR methods were applied to ACC, amplicons were obtained only by the donkey-specific PCR. Cattle-specific PCR detected as little as 0.1 % admixture of cattle glue in the ACC. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of ACC.
Related JoVE Video
Divisional role of quantitative HER2 testing in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is amplified in human breast cancers in which therapy targeted to HER2 significantly improves patient outcome. We re-visited the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues as alternative methods and investigated their particular clinical relevance. METHODS: DNA and RNA were isolated from FFPE specimens and HER2 status was assessed by qPCR in 249 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer. Concordance with results forg immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH), clinical characteristics and survival was assessed. RESULTS: HER2 gene copy number had a stronger correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and excellent concordance with IHC/ISH results (Sensitivity: 96.7 %; concordance: 99.2 %). HER2 gene expression showed inadequate sensitivity, rendering it unsuitable to determine HER2 status (Sensitivity: 46.7 %; concordance: 92.1 %), but lower HER2 gene expression, leading to the classification of many cases as "false negative", contributed to a prediction of better prognosis within the HER2-amplified subpopulation. CONCLUSION: Quantitative HER2 assessments are suggested to have evolved their accuracy in this decade, which can be a potential alternative for HER2 diagnosis in line with the in situ method, while HER2 gene expression levels could provide additional information regarding prognosis or therapeutic strategy within a HER2-amplified subpopulation.
Related JoVE Video
Randomized controlled trial of toremifene 120 mg compared with exemestane 25 mg after prior treatment with a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: After the failure of a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (nsAI) for postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC), it is unclear which of various kinds of endocrine therapy is the most appropriate. A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of daily toremifene 120 mg (TOR120), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, and exemestane 25 mg (EXE), a steroidal aromatase inhibitor. The primary end point was the clinical benefit rate (CBR). The secondary end points were objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. METHODS: Initially, a total of 91 women was registered in the study and randomly assigned to either TOR120 (n = 46) or EXE (n = 45) from October 2008 to November 2011. Three of the 46 patients in the TOR120 arm were not received treatment, 2 patients having withdrawn from the trial by their preference and one having been dropped due to administration of another SERM. RESULTS: When analyzed after a median observation period of 16.9 months, the intention-to-treat analysis showed that there were no statistical difference between TOR120 (N = 46) and EXE (n = 45) in terms of CBR (41.3% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.14), ORR (10.8% vs. 2.2%; P = 0.083), and OS (Hazard ratio, 0.60; P = 0.22). The PFS of TOR120 was longer than that of EXE, the difference being statistically significant (Hazard ratio, 0.61, P = 0.045). The results in treatment-received cohort (N = 88) were similar to those in ITT cohort. Both treatments were well-tolerated with no severe adverse events, although the treatment of 3 of 43 women administered TOR120 was stopped after a few days because of nausea, general fatigue, hot flush and night sweating. CONCLUSIONS: TOR120, as a subsequent endocrine therapy for mBC patients who failed non-steroidal AI treatment, could potentially be more beneficial than EXE.Trial registration number: UMIN000001841 URL: https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000001797&language=J.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of goserelin plus anastrozole in premenopausal women with advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue with tamoxifen: results of the JMTO BC08-01 phase II trial.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue plus an aromatase inhibitor following failure to respond to standard LH-RH analogue plus tamoxifen (TAM) in premenopausal patients. Premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and/or progesterone-receptor positive, advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue plus TAM received goserelin (GOS) in conjunction with anastrozole (ANA). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), clinical benefit rate (CBR) and safety. Between September 2008 and November 2010, 37 patients were enrolled. Thirty-five patients (94.6%) had ER-positive tumors, and 36 (97.3%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-negative tumors. Thirty-six (97.3%) had measurable lesions and 1 (2.7%) had only bone metastasis. The ORR was 18.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.0-35.2%], the CBR was 62.2% (95% CI, 44.8-77.5%) and the median PFS was 7.3 months. Eight patients had adverse drug reactions but none resulted in discontinuation of treatment. GOS plus ANA is a safe effective treatment for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, recurrent or advanced breast cancer. The treatment may become viable treatment in the future, particularly when TAM is ineffective or contraindicated. Further studies and discussion are warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Isolation and characterization of the ecdysone receptor and its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle through development in Sciara coprophila.
