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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Plasmid-encoding extended-spectrum ?-lactamase CTX-M-55 in a clinical Shigella sonnei strain, China.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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ABSTRACT? Aims: To characterize a clinical Shigella sonnei strain harboring a conjugatable bla CTX-M-55-borne plasmid. Materials & methods: S. sonnei strain #1081 was isolated from a dysentery patient in China. A CTX-M-55-encoding plasmid harbored in this strain was transformed to Escherichia coli, and then its complete nucleotide sequence was determined by next generation sequencing. The MIC values of bacterial strains were tested by using Vitec(®) 2 (Biomerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Results: Strain #1081 conferred the resistance to multiple beta-lactam antibiotics. bla CTX-M-55 was the only known antibiotic resistance gene and located in a 3090-bp ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-55-orf477 transposition unit carried by a conjugatable plasmid p1081-CTXM in #1081. The ISEcp1-mediated transposition provided a sole promoter, which was located adjacently upstream of the inverted repeat right element of ISEcp1, to drive the expression of CTX-M-55. Conclusion: Plasmid p1081-CTXM was a close variant of the IncI2-type plasmid pHN1122-1 that was harbored in a faecal E. coli strain recovered from a dog in China, indicating the potential transfer of CTX-M-55-encoding plasmids from faecal flora E. coli to human pathogen S. sonnei.
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Molecular pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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ABSTRACT? Typical Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen, which mostly affects those with weakened immune systems and tends to cause nosocomial infections. A subset of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae serotypes with elevated production of capsule polysaccharide can affect previously healthy persons and cause life-threatening community-acquired infections, such as pyogenic liver abscess, meningitis, necrotizing fasciitis, endophthalmitis and severe pneumonia. K. pneumoniae utilizes a variety of virulence factors, especially capsule polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae, outer membrane proteins and determinants for iron acquisition and nitrogen source utilization, for survival and immune evasion during infection. This article aims to present the state-of-the-art understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae.
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The Effect of Dexmedetomidine Post-treatment on the Inflammatory Response of Astrocyte Induced by Lipopolysaccharide.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To explore the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) post-treatment on the inflammatory response of astrocyte induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The astrocytes of neonatal mice were primarily cultured in vitro. After purification and identification, the cells were divided into five groups: group C: control group; group L: astrocytes were treated with 1 ?g/ml LPS for 24 h; group D1, D2, and D3: astrocytes were pretreated with 1 ?g/ml for 24 h LPS, and then cultured with low (0.1 ?M), medium (1 ?M), high (10 ?M) concentration of DEX for 30 min, respectively. The cell survival rate was detected by cell counting kit. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, tumor necrosis gactor-? (TNF-?) mRNA, and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) mRNA were measured by RT-PCR in cell lysis solution of every group. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was detected by Griess method. The concentrations of IL-1? and TNF-? were measured, respectively, by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay. Compared with the group C, the expressions of iNOS mRNA, TNF-? mRNA, and IL-1?m RNA were significantly up-regulated, the release of NO, TNF-?, and IL-1? was significantly increased in group L (P < 0.05). Compared with group L, mRNA levels of inflammation-related factors and release of inflammatory factors were significantly down-regulated in group D2 and D3 (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between group D1 and group L. Pre-treatment with medium and high concentration of DEX can inhibit the LPS-induced inflammatory response of astrocyte.
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Inhibition of aflatoxin metabolism and growth of Aspergillus flavus in liquid culture by a DNA methylation inhibitor.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of highly oxygenated polyketidese-derived toxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, whose biosynthesis mechanisms are extremely sophisticated. Methylation is known as the major form of epigenetic regulation, which is correlated with gene expression. As the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AC) blocks AF production, we studied AFB1 metabolism and morphological changes of A. flavus by treatment with 5-AC in liquid culture. The results show that 5-AC caused a decrease in AF production and concurrent changes in morphology. In addition, we isolated a non-aflatoxigenic mutant of A. flavus, showing a significant reduction in pigment production, after 5-AC treatment. This mutant showed significant reduction in the expression of genes in the AF biosynthesis pathway, and conidia formation. Furthermore, as AF biosynthesis and oxidative stress are intimately related events, we assessed the viability of A. flavus to oxidative stress after treatment with 5-AC, which showed that the mutant was more sensitive to the strong oxidant hydrogen peroxide. We found that the non-aflatoxigenic mutant showed a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolites indicative of oxidative stress, which may be caused by the disruption of the defence system against excessive ROS formation after 5-AC treatment. These data indicate that 5-AC, as an inactivator of DNA methyltransferase, plays a very important role in AFB1 metabolism and the development of A. flavus, which might provide an effective strategy to pre- or post-harvest control of AFs.
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Effect of transcutaneous electrical acupuncture point stimulation on endometrial receptivity in women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer: a single-blind prospective randomised controlled trial.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupuncture point stimulation (TEAS) on endometrial HOXA10 protein expression and three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound parameters as markers of endometrial receptivity in women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET).
