JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
LincRNA-p21 Regulates Neointima Formation, Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Atherosclerosis by Enhancing p53 Activity.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been implicated in many biological processes and diseases. Atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the functional role of lncRNAs in atherosclerosis is largely unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Residual Amount of HBV DNA in Serum is Related to Relapse in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients After Cessation of Nucleos(t)ide Analogs.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the relationship between relapse and the levels of the residual amount of HBV DNA in serum at cessation in chronic hepatitis B patients meeting 2008 Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) cessation criteria.
Related JoVE Video
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the breast: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, metastasizing tumor of the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. While it frequently occurs in the trunk and extremities, breast involvement has rarely been reported. In the present case, imaging and pathological technologies were used to detect DFSP of the breast. Surgical excision with wide margins (>3 cm) and pathology revealed spindle cells arranged in storiform patterns and short fascicles which were crucially CD34-positive, enabling a definitive diagnosis prior to surgery.
Related JoVE Video
miR-22 in cardiac remodeling and disease.
Trends Cardiovasc. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regulation of gene expression during cardiac development and remodeling is very complicated, involving epigenetic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and translational regulation. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac remodeling is still far from complete. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have been shown to play critical roles in gene regulation in cardiovascular biology and disease. microRNA-22 (miR-22) is an evolutionally conserved miRNA that is highly expressed in the heart. Recent studies uncovered miR-22 as an important regulator for cardiac remodeling. miR-22 modulates the expression and function of genes involved in hypertrophic response, sarcomere reorganization, and metabolic program shift during cardiac remodeling. In this review, we will focus on the recent findings of miR-22 in cardiac remodeling and the therapeutic potential of this miRNA in the treatment of related defects resulting from adverse cardiac remodeling.
Related JoVE Video
Antioxidative protective effect of icariin on the FeSO4/H 2O 2-damaged human sperm based on confocal raman micro-spectroscopy.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress is implicated in male infertility and significantly higher reactive oxygen species are detected in 25% of infertile males. Although different agents of various alternative medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine, have been tried with varying success, evidence remains limited on whether and how much herbs or supplements might help increase the anti-oxidant ability of the sperm. This study examined the anti-oxidative effects of icariin, a flavonoid isolated from Herba Epimedii, on the human sperm. We prepared the FeSO4/H2O2-damaged human sperms, which were co-cultured with icariin in vitro, and then observed the changes of the sperm by employing Raman micro-spectroscopy. The results showed that Raman mapping with a 514 nm excitation laser allowed clear differentiation of the nucleus, neck, and, in particular, the mitochondria-rich middle piece of a human sperm cell. The effect of icariin on different organelles of the sperm was quantified by localized spectral Raman signatures obtained within milli-seconds, and icariin could keep the "Raman fingerprint" of the human sperm the same as the control groups, suggesting that icariin could protect the human sperm from being damaged by FeSO4/H2O2. Icariin may serve as a tonifying and replenishing agent of herbal origin for enhancing reproductive functions.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of MicroRNA-155 protects the heart from pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In response to mechanical and pathological stress, adult mammalian hearts often undergo mal-remodeling, a process commonly characterized as pathological hypertrophy, which is associated with upregulation of fetal genes, increased fibrosis, and reduction of cardiac dysfunction. The molecular pathways that regulate this process are not fully understood.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of the receptor-like protein kinase genes AtRPK1 and OsRPK1 reduces the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AtRPK1 (AT1G69270) is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. The rice gene Os07g0602700 (OsRPK1) is the homolog of AtRPK1. AtRPK1 and OsRPK1 were overexpressed and the expression of AtRPK1 was inhibited by RNAi in A. thaliana. The functional results showed that the degrees of salt tolerance of the 35S:RPK1 A. thaliana plants were significantly lower than that of the control plants. The AtRPK1-RNAi A. thaliana plants exhibited higher salt tolerance than the wild-type plants (Col). The subcellular localisation results showed that the RPK1 proteins were mainly distributed on the cell membrane and that the overexpressed AtRPK1 proteins exhibited a significantly clustered distribution. The physiological analyses revealed that the overexpression of the RPK1 genes increased the membrane permeability in the transgenic A. thaliana plants. In response to salt stress, these plants exhibited an increased Na(+) flux into the cell, which caused greater damage to the cell. The real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of the P5CS1 gene was inhibited and the SOS signalling pathway was blocked in the 35S:AtRPK1 A. thaliana plants. These effects at least partially contribute to the salt-sensitive phenotype of the 35S:RPK1 plants.