Chromosoma
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regulation of DNA replication is critical, and loss of control can lead to DNA amplification. Naturally occurring, developmentally regulated DNA amplification occurs in the DNA puffs of the late larval salivary gland giant polytene chromosomes in the fungus fly, Sciara coprophila. The steroid hormone ecdysone induces DNA amplification in Sciara, and the amplification origin of DNA puff II/9A contains a putative binding site for the ecdysone receptor (EcR). We report here the isolation, cloning, and characterizing of two ecdysone receptor isoforms in Sciara (ScEcR-A and ScEcR-B) and the heterodimeric partner, ultraspiracle (ScUSP). ScEcR-A is the predominant isoform in larval tissues and ScEcR-B in adult tissues, contrary to the pattern in Drosophila. Moreover, ScEcR-A is produced at amplification but is absent just prior. We discuss these results in relation to the model of ecdysone regulation of DNA amplification.
Related JoVE Video
A comprehensive analysis of Aurora A; transcript levels are the most reliable in association with proliferation and prognosis in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aurora A kinase, a centrosomal serine/threonine kinase which plays an essential role in chromosome segregation during cell division, is commonly amplified and/or over expressed in human malignancies. Aurora A is suggested to be one of the proliferation parameters which is an independent prognostic factor for early invasive breast cancer patients; however the individual clinical or prognostic relevance of this gene has been a matter of debate.
Related JoVE Video
PTIP Associated protein 1, PA1, Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Lymphnode Negative Breast Cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pax transactivation domain interacting protein (PTIP) associated protein 1, PA1, was a newly found protein participating in the modulation of transactivity of nuclear receptor super family members such as estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Breast cancer is one of the most life threatening diseases for women and has tight association with estrogen and ER. This study was performed to understand the function of PA1 in breast cancer. The expression of PA1 had been evaluated in a total of 344 primary invasive breast cancer samples and examined the relationship with clinical output, relapse free survival (RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). PA1 expression was observed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, however, appeared mainly in nuclear. PA1 nuclear expression was correlated with postmenopausal (P = 0.0097), smaller tumor size (P = 0.0025), negative Ki67 (P = 0.02), positive AR (P = 0.049) and positive ER? (P = 0.0020). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated PA1 nuclear positive cases seemed to have a longer survival than negative ones for RFS (P = 0.023) but not for BCSS (P = 0.23). In the Cox hazards model, PA1 nuclear protein expression proved to be a significant prognostic univariate parameter for RFS (P = 0.03), but not for BCSS (P = 0.20). In addition, for those patients without lymphnode metastasis PA1 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for RFS (P = 0.025), which was verified by univariate and multivariate analyses. These investigations suggested PA1 expression could be a potential prognostic indicator for RFS in breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Survey on lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders in patients treated at urology departments.
Nat Sci Sleep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined the association between sleep disorders and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients who had visited urology departments.
Related JoVE Video
[Lung biopsy by video-assisted thoracic surgery in patient with untreated Evans syndrome].
Kyobu Geka
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 78-year-old man referred to our hospital with the chief complaints of anorexia, general malaise, rash, and weight loss. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, generalized adenopathy, and multiple pulmonary nodules. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was performed to diagnose pulmonary nodules. After operation, it was difficult to achieve hemostasis for a while. Finally, the patient was diagnosed as pulmonary cryptococcosis and Evans syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
[Prostate cancer in a young adult : a case report].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a case of prostate cancer in a 41-year-old male. The patient initially visited another institution with a chief complaint of left breech pain. He was referred to our hospital for further investigation. Serum level of PSA was 267ng/ml and multiple bone metastases were found on bone scintigram. Digital rectal examination revealed a stony-hard prostate. Computed tomography showed multiple lung and lymph node metastases. Transperineal needle biopsy of the prostate revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 4?5) frombilateral lobes (the 3th Edition). The patient was diagnosed with cT4N1M1c prostate cancer and maximal androgen blockade therapy was commenced.
