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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Altered Brain Activation Patterns Under Different Working Memory Loads in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has important effects on cognition and the risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). Working memory (WM) is a susceptible cognitive domain of mild cognitive impairment and AD. Thus, the identification of brain activation patterns under different WM loads can potentially enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in T2DM.
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Early frontal structural and functional changes in mild white matter lesions relevant to cognitive decline.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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White matter lesions (WMLs) are of considerable research interest because of their high prevalence and serious consequences, such as stroke and dementia. Most existing studies of WMLs have focused on severe WMLs, but mild WMLs, which are clinically and fundamentally significant, have been largely neglected. The present study is a comprehensive investigation on the injury pattern and on the anatomical, functional, and cognitive changes related to mild WMLs. These results may provide better understanding mild WMLs. Fifty-one human subjects with mild WMLs and 49 control participants completed serial neuropsychological tests and underwent a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that included diffusion tensor imaging, a resting-state functional MRI, and a structural MRI. We found declines in cognitive functions such as global function, executive function, and episodic memory in mild WMLs subjects. The white matter injuries in the mild WMLs subjects were mainly in the fibers that projected to frontal areas, while gray matter structures were relatively intact. The overall resting state function of the frontal area was significantly increased. The integrity of the neural fibers in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus was significantly correlated with the cognitive scores in executive function and episodic memory in both the control and the mild WMLs group. These findings demonstrate that mild WMLs subjects exhibit abnormalities in both white matter structure and functional intrinsic brain activity and that such changes are related to several types of cognitive dysfunction.
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Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid for the treatment of XDR-TB: a study in China.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Linezolid may be effective in treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, randomised study to further evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in China. 65 patients who had culture-positive sputum for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis were randomly assigned to a linezolid therapy group or a control group. Patients in the two groups adopted a 2-year individually based chemotherapy regimen. The linezolid therapy group was given linezolid at a start dose of 1200 mg per day for a period of 4-6 weeks and this was then followed by a dose of 300-600 mg per day. The proportion of sputum culture conversions in the linezolid therapy group was 78.8% by 24 months, significantly higher than that in the control group (37.6%, p<0.001). The treatment success rate in linezolid therapy group was 69.7%, significantly higher than that in the control group (34.4%, p = 0.004). 27 (81.8%) patients had clinically significant adverse events in the linezolid group, of whom 25 (93%) patients had events that were possibly or probably related to linezolid. Most adverse events resolved after reducing the dosage of linezolid or temporarily discontinuing linezolid. Linezolid containing chemotherapy for treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis may significantly promote cavity closure, increase sputum culture-conversion rate and improve treatment success rate.
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Disrupted Functional and Structural Networks in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects with the APOE ?4 Allele.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Since Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been suggested as a disconnection syndrome manifested by the disruption of white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity(FC), elucidating the subtle brain structural and functional network changes in cognitively normal ?4 carriers is essential for identifying sensitive neuroimaging based biomarkers and understanding the preclinical AD related abnormality development. We first constructed functional network based on the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural network based on diffusion tensor image. Using global, local and nodal efficiencies of these two networks, we then examined 1) the differences of functional and WM structural network between cognitively normal ?4 carriers and non-carriers simultaneously, 2) the sensitivity of these indices as biomarkers, and 3) their relationship to behavior measurements as well as to cholesterol level. For ?4 carriers, we found reduced global efficiency significantly in WM and marginally in FC, regional FC dysfunctions mainly in medial temporal areas, and more widespread for WM network. Importantly, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG.R) was the only region with simultaneous functional and structural damage, and the nodal efficiency of PHG.R in WM network mediates the APOE ?4 effect on memory function. Finally, the cholesterol level correlated with WM network differently than with functional network in ?4 carriers. Our results demonstrated ?4-specific abnormal structural and functional patterns, which may potentially serve as biomarkers for early detection before the onset of the disease.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 November 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.302.
