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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Overexpression and Potential Regulatory Role of IL-17F in Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the expression level, clinical significance, and possible regulating role of IL-17F in patients of chronic periodontitis. Periodontal local tissues were obtained from chronic periodontitis (CP) and healthy controls (HC) for real-time PCR (RT-PCR) detection with IL-17F and IL-17A messenger RNA (mRNA). Primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were derived from patients receiving crown-lengthening procedures. Efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) of IL-17R to HGF cells were assessed by Western blot and RT-PCR. Recombinant IL-17F and IL-17A were used to stimulate the HGF cells compared with the control group. Aspects of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways were examined by Western blot. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by IL-17F and IL-17A was detected by RT-PCR. Statistical analysis was analyzed by SPSS software. It showed significantly elevated levels of IL-17F and IL-17A mRNA in CP gingival tissues compared with HC group (P?
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Vigna angularis Water Extracts Protect Against Ultraviolet B-Exposed Skin Aging In Vitro and In Vivo.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various pathological changes, such as thickened skin and wrinkle formation. In particular, UVB irradiation increases MMP-1 production and collagen degradation, leading to premature aging, termed photoaging. The azuki bean (Vigna angularis; VA) has been widely used as a food product as well as a traditional medicine. However, its activity needs additional study to confirm its functional application in foods and cosmetics for protecting skin. In this study, hot-water extract from VA (VAE) and its active component, rutin, were investigated to determine their antiphotoaging effects. VAE was found to have antioxidant activity. In UVB-exposed NHDF cells with VAE and rutin treatments, MMP-1 production was significantly suppressed (90% and 47%, respectively). The effects of both topical and oral administration of VAE were tested in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. VAE suppressed wrinkle formation and skin thickness by promoting elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-?1 expression (118%, 156%, and 136%, respectively) and by diminishing MMP-1 production. These results suggest that VAE may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UVB radiation.
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Cu(OAc)2-Catalyzed Coupling of Aromatic C-H Bonds with Arylboron Reagents.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Cu-catalyzed coupling of aryl C-H bonds with arylboron reagents was accomplished using a readily removable directing group, which provides a useful method for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. The distinct transmetalation step in this Cu-catalyzed C-H coupling with aryl borons provides unique evidence for the formation of an aryl cupperate intermediate.
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Stochastic control of proliferation and differentiation in stem cell dynamics.
J Math Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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In self-renewing tissues, cell lineages consisting of stem cell and classes of daughter cells are the basic units which are responsible for the correct functioning of the organ. Cell proliferation and differentiation in lineages is thought to be mediated by feedback signals. In the simplest case a lineage is comprised of stem cells and differentiated cells. We create a model where stem cell proliferation and differentiation are controlled by the size of cell populations by means of a negative feedback loop. This two-dimensional Markov process allows for an analytical solution for the mean numbers and variances of stem and daughter cells. The mean values and the amounts of variation in cell numbers can be tightly regulated by the parameters of the control loop.
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Reversible transformation between chiral and achiral Dy6Mo4 clusters through a symmetric operation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Three polynuclear lanthanide clusters: (NH4)2[Dy6Mo4O12(rac-L(3-))4(OOCCH3)8]·4CH3OH·6H2O (), (Et3NH)2[Dy6Mo4O12(rac-L(3-))4(OOCCH3)8]·18H2O (), and (Me4N)2[Dy6Mo4O12(rac-L(3-))4(OOCCH3)8]·CH3OH·14H2O () (H3L = (E)-2-((2,3-dihydroxypropylimino)methyl)-phenol) were synthesized. Single-crystal analysis reveals that cluster crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group (P42/n), while clusters and crystallized in the chiral space group (P3121 or P3221), and cluster can be transformed into clusters and , when Et3NH(+) and Me4N(+), respectively, are used to replace NH4(+). Investigation on the solid-state vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra shows that the clusters and are homochiral crystallization. Powder X-ray diffraction study demonstrates that the transformation between chiral and achiral clusters is reversible.
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Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy.
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Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic Acid fermentation.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion.
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N···I halogen bonding interactions: influence of Lewis bases on their strength and characters.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Halogen bonding (XB) as an emerging noncovalent interaction, due to its highly directional and devisable properties, has given rise to considerable interest for constructing supramolecular assemblies. In this work, the newly developed density functional M06-2X calculations and the quantum theory of "atoms in molecules" (QTAIM) studies were carried out on a series of N···I halogen bonding to investigate the influence of Lewis bases (XB acceptors) on the XB. For the Lewis base C6-nH6-nNn (n = 1, 2, 3), with the increasing number of nitrogen atom in the aromatic ring, the most negative electrostatic potentials (VS, min) outside the nitrogen atom becomes less negative and the XB becomes weaker. The positive cooperativity exists in the Y(-)-C6H5N···C6F5I, Y(-)-C4H4N2···C6F5I, and Y(-)-C3H3N3···C6F5I (Y(-) = Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) termolecular complexes: the H bond or anion-? interactions have the ability to enhance the N···I halogen bond and vice versa. With the addition of halogen anions to the XB acceptor, the XB become more covalent, more electronic charge transfer from the XB acceptors to donors, the XB acceptors become more energetically stabilized and XB donors become more destabilized, and the atomic volume attraction of both the nitrogen and iodine atoms become more obvious. From the view of the Laplacian of electron density function, for the XB acceptor, the reactivity zone is the region of valence shell charge concentration (VSCC), where it is a (3, -3) critical point (CP) and referred to as a lump, thus the XB interaction can be classified as a lump-hole interaction. The more negative VS,min outside the nitrogen atom, the stronger the XB, resulting in the greater distance between the (3, -3) CP and the nitrogen nucleus.
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Gallic Acid Regulates Skin Photoaging in UVB-exposed Fibroblast and Hairless Mice.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary factor in skin photoaging, which is characterized by wrinkle formation, dryness, and thickening. The mechanisms underlying skin photoaging are closely associated with degradation of collagen via upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, which is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic compound, possesses a variety of biological activities including antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. We investigated the protective effects of GA against photoaging caused by UVB irradiation using normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) in vitro and hairless mice in vivo. The production levels of ROS, interlukin-6, and MMP-1 were significantly suppressed, and type I procollagen expression was stimulated in UVB-irradiated and GA-treated NHDFs. GA treatment inhibited the activity of transcription factor activation protein 1. The effects of GA following topical application and dietary administration were examined by measuring wrinkle formation, histological modification, protein expression, and physiological changes such as stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema index. We found that GA decreased dryness, skin thickness, and wrinkle formation via negative modulation of MMP-1 secretion and positive regulation of elastin, type I procollagen, and transforming growth factor-?1. Our data indicate that GA is a potential candidate for the prevention of UVB-induced premature skin aging. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Cu(II)-mediated ortho C-H alkynylation of (hetero)arenes with terminal alkynes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Cu(II)-promoted ortho alkynylation of arenes and heteroarenes with terminal alkynes has been developed to prepare aryl alkynes. A variety of arenes and terminal alkynes bearing different substituents are compatible with this reaction, thus providing an alternative disconnection to Sonogashira coupling.