Related JoVE Video
N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide inhibits H2O2-induced Na+/Ca2+-exchanger activation via the Na+/H+ exchanger in rat ventricular myocytes.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2), a novel compound, has shown palliative effects in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of F2 on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)/Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) signal-transduction pathway involved in H2O2-induced Ca(2+) overload, in order to probe the underlying molecular mechanism by which F2 antagonizes myocardial I/R injury. Acute exposure of rat cardiac myocytes to 100 ?M H2O2 increased both NHE and NCX activities, as well as levels of phosphorylated MEK and ERK. The H2O2-induced increase in NCX current (I NCX) was nearly completely inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[o-aminophenylmercapto] butadiene), but only partly by the NHE inhibitor 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride (DMA), indicating the I NCX increase was primarily mediated by the MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and partially through activation of NHE. F2 attenuated the H2O2-induced I NCX increase in a concentration-dependent manner. To determine whether pathway inhibition was H2O2-specific, we examined the ability of F2 to inhibit MEK/ERK activation by epidermal growth factor (EGF), and NHE activation by angiotensin II. F2 not only inhibited H2O2-induced and EGF-induced MEK/ERK activation, but also completely blocked both H2O2-induced and angiotensin II-induced increases in NHE activity, suggesting that F2 directly inhibits MEK/ERK and NHE activation. These results show that F2 exerts multiple inhibitions on the signal-transduction pathway involved in H2O2-induced I NCX increase, providing an additional mechanism for F2 alleviating intracellular Ca(2+) overload to protect against myocardial I/R injury.
Related JoVE Video
Aqueous Stability of Astilbin: Effects of pH, Temperature, and Solvent.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The influence of temperature, pH value, and solvent on the degradation behavior of astilbin was studied by HPLC. Results showed that the degradation of astilbin was pH and temperature dependent, and the isomerization of astilbin to its three stereoisomers was found. The degradation process followed the first-order kinetics model, and the degradation rate k values increased, whereas half-life (t1/2) values declined with the rise of pH and temperature. The stability of astilbin was related to its B-ring substitution. Engeletin with a 4-hydroxy-substituted B-ring was more stable than astilbin with a 3,4-dihydroxy-substituted B-ring. The stability of astilbin differed depending on the solvent and followed the order 50% ethanol > ethanol > methanol > 50% methanol > water. In cultural media, astilbin was less stable than in water, which may be related to the presence of metal ions. The stability results of astilbin were confirmed in the extraction of dihydroflavonols from Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae and may have a guiding function in turtle jelly production.
Related JoVE Video
[Alterations of connexin 43 expression and SDF-1? secretion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells co-cultured with myeloma cells].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To construct a co- culture system of mesenchymal stem cells(MSC) and multiple myeloma(MM) cells and investigate the alterations of connexin 43(CX43) expression and stromal derived growth factor(SDF)- 1? secretion of MSC.
Related JoVE Video
[Optical path difference in off-plane quasi-Littrow dispersion mountings].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present paper analyzes the relative relation between the meridian and sagittal rays in off-plane quasi-Littrow (OP-QL) dispersion mountings. Its concluded that the off-plane angle will cause the rotation of the beam and result in the mismatch between the sagittal beams on different optical elements. Therefore the total optical path difference (OPD) should be an accumulation of corresponding beams instead of the sagittal beam of each element itself. Then, a directional derivative based method is put forward to calculate the OPD for spherical mirrors in various directions. Based on the method, the numerical OPD for OP-QL mountings is solved. Finally, this methodology is validated with both echelette and echelle examples.
Related JoVE Video
Durability of efficacy after telbivudine off-treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current international guidelines indicate that finite therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) is possible in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Here we evaluate the durability of efficacy after telbivudine (LdT) off-treatment.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNAs in cardiac regeneration and cardiovascular disease.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which have been shown important to a wide range of biological process by post-transcriptionally regulating the expression of protein-coding genes. miRNAs have been demonstrated essential to normal cardiac development and function. Recently, numerous studies indicate miRNAs are involved in cardiac regeneration and cardiac disease, including cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmia. These observations suggest miRNAs play important roles in cardiology. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of studying miRNAs in cardiac regeneration and cardiac disease. We also discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of miRNAs in heart disease.
Related JoVE Video
High level of IL-27 positively correlated with Th17 cells may indicate liver injury in patients infected with HBV.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interleukin-6/IL-12 family cytokines play a key role in inflammatory diseases via their effects on the differentiation or regulation of T helper cells.