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[Comparison of 3-hour and 30-minute infusion regimens for meropenem in patients with hospital acquired pneumonia in intensive care unit: a randomized controlled clinical trial].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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To Compare the clinical efficacy and safety of meropenem with a 3-hour extended infusion or conventional 30-minute infusion regimen in treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum MGA_0676 is a membrane-associated cytotoxic nuclease with a staphylococcal nuclease region essential for nuclear translocation and apoptosis induction in chicken cells.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum can infect a wide variety of birds including the commercial poultry. M. gallisepticum MGA_0676 is a putative lipoprotein, which is similar to bacterial thermostable nucleases. But the possible pathogenic effect of M. gallisepticum MGA_0676 has not been investigated so far. In the present study, we cloned the MGA_0676 gene after deletion of the amino-terminal signal sequence and mutagenesis of the Mycoplasma TGA tryptophan codons to TGG and expressed recombinant MGA_0676 protein in Escherichia coli. We identified and characterized MGA_0676 as a Ca(2+)-dependent cytotoxic nuclease of M. gallisepticum with a staphylococcal nuclease (SNc) region that displays the hallmarks of nucleases. Membrane protein immunoblot analysis and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that MGA_0676 locates on the membrane surface of M. gallisepticum. Furthermore, apoptosis assay using annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (annexin V/PI) indicated that MGA_0676 played significant roles in apoptosis induction and pathological damages in chicken cells. Moreover, confocal microscopy showed that MGA_0676 localizes in the nuclei of host cells. Besides, after the SNc region was deleted, MGA_0676 lost its ability of nuclear localization, nuclease activity, and cytotoxicity, which revealed that the SNc region is essential for nuclear translocation and induction of apoptosis in chicken cells. The above results suggest that MGA_0676 is an important virulence factor in cellular pathology and may play a unique role in the life cycle events of M. gallisepticum.
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Dysfunction of dendritic cells in aged C57BL/6 mice leads to failure of natural killer cell activation and of tumor eradication.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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The reciprocal activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer cells (NKs) plays a key role in both innate and adaptive immunity. The effect of aging on this cross-talk, a critical step in virus disease control and tumor immunology, has not been reported. Splenic DCs and NKs were purified from both young and old C57BL/6 mice and cocultured in the presence of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). The resulting activation of NKs was measured as expression of CD69 and secretion of IFN-?. However, DCs from old mice could not activate NKs from either young or old mice in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, DCs from young mice efficiently activated NKs from both young and old mice. DCs from old mice were deficient in poly I:C-stimulated secretion of IL-15, IL-18, and IFN-?. Gene expression analysis revealed many other differences between DCs of old and young mice. Young mice strongly eradicated MHC class I-negative NK-sensitive RMA-S lymphoma mutant tumor cells, but old mice did not, in concert with the previous report that mousepox kills aged, but not young, C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, a similar dysfunction of DC and its key role in NK activation was found in 27 out of 55 healthy human donors.
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Preparation and pharmacokinetics study on gastro-floating sustained-release tablets of troxipide.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this research aimed at preparing gastro-floating sustained-release tablets of troxipide and a further study on in vitro release and in vivo bioavailability. Under the circumstances of direct powder compression, the floating tablets were successfully prepared with HPMC as main matrix material, Carbopol as assistant matrix material, octadecanol as floating agent and sodium bicarbonate as foaming agent to float by gas-forming. The floating time and accumulative release amount as evaluation indexes were utilized to perform pre-experiment screening and single-factor test, respectively, while central composite design response surface method was applied for formulation optimization, followed by in vivo pharmacokinetic study in beagles after oral administration for floating tablets and commercial tablets used as the control. The results indicated that the floating sustained-release tablets held a better capability for floating and drug release and more satisfactory pharmacokinetic parameters, such as a lower Cmax, a prolonged Tmax, but an equivalent bioavailability calculated by AUC0-24 compared to commercial tablets. So a conclusion was finally drawn that the floating sustained-release tablets possessing a good release property could be suitable for demands of design.
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Iron(III) complexes of multidentate pyridinyl ligands: synthesis, characterization and catalysis of the direct hydroxylation of benzene.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Three multidentate ligands, L?-L?, derived from bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine (L?) were synthesized. Reaction of these ligands with FeCl3·6H2O in methanol led to the formation of the iron complexes Fe?-Fe? (Fe?: [FeL?Cl3]; Fe?: [FeL?Cl3]; Fe?: [FeL?Cl3]) in good yields. These complexes have been fully characterized. The structures of complexes Fe?-Fe? have been determined using X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Electrochemical investigation revealed that complex Fe? partially converts to Fe? ([FeL?Cl2]PF6) by the replacement of one of its three chlorides with its pendant triazolyl group in solution. Fe? was also synthesized by dechlorination using AgPF6 as the Cl(-) abstractor and its composition was further confirmed by both elemental analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. All four complexes catalyze the direct hydroxylation of benzene to phenol with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant in a mixed medium of water and acetonitrile. The reactivity of the complexes correlates well with their reduction potentials. The more negative the potential, the more reactive (high conversion rate) the catalysts. These complexes catalyze not only the oxidation of benzene, but also the further oxidation of the product, phenol. In the oxidation, a radical mechanism is certainly involved but an alternative pathway may also exist.
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Comparison of Endovascular and Intraventricular Gene Therapy With Adeno-Associated Virus-?-L-Iduronidase for Hurler Disease.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Hurler disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type I [MPS-I]) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme ?-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Currently, the only therapies for MPS-I, enzyme replacement and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, are generally ineffective for central nervous system manifestations.