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Screening and characterization of oleaginous Chlorella strains and exploration of photoautotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for oil production.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The growth and oil production of nine Chlorella strains were comparatively assessed and Chlorellaprotothecoides CS-41 demonstrated the greatest lipid production potential. The effects of different nitrogen forms and concentrations, phosphorus concentrations and light intensities on growth and oil production were studied in laboratory columns. C. protothecoides CS-41 accumulated lipids up to 55% of dry weight, with triacylglycerol and oleic acid being 71% of total lipids and 59% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass and lipid productivities were achieved in outdoor panel PBRs, up to 1.25 and 0.59gL(-1)day(-1), or 44. 1 and 16.1gm(-2)day(-1), respectively. A two-stage cultivation strategy was proposed to enhance the algal biomass and lipid production. This is the first comprehensive investigation of both indoor and outdoor photoautotrophic C. protothecoides cultures for oil production, and C. protothecoides CS-41 represents a promising biofuel feedstock worthy of further exploration.
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Fermentative polyhydroxybutyrate production from a novel feedstock derived from bakery waste.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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In this study, Halomonas boliviensis was cultivated on bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater in batch and fed-batch cultures for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production. Results demonstrated that bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater could be efficiently utilized by Halomonas boliviensis while PHB contents between 10 and 30% (w/w) were obtained. Furthermore, three methods for bakery waste hydrolysis were investigated for feedstock preparation. These include: (1) use of crude enzyme extracts from Aspergillus awamori, (2) Aspergillus awamori solid mashes, and (3) commercial glucoamylase. In the first method, the resultant free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentration in hydrolysates was 150 and 250?mg?L(-1) after 20 hours at enzyme-to-solid ratios of 6.9 and 13.1?U?g(-1), respectively. In both cases, the final glucose concentration was around 130-150?g?L(-1). In the second method, the resultant FAN and glucose concentrations were 250?mg?L(-1) and 150?g?L(-1), respectively. In the third method, highest glucose and lowest FAN concentrations of 170-200?g?L(-1) and 100?mg?L(-1), respectively, were obtained in hydrolysates after only 5 hours. The present work has generated promising information contributing to the sustainable production of bioplastic using bakery waste hydrolysate.
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A spin-canted Ni(II)4-based metal-organic framework with gas sorption properties and high adsorptive selectivity for light hydrocarbons.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The reaction of nickel(II) nitrate with isonicotinic acid and 2,6-dimethyl-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid affords a novel, tetranuclear nickel(II)-based metal-organic framework that exhibits spin-canted antiferromagnetism with a canted angle of 1.65° and high adsorptive selectivity for light hydrocarbons.
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Effects of Galla chinensis extracts on UVB-irradiated MMP-1 production in hairless mice.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Galla chinensis (GAC) is a natural traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in folk medicine. Although GAC compounds (mainly gallic acid and methyl gallate) possess strong antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities, there is no report regarding topical or oral administration of GAC compounds on UVB irradiation-induced photoaging in hairless mice (SKH: HR-1). In the present study, we examined cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes induced by UVB in vitro. We also studied skin damage by measuring skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkling and levels of protein MMP-1, elastin, procollagen type I, and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in hairless mouse skin chronically irradiated by UVB in vivo. GAC treatment significantly prevented skin photoaging by reducing the levels of ROS, MMP-1, and IL-6 and promoting production of elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-?1. According to the results of H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining, GAC reduced skin thickness and wrinkle formation while it increased skin elasticity. The effects of GAC on UVB-induced skin photoaging may be due to suppressed MMP-1 expression. These findings could be referenced for the development of new agents that target UVB-induced photoaging.
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A highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cobalt(II) ions based on a tripodal amide ligand.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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A tripodal amide based ligand, tris-{(2-carbamoyl-5-carbomethoxy-pyridine)-2-ethyl}amine (H3L, 1), was synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Investigation of the cation recognition behavior showed that the ligand has selective colorimetric sensing properties for cobalt(II) ions by an obvious color change from colorless to yellow. To investigate the sensing mechanism of H3L for Co(2+) ions, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and single-crystal structural analysis were performed. The mixture of the ligand and cobalt(II) ions displayed selective colorimetric sensing properties for weak acid anions, such as CO3(2-), Ac(-), HCO3(-), SO3(2-), and PO4(3-). Detailed (1)H NMR experiments revealed that the basicity of the anions played an important role in the intensity of the interaction between the ligand and anions. The structures of compounds CoL (2), Co-Ac-HL (3), H4L-NO3 (4), and H4L-ClO4 (5) were also determined by single crystal diffraction studies.
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Practice plans of and factors influencing graduating dental students in China.
Int Dent J
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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The increasing number of dental schools and increasing annual dental undergraduate enrolment have resulted in stronger competition in job hunting among dental graduates. This study aimed to investigate the practice plans of graduating dental students and the factors influencing their practice choice.
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Exceedingly fast copper(II)-promoted ortho C-H trifluoromethylation of arenes using TMSCF?.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The direct ortho-trifluoromethylation of arenes, including heteroarenes, with TMSCF3 has been accomplished by a copper(II)-promoted C-H activation reaction which completes within 30?minutes. Mechanistic investigations are consistent with the involvement of C-H activation, rather than a simple electrophilic aromatic substitution (SE Ar), as the key step.
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Co-ligand and solvent effects on the spin-crossover behaviors of PtS-type porous coordination polymers.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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In our previous work ( Chen , X.-Y. ; Chem. Commun. 2013 , 49 , 10977 - 10979 ), we have reported the crystal structure and spin-crossover properties of a compound [Fe(NCS)2(tppm)]·S [1·S, tppm = 4,4',4?,4?-tetrakis(4-pyridylethen-2-yl)tetraphenylmethane, S = 5CH3OH·2CH2Cl2]. Here, its analogues [Fe(X)2(tppm)]·S [X = NCSe(-), NCBH3(-), and N(CN)2(-) for compounds 2·S, 3·S, and 4·S, respectively] have been synthesized and characterized by variable-temperature X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The crystal structure analyses of 2·S and 3·S reveal that both compounds possess the same topologic framework (PtS-type) building from the tetrahedral ligand tppm and planar unit FeX2; the framework is two-fold self-interpenetrated to achieve one-dimensional open channels occupied by solvent molecules. Powder X-ray diffraction study indicates the same crystal structure for 4. The average values of Fe-N distances observed, respectively, at 100, 155, and 220 K for the Fe1/Fe2 centers are 1.969/2.011, 1.970/2.052, and 2.098/2.136 Å for 2·S, whereas those at 110, 175, and 220 K are 1.972/2.013, 1.974/2.056, and 2.100/2.150 Å for 3·S, indicating the presence of a two-step spin crossover in both compounds. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities (?MT) confirm the two-step spin-crossover behavior at 124 and 200 K in 2·S, 151 and 225 K in 3·S, and 51 and 126 K in 4·S, respectively. The frameworks of 2-4 are reproducible upon solvent exchange and thereafter undergo solvent-dependent spin-crossover behaviors.