Related JoVE Video
Serum proteomics analysis and comparisons using iTRAQ in the progression of hepatitis B.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in serum protein levels in the progression of hepatitis B using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis, in addition to comparing the serum protein levels of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), patients with hepatitis B virus-induced acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-induced ACLF) and normal individuals. Protein analysis was performed on 15 serum samples using iTRAQ. The study population included healthy controls (n=5), patients with CHB (n=5) and patients with HBV-induced ACLF (n=5). Western blotting was used to verify the results in an additional nine serum samples from healthy controls, patients with CHB and patients with HBV-induced ACLF (n=3, respectively). Using iTRAQ analysis, 16 different serum proteins with ?1.5-fold differences in expression levels were identified in the patients with CHB and ACLF compared with the healthy controls. Five of those proteins, C-reactive protein precursor, hemoglobin ? chain variant Hb S-Wake, apolipoprotein J precursor, platelet factor 4 precursor and vitronectin, which demonstrated the greatest differences in their expression levels and the most significant correlation with liver diseases, were subsequently verified using western blotting. The western blotting results were consistent with the results from the iTRAQ. Two of the five proteins are not classified by biological process, and the biological functions of all the proteins in HBV-induced ACLF remain unclear. This preliminary study demonstrated that a correlation between the expression of various serum proteins and the different pathogenetic conditions induced by HBV may exist. The analysis of a larger number of samples is required to identify potential protein biomarkers that may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatitis B.
Related JoVE Video
mir-17-92 cluster is required for and sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte proliferation in postnatal and adult hearts.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiomyocytes in adult mammalian hearts are terminally differentiated cells that have exited from the cell cycle and lost most of their proliferative capacity. Death of mature cardiomyocytes in pathological cardiac conditions and the lack of regeneration capacity of adult hearts are primary causes of heart failure and mortality. However, how cardiomyocyte proliferation in postnatal and adult hearts becomes suppressed remains largely unknown. The miR-17-92 cluster was initially identified as a human oncogene that promotes cell proliferation. However, its role in the heart remains unknown.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-22 regulates cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in response to stress.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The adult heart is composed primarily of terminally differentiated, mature cardiomyocytes that express signature genes related to contraction. In response to mechanical or pathological stress, the heart undergoes hypertrophic growth, a process defined as an increase in cardiomyocyte cell size without an increase in cell number. However, the molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy is not fully understood.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of electroacupuncture at auricular concha region on the depressive status of unpredictable chronic mild stress rat models.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore new noninvasive treatment options for depression, this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the auricular concha region (ACR) of depression rat models. Depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) combined with isolation for 21 days. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal, UCMS alone, UCMS with EA-ACR treatment, and UCMS with EA-ear-tip treatment. Rats under inhaled anesthesia were treated once daily for 14 days. The results showed that blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced in the EA-ACR group than in the UCMS alone group or the EA-ear-tip group. The open-field test scores significantly decreased in the UCMS alone and EA-ear-tip groups but not in the EA-ACR group. Both EA treatments downregulated levels of plasma cortisol and ACTH in UCMS rats back to normal levels. The present study suggested that EA-ACR can elicit similar cardioinhibitory effects as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and EA-ACR significantly antagonized UCMS-induced depressive status in UCMS rats. The antidepressant effect of EA-ACR is possibly mediated via the normalization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity.
Related JoVE Video
Function of the wheat TaSIP gene in enhancing drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and rice.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microarray analysis of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant identified a gene of unknown function that was induced by exposure to high levels of salt and subsequently denoted TaSIP (Triticum aestivum salt-induced protein). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that TaSIP expression was induced not only by salt, but also by drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and other environmental stress factors. Transgenic rice plants that expressed an RNA interference construct specific for a rice gene homologous to TaSIP was more susceptible to salt stress than wild-type rice plants. Subcellular localization studies showed that the TaSIP localized to the cell membrane. Under conditions of salt and drought stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed TaSIP showed superior physiological properties compared with control plants, including lower Na(+) content and upregulation of several stress resistance genes. Staining of transgenic tissues with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) failed to indicate tissue-specific activity of the full-length TaSIP promoter. Quantitative analysis of GUS fluorescence in transgenic plants treated with ABA or salt stress revealed that the region 1,176-1,410 bp from the start codon contained an ABA-responsive element and that the region 579-1,176 bp from the start codon upstream of the exon contained a salt-stress-responsive element. Based on these results, we conclude that the key part of the TaSIP gene is the region of its promoter involved in salt tolerance.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamic changes of clinical features that predict the prognosis of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure: a retrospective cohort study.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The natural history of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) is complex and highly variable. However, the global clinical characteristics of this entity remain ill-defined. We aimed to investigate the dynamic patterns of the natural progression as well as their impact on the outcomes of ACHBLF.