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Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibodies against ?-conotoxin MVIIA.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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?-Conotoxins MVIIA (?-CTX MVIIA) is a peptide with 25 amino acid residues. It is a selective and reversible N-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, which could be used as an analgesic for pain. To date, there are no monoclonal antibodies (MAb) for immunoassay against ?-conotoxin MVIIA. In this study, an MAb against ?-conotoxin MVIIA was prepared. The conotoxin-coding DNA sequence was chemically synthesized and cloned into expression vector pGEX-6p-1 and pET32a (+), respectively. The fusion protein GST-CTX was expressed and purified, and was used to immunize BALB/c mice for preparing the anti-CTX antibody. The spleen cells were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells after the titer of antiserum was detected and qualified. After being screened by indirect ELISA and cloned by limiting dilution, a hybridoma named 4A12, which produces monoclonal antibody specifically against ?-CTX MVIIA, was successfully obtained. It was found that there are 102 chromosomes in the 4A12 cell, and the subclass for the MAb is IgM. The MAb affinity against ?-CTX MVIIA was 7.33×10(9) L/mol, and the cross-reaction test showed that the MAb specifically bound ?-CTX MVIIA. The MAb could be used as a specific antagonist for ?-CTX MVIIA in the physiological study on the CaV channels in the nervous system.
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[Exploration of digestive tract reconstruction with totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Compared to that with laparoscopic assisted approach, intracorporeal anastomosis with totally laparoscopic radical total gastrectomy has the advantages of smaller incision, and better vision for operation, and may also be fit for patients with large size lesion, high-located lesions, or obesity. It remains controversial though several surgeons have reported the safety and feasibility of intracorporeal anastomosis with totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy. This review describes the recent technical advances in intracorporeal anastomoses with totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy, focusing on the reconstruction skills and indications. Current data on totally laparoscopic total gastric resection for gastric carcinoma revealed that all digestive tract reconstructions were performed with esophagus-jejunum Roux-en-Y anastomosis, and different reconstruction techniques of such Roux-en-Y anastomosis have certain advantages and disadvantages. Surgeons should make choice based on tumor location, esophageal diameter and personal skills in order to achieve maximal benefit to patients.
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Relationship between hyporesponsiveness to clopidogrel measured by thrombelastography and in stent restenosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The relationship between hyporesponsiveness to clopidogrel and in stent restenosis (ISR) was analyzed, and the cut-off value of hyporesponsiveness to clopidogrel for ISR was evaluated.
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Influenza A virus acquires enhanced pathogenicity and transmissibility after serial passages in swine.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus was derived from well-established swine influenza lineages; however, there is no convincing evidence that the pandemic virus was generated from a direct precursor in pigs. Furthermore, the evolutionary dynamics of influenza virus in pigs have not been well documented. Here, we subjected a recombinant virus (rH1N1) with the same constellation makeup as the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus to nine serial passages in pigs. The severity of infection sequentially increased with each passage. Deep sequencing of viral quasispecies from the ninth passage found five consensus amino acid mutations: PB1 A469T, PA 1129T, NA N329D, NS1 N205K, and NEP T48N. Mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, however, differed greatly between the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Three representative viral clones with the five consensus mutations were selected for functional evaluation. Relative to the parental virus, the three viral clones showed enhanced replication and polymerase activity in vitro and enhanced replication, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in pigs, guinea pigs, and ferrets in vivo. Specifically, two mutants of rH1N1 (PB1 A469T and a combination of NS1 N205K and NEP T48N) were identified as determinants of transmissibility in guinea pigs. Crucially, one mutant viral clone with the five consensus mutations, which also carried D187E, K211E, and S289N mutations in its HA, additionally was able to infect ferrets by airborne transmission as effectively as the pandemic virus. Our findings demonstrate that influenza virus can acquire viral characteristics that are similar to those of the pandemic virus after limited serial passages in pigs. Importance: We demonstrate here that an engineered reassortant swine influenza virus, with the same gene constellation pattern as the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus and subjected to only nine serial passages in pigs, acquired greatly enhanced virulence and transmissibility. In particular, one representative pathogenic passaged virus clone, which carried three mutations in the HA gene and five consensus mutations in PB1, PA, NA, NS1, and NEP genes, additionally was able to confer respiratory droplet transmission as effectively as the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. Our findings suggest that pigs can readily induce adaptive mutational changes to a precursor pandemic-like virus to transform it into a highly virulent and infectious form akin to that of the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus, which underlines the potential direct role of pigs in promoting influenza A virus pathogenicity and transmissibility.
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A novel PCR-based genotyping scheme for clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To establish a PCR-based genotyping method for clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae.
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Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.
Am J Orthopsychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.
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LSM14A inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication by activating IFN-? signaling pathway in Marc-145.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered as a significant contributor to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, one of the most economically important diseases for the pig industry worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors play key roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a novel pattern recognition receptor LSM14A in regulating PRRSV replication. Results in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) indicated that overexpression of porcine LSM14A effectively inhibited the replication of PRRSV, and knockdown of LSM14A by siRNA enhanced the replication of PRRSV. Mechanistically, LSM14A up-regulated the activities of IFN-? and ISRE promoters, enhanced the production of IFN-?, RIG-I, and ISGs, and inhibited the production of the inflammatory cytokines of TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA. Additionally, the expression pattern of LSM14A during the infection of PRRSV in Tongcheng and Large White pigs was suppressed by the PRRSV challenge. Taken together, our results suggest that LSM14A is an important PRR that inhibits PPRSV replication by inducing IFN-? signaling and restraining inflammatory responses. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LSM14A by PRRSV might represent an important mechanism by which PRRSV invades the host. Our study sheds light on the possibility of developing a new strategy to control this disease.