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Chlorella zofingiensis as an alternative microalgal producer of astaxanthin: biology and industrial potential.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-?,?-carotene-4,4'-dione), a high-value ketocarotenoid with a broad range of applications in food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries, has been gaining great attention from science and the public in recent years. The green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chlorella zofingiensis represent the most promising producers of natural astaxanthin. Although H. pluvialis possesses the highest intracellular astaxanthin content and is now believed to be a good producer of astaxanthin, it has intrinsic shortcomings such as slow growth rate, low biomass yield, and a high light requirement. In contrast, C. zofingiensis grows fast phototrophically, heterotrophically and mixtrophically, is easy to be cultured and scaled up both indoors and outdoors, and can achieve ultrahigh cell densities. These robust biotechnological traits provide C. zofingiensis with high potential to be a better organism than H. pluvialis for mass astaxanthin production. This review aims to provide an overview of the biology and industrial potential of C. zofingiensis as an alternative astaxanthin producer. The path forward for further expansion of the astaxanthin production from C. zofingiensis with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed.
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Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons. But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources. Such a situation exists for archetypal polypyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)3](2+), where the excited-state charge and spin dynamics involved in the transition from a low- to a high-spin state (spin crossover) have long been a source of interest and controversy. Here we demonstrate that femtosecond resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, with its sensitivity to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)3](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate that these capabilities will make our method a valuable tool for mapping in unprecedented detail the fundamental electronic excited-state dynamics that underpin many useful light-triggered molecular phenomena involving 3d transition metal complexes.
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Effects of periodontal treatment on lung function and exacerbation frequency in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic periodontitis: a 2-year pilot randomized controlled trial.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To evaluate the direct effects of periodontal therapy in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients with chronic periodontitis (CP).
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Cu(II)-mediated C-H amidation and amination of arenes: exceptional compatibility with heterocycles.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A Cu(OAc)2-mediated C-H amidation and amination of arenes and heteroarenes has been developed using a readily removable directing group. A wide range of sulfonamides, amides, and anilines function as amine donors in this reaction. Heterocycles present in both reactants are tolerated, making this a broadly applicable method for the synthesis of a family of inhibitors including 2-benzamidobenzoic acids and N-phenylaminobenzoates.
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Histone deacetylase 3 modulates Tbx5 activity to regulate early cardiogenesis.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Congenital heart defects often result from improper differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells. Although transcription factors involved in cardiac progenitor cell differentiation have been described, the associated chromatin modifiers in this process remain largely unknown. Here we show that mouse embryos lacking the chromatin-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) in cardiac progenitor cells exhibit precocious cardiomyocyte differentiation, severe cardiac developmental defects, upregulation of Tbx5 target genes and embryonic lethality. Hdac3 physically interacts with Tbx5 and modulates its acetylation to repress Tbx5-dependent activation of cardiomyocyte lineage-specific genes. These findings reveal that Hdac3 plays a critical role in cardiac progenitor cells to regulate early cardiogenesis.
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Bioinformatic prediction of WSSV-host protein-protein interaction.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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WSSV is one of the most dangerous pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanism of how WSSV interacts with shrimp is still not very clear. In the present study, bioinformatic approaches were used to predict interactions between proteins from WSSV and shrimp. The genome data of WSSV (NC_003225.1) and the constructed transcriptome data of F. chinensis were used to screen potentially interacting proteins by searching in protein interaction databases, including STRING, Reactome, and DIP. Forty-four pairs of proteins were suggested to have interactions between WSSV and the shrimp. Gene ontology analysis revealed that 6 pairs of these interacting proteins were classified into "extracellular region" or "receptor complex" GO-terms. KEGG pathway analysis showed that they were involved in the "ECM-receptor interaction pathway." In the 6 pairs of interacting proteins, an envelope protein called "collagen-like protein" (WSSV-CLP) encoded by an early virus gene "wsv001" in WSSV interacted with 6 deduced proteins from the shrimp, including three integrin alpha (ITGA), two integrin beta (ITGB), and one syndecan (SDC). Sequence analysis on WSSV-CLP, ITGA, ITGB, and SDC revealed that they possessed the sequence features for protein-protein interactions. This study might provide new insights into the interaction mechanisms between WSSV and shrimp.
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Genetic engineering of the green alga Chlorella zofingiensis: a modified norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase gene as a dominant selectable marker.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The unicellular green alga Chlorella zofingiensis has been proposed as a promising producer of natural astaxanthin, a commercially important ketocarotenoid. But the genetic toolbox for this alga is not available. In the present study, an efficient transformation system was established for C. zofingiensis. The transformation system utilized a modified norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase (PDS-L516F, with an leucine-phenylalanine change at position 516) as the selectable marker. Three promoters from endogenous PDS, nitrate reductase (NIT), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS) genes were tested, with the RBCS promoter demonstrating the highest transformation efficiency. Inclusion of the first intron of the PDS gene further enhanced the efficiency by 91 %. Both particle bombardment and electroporation methods were examined, and the latter gave a fourfold higher transformation efficiency. The introduction of PDS-L516F, which exhibited a 33 % higher desaturation activity than the unaltered enzyme, enabled C. zofingiensis to produce 32.1 % more total carotenoids (TCs) and 54.1 % more astaxanthin. The enhanced accumulation of astaxanthin in transformants was revealed to be related to the increase in the transcripts of PDS, ?-carotenoid ketolase (BKT), and hydroxylase (CHYb) genes. Our study clearly shows that the modified PDS gene is a dominant selectable marker for the transformation of C. zofingiensis and possibly for the genetic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In addition, the engineered C. zofingiensis might serve as an improved source of natural astaxanthin.
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Microalgal carotenoids: beneficial effects and potential in human health.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Microalgae are huge natural sources of high-value compounds with health-promoting properties. The carotenoids derived from microalgae have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which allow them to provide health benefits. In this article, the bioactivities of microalgal carotenoids are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on astaxanthin, a ketocarotenoid with extraordinary potential for protecting against a wide range of diseases.
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A copper-induced metallothionein gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its response to heavy metal ions.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A full-length copper-induced metallothionein (EcMT-Cu) cDNA was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis) and it contained a 198 bp open reading frame that encoded a peptide with 65 amino acid residues. Twenty-one cysteines were found in deduced amino acid sequence and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was also reported in different types of metallothioneins from other species. EcMT-Cu mRNA expression profile showed that it is the hepatopancreas specific gene. The expression of EcMT-Cu was extremely different when shrimp were exposed to seawater containing 50 ?M CuSO4 or 2.5 ?M CdCl2. The expression of EcMT-Cu in shrimp was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 h after exposure to CuSO4, however, its expression was not induced compared to that of pretreatment (p>0.05) when shrimp were exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cu was found to be extremely low at gastrula and nauplius stage and expression of EcMT-Cu could be detected from egg protozoa stage.