Related JoVE Video
Epithelial-specific knockout of the Rac1 gene leads to enamel defects.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) gene encodes a 21-kDa GTP-binding protein belonging to the RAS superfamily. RAS members play important roles in controlling focal adhesion complex formation and cytoskeleton contraction, activities with consequences for cell growth, adhesion, migration, and differentiation. To examine the role(s) played by RAC1 protein in cell-matrix interactions and enamel matrix biomineralization, we used the Cre/loxP binary recombination system to characterize the expression of enamel matrix proteins and enamel formation in Rac1 knockout mice (Rac1(-/-)). Mating between mice bearing the floxed Rac1 allele and mice bearing a cytokeratin 14-Cre transgene generated mice in which Rac1 was absent from epithelial organs. Enamel of the Rac1 conditional knockout mouse was characterized by light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope, microcomputed tomography, and histochemistry. Enamel matrix protein expression was analyzed by western blotting. Major findings showed that the Tomes processes of Rac1(-/-) ameloblasts lose contact with the forming enamel matrix in unerupted teeth, the amounts of amelogenin and ameloblastin are reduced in Rac1(-/-) ameloblasts, and after eruption, the enamel from Rac1(-/-) mice displays severe structural defects with a complete loss of enamel. These results support an essential role for RAC1 in the dental epithelium involving cell-matrix interactions and matrix biomineralization.
Related JoVE Video
The histone methyltransferase Set7/9 promotes myoblast differentiation and myofibril assembly.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The molecular events that modulate chromatin structure during skeletal muscle differentiation are still poorly understood. We report in this paper that expression of the H3-K4 histone methyltransferase Set7 is increased when myoblasts differentiate into myotubes and is required for skeletal muscle development, expression of muscle contractile proteins, and myofibril assembly. Knockdown of Set7 or expression of a dominant-negative Set7 mutant impairs skeletal muscle differentiation, accompanied by a decrease in levels of histone monomethylation (H3-K4me1). Set7 directly interacts with MyoD to enhance expression of muscle differentiation genes. Expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2 and genes encoding contractile proteins is decreased in Set7 knockdown myocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Set7 also activates muscle gene expression by precluding Suv39h1-mediated H3-K9 methylation on the promoters of myogenic differentiation genes. Together, our experiments define a biological function for Set7 in muscle differentiation and provide a molecular mechanism by which Set7 modulates myogenic transcription factors during muscle differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
IFN-? induced by IL-12 administration prevents diabetes by inhibiting pathogenic IL-17 production in NOD mice.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a pivotal Th1-associated cytokine and a potent immunoregulatory molecule. However, the role of IL-12 in inducing immune tolerance that prevents insulitis and inhibits type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent administration of IL-12 could prevent the development of T1D in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We examined whether IL-12 treatment prevented diabetes by injecting different doses of IL-12 into NOD mice and compared the incidence of diabetes and insulitis in NOD mice with the incidence in control mice. Furthermore, we investigated the potential mechanisms of IL-12-mediated prevention of diabetes and insulitis. The expression of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines was measured before and following therapeutic administration of IL-12 in NOD mice. Our data demonstrated that both the absolute number and the function of DCs were impaired in NOD mice and that the levels of the Th17-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-23, were elevated in NOD mice compared with age-matched BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. However, treatment of NOD mice with IL-12 suppressed insulitis and increased the number of healthy islets, and the levels of IL-17, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-23 were significantly decreased. Moreover, IL-12 treatment of NOD mice induced the secretion of IFN-?, a potent inhibitor of Th17 cells. These data indicated that intermittent administration of IL-12 prevented diabetes by inducing IFN-?, suppressing the pathogenic IL-17-producing cells and reducing the expression of Th17-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest a promising strategy for the treatment of human T1D and other Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.