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Effectiveness of Chinese massage therapy (Tui Na) for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Low back pain is a common, disabling musculoskeletal disorder in both developing and developed countries. Although often recommended, the potential efficacy of massage therapy in general, and Chinese massage (tuina) in particular, for relief of chronic low back pain (CLBP) has not been fully established due to inadequate sample sizes, low methodological quality, and subclinical dosing regimens of trials to date. Thus, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of tuina massage therapy versus conventional analgesics for CLBP.
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Screening of transgenic frost-resistant cotton using a porous silicon biosensing platform.
Cryo Letters
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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The genetic screening of exogenous gene expression is critical for the transgenic plant breeding.
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Induction of the cellular miR-29c by influenza virus inhibits the innate immune response through protection of A20 mRNA.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses, which primarily targets respiratory epithelial cells and produces clinical outcomes ranging from mild upper respiratory infection to severe pneumonia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a family of small noncoding RNAs controlling translation and transcription of many genes. The human miR-29 family of miRNAs has three mature members, miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. Recent studies have revealed that miR-29 is involved in regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the function of miR-29 in the immune response to IAV infection remains to be further explored. Our previous study has shown that miR-29 family members are up-regulated during IAV infection, especially miR-29c. Here we report that miR-29c is involved in inhibition of IAV-induced innate immune responses. We found that posttranscriptional regulation was involved in IAV-induced A20 expression in A549 cells. Consistent with a previous report, miR-29c functionally protected A20 transcripts in A549 cells. Overexpression of miR-29c with miR-29c mimic enhanced IAV-induced A20 protein expression and conversely that miR-29c inhibitor significantly blocked IAV-induced A20 protein expression in A549 cells. Furthermore, functional results showed that IAV-induced miR-29c expression correlated with decreased NF-?B activity and expression of several antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines via up-regulation of A20. Together, the findings indicate a new role of miR-29c in IAV infection and suggest its induction may contribute to counteract the innate immune response.
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Promotion of p53 expression and reactive oxidative stress production is involved in zerumbone-induced cisplatin sensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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p53 signaling plays an important role in cell death. Zerumbone, a natural cyclic sesquiterpene, has shown cytotoxic activity against many cancers. This study was done to investigate the anticancer effects of zerumbone on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and explored the involvement of p53 signaling. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin-V/propidium iodide staining and caspase activity assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured by flow cytometry. Depletion of p53 was achieved by transfection of specific small interfering RNA. Gene expression changes were determined by Western blot analysis. Zerumbone treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of A549 and H460 NSCLC cell viability. Zerumbone-induced mitochondrial apoptosis of NSCLC cells, evidenced loss of ??m, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. There was increased p53 and Bax expression and ROS production in zerumbone-treated cells. Downregulation of p53 or scavenging ROS interfered with the pro-apoptotic action of zerumbone. Combinational treatment with zerumbone and cisplatin significantly accelerated apoptosis and promoted p53 expression and ROS production in NSCLC cells, compared with each alone. These findings demonstrate that zerumbone induces mitochondrial apoptosis and enhances the susceptibility to cisplatin in NSCLC cells, which are, at least partially, mediated through activation of p53 signaling and promotion of ROS generation. This study may provide a rationale for the potential clinical application of zerumbone as a chemotherapeutic agent against NSCLC.
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De-ashing treatment of corn stover improves the efficiencies of enzymatic hydrolysis and consequent ethanol fermentation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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In this study, corn stover with different ash content was pretreated using dry dilute acid pretreatment method at high solids loading of 67% (w/w). The results indicate that the hydrolysis yield of corn stover is increased from 43.30% to 70.99%, and ethanol yield is increased from 51.74% to 73.52% when ash is removed from 9.60% to 4.98%. The pH measurement of corn stover slurry indicates that the decrease of pretreatment efficiency is due to the neutralization of sulfuric acid by alkaline compounds in the ash. The elemental analysis reveals that the ash has the similar composition with the farmland soil. This study demonstrates the importance of ash removal from lignocellulose feedstock under high solids content pretreatment.
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?-Blocker carvedilol protects cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by up-regulating miR-133 expression.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Oxidative stress is a causal factor and key promoter of a variety of cardiovascular diseases associated with apoptotic cell death by causing deregulation of related genes. Though carvedilol, a ?-adrenergic blocker, has been shown to produce cytoprotective effects against cardiomyocyte apoptosis, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate whether the beneficial effects of carvedilol are related to microRNAs which have emerged as critical players in cardiovascular pathophysiology via post-transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes. In vivo, we demonstrated that carvedilol ameliorated impaired cardiac function of infarct rats and restored miR-133 expression. In vitro, carvedilol protected cardiomyocytes from H2O2 induced apoptosis detected by TUNEL staining and MTT assays, and increased miR-133 expression in cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of miR-133, a recognized anti-apoptotic miRNA, produced similar effects to carvedilol: reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increment of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level, so as to protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis by downregulating caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression in the presence of H2O2. Transfection with AMO-133 (antisense inhibitor oligodeoxyribonucleotides) alone abolished the beneficial effects of carvedilol. Caspase-9-specific inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk, caspase-3-specific inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk, caspase-9 siRNA and caspase-3 siRNA were used to establish caspase-3 as a downstream target of miR-133. In conclusion, our data indicated that carvedilol protected cardiomyocytes by increasing miR-133 expression and suppressing caspase-9 and subsequent apoptotic pathways.
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Rabbit antiserum to mouse embryonic stem cells delays compaction of mouse preimplantation embryos.