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Solvothermal synthesis of four polyoxometalate-based coordination polymers including diverse Ag(I)···? interactions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Four 3D POM-based silver coordination polymers, namely, [Ag17(ptz)11(PW12O40)2]n (1), [Ag17(ptz)11(PMo12O40)2]n (2), [Ag12(ptz)6(CN)2(SiW12O40)]n (3), and [Ag19(ptz)8(H2ptz)(H3ptz)(AgP5W30O110)·7H2O]n (4), have been obtained by solvothermal reaction of AgNO3 and 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (Hptz) ligand in the presence of four types of polyoxometalates. Structural analysis shows that four types of Ag(I)···? interactions, m-?(1), m/p-?(2), o/m-?(2), and o/m/p-?(3), were observed in compounds 1-4, depending on the polyoxometalates used. The in situ generated CN(-) ion in compound 3 shows unprecedented mixed ? and ? bonding modes, similar to the C2(2-) ion in well-studied silver acetylides. For 4, the Na(+) ion in the Preyssler heteropolyoxoanion, [NaP5W30O110](14-), was exchanged by Ag(I) under solvothermal conditions, generating a novel [AgP5W30O110](14-) anion. In addition, the photoluminescence behavior of 1-4 was also investigated.
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Transcriptome analysis of the initial stage of acute WSSV infection caused by temperature change.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating virosis threatening the shrimp culture industry worldwide. Variations of environmental factors in shrimp culture ponds usually lead to the outbreak of white spot syndrome (WSS). In order to know the molecular mechanisms of WSS outbreak induced by temperature variation and the biological changes of the host at the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in shrimp with a certain amount of WSSV cultured at 18°C and shrimp whose culture temperature were raised to 25°C. To analyze whether the expression changes of the DEGs were due to temperature rising or WSSV proliferation, the expression of selected DEGs was analyzed by real-time PCR with another shrimp group, namely Group T, as control. Group T didn't suffer WSSV infection but was subjected to temperature rising in parallel. At the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, DEGs related to energy production were up-regulated, whereas most DEGs related to cell cycle and positive regulation of cell death and were down-regulated. Triose phosphate isomerase, enolase and alcohol dehydrogenase involved in glycosis were up-regulated, while pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase with NAD as the coenzyme involved in TCA pathway were down-regulated. Also genes involved in host DNA replication, including DNA primase, DNA topoisomerase and DNA polymerase showed down-regulated expression. Several interesting genes including crustin genes, acting binding or inhibiting protein genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (ADAM9) gene and a GRP 78 gene were also analyzed. Understanding the interactions between hosts and WSSV at the initial stage of acute infection will not only help to get a deep insight into the pathogenesis of WSSV but also provide clues for therapies.
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Crystallographic Snapshots of the Interplay between Reactive Guest and Host Molecules in a Porous Coordination Polymer: Stereochemical Coupling and Feedback Mechanism of Three Photoactive Centers Triggered by UV-Induced Isomerization, Dimerization, and Po
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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We carried out photopolymerization by [2 + 2] dimerization of a photoreactive guest molecule in the channels of a photoreactive porous coordination polymer. The photoreactions of the guest and two host ligands were monitored by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, providing snapshots of the interplay between the reactive centers. By correlating the structures of these three photocenters, a strong synergism was discovered among three reaction (quasi)equilibria and three types of photochemical reactions (isomerization, dimerization, and polymerization). This result indicates a strong coupling and feedback mechanism among the photocenters moderated by the coordination backbone.
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Courtship Patterns in the Drosophila montium Species Subgroup: Repeated Loss of Precopulatory Courtship?
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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During precopulatory courtship, male Drosophila typically produce wing vibration to generate species-specific songs before mounting females. Three species in the lini clade of the montium species subgroup have been found to produce species-specific sine song only after mounting and during copulation. Here we investigated and analyzed the courtship behavior of 29 species in the montium subgroup from video and song recordings and measured the duration of wing vibration. We describe a great diversity of courtship behavior in the montium subgroup. The courtship patterns can be categorized into four types in the montium subgroup: 1) type P/C, species with both precopulatory and copulatory courtship, such as D. parvula and D. nikananu, 2) type P-/C, species with sporadic precopulatory and mainly copulatory courtship, such as D. auraria and D. triauraria. 3) type C, species with only copulatory courtship, such as D. tani and D. pectinifera, 4) type C-, species with only very brief copulatory courtship, such as D. rufa and D. asahinai. According to a phylogenetic tree based on sequences of mitochondrial COI and COII, and the nuclear Adh, both precopulatory courtship and copulatory courtship were present in the most basal species D. parvula. Each of two branches in the montium subgroup contains four types of courtship behavior. Type C is present in each sub-branch. These results suggest that the courtship behavior initially involved both precopulatory and copulatory courtship, but that subsequently precopulatory courtship has gradually been lost in the montium subgroup. We suggest reasons why precopulatory behavior might come to be lost in the montium subgroup.
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Temperature, light and solvent-induced spin transition in a 3D 2-fold interpenetrated PtS-type porous coordination polymer.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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A 3D 2-fold interpenetrated porous coordination polymer, [Fe(NCS)2(tppm)]·5CH3OH·2CH2Cl2 (·sol, tppm = 4,4,4,4-tetrakis(4-pyridylethen-2-yl)tetraphenylmethane), was synthesized, which showed temperature, light and solvent-induced spin-crossover behaviours.
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A boracite metal-organic framework displaying selective gas sorption and guest-dependent spin-crossover behaviour.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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A metal-organic framework, [{Fe(NCS)2}3(TPB)4]·x(guest) [·x(guest), TPB = 1,3,5-tris(4-pyridyl)benzene], shows selective gas adsorption and guest-dependent spin-crossover behaviour.
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Ru(II)-Catalyzed ortho-C-H Amination of Arenes and Heteroarenes at Room Temperature.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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The Ru(II)-catalyzed ortho-C-H amination directed by a weakly coordinating amide auxiliary with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines at room temperature has been achieved. This reaction is compatible with heterocycles including pyrazole, thiophene, benzothiophene, furan, benzofuran, and indole.
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Aqueous Mg2+ and Ca2+ ligand exchange mechanisms identified with 2DIR spectroscopy.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Biological systems must discriminate between calcium and magnesium for these ions to perform their distinct biological functions, but the mechanism for distinguishing aqueous ions has yet to be determined. Ionic recognition depends upon the rate and mechanism by which ligands enter and leave the first solvation shell surrounding these cations. We present a time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy study of these ligand exchange dynamics in aqueous solution. The sensitivity of the CN-stretch frequency of NCS(-) to ion pair formation has been utilized to investigate the mechanism and dynamics of ligand exchange into and out of the first solvation shell of aqueous magnesium and calcium ions with multidimensional vibrational (2DIR) spectroscopy. We have determined that anion exchange follows a dissociative mechanism for Mg(2+) and an associative mechanism for Ca(2+).