Related JoVE Video
[Responses of winter wheat photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content to water-retaining agent and N fertilizer].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of water-retaining agent (60 kg x hm(-2)) and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 225, and 450 kg x hm(-2)) on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and water utilization of winter wheat at jointing and grain-filling stages were studied under field conditions. In all treatments, the net photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll content were greater at grain-filling stage than at jointing stage. Under nitrogen fertilization but without water-retaining agent application, the water use efficiency (WUE) of single leaf at jointing stage increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization rate, while the net photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate decreased after an initial increase. The chlorophyll content was the highest under 225 kg x hm(-2) nitrogen fertilization. In the treatments of water-retaining agent application, the intercellular CO2 con- centration decreased with increasing nitrogen application rate, but the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and WUE increased. The application of water-retaining agent or its combination with nitrogen fertilization increased the chlorophyll content, but excessive nitrogen fertilization had lesser effects. At grain-filling stage, applying nitrogen fertilizer alone significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate and WUE, but decreased the stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate. The chlorophyll content increased with increasing nitrogen application rate. After applying water-retaining agent and with the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate, the photosynthetic rate and WUE decreased after an initial increase, while the intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate were in adverse but still lower than those without water-retaining agent application. The stomata conductance increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization rate. The chlorophyll content increased significantly under the application of water-retaining agent, but somewhat decreased under the combined application of water-retaining agent and nitrogen fertilizer. The application of both water-retaining agent and nitrogen fertilizer increased the 1000 grain mass, grain yield, and water production efficiency of winter wheat significantly, with the best effect in the treatment of water-retaining agent with 225 kg x hm(-2) nitrogen fertilization.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of different application rates of water-retaining agent on root physiological characteristics of winter wheat at its different growth stages].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at the Yuzhou Experimental Base of Henan Province to study the effects of different application rates (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg x hm(-2)) of water-retaining agent (WRA) on the root physiological characteristics, biomass, and grain yield of two winter wheat cultivars Zhengmai-9694 and Aikang-58, aimed to probe into the action mechanisms of WRA on the root system of winter wheat at its different growth stages. The application of WRA decreased the root membrane permeability and soluble sugar content, and increased the root vigor. After the application of WRA, the Zhengmai-9694 at its different growth stages had a greater decrement of root membrane permeability, compared with Aikang-58. In all treatments except 90 kg x hm(-2) of WRA, the root vigor of Aikang-58 was obviously higher than that of Zhengmai-9694. At booting and grain-filling stages, the root soluble sugar content of Zhengmai-9694 decreased much more than that of Aikang-58. In the whole growth period of the two cultivars, their root membrane permeability and soluble sugar content were the lowest in treatment 60 kg x hm(-2) of WRA, and no significant differences were observed between treatments 60 and 90 kg x hm(-2) of WRA. The root vigor of Zhengmai-9694 increased remarkably with the increasing rate of WRA application, while that of Aikang-58 was the highest in treatment 60 kg x hm(-2) of WRA. The application of WRA also increased root biomass, and at jointing and booting stages, the root biomass of Aikang-58 was much higher than that of Zhengmai-9694. However, at grain-filling stage, the biomass of Aikang-58 in treatments 60 and 90 kg x hm(-2) of WRA was lower than that of Zhengmai-9694. Treatment 60 kg x hm(-2) of WRA had the highest grain yield of the two cultivars. It was concluded that WRA had more significant effects on Zhengmai-9694 than on Aikang-58, and applying 60 kg x hm(-2) of WRA could obtain the best effect.
Related JoVE Video
N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide preserves cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis during hypoxia/ischemia.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
N-n-Butyl haloperidol iodide (F(2)) is a novel compound derived from haloperidol. In our previous work, F(2) was found to be an L-type calcium channel blocker which played a protective role in rat heart ischemic-reperfusion injury in a dose-dependent manner. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects and some possible mechanisms of F(2) on calcium transients in hypoxic/ischemic rat cardiac myocytes.
Related JoVE Video
[Expression of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in lymphoblastic cells and its relationship with glucocorticoid sensitivity].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was aimed to explore the expression of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2) in 3 different lymphoblastic cell lines with relation to their glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity. The 11?-HSD2 expressions in acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells, lymphoma Daudi and Raji cells, and peripheral blood T cells of a healthy volunteer were analyzed by real time PCR and Western blot. Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced apoptosis in 3 different cell lines was detected by flow cytometry. Cell growth in Jurkat cells treated with cortisol was analyzed by trypan blue dye exclusion. Flow cytometry was performed to observe GC-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells treated by combination of GC with 11?-HSD2 inhibition 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?-GA). The results demonstrated that 11?-HSD2 highly expressed in Jurkat cells, but not in Daudi, Raji cells and normal blood T cells. Compared to Daudi and Raji cells, Jurkat cells were more resistant to GC-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of 11?-HSD2 by 18?-GA resulted in increased cellular sensitivity to GC as shown by elevated induction of apoptosis. it is concluded that 11?-HSD2 is at least partly responsible for GC resistance in Jurkat cells. 11?-HSD2 may be a potential target for reduction of GC-resistance in therapeutic applications.
Related JoVE Video
Involvement of CD226+ NK cells in immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dysfunction of immune systems, including innate and adaptive immunity, is responsible for the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NK cells are a major part of the innate immune system, and diminished populations of NK cells have been reported in SLE patients. However, the mechanisms behind this decrease and the role of NK cells in SLE pathogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that a deficiency of NK cells, especially CD226(+) NK cells, is prominent in patients with active SLE. Meanwhile, expression of the CD226 ligands CD112 and CD155 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells is observed in SLE patients; thus, activation of CD226(+) NK cells may be induced by CD226-ligand interactions. Furthermore, IFN-?, which is mainly produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, can mediate the activation-induced cell death of NK cells. Therefore, these processes likely contribute to the loss of NK cells in patients with active SLE. Despite the impaired cytotoxicity of peripheral NK cells in human SLE patients and mouse SLE models, we provide evidence that CD226(+) NK cells infiltrate the kidneys of predisease MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Kidney-infiltrating NK cells displayed an activated phenotype and a marked ability to produce cytotoxic granules. These results suggest that, before apoptosis, activated NK cells can infiltrate tissues and, to some extent, mediate tissue injury by producing cytotoxic granules and immunoregulatory cytokines.