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Aberrant functional networks connectivity and structural atrophy in silent lacunar infarcts: relationship with cognitive impairments.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Silent or asymptomatic lacunar infarcts (LACI) are common in elderly individuals, but it remains largely unclear how these often neglected silent brain infarcts lead to multiple domain cognitive deficits and even Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the difference between patients with silent LACI in basal ganglia region and healthy controls for the structural and functional changes in the aspects of alterations of gray matter (GM) volume and intra-/inter-default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) connectivity. Thirty patients with silent LACI in the basal ganglia region and thirty healthy controls participated in the study. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was employed to measure the GM volume. We further investigated the intra/inter-network connectivity of DMN and SN using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with healthy controls, patients performed worse in cognitive function in the aspects of general mental status, attention, and memory. The LACIs showed more severe GM atrophy in insula, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and superior temporal pole than controls. The connectivity within and between two networks was also reduced in patients. Importantly, the disrupted connectivity correlated with the patients' cognitive performance. Our findings support the hypothesis that silent lacunar infarcts result in cognitive decline, GM, and functional connectivity loss.
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White matter integrity disruptions associated with cognitive impairments in type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a twofold increased risk of dementia and can affect many cognitive abilities, but its underlying cause is still unclear. In this study, we used a combination of a battery of neuropsychological tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to explore how T2DM affects white matter (WM) integrity and cognition in 38 T2DM patients and 34 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to assess a wide range of cognitive functions. Tract-based spatial statistics combined with region of interest-wise (ROI-wise) analysis of mean values of DTI metrics in ROIs was used to compare group differences of DTI metrics on WM skeletons to identify severely disrupted WM tracts in T2DM. We found that T2DM patients showed 1) various cognitive impairments, including executive function, spatial processing, attention, and working memory deficits; 2) widespread WM disruptions, especially in the whole corpus callosum, the left anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC.L), and external capsule (EC); and 3) a positive correlation between executive function and WM integrity in the ALIC.L and the left EC. In conclusion, T2DM patients show various cognitive impairments and widespread WM integrity disruptions, which we attribute to demyelination. Moreover, executive dysfunction closely correlates with WM abnormalities.
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Trajectories of age-related cognitive decline and potential associated factors of cognitive function in senior citizens of Beijing.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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With a longer life expectancy and an increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, investigations on trajectories of cognitive aging have become exciting and promising. This study aimed to estimate the patterns of age-related cognitive decline and the potential associated factors of cognitive function in community-dwelling residents of Beijing, China. In this study, 1248 older adults aged 52-88 years [including 175 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects] completed a battery of neuropsychological scales. The personal information, including demographic information, medical history, eating habits, lifestyle regularity and leisure activities, was also collected. All cognitive function exhibited an agerelated decline in normal volunteers. Piece-wise linear fitting results suggested that performance on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test remained stable until 58 years of age and continued to decline thereafter. The decline in processing speed and executive function began during the early 50's. Scores on visual-spatial and language tests declined after 66 years of age. The decline stage of the general mental status ranged from 63 to 70 years of age. However, the MCI group did not exhibit an obvious age-related decline in most cognitive tests. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that education, gender, leisure activities, diabetes and eating habits were associated with cognitive abilities. These results indicated various trajectories of age-related decline across multiple cognitive domains. We also found different patterns of agerelated cognitive decline between MCI and normal elderly. These findings could help improve the guidance of cognitive intervention program and have implications for public policy issues.