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Four coordination polymers based on identical eight-connected heptanuclear clusters: spin canting, spin glass, antiferromagnetism, and gas adsorption.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Four 3D coordination polymers, [Co7(OH)4(H2O)2(ina)4(ip)3]·10H2O (1·10H2O, ina = isonicotinate, ip = isophthalate), [Ni7(OH)4(H2O)2(ina)4(ip)3]·10H2O (2·10H2O), [Co7(OH)4(H2O)2(ina)4(pip)3]·5H2O (3·5H2O, pip = 5-phenyl-isophthalate), and [Ni7(OH)4(H2O)2(ina)4(pip)3]·5H2O (4·5H2O), respectively, were hydrothermally synthesized. They crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Pba2 for 1·10H2O and 2·10H2O and monoclinic space group P2/n for 3·5H2O and 4·5H2O, respectively, and were constructed with the identical 8-connected heptanuclear {M7(OH)4} (M = Co(II) or Ni(II)) clusters, possessing uninodal hexagonal primitive net with the point symbol {3(6)·4(18)·5(3)·6}. The four coordination polymers showed dominant antiferromangetic properties, in which 1·10H2O shows spin-canted behavior and 2·10H2O exhibits the coexistence of spin canting and spin glass. Meanwhile, the activated polymers 1 and 2 possessed permanent porosity, displaying relatively large H2 uptake capacity (77 K, 1 atm) of 114 and 133 cm(3) g(-1), and CO2 uptake capacity (273 K, 1 atm) of 65.8 and 73.3 cm(3) g(-1), for 1 and 2, respectively.
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Preliminary molecular analysis of bacterial composition in periapical lesions with primary endodontic infections of deciduous teeth.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The bacterial composition of periapical lesions in deciduous teeth has not been well documented. This study was designed to explore the bacterial compositions, especially the dominant bacteria in periapical lesions using 16S rRNA sequencing.
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Contact Ion Pair Formation between Hard Acids and Soft Bases in Aqueous Solutions Observed with 2DIR Spectroscopy.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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The interaction of charged species in aqueous solution has important implications for chemical, biological, and environmental processes. We have used 2DIR spectroscopy to study the equilibrium dynamics of thiocyanate chemical exchange between free ion (NCS(-)) and contact ion pair configurations (MNCS(+)), where M(2+) = Mg(2+) or Ca(2+). Detailed studies of the influence of anion concentration and anion speciation show that the chemical exchange observed with the 2DIR measurements results from NCS(-) exchanging with other anion species in the first solvation shell surrounding Mg(2+) or Ca(2+). The presence of chemical exchange in the 2DIR spectra provides an indirect, but robust, determinant of contact ion pair formation. We observe preferential contact ion pair formation between soft Lewis base anions and hard Lewis acid cations. This observation cannot be easily reconciled with Pearsons acid-base concept or Collins Law of Matching Water Affinities. The anions that form contact ion pairs also correspond to the ions with an affinity for water and protein surfaces, so similar physical and chemical properties may control these distinct phenomena.
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Antiaging Effects of Astaxanthin-Rich Alga Haematococcus pluvialis on Fruit Flies under Oxidative Stress.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (HP) is the best natural producer of astaxanthin (AX), which is a potent antioxidant with broad health benefits. The present study investigated the antiaging potential of HP biomass using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model. The results showed that in wild-type flies the treatment of HP induced the early mortality at a concentration of 20 mg/mL, which was associated with the decreased enzymatic activities of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) as well as the down-regulation of SOD1, SOD2, and catalase (CAT) at the transcriptional level. In SOD(n108) mutant flies, the supplementation of HP (10 or 20 mg/mL) significantly extended their lifespan and ameliorated the age-related decline in locomotor function. Further studies suggested that HP may play a role as a complement to the defective endogenous antioxidant system to exert such lifespan elongation effects. These results, taken together, strongly support the antiaging properties of HP and its therapeutic rather than preventive potential against aging-related diseases.
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Deacetylase-Independent Function of HDAC3 in Transcription and Metabolism Requires Nuclear Receptor Corepressor.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are believed to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing deacetylation reactions. HDAC3 depletion in mouse liver upregulates lipogenic genes and results in severe hepatosteatosis. Here we show that pharmacologic HDAC inhibition in primary hepatocytes causes histone hyperacetylation but does not upregulate expression of HDAC3 target genes. Meanwhile, deacetylase-dead HDAC3 mutants can rescue hepatosteatosis and repress lipogenic genes expression in HDAC3-depleted mouse liver, demonstrating that histone acetylation is insufficient to activate gene transcription. Mutations abolishing interactions with the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR or SMRT) render HDAC3 nonfunctional in vivo. Additionally, liver-specific knockout of NCOR, but not SMRT, causes metabolic and transcriptomal alterations resembling those of mice without hepatic HDAC3, demonstrating that interaction with NCOR is essential for deacetylase-independent function of HDAC3. These findings highlight nonenzymatic roles of a major HDAC in transcriptional regulation in vivo and warrant reconsideration of the mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors.
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Evaluation of resveratrol sensitivities and metabolic patterns in human and rat glioblastoma cells.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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To further elucidate the correlation of resveratrol sensitivities with biotransformation activities of human and rat glioblastoma cells for personalized anti-glioblastoma therapy.
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The Protective Effects of Fucosterol Against Skin Damage in UVB-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) overexpression and extracellular matrix depletion, leading to skin photoaging. The activation of MMP is related to increased interlukin-6 (IL-6) and type I procollagen production, which is regulated by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation induces MMP-1 production and reduces type I procollagen secretion. Fucosterol, which is extracted and purified from the brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, is a phytosterol. We assessed the effects of fucosterol on photodamage and investigated its molecular mechanism of action in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that fucosterol significantly decreased the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1, IL-6, p-c-Jun, and p-c-Fos. Additionally, fucosterol markedly increased the UVB-induced production of type I procollagen and TGF-?1. Our results indicate that fucosterol regulates MMP-1 and type I procollagen expression by modulating AP-1 and TGF-?1 signaling and that MMP-1 activation is correlated with IL-6. These data suggest that fucosterol is a promising botanical agent to protect against skin photodamage.
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Association of Nox1 and vinculin with colon cancer progression.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Nox1 mRNA, protein, and activities were compared in the paired primary and metastatic colon adenocarcinoma cell lines SW480 and SW620, and in normal colon tissues and colon cancer tissues. Our results demonstrated that Nox1 levels were higher in the primary SW480 cells than that in metastatic SW620 cells and were not associated with colon cancer progression. We further discovered that vinculin protein level in SW620 was much higher than that in SW480 cells, whereas E-cadherin was lower. We conclude that vinculin and E-cadherin, but not Nox1, may serve as biomarkers for colon cancer progression.
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Probing hydrogen bond energies by mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Mass spectrometry with desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is demonstrated to be useful for probing the strength of hydrogen bonding, exemplified by various complexes of benzothiazoles and carboxylic acids in the solid state. Efficiencies for fragmentation of the complexes, quantified by collision-induced dissociation (CID) technology, correspond well with energies of the hydrogen bonds of O-H···N and N-H···O bridging each pair of benzothiazole and carboxylic acid. Linear correlations (with correlation factors of 0.8953 and 0.9928) have been established for the calibration curves of normalized collision energy at 100% fragmentation rate vs the length between donor and acceptor (in the hydrogen bond of O-H···N) as well as the slope of the fragmentation efficiency curve vs the average length difference between O-H···N and N-H···O in the complex. The mechanism responsible for determination of the hydrogen bonds is proposed on the basis of the experiments starting from the mixtures of the complexes as well as labeling with deuterium. As a complement of previously available methods (e.g., X-ray diffraction analysis), expectably, the proposed mass spectrometric method seems to be versatile for probing hydrogen bond energies.