Related JoVE Video
Application of microRNA in cardiac and skeletal muscle disease gene therapy.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small ?22 nt noncoding RNAs. miRNAs regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels by destabilization and degradation of the target mRNA or by translational repression. Numerous studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for normal mammalian development and organ function. Deleterious changes in miRNA expression play an important role in human diseases. We and others have previously reported several muscle-specific miRNAs, including miR-1/206, miR-133, and miR-208. These muscle-specific miRNAs are essential for normal myoblast differentiation and proliferation, and they have also been implicated in various cardiac and skeletal muscular diseases. miRNA-based gene therapies hold great potential for the treatment of cardiac and skeletal muscle disease(s). Herein, we introduce the methods commonly applied to study the biological role of miRNAs, as well as the techniques utilized to manipulate miRNA expression.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of microRNA-1 by myocardin in smooth muscle cells inhibits cell proliferation.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myocardin is a cardiac- and smooth muscle-specific transcription co-factor that potently activates the expression of downstream target genes. Previously, we demonstrated that overexpression of myocardin inhibited the proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Recently, myocardin was reported to induce the expression of microRNA-1 (miR-1) in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we investigated whether myocardin induces miR-1 expression to mediate its inhibitory effects on SMC proliferation.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Congenital heart defects represent the most common human birth defects. Even though the genetic cause of these syndromes has been linked to candidate genes, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Disturbance of neural crest cell (NCC) migration into the derivatives of the pharyngeal arches and pouches can account for many of the developmental defects. The goal of this study was to investigate the function of microRNA (miRNA) in NCCs and the cardiovascular system.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of surface microstructure and wettability on plasma protein adsorption to ZnO thin films prepared at different RF powers.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, the adsorption behavior of plasma proteins on the surface of ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering under different sputtering powers was studied. The microstructures and surface properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy and contact angle techniques. The results show that the ZnO thin films have better orientation of the (0?0?2) peak with increasing RF power, especially at around 160 W, and the optical band gap of the ZnO films varies from 3.2 to 3.4 eV. The contact angle test carried out by the sessile drop technique denoted a hydrophobic surface of the ZnO films, and the surface energy and adhesive work of the ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sputtering power. The amounts of human fibrinogen (HFG) and human serum albumin (HSA) adsorbing on the ZnO films and reference samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that fewer plasma proteins and a smaller HFG/HSA ratio adsorb on the ZnO thin films surface.
Related JoVE Video
The synthesis of a D-glucosamine contrast agent, Gd-DTPA-DG, and its application in cancer molecular imaging with MRI.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study is to describe the synthesis of Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-deoxyglucosamine (Gd-DTPA-DG) which is a d-glucosamine metabolic MR imaging contrast agent. We will also discuss its use in a pilot MRI study using a xenograft mouse model of human adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Biological synthesis of tooth enamel instructed by an artificial matrix.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The regenerative capability of enamel, the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body, is fundamentally limited due to cell apoptosis following maturation of the tissue. Synthetic strategies to promote enamel formation have the potential to repair damage, increase the longevity of teeth and improve the understanding of the events leading to tissue formation. Using a self-assembling bioactive matrix, we demonstrate the ability to induce ectopic formation of enamel at chosen sites adjacent to a mouse incisor cultured in vivo under the kidney capsule. The resulting material reveals the highly organized, hierarchical structure of hydroxyapatite crystallites similar to native enamel. This artificially triggered formation of organized mineral demonstrates a pathway for developing cell fabricated materials for treatment of dental caries, the most ubiquitous disease in man. Additionally, the artificial matrix provides a unique tool to probe cellular mechanisms involved in tissue formation further enabling the development of tooth organ replacements.