Related JoVE Video
Establishment of a standardized gene-expression analysis system using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, breast cancer specimens.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has recently being emphasized that gene-expression profiles are important clinical decision-making tools, and as such must be standardized across hospital laboratories in the same way as pathological investigations. In this study our objective was to independently establish a standardized gene-expression assay system using routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical aspects of very-low-birthweight infants showing reopening of ductus arteriosus.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Indomethacin is used to treat the hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. Some infants show ductus arteriosus reopening after effective constriction by the drug. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of such infants.
Related JoVE Video
Variation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin contents within a population of 5-year-old licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) plants cultivated under the same conditions.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cultivated licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH.) contain smaller amounts of the triterpene saponin glycyrrhizin than wild licorice plants. To resolve this problem and to breed strains with high-glycyrrhizin content we determined the glycyrrhizin content of 100 samples of G. uralensis that were propagated from seed and grown under the same conditions in the field for 5 years. There was a 10.2-fold variation in glycyrrhizin content among these plants, ranging from 0.46 to 4.67% (average 2.11±0.90%). There was also a wide variation in liquiritin content, ranging from 0.11 to 2.65% (average 1.00±0.49%). The glycyrrhizin content was positively correlated with that of liquiritin in the taproots (r(2)=0.5525). Our results indicate that there are various genetic strains for glycyrrhizin and liquiritin synthesis within a population of plants propagated from seed. The selected high-glycyrrhizin and liquiritin strains will be useful for licorice production and studies on biosynthetic analysis of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin.
Related JoVE Video
Stromal sarcoma of the breast with lung metastases showing a clinical complete response to doxorubicin plus ifosfamide treatment: report of a case.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 29-year-old woman presented with a painful right breast tumor, measuring 15 cm in diameter, which had progressed rapidly over 3 months. Core needle biopsy of the tumor revealed a malignant mesenchymal tumor. A mastectomy was performed, and pathological examination of the tumor showed stromal sarcoma. Solitary pleural dissemination in the right lung was suspected, based on the computed tomography image taken before the operation. Two months after surgery, bilateral multiple lung nodules were demonstrated. Systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus ifosfamide was performed, and 3 months later the lung metastases had disappeared. Moreover, there is still no sign of recurrence at 5 months after the initiation of the chemotherapy. Breast stromal sarcoma is very rare, accounting for less than 1% of mammary neoplasms, and the treatment strategy is not well established, especially regarding chemotherapy. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for lung metastases from breast stromal sarcoma.
Related JoVE Video
Nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of breast cancer: efficacy, safety, and approval.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) is a novel formulation of paclitaxel that does not require solvents such as polyoxyethylated castor oil and ethanol. Use of these solvents has been associated with toxic response, including hypersensitivity reactions and prolonged sensory neuropathy, as well as a negative impact in relation to the therapeutic index of paclitaxel. nab-paclitaxel displays greater antitumor activity and less toxicity than solvent-base paclitaxel. In a phase I trial of single nab-paclitaxel, the maximum tolerated dose was 300 mg/m(2) with the dose limiting toxicities being sensory neuropathy, stomatitis, and superficial keratopathy. In the metastatic setting, a pivotal comparative randomized phase III study demonstrated that nab-paclitaxel (at 260 mg/m(2) over 30 minutes infusion without premedication every 3 weeks) mediated a superior objective response rate and prolonged time to progression compared with solvent-based paclitaxel (at 175 mg/m(2) over a 3-hour injection with standard premedication). The nab-paclitaxel-treated group showed a higher incidence of sensory neuropathy than the solvent-based paclitaxel group. However, these adverse side effects rapidly resolved after interruption of treatment and dose reduction. Weekly administration of nabpaclitaxel was also more active and displayed less toxicity compared with 100 mg/m(2) docetaxel given triweekly. Nab-paclitaxel has already been approved in 42 countries for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline, based on confirmation of the efficacy and manageable toxicity in the metastatic setting. This review summarizes the most relevant knowledge on nab-paclitaxel for treating breast cancer in terms of clinical usefulness including efficacy and safety of this new agent.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative determination of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor mRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of invasive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) has recently received much attention due to its role in initiation and progression of breast cancer. Previously analysis of its gene expression has been restricted to fresh-frozen (FF) samples, but application of this technique to routinely processed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples could facilitate larger retrospective studies correlating IGF1R expression with prognosis and therapeutic response.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between body mass index and preoperative treatment response to aromatase inhibitor exemestane in postmenopausal patients with primary breast cancer.