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USP15 negatively regulates Nrf2 through deubiquitination of Keap1.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Nrf2 is a master regulator of the antioxidant response. Under basal conditions, Nrf2 is polyubiquitinated by the Keap1-Cul3 E3 ligase and degraded by the 26S proteasome. In response to Nrf2 inducers there is a switch in polyubiquitination from Nrf2 to Keap1. Currently, regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by ubiquitination is largely understood. However, the mechanism responsible for removal of ubiquitin conjugated to Nrf2 or Keap1 remains unknown. Here we report that the deubiquitinating enzyme, USP15, specifically deubiquitinates Keap1, which suppresses the Nrf2 pathway. We demonstrated that deubiquitinated Keap1 incorporates into the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ligase complex more efficiently, enhancing the complex stability and enzymatic activity. Consequently, there is an increase in Nrf2 protein degradation and a reduction in Nrf2 target gene expression. Furthermore, USP15-siRNA enhances chemoresistance of cells through upregulation of Nrf2. These findings further our understanding of how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated, which is imperative in targeting this pathway for chemoprevention or chemotherapy.
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Unidirectional charge transfer in di-cobalt valence tautomeric compound finely tuned by ancillary ligand.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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A dinuclear valence tautomeric compound containing a cationic structure with crystallographically distinguishable hs-Co(II) and ls-Co(III) centers undergoes unidirectional charge transfer.
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Enzyme-processed Korean Red Ginseng extracts protects against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation in hairless mice.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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UV irradiation is the main factor contributing to skin damages that are associated with an excessive production of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and a deficient expression of collagens. To date, red ginseng has been revealed to possess many biomedical effects, such as anti-aging, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammatory. In this study, we prepared the Korean Red Ginseng extracts treated with enzyme (KRGE) and investigated the effects of dietary KRGE on the formation of wrinkles generated by UVB irradiation in hairless mice. It was found that KRGE inhibited the UVB-induced formation of wrinkles, epidermal thickness, and skin dryness in hairless mice. Further results also showed that KRGE attenuated UVB-induced MMP-1 level, while accelerated procollagen type I, transforming growth factor-?1 secretion. Interestingly, the expression of profilaggrin and filaggrin in both the epidermis and dermis were decreased due to UVB exposure and reversed by KRGE. The KRGE 0.06% was prior to KRGE 0.24%. In view of these results, which indicated that KRGE protected skin from UVB-induced photodamages, which may not only mediated by regulating of MMP-1 and procollagen type I, but also by increasing the production of profilaggrin and filaggrin. In conclusion, our results suggest that KRGE may be a promising agent for the treatment of skin photodamages. The challenge of KRGE will be expected as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals in order to intervene in aging-related degenerative skin changes.
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Association among polymorphisms in EGFR gene exons, lifestyle and risk of gastric cancer with gender differences in Chinese Han subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene plays a key role in tumor survival, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastatic spread. Recent studies showed that gastric cancer (GC) was associated with polymorphisms of the EGFR gene and environmental influences, such as lifestyle factors. In this study, seven known SNPs in EGFR exons were investigated in a high-risk Chinese population in Jiangsu province to test whether genetic variants of EGFR exons and lifestyle are associated with an increased risk of GC.
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Food waste as nutrient source in heterotrophic microalgae cultivation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN), and phosphate were recovered from food waste by fungal hydrolysis using Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae. Using 100g food waste (dry weight), 31.9 g glucose, 0.28 g FAN, and 0.38 g phosphate were recovered after 24h of hydrolysis. The pure hydrolysate has then been used as culture medium and nutrient source for the two heterotrophic microalgae Schizochytrium mangrovei and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, S. mangrovei and C. pyrenoidosa grew well on the complex food waste hydrolysate by utilizing the nutrients recovered. At the end of fermentation 10-20 g biomass were produced rich in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results of this study revealed the potential of food waste hydrolysate as culture medium and nutrient source in microalgae cultivation.
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Transcriptome analysis on Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during WSSV acute infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200-15,094 bp). Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp.
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Efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine treatment for hot flashes associated with menopause: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Vasomotor symptoms, such as daytime hot flashes and nighttime awakenings due to hot flashes, are commonly associated with menopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess desvenlafaxine in moderate to severe hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials that compared desvenlafaxine to placebo for postmenopausal women affected with hot flashes. The main outcomes were mean differences (MD) or standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for change of the hot flashes. Six randomized controlled trials were identified in the meta-analysis. Pooled change of moderate and severe hot flashes frequency reduced SMD of -0.49 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.07) in desvenlafaxine 100 mg and -0.36 (95% CI -0.54 to -0.19) in desvenlafaxine 150 mg at week 12. Desvenlafaxine 100 mg reduced moderate and severe hot flashes frequency SMD of -0.74 (95% CI -1.05 to -0.44) within 26 weeks. There is no evidence for an increased risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or hepatic events associated with desvenlafaxine 100 mg/day. The meta-analysis suggests that treatment with desvenlafaxine 100 mg/day is associated with a significant reduction of moderate to severe hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Desvenlafaxine appears both safe and effective for treating hot flushes for up to 12 months.
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A dispersive scattering centers-based strategy for dramatically enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts in liquid-phase photochemical processes: a case of Ag nanosheets.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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A dispersive scattering centers-based strategy was proposed to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts in liquid-phase photochemical processes. Photocatalytic efficiencies of the photocatalyst, Degussa P25, in water splitting and photodegradation were markedly enhanced by using Ag nanosheets as dispersive scattering centers.
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Interaction between oral lichen planus and chronic periodontitis with Th17-associated cytokines in serum.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-17 IL-17 and IL-23 in serum from patients with both oral lichen planus and chronic periodontitis (OLP-CP), patients only with oral lichen planus (OLP), patients only with chronic periodontitis (CP), and healthy controls (HC). The serum samples were collected from 35 OLP-CP patients, 35 OLP patients, 30 CP patients, and 30 healthy controls. ELISA test was used to detect expression levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in serum from these four groups. ELISA analysis showed significantly elevated levels of serum IL-17 in OLP-CP group compared with OLP group (P?
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Semiconductor@metal-organic framework core-shell heterostructures: a case of ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorods with selective photoelectrochemical response.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and related material classes are attracting considerable attention for their applications in gas storage/separation as well as catalysis. In contrast, research concerning potential uses in electronic devices (such as sensors) is in its infancy, which might be due to a great challenge in the fabrication of MOFs and semiconductor composites with well-designed structures. In this paper, we proposed a simple self-template strategy to fabricate metal oxide semiconductor@MOF core-shell heterostructures, and successfully obtained freestanding ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorods as well as vertically standing arrays (including nanorod arrays and nanotube arrays). In this synthetic process, ZnO nanorods not only act as the template but also provide Zn(2+) ions for the formation of ZIF-8. In addition, we have demonstrated that solvent composition and reaction temperature are two crucial factors for successfully fabricating well-defined ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructures. As we expect, the as-prepared ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays display distinct photoelectrochemical response to hole scavengers with different molecule sizes (e.g., H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid) owing to the limitation of the aperture of the ZIF-8 shell. Excitingly, such ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays were successfully applied to the detection of H(2)O(2) in the presence of serous buffer solution. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the semiconductor@MOFs heterostructure potentially has promising applications in many electronic devices including sensors.