Iran J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the preimplantation blastocysts. So it is suggested that ES and ICM cells should have similar cellular surface molecules and antiserum to ES cells can inhibit ICM development.
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Brucella infection inhibits macrophages apoptosis via Nedd4-dependent degradation of calpain2.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The calcium-dependent protease calpain2 is involved in macrophages apoptosis. Brucella infection-induced up-regulation of intracellular calcium level is an essential factor for the intracellular survival of Brucella within macrophages. Here, we hypothesize that calcium-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 ubiquitinates calpain2 and inhibits Brucella infection-induced macrophage apoptosis via degradation of calpain2.Our results reveal that Brucella infection induces increases in Nedd4 activity in an intracellular calcium dependent manner. Furthermore, Brucella infection-induced degradation of calpain2 is mediated by Nedd4 ubiquitination of calpain2. Brucella infection-induced calpain2 degradation inhibited macrophages apoptosis. Treatment of Brucella infected macrophages with calcium chelator BAPTA or Nedd4 knock-down decreased Nedd4 activity, prevented calpain2 degradation, and resulted in macrophages apoptosis.
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The Bcl-2/xL inhibitor ABT-263 increases the stability of Mcl-1 mRNA and protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of mortality. ABT-263 is a newly synthesized, orally available Bcl-2/xL inhibitor that shows promising efficacy in HCC therapy. ABT-263 inhibits the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not Mcl-1. Previous reports have shown that ABT-263 upregulates Mcl-1 in various cancer cells, which contributes to ABT-263 resistance in cancer therapy. However, the associated mechanisms are not well known.
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Immediate emotion-enhanced memory dependent on arousal and valence: the role of automatic and controlled processing.
Acta Psychol (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The phenomenon that emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral ones is called emotion-enhanced memory (EEM). Previous studies have shown that both valence and arousal of stimuli contributed to EEM. Kensinger and Corkin (2004) proposed that the EEM dependent on arousal was associated with automatic encoding processes, whereas the EEM dependent on valence was associated with controlled encoding processes. Their experiment with negative words provided some evidence for this associative pattern. However, it is unclear whether the observed association that occurred with negative emotional stimuli could be replicated with positive emotional stimuli. To further examine this issue, two experiments were conducted to investigate the immediate EEM of emotional words in three different attention conditions using a divided attention (DA) paradigm. Results indicated that the immediate EEM dependent on valence was associated with controlled processing, while the immediate EEM dependent on arousal was not always associated with automatic processing. The immediate EEM dependent on arousal for negative stimuli was associated with automatic processing, whereas the immediate EEM dependent on arousal for positive stimuli was associated with controlled processing. Therefore, the immediate EEM dependent on arousal, whether it is associated with automatic or controlled processing, is moderated by the valence of stimuli.
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Localized surface plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering responses of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods with different thickness of Ag shell.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures, that is the monodisperse Au@Ag core-shell nanorods with different thickness of Ag shell, are theoretically and experimental researched. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra of the Au@Ag core-shell nanorods are measured and displayed their blue-shifts of the longitudinal plasmon resonance peaks with increasing of Ag concentrations in the colloidal solution. And the absorption spectra of the Au@Ag core-shell nanorods are simulated by the Finite Element Method (FEM), which are in agreement with the experimental measurements and reveal their LSPR mechanism as the varying structures. In addition, Rhodamine 6G, as a Raman reporter molecule, is used to investigate SERS of gold nanorods and Au@Ag core-shell nanorods. It is found that Au@Ag core-shell nanorods have better SERS responses, comparing with those of Au nanorods, and their SERS intensities are increased with the increases of the Ag shell thickness, which demonstrate that the chemisorptive bond effect and the morphology of the nanoparticle play key roles to the SERS signals. It is significant to design the biosensor based on the properties of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods.
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Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury through Nrf2 signaling pathway.
J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant, can protect kidney against ischemic injury through regulating Nrf2 signaling pathway. The expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and cleaved caspase 3 were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was assessed by the TUNEL method. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. Blood serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were measured with an Olympus automatic multi-analyzer. We found that NAC significantly increased Nrf2 and downstream HO-1 expression. Furthermore, NAC significantly decreased cleaved caspase 3, p53 and renal epithelial tubular cell apoptosis. In addition, NAC reduced the MDA level. These findings suggest that the protective action of NAC on ischemia renal injury is associated closely with Nrf2 signaling pathway.
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Enhanced Accumulation of Carbohydrate and Starch in Chlorella zofingiensis Induced by Nitrogen Starvation.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Though less attention has been paid to microalgae as a feedstock for bioethanol production, many microalgae seem to have this potential since they contain no lignin, minor hemicellulose, and abundant carbohydrate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation on carbohydrate and starch accumulation in green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis and assess the feasibility of using this microalga as a bioethanol feedstock. The results showed that the specific growth rate under nitrogen starvation (0.48 day(-1)) was much lower than that under nitrogen repletion (1.02 day(-1)). However, nitrogen starvation quickly induced the accumulation of carbohydrate, especially starch. After merely 1 day of nitrogen starvation, carbohydrate and starch increased 37 % and 4.7-fold, respectively. The highest carbohydrate content reached 66.9 % of dry weight (DW), and 66.7 % of this was starch. In order to obtain enough carbohydrate productivities for bioethanol production, two-stage cultivation strategy was implemented and found to be effective for enhancing biomass, carbohydrate, and starch simultaneously. The optimal biomass, carbohydrate, and starch productivities of C. zofingiensis were obtained after 5 days of cultivation, and their values were 699, 407, and 268 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively.