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with inferior outcome after adjuvant therapy with anastrozole in breast cancer patients. We aimed to investigate predictive effect of BMI on clinical response to neoadjuvant therapy with exemestane in postmenopausal patients with primary breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor gene expression is associated with survival in breast cancer: a comprehensive analysis of gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) plays a key role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. However, its prognostic relevance to breast cancer patients has long been a matter of debate. In a series of 325 primary invasive breast cancer patients, we performed a comprehensive analysis of IGF1R at the levels of gene copy number, mRNA expression and protein expression. The relationship between the IGF1R status and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis was evaluated. IGF1R mRNA levels not only correlated with protein expression, but also were significantly associated with several clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Patients with low nuclear grade, negative axillary lymph nodes, positive hormone receptor, negative Her2, negative Ki67, and luminal subtype tumors showed higher expression levels of IGF1R mRNA, which was shown to be a significant univariate parameter for both relapse-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) as well as a significant multivariate parameter for BCSS. IGF1R protein expression showed an association with a prolonged BCSS in univariate analysis. In contrast, IGF1R gene copy number was not correlated with mRNA and protein expression, and harbored no prognostic value. When studied in the luminal tumor subtype groups, IGF1R mRNA level was still significantly associated with a better BCSS. Overall, our data indicated a correlation between IGF1R mRNA expression and protein expression in primary breast cancer. In particular, IGF1R mRNA expression appeared to be a good prognostic marker both in the entire cohort and in the luminal subtype group. These data may serve as background information for IGF1R-targeted therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Neuroprotective effects of a traditional herbal prescription on transient cerebral global ischemia in gerbils.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Panax ginseng, Poria cocos, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha and honey, has been used to treat age-related symptoms, such as amnesia or dementia, and has been shown to ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. However, the effects of KOK on transient cerebral global ischemia-induced brain damage are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of trastuzumab without chemotherapy as a post-operative adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive elderly breast cancer patients: randomized controlled trial [RESPECT (N-SAS BC07)].
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This trial is conducted to investigate the benefit of trastuzumab monotherapy compared with a combination therapy of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in women over 70 years with human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2-positive primary breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Ki67 index changes, pathological response and clinical benefits in primary breast cancer patients treated with 24 weeks of aromatase inhibition.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aromatase inhibitor shows efficacy for hormone receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the activity of 24 weeks of aromatase inhibition with exemestane for primary breast cancer in a neoadjuvant setting. Patients with stage II/IIIA invasive breast cancer with estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PgR)-positive status were eligible. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) and safety. A steroidal aromatase inhibitor exemestane of 25 mg/day was administered for 16 weeks with an 8-week extension. Secondary endpoints were rates of breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and change of Ki67 index and ER/PgR expression in central laboratory analyses. Between March 2006 and December 2007, 116 patients were enrolled. Among those, 102 patients completed 24 weeks of administration. The ORR was 47% (55/116) at Week 16 and 51% (59/116) at Week 24, respectively. No serious toxicity was seen. ORR was associated with ER Allred scores but not with PgR scores. The significant reduction in Ki67 index was confirmed. No progression was experienced in tumors with less than 15% Ki67 index. Pathological response was observed in 28 (30%) of 94 evaluated cases. No statistical correlation between pre-treatment Ki67 index and pathological response was detected; however, a trend of correlation was found between the post-treatment preoperative endocrine prognostic index (PEPI), a prognostic score and the pathological response. At diagnosis, 59 patients (51%) would have required mastectomy but 40 patients were converted to BCS, showing an increase in the rate of BCS (77%). The 24-week aromatase inhibition provided preferable clinical benefits with significant reduction in Ki67 index. More precise mechanisms of the response need to be investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of clinical outcome of patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
ISRN Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background. We retrospectively analyzed whether poor differentiation is the independent prognostic factor for thyroid carcinoma or not. Methods. The subjects were 29 patients with PDTC who were treated between April 1996 and March 2006 to compare with those of well-differentiated papillary carcinoma patients (n = 227). Results. The relapse free (RFS), distant relapse-free survival and cause-specific survival, rates were significantly lower in patients with PDTC (P < .0001, P < .001, and P < .05). After classification into focal (<10%) and diffuse type (over 10%) of PDTC, there were no significant differences in RFS and cause-specific survival due to component type or proportion of poorly differentiated component. On multivariate analysis, poor differentiation (P < .0005, RR = 4.456, 95% CI; 1.953-10.167) and extrathyroidal infiltration (P < .05, RR = 2.898, 95% CI; 1.278-6.572) showed a significant impact on DFS, and poor differentiation (P < .05, RR = 9.343, 1.314-66.453) and age (P < .005, RR = 1.306, 1.103-1.547) significantly impacted cause-specific survival. Conclusion. Poor differentiation was an independent factor for survival. Distant relapse was significantly more common among PDTC patients, and systemic therapy might be warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Study on the state of implementation of HER2 testing and positive ratios in patients with breast cancer in the Kyushu-Okinawa region of Japan.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The development of molecular-targeted agents has improved the recovery rate for cancer. In Japan, trastuzumab has been approved as an adjuvant treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer; therefore, accurate management of HER2 testing has become more important. In addition, proper patient selection is required from the viewpoint of health care economics.