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Ameliorative Effects of Baicalein on an Amyloid-?induced Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model: a Proteomics Study.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related dementia. Effective anti-AD drugs against amyloid-?-protein-induced cognitive impairment are still lacking. Baicalein is the main component of Radix Scutellariae and has neuroprotective properties. In this study, we provide further insights into pharmacotherapy mechanisms and potential targets of baicalein in AD. Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of baicalein in an AD rat model. Methods: Male rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with amyloid-?(A?) 1-40, and baicalein was orally administered. The therapeutic effect was evaluated with the Morris water maze test, and the mechanism of action was studied using a proteomics approach and western blotting. Results: Baicalein treatment significantly attenuated A?1-40-induced abnormalities in cognitive function. Additionally, the expression levels of 24 proteins in the cerebral tissue were significantly influenced by baicalein; approximately 50% of these proteins are related to energy metabolism and neurotransmission, whereas others are related to anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidation, the stress response, protein phosphorylation, the cytoskeleton, phospholipid metabolism and cell signaling. The expression of these proteins was increased, except for the proteins related to the cytoskeleton. The changes in the expression of 2 proteins were confirmed by western blotting. Conclusions: Baicalein ameliorates the A?1-40-induced dementia in rats and may be a novel and promising drug for the treatment of AD. The therapeutic mechanism may be related to modulation of a number of processes, mainly through the promotion of energy metabolism and neurotransmission, with the additional promotion of anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidation, protein phosphorylation, etc.
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Preparation and characterization of catechin-grafted chitosan with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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In the present study, the preparation, characterization, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of catechin-grafted chitosan (catechin-g-chitosan) were investigated. The graft of catechin onto chitosan was achieved by redox system and confirmed using various instrumental methods. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that catechin has been successfully grafted onto chitosan. The morphology observation shows that chitosan changes to a softened nature with porous surface after grafting. Catechin-g-chitosan also exhibits reduced thermal stability and enhanced crystallinity compared to chitosan. Moreover, catechin-g-chitosan shows 0.51 of reducing power, 46.81% of hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and 67.08% of DPPH radical-scavenging activity at 1mg/ml, which are much higher than that of chitosan. The antidiabetic activity in vitro assays shows that the ?-glucosidase inhibitory effect decreases in the order of catechin-g-chitosan>catechin>acarbose>chitosan, and the ?-amylase inhibitory effect decreases in the order of acarbose>catechin-g-chitosan>catechin>chitosan. The improved antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of catechin-g-chitosan are attributed to the phenolic groups in the catechin residues.
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Aggravated cognitive and brain functional impairment in mild cognitive impairment patients with type 2 diabetes: a resting-state functional MRI study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which could also increase the risk of progression from MCI to dementia. The present study evaluated the spontaneous neuronal activity of 31 patients with MCI using resting-state functional MRI. The patients were divided into two groups (17 MCI patients without diabetes, and 14 patients with type 2 diabetes who were considered as the MCI-DM group) and 17 well-matched healthy controls were also recruited. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of spontaneous blood oxygen level dependent signals was then applied to assess neuroimaging changes. To further investigate the impact of type 2 diabetes on cognition, the correlation of ALFF and the neuropsychological tests for the MCI-DM and MCI group were calculated. MCI-DM patients showed diffused ALFF changes in a variety of brain regions that were significantly related to cognitive performance, including the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the precuneus during a resting state; whereas, the alterations were much less pronounced in the MCI patients without diabetes. These findings provide new insights into understanding essential of diabetes mellitus and may help to clarify the relationship between diabetes mellitus and dementia.
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The effects of CCRC on cognition and brain activity in aMCI patients: a pilot placebo controlled BOLD fMRI study.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To investigate effects and functional mechanism of compound Congrongyizhi Capsule (CCRC), a Chinese medicine, on cognitive functions against amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on n-back task.
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Structural and functional brain changes in the default mode network in subtypes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Various amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subtypes have been identified as single domain (SD) or multiple domain (MD), with differential probabilities of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD). Detecting the differences in the alterations in gray matter (GM) and intrinsic brain activity between the subtypes of aMCI help to understand their pathophysiological mechanisms and was conducive to construct such potential biomarkers to monitor the progression of aMCI.