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Correlation between Comprehensive Evaluation of Coronary Artery Lesion Severity and Long-term Clinical Outcomes in Chinese Octogenarians with Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Heart Lung Circ
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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There is little about long-term outcome data regarding acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese octogenarians (> 80 years old). Long-term outcomes of octogenarians with ACS may be associated with increased complicated coronary artery lesion severity.
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Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG sensitizes Bcl-2 inhibitor (-)-gossypol by suppressing ERK-mediated protective autophagy and Mcl-1 accumulation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Natural BH3-memitic (-)-gossypol shows promising antitumor efficacy in several kinds of cancer. However, our previous studies have demonstrated that protective autophagy decreases the drug sensitivities of Bcl-2 inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In the present study, we are the first to report that Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG enhanced (-)-gossypol-induced apoptosis via suppressing (-)-gossypol-triggered protective autophagy and Mcl-1 accumulation. The suppression effect of 17-AAG on autophagy was mediated by inhibiting ERK-mediated Bcl-2 phosphorylation while was not related to Beclin1 or LC3 protein instability. Meanwhile, 17-AAG downregulated (-)-gossypol-triggered Mcl-1 accumulation by suppressing Mcl-1(Thr163) phosphorylation and promoting protein degradation. Collectively, our study indicates that Hsp90 plays an important role in tumor maintenance and inhibition of Hsp90 may become a new strategy for sensitizing Bcl-2-targeted chemotherapies in HCC cells.
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Positive affect and cognitive control: approach-motivation intensity influences the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In most prior research, positive affect has been consistently found to promote cognitive flexibility. However, the motivational dimensional model of affect assumes that the influence of positive affect on cognitive processes is modulated by approach-motivation intensity. In the present study, we extended the motivational dimensional model to the domain of cognitive control by examining the effect of low- versus high-approach-motivated positive affect on the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability in an attentional-set-shifting paradigm. Results showed that low-approach-motivated positive affect promoted cognitive flexibility but also caused higher distractibility, whereas high-approach-motivated positive affect enhanced perseverance but simultaneously reduced distractibility. These results suggest that the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability is modulated by the approach-motivation intensity of positive affective states. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate motivational intensity into studies on the influence of affect on cognitive control.
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Arsenic uptake and depuration kinetics in Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Strategies used by Microcystis aeruginosa, bloom-forming cyanobacteria, for potential inorganic arsenic (arsenate and arsenite) uptake, and depuration kinetics under phosphate-enriched (+P) and depleted (-P) treatments were examined via short- and long-term experiments. Phosphate depletion improved arsenate or arsenite uptake rate constants. M. aeruginosa arsenite influx occurred considerably faster than arsenate influx under +P or -P treatments. Different phosphate regimes yielded significant impacts on long-term but not on short-term arsenic (As) uptake. In addition, considerable differences were observed in short-term As efflux between live and dead cells after arsenate or arsenite pre-exposure. Arsenic depuration rates in live M. aeruginosa cells were affected not only by accumulation rates of different As inorganic species but also by phosphate concentrations in tested media, which was inferred from estimated kinetic parameters. Specifically, +P was clearly found to inhibit As efflux after live M. aeruginosa cells were pre-exposed to As(V). Efflux was higher for dead cells no matter the inorganic As species involved. Owing to higher As uptake and depuration rates under -P treatments, P deficiency will considerably accelerate As uptake and efflux processes in aquatic environments.
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Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120 h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376 g/L, 129.50 g/L, 56.03 g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF301, Which Shows Changes in Biochemical Metabolism following Space Flight.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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An Enterococcus faecium strain was sent into space on the Shenzhou-VIII mission. After the space flight, the strain E. faecium LCT-EF301 was isolated and sequenced based on the changes to its metabolic properties.
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[Anatomy of the perigastric vessels in laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The laparoscopic approach is rapidly becoming the preferred method of treatment for patients with early gastric cancer due to advantages of minimally invasive surgery. As laparoscopic experience has accumulated, laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with D2 lymphadenectomy has become a valuable alternative for the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. However, laparoscopic gastric surgery is demanding from a technical point of view, especially when a D2 lymphadenectomy is performed. Surgeons seeking to undertake LADG are concerned about unpredictable intraoperative bleeding that may occur during LADG. Comprehensive knowledge of the perigastric vascular anatomy is essential for LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy.
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Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF297, Which Has Specific Biochemical Features.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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An Enterococcus faecium strain was sent into space on the Shenzhou-VIII craft. After space flight, the strain E. faecium LCT-EF297 was selected based on its metabolic properties.
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HCC cells with high levels of Bcl-2 are resistant to ABT-737 via activation of the ROS-JNK-autophagy pathway.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 has shown promising antitumor efficacy in vivo and in vitro. However, some reports have demonstrated that HCC cells are resistant to ABT-737, and the corresponding molecular mechanisms of this resistance are not well known. In this study, we found that HCC cells with high levels of Bcl-2 were markedly resistant to ABT-737 compared to HCC cells with low levels of Bcl-2. In HCC cells with high levels of Bcl-2 (such as HepG2 cells), ABT-737 induced protective autophagy via the sequential triggering of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, short-term activation of JNK, enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2, and dissociation of Beclin 1 from the Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complex. Moreover, autophagy suppressed the overactivation of the ROS-JNK pathway and protected against apoptosis. In HCC cells with low levels of Bcl-2 (i.e., Huh7 cells), ABT-737 induced apoptosis via the sequential stimulation of ROS, sustained activation of JNK, enhanced translocation of Bax from the cytosol to the mitochondria, and release of cytochrome c. In sum, this study indicated that the activation of the ROS-JNK-autophagy pathway may be an important mechanism by which HCC cells with high levels of Bcl-2 are resistant to ABT-737.