Related JoVE Video
[A pilot study of peginterferon alfa-2a combined with short-term lamivudine therapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the efficacy of by combining a 12-week course of lamivudine in those HBeAg-positive hepatitis B patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a (peg-IFN alpha-2a) therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of 188Re-DTPA-deoxyglucose as a potential cancer radiopharmaceutical.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to synthesize diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-deoxyglucose (DTPA-DG) radiolabeled with (188)Re and to evaluate its biologic characteristics using mammary tumor-bearing mice.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNAs in cardiac remodeling and disease.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large sub-group of small non-coding RNAs, which have been demonstrated to post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of protein-coding genes in a wide-range biological process. miRNAs have been shown to be essential for normal heart development and cardiac function. Recent data suggest that miRNAs are involved in the etiology of cardiac disease and the remodeling of hearts, including cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrhythmias. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in the understanding of the function of miRNAs in cardiac remodeling and disease. We will also discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of miRNAs in heart disease.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiac electrophysiological and antiarrhythmic effects of N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
N-n-butyl haloperidol (F(2)), a novel compound of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of haloperidol, was reported to antagonize myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injuries. The antiarrhythmic potential and electrophysiological effects of F(2) on rat cardiac tissues were investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Structure and haemocompatibility of ZnO films deposited by radio frequency sputtering.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ZnO films were first deposited on silicon and glass substrates using radio frequency sputtering and then annealed in air at different temperatures from 300 to 700 degrees C. The microstructures, surface energy and optical properties of ZnO films were examined by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle test and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Results show that a perfectly oriented ZnO (0 0 2) thin film is obtained in all ZnO samples. Raman spectroscopy, in combination with those derived by UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, provides us with an accurate description of ZnO nature, revealing that, after annealing, ZnO films exhibit better crystallinity and narrower optical energy gap. The contact angle test denotes that the adhesive work and polar component of the surface energy of ZnO films increase steadily with the annealing temperature, which leads to more active interaction between annealed ZnO films and blood plasma. The platelet adhesion experiment shows that there are fewer platelets adhered to the surface of ZnO films compared to the polyurethane (PU) used in clinical application, suggesting ZnOs better compatibility with blood. As the annealing temperature increases, the number of platelets adhered to ZnO films increases correspondingly, which we believe is due to the narrower optical energy gap. Therefore, the appropriate surface properties and the wide optical energy gap of ZnO thin films are believed to be the main factors responsible for the excellent haemocompatibility.
Related JoVE Video
Egr-1, a central and unifying role in cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury?
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous studies have shown that N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F(2)) can antagonize myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by blocking intracellular Ca(2+) overload and suppressing Egr-1 overexpression. The present study is to investigate the relation between the reduction of Ca(2+) overload and the inhibition of Egr-1 overexpression.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-208a is a regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and conduction in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have gained status as important regulators of gene expression. Here, we investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of the miR-208 family of miRNAs in adult mouse heart physiology. We found that miR-208a, which is encoded within an intron of alpha-cardiac muscle myosin heavy chain gene (Myh6), was actually a member of a miRNA family that also included miR-208b, which was determined to be encoded within an intron of beta-cardiac muscle myosin heavy chain gene (Myh7). These miRNAs were differentially expressed in the mouse heart, paralleling the expression of their host genes. Transgenic overexpression of miR-208a in the heart was sufficient to induce hypertrophic growth in mice, which resulted in pronounced repression of the miR-208 regulatory targets thyroid hormone-associated protein 1 and myostatin, 2 negative regulators of muscle growth and hypertrophy. Studies of the miR-208a Tg mice indicated that miR-208a expression was sufficient to induce arrhythmias. Furthermore, analysis of mice lacking miR-208a indicated that miR-208a was required for proper cardiac conduction and expression of the cardiac transcription factors homeodomain-only protein and GATA4 and the gap junction protein connexin 40. Together, our studies uncover what we believe are novel miRNA-dependent mechanisms that modulate cardiac hypertrophy and electrical conduction.
Related JoVE Video
Cloning and functional analysis of wheat V-H+-ATPase subunit genes.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The root microsomal proteomes of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive wheat lines under salt stress were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrum. A wheat V-H(+)-ATPase E subunit protein was obtained whose expression was enhanced by salt stress. In silicon cloning identified the full-length cDNA sequences of nine subunits and partial cDNA sequences of two subunits of wheat V-H(+)-ATPase. The expression profiles of these V-H(+)-ATPase subunits in roots and leaves of both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive wheat lines under salt and abscisic acid (ABA) stress were analyzed. The results indicate that the coordinated enhancement of the expression of V-H(+)-ATPase subunits under salt and ABA stress is an important factor determining improved salt tolerance in wheat. The expression of these subunits was tissue-specific. Overexpression of the E subunit by transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was able to enhance seed germination, root growth and adult seedling growth under salt stress.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of TaSTRG gene improves salt and drought tolerance in rice.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High salt and drought are the main factors affecting agricultural production. Thus, cloning stress-tolerance-related genes and identifying their functions are essential to enhancing crop tolerance to stresses. In this study, a salt-induced unknown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gene was identified and cloned according to microarray analysis of salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt tolerance-related gene (TaSTRG) and submitted to Genbank (Accession number: EF599631). TaSTRG expression in wheat is induced by multiple stresses including salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG), abscisic acid (ABA), and cold. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing TaSTRG gene showed higher salt and drought tolerance than the control. Under salt stress, the transgenic rice had a lower intracellular Na(+)/K(+) ratio than the control. Under salt and PEG treatments, these TaSTRG overexpressing rice plants had higher survival rate, fresh weight and chlorophyll content, accumulated higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and had significantly higher expression levels of putative proline synthetase and transporter genes than the control plants. These results indicate that the wheat TaSTRG gene could enhance plant tolerance to multiple types of stresses.