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A Raman spectroscopic comparison of calcite and dolomite.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize and differentiate the two minerals calcite and dolomite and the bands related to the mineral structure. The (CO3)(2-) group is characterized by four prominent Raman vibrational modes: (a) the symmetric stretching, (b) the asymmetric deformation, (c) asymmetric stretching and (d) symmetric deformation. These vibrational modes of the calcite and dolomite were observed at 1440, 1088, 715 and 278 cm(-1). The significant differences between the minerals calcite and dolomite are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Calcite shows the typical bands observed at 1361, 1047, 715 and 157 cm(-1), and the special bands at 1393, 1098, 1069, 1019, 299, 258 and 176 cm(-1) for dolomite are observed. The difference is explained on the basis of the structure variation of the two minerals. Calcite has a trigonal structure with two molecules per unit cell, and dolomite has a hexagonal structure. This is more likely to cause the splitting and distorting of the carbonate groups. Another cause for the difference is the cation substituting for Mg in the dolomite mineral.
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Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: topological reorganization of the default-mode network.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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To investigate the topologic reorganization of the default-mode network (DMN) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and whether, relative to healthy control subjects, patients with MCI would be more likely to show disrupted functional connectivity and altered topological configuration of the DMN during the memory task compared with that observed during the resting state.
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Differences in functional brain activation and hippocampal volume among amnestic mild cognitive impairment subtypes.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) often display deficits in episodic memory. Amnestic MCI is now recognized as a prodromal form of Alzheimers disease. Various aMCI clinical subtypes have been identified as ingle-domain (SD) or multi-domain (MD). The various subtypes represent heterogeneous syndrome indicating the probability of progression to AD, impaired cognitive domains and so on. To examine the characteristics of brain regions of aMCI subtypes is likely to be important for early diagnosis and prediction to AD. This study investigated brain functional activation and hippocampal atrophy during a visually complex scene encoding in 20 individuals with aMCI-SD, 14 individuals with aMCI-MD and 25 healthy controls. During the encoding task, aMCI-MD patients had reduced activation in right superior medial frontal, right inferior and middle temporal, right middle occipital and left inferior frontal regions compared to controls. The different active brain regions between aMCI-MD and aMCI-SD patients are the right middle occipital and left middle cingulum regions. The aMCI-MD group had significantly lower left hippocampus volumes compared to the aMCI-SD group and controls, but there was no difference between aMCI-SD patients and the control group in terms of left hippocampus atrophy. The findings provide evidence that aMCI may represent a heterogeneous group. The aMCI-MD patients displayed more severe hippocampcal atrophy and fMRI activation changes than aMCI-SD. The aMCIMD may represent a more advanced prodromal stage of AD.
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Ameliorative effects of a combination of baicalin, jasminoidin and cholic acid on ibotenic acid-induced dementia model in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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To investigate the therapeutic effects and acting mechanism of a combination of Chinese herb active components, i.e., a combination of baicalin, jasminoidin and cholic acid (CBJC) on Alzheimers disease (AD).
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Risk Factors for Poor Treatment Outcomes in Patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China: Retrospective Multi-Center Investigation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The treatment of patients with MDR- and XDR-TB is usually more complex, toxic and costly and less effective than treatment of other forms of TB. However, there is little information available on risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with MDR- and XDR-TB in China.
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Increased cytokines response in patients with tuberculosis complicated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To explore the change and its significance of cytokines in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with COPD.
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Experimental evidence of Ginkgo biloba extract EGB as a neuroprotective agent in ischemia stroke rats.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2011
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EGb761 is a standard extract of Ginkgo biloba, which is a kind of traditional Chinese herbs that has widely used in clinic treatment of stroke in China. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been evaluated comprehensively and its neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In the present study, magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), neurological behavior and TTC staining were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of EGb761 in rat ischemic models. Additionally, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to measure the phosphorylations of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and Akt as well as the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat brains. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract injection significantly increased the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) value both in the peripheral zone and central zone, improved behavior scores, as well as enhanced the phosphorylations of AKT, CREB and the expression of BDNF in the brains. All these data demonstrate that EGb761 had significant therapeutic effects on ischemic stroke and it perhaps worked through activating the Akt-CREB-BDNF pathway.