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Development of a direct competitive ELISA for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis infection based on a monoclonal antibody of P48 protein.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a major, but often overlooked, pathogen documented to cause respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle throughout China since 2008. Here, we report the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dc-ELISA) to detect M. bovis antibody.
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[Establishment of a method for gene complementation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To establish a method for gene complementation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus using the plasmid pBAD33.
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Highly sensitive immunoassay based on SERS using nano-Au immune probes and a nano-Ag immune substrate.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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A super-high-sensitivity immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was implemented using the nano-Au immune probes and nano-Ag immune substrate. Ultraviolet-visible extinction spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and SERS spectra were used to characterise the nano-Au immune probes and the nano-Ag immune substrate. The nano-Ag immune substrate was prepared by the in situ growth of Ag nanoparticles and the subsequent linkage of these nanoparticles with anti-apolipoprotein B on a silicon wafer. The nano-Ag immune substrate exhibited strong SERS activity, excellent reproducibility, and high biospecificity. The nano-Au immune probes were prepared by immobilising 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) molecules as a Raman reporter and anti-apolipoprotein B onto the surfaces of Au nanoparticles. It was found that 4MBA induced the aggregation of Au nanoparticles, resulting in the generation of vast hot spots. Moreover, the nano-Au immune probes exhibited strong SERS activity and high biospecificity. A sandwich-type immunoassay structure consisting of the nano-Au immune probes and nano-Ag immune substrate was used to detect the concentration of apolipoprotein B, where the detection limit was as low as 2 fg/mL (3.878×10(-18) mol/L). Taken together, the experimental results indicate that the proposed immunoassay protocol has a great potential application in biological sensing and clinical diagnostics.
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The association of c.1471G>A genetic polymorphism in XRCC1 gene with lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Lung cancer is one of the most spread cancers in the world. The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential association of XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms with the susceptibility to lung cancer. In totally, 361 lung cancer patients (male, 276; female, 85; mean age, 62.55) and 361 cancer-free controls (male, 253; female, 108; mean age, 61.33) were enrolled in this case-control study. The genotypes of XRCC1 c.1471G>A genetic polymorphism were determined by the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. The influence of XRCC1 gene on the susceptibility to lung cancer was analyzed by the analyses association. Our data indicated that significant differences were found in the frequencies of allelic and genotypic between lung cancer patients and cancer-free controls. The c.1471G>A genetic polymorphism was statistically associated with increased susceptibility to lung cancer [AA vs. GG: odds ratio (OR)=2.75, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.55-4.88, P<0.001; AA vs.
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Vaccine therapies for chronic hepatitis B: can we go further?
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Chronic hepatitis B is a major health burden worldwide. In addition to the recent progress in antiviral treatment, therapeutic vaccination is a promising new strategy for the control of chronic hepatitis B. On the basis of the major specific and non-specific immune dysregulations and defects in chronic hepatitis B patients, this paper presents the peptide and protein-based, DNA-based, cell-based, and antigen-antibody-based therapeutic vaccines, which have undergone clinical trials. The advantages, disadvantages, and future perspectives for these therapeutic vaccines are discussed.
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Enzyme linked aptamer assay: based on a competition format for sensitive detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma bovis in serum.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a major, but often overlooked, pathogen that causes respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle. It has been widespread in China since 2008. In this study, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers with high affinity and specificity against the P48 protein of M. bovis were selected using microplates as the matrix. Of nine candidates, aptamer WKB-14 showed the best affinity in an indirect enzyme-linked aptamer assay (ELAA) and good specificity by dot blotting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an aptamer has been used in a competitive ELAA for the serological detection of M. bovis. The percent inhibition (PI) cutoff value of the indirect competitive ELAA (ic-ELAA) was 40%, assessed using 20 negative sera. In a comparative study of different detection methods, ic-ELAA with dc-ELISA and dot blotting had a higher positive detection rate than the other two commercial indirect ELISA kits.
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C-H bond activation during and after the reactions of a metallacyclic amide with silanes: formation of a ?-alkylidene hydride complex, its H-D exchange, and ?-H abstraction by a hydride ligand.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Metallacyclic complex [(Me2N)3Ta(?(2)-CH2SiMe2NSiMe3)] (3) undergoes C-H activation in its reaction with H3SiPh to afford a Ta/?-alkylidene/hydride complex, [(Me2N)2{(Me3Si)2N}Ta(?-H)2(?-C-?(2)-CHSiMe2NSiMe3)Ta(NMe2)2] (4). Deuterium-labeling studies with [D3]SiPh show H-D exchange between the Ta-D-Ta unit and all methyl groups in [(Me2N)2{(Me3Si)2N}Ta(?-D)2(?-C-?(2)-CHSiMe2NSiMe3)Ta(NMe2)2] ([D2]-4) to give the partially deuterated complex [Dn]-4. In addition, 4 undergoes ?-H abstraction between a hydride and an NMe2 ligand and forms a new complex [(Me2N){(Me3 Si)2N}Ta(?-H)(?-N-?(2)-C,N-CH2NMe)(?-C-?(2)-C,N-CHSiMe2NSiMe3)Ta(NMe2)2] (5) with a cyclometalated, ?(2)-imine ligand. These results indicate that there are two simultaneous processes in [Dn]-4:1)?H-D exchange through ?-bond metathesis, and 2)?H-D elimination through ?-H abstraction (to give [Dn]-5). Both 4 and 5 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.