Related JoVE Video
Safety of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER-2-overexpressing elderly breast cancer patients: a multicenter cohort study.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For targeting anti-HER-2, trastuzumab-incorporated chemotherapy is the standard for HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer in adjuvant settings. But there are few data on trastuzumab in elderly patients. We evaluated the incidence of adverse events among an elderly population of trastuzumab-treated HER-2-positive breast cancer patients in adjuvant settings.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of HER2 overexpressing advanced breast cancer with CTF therapy [cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin (THPADM), fluorouracil] showed long-term effectiveness after paclitaxel shock].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 53-year-old woman with left breast tumor was diagnosed as bilateral breast cancer(left; T3N3M0, Stage III C/right; T2N0M0, Stage II )in our hospital, both of which were revealed as invasive ductal carcinoma shown to be ER-negative, PgR negative and HER2-positive by core needle biopsy. In December 2004, paclitaxel and trastuzumab combination therapy was tried, but she went into shock just during administration of paclitaxel, and this therapy was discontinued. After that the triweekly CTF therapy was tried as an anthracycline containing regimen, and the lymph node metastases obtained a complete response after a month and a 38. 5% reduction of left primary breast tumor, which was the best response observed after three months. Time to progression was prolonged to 7 months(9 cycles). Although febrile neutropenia occurred in the first cycle, the therapy could be continued safely thereafter as an outpatient. Anthracycline-containing regimens are likely to be avoided because of the difficulty of combining with trastuzumab in the treatment of HER2 overexpressing advanced/metastatic breast cancer. But the CTF therapy of less cardiotoxicity and less alopecia, can expect longer use and better QOL as an alternative for HER2 overexpressing advanced/metastatic breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced expression of ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 mRNA is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
FBXW7 is a cell cycle regulatory gene that ubiquitinates positive cell cycle regulators such as c-Myc and cyclin E, allowing for cell cycle exit. Defects in the FBXW7 gene that lead to cell cycle re-entry and expedite the G1-S transition is thought to be one of the causes of cancer development. However, its clinical importance for breast cancer patients remains undetermined. This prompted us to investigate its expression level in breast cancer patients to establish its clinical significance. The expression level of FBXW7 mRNA was assessed in 186 cases of primary invasive breast cancer. Correlations between FBXW7 mRNA expression and clinicopathological factors, prognoses and immunohistochemical expression levels of Ki-67, FBXW7, c-Myc and cyclin E were analyzed. In vitro investigation of FBXW7 gene silencing in a breast cancer cell line was conducted. FBXW7 mRNA was expressed at significantly lower levels in patients with high histological grade and hormone receptor-negative tumors. Patients with lower FBXW7 mRNA expression had a poorer prognosis for breast cancer-specific survival than those with higher expression. A high Ki-67 labeling index and positive cyclin E protein expression were significantly correlated with lower FBXW7 mRNA expression. In vitro, silencing FBXW7 enhanced expression of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins and upregulated both cell proliferation and G1-S transition. In breast cancer, reduced FBXW7 mRNA expression may have independent prognostic potential through the enhanced function of cell cycle regulatory proteins.
Related JoVE Video
[In vivo activity of liposomal amphotericin B against Exophiala dermatitidis in a murine lethal infection model].