Related JoVE Video
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of depression: a study protocol for a double blinded randomized clinical trial.
BMC Complement Altern Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Depressive disorders are the most common form of mental disorders in community and health care settings. Unfortunately, the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is far from satisfactory. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a relatively new and promising physical treatment for depressive disorders. One particularly appealing element of VNS is the long-term benefit in mood regulation. However, because this intervention involves surgery, perioperative risks, and potentially significant side effects, this treatment has been limited to those patients with treatment-resistant depression who have failed medication trials and exhausted established somatic treatments for major depression, due to intolerance or lack of response.This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aims to overcome these limitations by introducing a novel method of stimulating superficial branches of the vagus nerve on the ear to treat MDD. The rationale is that direct stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers on the ear area with afferent vagus nerve distribution should produce a similar effect as classic VNS in reducing depressive symptoms without the burden of surgical intervention.
Related JoVE Video
Methane hydrates with a high capacity and a high formation rate promoted by biosurfactants.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lignosulfonates, which are byproducts of the pulp and paper industry, can be used as promoters for the formation of methane hydrates with a high capacity up to 170 v/v and a high formation rate.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide on the rat myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase during ischemia/reperfusion.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously shown that N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F(2)), a newly synthesized compound, reduces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by preventing intracellular Ca(2+) overload through inhibiting L-type calcium channels and outward current of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. This study was to investigate the effects of F(2) on activity and protein expression of the rat myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) during I/R to discover other molecular mechanisms by which F(2) maintains intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. In an in vivo rat model of myocardial I/R achieved by occluding coronary artery for 30-60 min followed by 0-120 min reperfusion, treatment with F(2) (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, respectively) dose-dependently inhibited the I/R-induced decrease in SERCA activity. However, neither different durations of I/R nor different doses of F(2) altered the expression levels of myocardial SERCA2a protein. These results indicate that F(2) exerts cardioprotective effects against I/R injury by inhibiting I/R-mediated decrease in SERCA activity by a mechanism independent of SERCA2a protein levels modulation.
Related JoVE Video
Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing interleukin-1 receptor antagonist improve fulminant hepatic failure.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uncontrolled hepatic immunoactivation is regarded as the primary pathological mechanism of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The major acute-phase mediators associated with FHF, including IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?, impair the regeneration of liver cells and stem cell grafts. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) have the capacity, under specific conditions, to differentiate into hepatocytes. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) plays an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role in acute and chronic inflammation, and has been used in many experimental and clinical applications. In the present study, we implanted IL-1Ra-expressing AF-MSCs into injured liver via the portal vein, using D-galactosamine-induced FHF in a rat model. IL-1Ra expression, hepatic injury, liver regeneration, cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6), and animal survival were assessed after cell transplantation. Our results showed that AF-MSCs over-expressing IL-1Ra prevented liver failure and reduced mortality in rats with FHF. These animals also exhibited improved liver function and increased survival rates after injection with these cells. Using green fluorescent protein as a marker, we demonstrated that the engrafted cells and their progeny were incorporated into injured livers and produced albumin. This study suggests that AF-MSCs genetically modified to over-express IL-1Ra can be implanted into the injured liver to provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of FHF.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of electroacupuncture stimulation of auricular concha region at different time-points on behavior changes in depression rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of auricular concha region (ACR) on behavior changes of depression rats.
Related JoVE Video
[Association of the IL-18 gene polymorphism with susceptibility to colorectal cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) and haplotypes of interleukin-18(IL-18) gene associated with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer(CRC).
Related JoVE Video
CIP, a cardiac Isl1-interacting protein, represses cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
Circ. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mammalian heart has minimal regenerative capacity. In response to mechanical or pathological stress, the heart undergoes cardiac remodeling. Pressure and volume overload in the heart cause increased size (hypertrophic growth) of cardiomyocytes. Whereas the regulatory pathways that activate cardiac hypertrophy have been well-established, the molecular events that inhibit or repress cardiac hypertrophy are less known.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.