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[Application of functional MRI on evaluation of cholinergic drugs and other neurotransmitter drugs and its prospect in traditional Chinese medicine evaluation].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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This article summarizes the progress of the application of functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) on neuropharmacology. Cholinergic drugs are types of neurotransmitters which are usually used to treat neurological disorders. fMRI is widely used in the research of evaluation of cholinergic drugs. This article systematically summerizes the research of drug evaluation on memory, attention, emotion and vision by fMRI using the cholinergic drugs for example. Combined with the charactors and disciplines of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), this article also makes a prospect of the application of fMRI on traditional Chinese medicine evaluation, especially the drugs on brain disease and emotional modulation.
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[Phase 0 clinical trials and post-marketed re-evaluation of clinical safety in injection of traditional Chinese medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Adverse drug reaction induced by injection of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) often occurs. Post-marketed re-evaluation of clinical safety in injection of TCM is indispensable,in order to solve the clinical safety problems. It is necessary to conduct Phase 0 clinical trials for containing toxic medicine and injection of TCM. Phase 0 clinical trials, involving very limited human exposure, and using microdose of drugs, are intended to collect the necessary safety and pharmacokinetic data in limited period. Microdose reflects allergies of injection of TCM. Phase 0 clinical trials provide a new method for post-marketed re-evaluation of safety in injection of TCM. Its use depends on whether there is a safety problem for injection of TCM,and the determination of initial dose and sample size are key questions in study design.
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WITHDRAWN: Comprehensive evaluation of neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGB against ischemic stroke.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Neuroprotective effects of tenuigenin in a SH-SY5Y cell model with 6-OHDA-induced injury.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Tenuigenin, an active component of Polygala tenuifolia root extracts, has been shown to provide antioxidative and anti-aging effects in Alzheimers disease, as well as to promote proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. However, the effects of tenuigenin on Parkinsons disease remain unclear. In the present study, SH-SY5Y cells were utilized to determine the effects of tenuigenin on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced injury. Results showed that 1.0 × 10?¹-10 ?M tenuigenin significantly promoted cell viability and reduced cell death. In addition, tenuigenin protected mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) against 6-OHDA damage and significantly increased glutathione and superoxide dismutase expression. At the mRNA level, tenuigenin resulted in down-regulation of caspase-3, but up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in 6-OHDA damaged cells. These results suggested that tenuigenin provides neuroprotection to dopaminergic neurons from 6-OHDA-induced damage. The neuroprotective mechanisms might involve antioxidative effects, maintenance of mitochondrial function, and regulation of caspase-3 and tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity. Tenuigenin could provide a novel antioxidative strategy for Parkinsons disease.
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[Similarity and diversity analysis of qingkailing effective components in regulating hippocampus ischemia-related genes of mice].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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To compare the different gene expression profiles among Qingkailing components of BA (baicalin), JA (jasminoidin), CA (cholic acid) and CM (concha margaritiferausta) in regulating hippocampus ischemia related genes of mice.