Jpn J Antibiot
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study evaluated the in vivo activity of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) and deoxycholate amphotericin B (D-AMB) in a murine model of disseminated infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis. Cyclophosphamide-treated neutropenic ddY mice were inoculated intravenously with conidial suspensions of E. dermatitidis IFM 4827 or IFM 53409. The maximum tolerated doses of L-AMB and D-AMB were set at 10 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. Four hours after infection, a single dose of L-AMB (0.3 to 10 mg/kg) or D-AMB (0.1 to 1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. The efficacy of the antifungal treatment was assessed by the survival time over two weeks and the tissue fungal burdens 4 days after infection. L-AMB at a dose of > or =1 mg/kg significantly prolonged the survival time of mice infected with either strain compared with that of the control group. Percent survivals in the 10 mg/kg L-AMB-treated group (100% and 75%) were higher than those in the 1 mg/kg D-AMB-treated group (20% and 37.5%) in the IFM 4827 and IFM 53409 models, respectively. In the IFM 4827 model, 10 mg/kg L-AMB exhibited greater efficacy than 1 mg/kg D-AMB in terms of reducing the tissue fungal burdens (blood, lung, liver, spleen, and kidneys). These findings suggest that L-AMB was effective in the treatment of experimental disseminated E. dermatitidis infection, and the efficacy of L-AMB was superior to that of D-AMB.
Related JoVE Video
Brain infarction localized on left inferior temporal gyrus of presumed fetal onset.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic perinatal cerebral infarction is recognized to be more common in the preterm infant than previously realized. However, the pathogenic mechanisms and the onset time remain unclear. We encountered an extremely low birth weight female infant with severe intrauterine growth retardation and brain infarction localized on the left inferior temporal gyrus. The onset of the infarction and the precise sequential changes were evaluated with blood data, cranial ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. This is the first published fetal case with brain infarction specifically localized on the left inferior temporal gyrus. Careful observation with serial brain imaging is indispensable for high-risk infarction groups, such as preterm infants with severe intrauterine growth retardation, to detect neurological abnormality earlier and precisely.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of mammary Pagets disease with early systemic recurrence after operation].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 66-year-old woman visited our hospital because of redness and erosion of her right breast, and was diagnosed with mammary Pagets disease by histological examination of erosive skin. The patient had a simple mastectomy. The pathological diagnosis was mammary Pagets disease (8x7.5 cm) showing intraductal spread. The resected skin margin was negative. Partially dermal microinvasion and lymphatic involvement were found. Immunohistochemical analysis of this tumor showed ER negative, PgR negative, and HER2 positive (3+). Eighteen months after the operation, she presented with redness of the chest wall with edema of the right arm. Incisional biopsy on the chest mass revealed a local recurrence of mammary Pagets disease. In addition, she had carcinomatous lymphangiosis in the bilateral lung, nodal metastases in the ipsilateral axillary and mediastinal space, and contralateral breast metastases on CT. She was treated with twelve courses of weekly paclitaxel in combination with trastuzumab. A complete response was obtained eleven months after initiation of chemotherapy. A rare case of early systemic recurrence of mammary Pagets disease after curative operation is reported with a review of the literature.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicopathological features and treatment strategy for triple-negative breast cancer.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancers are divided into at least 4 subtypes on the basis of gene expression profiles and expression of receptors (hormone receptors (HR) and HER2) as measured by immunohistochemistry. These subtypes have different prognoses and responses to treatments such as endocrine manipulation, anti-HER2 therapy, and chemotherapy. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is immunohistochemically defined as lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors and not overexpressing HER2. TNBC accounts for approximately 15% of breast cancer patients, and is more chemosensitive but has a worse prognosis than the HR-positive/HER2-negative phenotype. TNBC is a heterogeneous disease that does not offer specific targets in the same way as HR-positive and HER2-positive breast cancers, and is similar to basal-like breast cancer and BRCA1-related breast cancer. At present, the lack of highly effective therapeutic targets for TNBC leaves standard chemotherapy, for example the combination of anthracycline and taxane, as the only medical treatment, but this is insufficiently efficacious. Novel approaches for TNBC, for example DNA damaging agents, PARP-1 inhibitors, receptor tyrosin kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and antiangiogenesis agents, have been examined in clinical settings. Concerning therapeutic strategies for TNBC, it is most important to develop novel effective approaches for TNBC treatment and high-throughput predictive tools for standard chemotherapy and novel agents.