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Nuclear receptor co-repressors are required for the histone-deacetylase activity of HDAC3 in vivo.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is an epigenome-modifying enzyme that is required for normal mouse development and tissue-specific functions. In vitro, HDAC3 protein itself has minimal enzyme activity but gains its histone-deacetylation function from stable association with the conserved deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) contained in nuclear receptor co-repressors NCOR1 and SMRT. Here we show that HDAC3 enzyme activity is undetectable in mice bearing point mutations in the DAD of both NCOR1 and SMRT (NS-DADm), despite having normal levels of HDAC3 protein. Local histone acetylation is increased, and genomic HDAC3 recruitment is reduced though not abrogated. Notably, NS-DADm mice are born and live to adulthood, whereas genetic deletion of HDAC3 is embryonic lethal. These findings demonstrate that nuclear receptor co-repressors are required for HDAC3 enzyme activity in vivo and suggest that a deacetylase-independent function of HDAC3 may be required for life.
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Three novel organosilver(I) coordination networks constructed from diallylmelamine and polycarboxylates incorporating silver-vinyl bonding.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Diallylmelamine combines with Ag(2)O and auxiliary polycarboxylates to give three stable crystalline network structures, namely, [Ag(2)(dama)(2)(nipt)·H(2)O·C(2)H(5)OH](n) (1), [Ag(2)(dama)(glu)](n) (2), and [Ag(4)(dama)(2)(pma)·2H(2)O](n) (3), (dama = diallylmelamine, H(2)nipt = 5-nitroisophthalic acid, H(2)glu = glutaric acid, H(4)pma = pyromellitic acid), which have been successfully synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR Spectra, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 is a 1D double-chain extended by ?(2)-N,N-(?(2)-vinyl)-dama and ?(3)-nipt along the b axis. Notably, dama ligands in 1 display two coordination modes (bidentate ?(2)-N,N-(?(2)-vinyl) and monodentate ?(1)-N) and two different conformations (cis(anti-gauche) and trans(anti-anti)). In 2, a pair of centrosymmetric glu ligands clamp two Ag(I) ions to form a half paddle-wheel [Ag(2)(COO)(2)] secondary building unit (SBU) which is further extended by ?(2)-N,N-(?(2)-vinyl)-dama to form a 1D tape. Complex 3 is a 2D sheet built from ?(3)-N,N,N-(?(2)-vinyl)-dama and ?(8)-pma. Interestingly, apparent silver-vinyl interactions with a ?(2) mode were commonly observed in the solid-state structures of 1-3 (Ag-C = 2.311(4)-2.467(5) Å). The structural dissimilarity between 1 and 2 is caused by the different auxiliary polycarboxylates and different coordination modes of dama. In addition, the thermal stabilities and emissive behaviors of them were also investigated.
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Opposite effects of arsenic trioxide on the Nrf2 pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nrf2) is a critical transcriptional factor in mediating cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress or electrophiles. Arsenic has been reported to induce malignant transformation of human cells through Nrf2-dependent signaling pathway. However, arsenic is also a promising cancer therapeutic drug for solid tumors, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It is still unclear how Nrf2 may mediate cellular response of OSCC cells when treated with arsenic. In order to fully understand the impact of arsenic on Nrf2 signaling in human OSCC, we examined expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated genes in arsenic trioxide (ATO)-treated OSCC cells in vitro and in ATO-treated OSCC xenografts. ATO had anti-cancer effects on both cultured OSCC cells and OSCC xenografts by inhibiting cell growth, suppressing angiogenesis and inducing apoptosis. ATO activated a silent Nrf2 pathway in cultured OSCC cells as shown by induction of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, Nrf2 pathway became active in OSCC xenograft tumors, and ATO treatment down-regulated expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated genes. Our study clearly demonstrated opposite effects of ATO on Nrf2 pathway in OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo.
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Anionic heptadecanuclear silver(I) cluster constructed from in situ generated 2-mercaptobenzoic acid and a sulfide anion.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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A novel anionic heptadecanuclear silver(I) cluster, (NH(4))(17)[(?(6)-S)@Ag(17)(mba)(16)]·22H(2)O (1; H(2)mba = 2-mercaptobenzoic acid), was obtained by the reaction of equivalent molar silver oxide and 2,2-dithiodibenzoic acid (H(2)dtba) under ultrasonic conditions at 50 °C. Complex 1 is a discrete cluster comprised of unexpected mba ligands on the shell and a ?(6)-S(2-) ion in the core, suggesting the occurrence of in situ S-S and S-C(sp(2)) bond cleavages of the H(2)dtba ligand. This novel cluster displays moderate orange-red emission in the solid state at room temperature.
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[Transcription pattern of UL131A-128 mRNA in HCMV clinical strains].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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To study and research the transcription pattern of UL131A-128 mRNA in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) clinical low passage strains.
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Temperature-dependent conductivity of Emim+ (Emim+ = 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium) confined in channels of a metal-organic framework.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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A 3D metal-organic framework, featuring three kinds of cation channels, was obtained through an ionothermal reaction. Investigation on its temperature-dependent conductivity indicates the contribution of order and disorder of the Emim(+) (Emim(+) = 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide) in the channel to its conductivity.
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Interdependence of conformational and chemical reaction dynamics during ion assembly in polar solvents.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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We have utilized time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy to study the interdependence of the conformational and chemical reaction dynamics of ion assembly in solution. We investigated the chemical interconversion dynamics of the LiNCS ion pair and the (LiNCS)(2) ion-pair dimer, as well as the spectral diffusion dynamics of these ionic assemblies. For the strongly coordinating Lewis base solvents benzonitrile, dimethyl carbonate, and ethyl acetate, we observe Li(+) coordination by both solvent molecules and NCS(-) anions, while the weak Lewis base solvent nitromethane shows no evidence for solvent coordination of Li(+) ions. The strong interaction between the ion-pair dimer structure and the Lewis base solvents leads to ion-pair dimer solvation dynamics that proceed more slowly than the ion-pair dimer dissociation. We have attributed the slow spectral diffusion dynamics to electrostatic reorganization of the solvent molecules coordinated to the Li(+) cations present in the ion-pair dimer structure and concluded that the dissociation of ion-pair dimers depends more critically on longer length scale electrostatic reorganization. This unusual inversion of the conformational and chemical reaction rates does not occur for ion-pair dimer dissociation in nitromethane or for ion pair association in any of the solvents.