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Dynamic variation of genes profiles and pathways in the hippocampus of ischemic mice: a genomic study.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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To reveal the potential time-sequential molecular mechanism in the hippocampus of ischemia-reperfusion mice, so as to provide pertinent evidence for differential treatment during different phases after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Seventy-five male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia and reperfusion for 3h, 12h, and 24h, respectively. A cDNA microarray involving 374 cDNA ischemia-related genes, selected from the Science STKE database, was performed to detect the gene expression profiles. All data analyses were performed in the FDA ArrayTrack system. Data were also uploaded to the KEGG database (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) to analyze the genetic pathways. Results Clustering and principal component analyses showed clear boundaries in the differentially expressed genes among the 3h, 12h, and 24h groups. Although 56 overlapping up-regulated genes and 2 down-regulated genes were identified in 3h, 12h, and 24h groups, the sequence variation of CA1 neurons and gene expression profiles also existed in all groups. Based on the total number of altered genes, the top 3 GO categories were metabolism, signal and cell cycle, which shared 8, 11 and 5 overlapping genes in 3h, 12h, and 24h groups, respectively. As for metabolism, there were 2 specific altered genes in the 3h group (casp8ap2 and mmp2), 6 in the 24h group (daxx, gadd45a, adamts1, adcy8, cyp51, dusp16), but none in the 12h group. Based on the KEGG database analysis, 18 overlapping pathways were detected in the three groups; and 1, 12 and 2 overlapping pathways were noted between the 3h and 12h, 12h and 24h, and 3h and 24h comparisons, respectively. The gene expressions of Caspase 2 and Rgs6 were identified by real-time RT-PCR, which was consistent with the results of microarray analysis. Conclusion Overlapping and variable genes and pathways demonstrate the time-sequential molecular mechanism in the hippocampus of ischemic mice, which may provide evidence for rational treatment during different phases after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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Baicalin administration is effective in positive regulation of twenty-four ischemia/reperfusion-related proteins identified by a proteomic study.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Baicalin is a major plant polyphenolic compound derived from the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a Traditional Chinese Medicine material. The current study applied proteomics to investigate the different protein expression modes in mice brains after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with or without administration of baicalin. Twenty-four proteins which had a 3-fold change in abundance compared to the sham control sample were selected to be identified. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference in expression between the twenty-four proteins baicalin-treated MCAO group and the sham-operation group (n=24, p=0.102). Gene Ontology analysis linked these proteins to fifteen biological processes, including cellular process, developmental process and biological regulation. Results indicated that baicalin performed well in regulating proteins in energy metabolism but had a relatively weak effect in the regulation of proteins in neurogenesis and apoptosis. In sum, our findings suggest baicalin may be a potential therapeutic agent in treating stroke and may also be a strong candidate for future research in its actions on individual proteins.
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Preparation, preliminary characterization and immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharide fractions from the peduncles of Hovenia dulcis.
Food Chem
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The peduncles of Hovenia dulcis, containing abundant nutrients and having a taste like a combination of raisin, clove, cinnamon and sugar, have been consumed as fruits and used as traditional herbal medicine for a long time in China. Up to date, little information is available about the polysaccharides from peduncles of H. dulcis (HDPS) and their potential bioactivity. In this study, three purified fractions were prepared by sequential purification of crude HDPS through ion-exchange chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. The three fractions of HDPS-1, HDPS-2 and HDPS-3 were found to be homogeneous heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with an average molecular weight of 235, 70 and 53 kDa, respectively. HDPS-3 was quite different from HDPS-1 and HDPS-2, as it contained much higher content of galacturonic acid (40.5%). In vitro immunostimulatory activity evaluation revealed that all the three fractions could significantly stimulate the proliferation of splenocytes and enhance phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and acid phosphatase activity of peritoneal macrophages, which suggested that HDPS had a potent immunostimulatory activity and could be explored as a potential natural immunomodulatory agent.
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Disrupted topological organization in white matter structural networks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: relationship to subtype.
Radiology
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To investigate the topological alterations of whole-brain white matter structural connectivity in patients with different types of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), including single-domain (SD) and multidomain (MD) aMCI, and to explore the relationship of such connectivity with neuropsychologic performance.
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Preliminary characterization, antioxidant activity in vitro and hepatoprotective effect on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice of polysaccharides from the peduncles of Hovenia dulcis.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
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The fresh fleshy peduncles of Hovenia dulcis have been used as a food supplement and traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and alcoholic poisoning for more than a millennium. The objectives of the present study, therefore, were to determine the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the peduncles of H. dulcis (HDPS) and to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. HDPS, prepared by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and treatment of macroporous resin, was found to be non-starch polysaccharide and mainly composed of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. In in vitro antioxidant assay, HDPS exhibited high superoxide radical scavenging activity, strong inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation and a medium ferrous ion-chelating activity. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, the administration of HDPS significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, significantly decreased the liver level of malondialdehyde and remarkably restored the liver activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in alcohol-induced liver injury mice. The results suggested that HDPS had a significant protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury possibly via its antioxidant activity to protect biological systems against the oxidative stress.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.