Related JoVE Video
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: prognosis and proposal for classification.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto)
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a very rare syndrome characterized by micrognathia and posterior rib gap, with a poor prognosis. To date, only 75 cases have been reported worldwide. The overall survival rate for patients with this disorder has not been reported, and a classification of the patients on the basis of the prognosis is not yet available. The present study analyzed the figures and prognoses of past patients and documented a new case of CCMS. Formerly published case reports and personal communications were used to reveal the prognosis and classification of CCMS. The occurrence ratios of rib gap defects and of missing ribs were examined. Patients were divided into the following three groups according to their life span: lethal type, where the patients died before 1 month; severe type, where the patients lived for 1-12 months; and mild type, where they survived for more than 1 year. A comparison was made of the number of rib gaps, missing ribs, and the rib gap ratio (defined as the number of rib gaps divided by the number of all existing ribs) among these three groups. A significant difference in the number of rib defects between the lethal type and other types was noted. Short life span of severe type patients, compared to mild type, was attributed to their subjection to severe respiratory infection. CCMS can be classified into three categories--lethal, severe, and mild--according to the severity of the symptoms and prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative study of the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B and amphotericin B deoxycholate against six species of Zygomycetes in a murine lethal infection model.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) at a clinical dose (3 mg/kg) against six species (5 genera) of Zygomycetes in a murine lethal infection model, and to compare findings with those for deoxycholate amphotericin B (D-AMB). The correlation between in-vitro activity and in-vivo efficacy of L-AMB was also investigated. Cyclophosphamide-treated mice were inoculated intravenously with conidial suspensions. Four hours or 1 day after inoculation, a single dose of L-AMB or D-AMB was administered intravenously. The number of mice that survived for 14 days was recorded. L-AMB at a dose of at least ?1 mg/kg significantly prolonged the survival time of infected mice compared with the control group. The ED?? of L-AMB was nearly equivalent to that of D-AMB, except for the treatment initiated on day 1 in the Rhizopus oryzae model. At the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of each agent, survival percentages with L-AMB (10 mg/kg) were equal to or higher than those with D-AMB (1 mg/kg). The ED?? of L-AMB decreased as the MIC against the infecting strain decreased. In conclusion, L-AMB was effective at a clinical dosage, and at the MTD the efficacy of L-AMB was equal or superior to that of D-AMB in a murine model of disseminated zygomycosis. The in-vivo activity of L-AMB was correlated with its in-vitro activity.
Related JoVE Video
Glomus tumor of the kidney.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 41-year-old man was diagnosed with a glomus tumor of the kidney, which was incidentally found by ultrasonography. Partial nephrectomy revealed a 10-mm encapsulated mass. We diagnosed it as a glomus tumor using morphological and immunohistochemical stains.
Related JoVE Video
Oral combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a phase II study.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Capecitabine (Xeloda, X) and cyclophosphamide (C) can be given orally and they have synergistic effects with nonoverlapping toxicities in preclinical studies. A phase I study of the XC combination therapy was conducted in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and determined the recommended dose and schedule of 1657 mg/m/day capecitabine and 65 mg/m/day cyclophosphamide given orally for 2 weeks at a 3-week interval. A phase II study of the oral XC regimen was then conducted. This study enrolled patients with HER2-negative MBC who were earlier treated with anthracyclines. XC was given at the recommended doses on a 3-week schedule for at least six courses unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicities occurred. The primary endpoint was the response rate. Progression-free survival, overall survival, and adverse events were investigated as secondary endpoints. Forty-eight patients with the median age of 58 (range 32-72 years) years were registered. Three patients withdrew by choice before starting the treatment. A complete response was obtained in two of the 45 evaluable patients, and partial response in 14, resulting in an overall response rate of 35.6%. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 199 (115-231) days and 677 (437 approximately ) days, respectively. Grade 3 neutropenia and leukopenia developed in 11%, and that of anemia and thrombocytopenia in 2% patients. Nonhematological toxicities were mild. Hand--foot syndrome was observed in 14 patients but no one had grade 3-4 toxicity. Oral XC combination is effective with acceptable toxicities in patients with MBC.