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Magnetic and thermal properties of three ionothermally synthesized metal-carboxylate frameworks of [M3(ip)4][EMIm]2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn, H2ip = isophthalic acid, EMIm = 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Three metal-organic frameworks, [M(3)(ip)(4)][EMIm](2) (M = Co 1, Ni 2, Mn 3, H(2)ip = isophthalic acid, EMIm = 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium) were prepared from an ionic liquid medium. All the compounds feature the same (4(24))(6(4)) topology based on linear trinuclear clusters as eight-connected nodes. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, while compound 3 exhibits a different structure due to the slight difference in the arrangement of M(3)(OOCR)(8) SBUs. Magnetic property measurements reveal that all the compounds display anti-ferromagnetic coupling, where compounds 2 and 3 show isotropic exchange interactions of -0.10 cm(-1) for 2 and -1.6 cm(-1) for 3. Investigation of the thermal diffusivity shows that the thermal diffusivity of 1 is higher than that of 3, while that of 3 is higher than that of 2.
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Polymorphism in spin-crossover systems.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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The occurrence of spin-crossover (SCO) highly depends on external influences, i.e. temperature, pressure, light irradiation or magnetic field, this electronic switching phenomenon is accompanied by drastic changes in magnetic and optical properties, dielectric constants, colour and structures. Thus, SCO materials are particularly attractive for potential applications in molecular sensing, switching, data storage, display, and other electronic devices at nanometric scale. Polymorphism is widely encountered in the studies of crystallization, phase transition, materials synthesis, biomineralization, and in the manufacture of drugs. Because different crystal forms of the same substance can possess very different properties and behave as different materials, so they are particularly meaningful for investigating SCO phenomena. Studying polymorphism of SCO compounds is therefore important for better understanding the structural factors contributing to spin transition and the structure-function relationship. This critical review is aimed to provide general readers with a comprehensive view of polymorphism in SCO systems. The article is generally structured according to specific metal ions and the dimensionality of compounds in the field. This paper is addressed to readers who are interested in multifunctional materials and tuning magnetic properties through supramolecular chemistry principles (129 references).
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Ethanol promotes chemically induced oral cancer in mice through activation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for oral cancer in humans. However, previous animal studies on the promoting effect of ethanol on oral carcinogenesis were inconclusive. It is necessary to develop an animal model with which the molecular mechanism of ethanol-related oral carcinogenesis may be elucidated to develop effective prevention strategies. In this study, mice were first treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 100 ?g/mL in drinking water) for 8 weeks and then given water or ethanol (8%) as the sole drink for another 16 weeks. During the experiment, 8% ethanol was well tolerated by mice. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) increased from 20% (8/41) to 43% (17/40; P < 0.05). Expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) was increased in dysplasia and SCC of 4NQO-treated tongues and further enhanced by ethanol. Using this mouse model, we further showed that fewer cancers were induced in Alox5(-/-) mice, as were cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis in the tongue, as compared with Alox5(+/+) mice. Interestingly, Cox-2 expression was induced by ethanol in knockout mice, whereas 5-Lox and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) expression and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis were dramatically reduced. Moreover, ethanol enhanced expression and nuclear localization of 5-Lox and stimulated LTB4 biosynthesis in human tongue SCC cells (SCC-15 and SCC-4) in vitro. In conclusion, this study clearly showed that ethanol promoted 4NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis, at least in part, through further activation of the 5-Lox pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism.
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Revascularization for complex cerebral aneurysms.
Can J Neurol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Complex cerebral aneurysms may require indirect treatment with revascularization. This manuscript describes various surgical revascularization techniques together with clinical outcomes.
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Influence of halide ions on the chirality and luminescent property of ionothermally synthesized lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Four lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks, [Emim][Ln(1.5)(2,5-tdc)(2)]Cl(1.5-x)Br(x) (Ln = Nd 1, Eu 2) and [Emim][Ln(2,5-tdc)(2)] (Ln = Nd 3, Eu 4) (2,5-tdc = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate, Emim = 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium), were synthesized under ionothermal conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the polar space group P2(1)2(1)2, while 3 and 4 crystallize in the central symmetry space group P2(1)/c. Luminescence studies revealed a significantly higher quantum yield of 4 than that of 2, with similar lifetimes. It is clear that the coordination of the halide ions has profound effects on the structures and properties of these lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks.
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Diet-induced lethality due to deletion of the Hdac3 gene in heart and skeletal muscle.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Many human diseases result from the influence of the nutritional environment on gene expression. The environment interacts with the genome by altering the epigenome, including covalent modification of nucleosomal histones. Here, we report a novel and dramatic influence of diet on the phenotype and survival of mice in which histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) is deleted postnatally in heart and skeletal muscle. Although embryonic deletion of myocardial Hdac3 causes major cardiomyopathy that reduces survival, we found that excision of Hdac3 in heart and muscle later in development leads to a much milder phenotype and does not reduce survival when mice are fed normal chow. Remarkably, upon switching to a high fat diet, the mice begin to die within weeks and display signs of severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Down-regulation of myocardial mitochondrial bioenergetic genes, specifically those involved in lipid metabolism, precedes the full development of cardiomyopathy, suggesting that HDAC3 is important in maintaining proper mitochondrial function. These data suggest that loss of the epigenomic modifier HDAC3 causes dietary lethality by compromising the ability of cardiac mitochondria to respond to changes of nutritional environment. In addition, this study provides a mouse model for diet-inducible heart failure.
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Metabolic patterns and biotransformation activities of resveratrol in human glioblastoma cells: relevance with therapeutic efficacies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Trans-resveratrol rather than its biotransformed monosulfate metabolite exerts anti-medulloblastoma effects by suppressing STAT3 activation. Nevertheless, its effects on human glioblastoma cells are variable due to certain unknown reason(s).
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Reversible and irreversible vapor-induced guest molecule exchange in spin-crossover compounds.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Spin-crossover (SCO) complex [Fe(tpa)(NCS)(2)] (tpa = tri(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) crystallized in two solvate forms, yellow [Fe(tpa)(NCS)(2)]·X [Fe:X = 1:1; X = n-PrOH (complex is named as n-PrOH), i-PrOH (i-PrOH), CH(2)Cl(2) (CH(2)Cl(2)), CHCl(3) (CHCl(3)), MeCN (MeCN)] and red [Fe(tpa)(NCS)(2)](2)·Y [Fe:Y = 2:1; Y = MeOH (MeOH), EtOH (EtOH)], respectively. Between the two forms, interesting solvent-vapor induced in situ reversible and irreversible guest molecule exchanges, [Fe(tpa)(NCS)(2)]·X ? [Fe(tpa)(NCS)(2)](2)·Y, occurred in the solid state followed by dramatic color changes as well as distinct structural and SCO behavior transformations. Comprehensive studies on structures and SCO behaviors associating guest exchanges have been conducted by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, PXRD, IR, elemental analysis, and magnetic measurements, respectively. This discrete molecular system shows unique solvent-dependent SCO behavior related to the nature of solvent molecules; the distinct color changes during guest exchange originate from the alternations of electronic states of the guest-sensitive Fe(II) centers, providing an effective route to fine-tune and optimize materials properties by systematic structural perturbation, or serving for detection of toxic gases, such as CH(2)Cl(2) and CHCl(3).
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