Related JoVE Video
Nuclear corepressor 1 expression predicts response to first-line endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients on relapse.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is the most important endocrine therapy responsiveness predictor for women with breast cancer. The accuracy of the prediction of the response to endocrine therapy was thought to be affected by involving the estrogen receptor coregulatory proteins and cross-talk between ER and other growth factor-signaling networks. Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCOR1) is one of the ER a transcription repressor. The objective of the study is to investigate the expression of NCOR1 at the protein level and pursue its predictive value for breast cancer endocrine therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of spindle cell carcinoma of the breast including metaplastic lesion with poor prognosis].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 57-year-old woman complained of a huge and rapid growing mass with bleeding in the left breast. Breast imaging (CT and MRI)showed a large, irregular and unevenly enhanced tumor with lymph node swelling in the left axilla. Mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were performed for control of bleeding from the tumor in the left breast. Pathological diagnosis was spindle cell carcinoma of the breast with transition from papillotubular carcinoma. Although the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab according to the treatment guideline for conventional breast cancer, she had an early relapse with mediastinal metastasis and died 9 months after operation. The tumor showed metaplastic change from epithelial tumor to spindle cell carcinoma. Because the epithelial part expressed weakly positive estrogen receptor(ER), progesterone receptor(PgR)-negative and HER2-positive, we used trastuzumab for adjuvant therapy. However, part of the spindle cell tumor mainly showed triple-negative, and ER, PgR and HER2 expression were negative, which might explain her poor prognosis for resistance to trastuzumab.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical usefulness of high-dose toremifene in patients relapsed on treatment with an aromatase inhibitor.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been employed as adjuvant therapy or as treatment for recurrent cases. However, when AI treatment fails, it is unclear which endocrine therapy is the most appropriate to introduce at this point and how effective it will be. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of toremifene (TOR, Fareston(®)), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM).
Related JoVE Video
Severe upper airway stenosis in a boy with partial monosomy 16p13.3pter and partial trisomy 16q22qter.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto)
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the case of a boy with a de novo partial monosomy 16p13-pter and partial trisomy 16q22-qter detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using subtelomeric probes for 16p and 16q. The boy had facial characteristics, skeletal features, congenital heart defects, an imperforate anus, urogenital malformations, pre/postnatal growth retardation, and psychomotor retardation, most of which have been reported both in partial monosomy 16p and partial trisomy 16q. In addition, he suffered from upper airway stenosis due to possible laryngeal stenosis with subglottic webs. The upper airway stenosis could be a rare complication of partial monosomy 16p or partial trisomy 16q, or a nonspecific malformation resulting from chromosomal abnormalities.
Related JoVE Video
Midkine in plasma as a novel breast cancer marker.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, is up-regulated in many types of cancer. The aim of this study was to measure plasma midkine levels in patients with breast cancer and to assess its clinical significance. We examined plasma midkine levels in 95 healthy volunteers, 11 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 111 patients with primary invasive breast cancer without distant metastasis (PIBC), and 25 patients with distant metastatic breast cancer (MBC), using an automatic immunoasssay analyzer (TOSOH AIA system). In PIBC, we studied the correlation between plasma midkine levels and clinicopathological factors. Immunoreactive midkine was detectable in the plasma of healthy volunteers, and a cut-off level of 750 pg/mL was established. In breast cancer patients, plasma midkine levels were increased above normal values. These elevated levels of midkine were seen in one (9.1%) of 11 patients with DCIS, 36 (32.4%) of 111 patients with PIBC, and 16 (64.0%) of 25 patients with MBC. Increased levels of midkine were correlated with menopausal status (P = 0.0497) and nuclear grade (P = 0.0343) in PIBC. Cancer detection rates based on midkine levels were higher than those based on three conventional markers including CA15-3 (P < 0.0001), CEA (P = 0.0077), and NCCST-439 (P < 0.0001). Detection rates of breast cancer using a combination of two conventional tumor markers (CA15-3/CEA, CA15-3/NCCST-439, or CEA/NCCST-439) with midkine is significantly higher than those using combination of three conventional tumor markers. Midkine may be a useful novel tumor marker for detection of breast cancer, superior to conventional tumor markers.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.