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Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages.
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Genome-wide miRNA-profiling of aflatoxin B1-induced hepatic injury using deep sequencing.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen which can induce** hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mammals. Though microRNAs are known to play important roles in tumorigenesis, the functional complexity of microRNAs in AFB1-induced hepatocellular tumorigenesis has not yet been elucidated. Here, we applied Illumina deep sequencing technology for high-throughput profiling of microRNA in rat liver tissue before and after treatment with aflatoxin B1. Analysis of mature miRNAs from different arms of pre-miRNAs allowed us to identify the predominant form of miRNA. We studied the differential expression profile of miRNAs in two libraries, identifying several cancer-related microRNAs which exhibit abnormal expression. KEGG analysis indicated that predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in cancer-related pathways. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 16 potential novel miRNAs. Our work provides new insights at the miRNA level into AFB1-induced hepatic injury which may lead to HCC.
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Role of microRNA-27a in down-regulation of angiogenic factor AGGF1 under hypoxia associated with high-grade bladder urothelial carcinoma.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis under a variety of pathological conditions, including malignant tumors by inducing expression of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. Surprisingly, here we report significant association between down-regulation of a new angiogenic factor AGGF1 and high-grade urothelial carcinoma. The proportion of strong AGGF1 expression cases was significantly lower in the high-grade urothelial carcinoma group than that in the low-grade urothelial carcinoma group (P=1.40×10(-5)) or than that in the normal urothelium tissue group (P=2.11×10(-4)). We hypothesized that tumor hypoxia was responsible for differential expression of the AGGF1 protein in low- and high-grade urothelial carcinomas, and therefore investigated the molecular regulatory mechanism for AGGF1 expression under hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, AGGF1 protein levels declined without any change in mRNA levels and protein stability. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of AGGF1 was mediated by miR-27a. Overexpression of miR-27a suppressed AGGF1 expression through translational inhibition, but not by RNA degradation. Moreover, the hypoxia-induced decrease of AGGF1 expression disappeared after miR-27a expression was inhibited. Furthermore, down-regulation of AGGF1 reduced hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that (1) hypoxia down-regulates expression of the AGGF1 protein, but not AGGF1 mRNA, by inducing expression of miR-27a; (2) Down-regulation of AGGF1 had an apparent protective role for cancer cells under hypoxia; (3) Down-regulation of the AGGF1 protein confers a significant risk of high-grade human urothelial bladder carcinoma.
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MiR-144 regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development by targeting meis1 during zebrafish development.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process by which peripheral blood lineages are developed. It is a process tightly regulated by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including transcriptional factors and signaling molecules. However, the epigenetic regulation of hematopoiesis, for example, regulation via microRNAs (miRNAs), remains incompletely understood. Here we show that miR-144 regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development in zebrafish. Overexpression of miR-144 inhibited primitive hematopoiesis as demonstrated by a reduced number of circulating blood cells, reduced o-dianisidine staining of hemoglobin, and reduced expression of hb?e1, hb?e1, gata1 and pu.1. Overexpression of miR-144 also inhibited definitive hematopoiesis as shown by reduced expression of runx1 and c-myb. Mechanistically, miR-144 regulates hematopoiesis by repressing expression of meis1 involved in hematopoiesis. Both real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that overexpression of miR-144 repressed expression of meis1. Bioinformatic analysis predicts a target binding sequence for miR-144 at the 3'-UTR of meis1. Deletion of the miR-144 target sequence eliminated the repression of meis1 expression mediated by miR-144. The miR-144-mediated abnormal phenotypes were partially rescued by co-injection of meis1 mRNA and could be almost completely rescued by injection of both meis1 and gata1 mRNA. Finally, because meis1 is involved in vascular development, we tested the effect of miR-144 on vascular development. Overexpression of miR-144 resulted in abnormal vascular development of intersegmental vessels in transgenic zebrafish with Flk1p-EGFP, and the defect was rescued by co-injection of meis1 mRNA. These findings establish miR-144 as a novel miRNA that regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development by repressing expression of meis1.
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Laparoscopic versus open surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the short-term and pathological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery (LS) versus open surgery (OS) following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for rectal cancer.
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Coxsackievirus a16 infection induces neural cell and non-neural cell apoptosis in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the main causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Viral replication typically results in host cell apoptosis. Although CA16 infection has been reported to induce apoptosis in the human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line, it remains unclear whether CA16 induces apoptosis in diverse cell types, especially neural cells which have important clinical significance. In the current study, CA16 infection was found to induce similar apoptotic responses in both neural cells and non-neural cells in vitro, including nuclear fragmentation, DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation. CA16 generally is not known to lead to serious neurological symptoms in vivo. In order to further clarify the correlation between clinical symptoms and cell apoptosis, two CA16 strains from patients with different clinical features were investigated. The results showed that both CA16 strains with or without neurological symptoms in infected patients led to neural and muscle cell apoptosis. Furthermore, mechanistic studies showed that CA16 infection induced apoptosis through the same mechanism in both neural and non-neural cells, namely via activation of both the mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway-related caspase 9 protein and the Fas death receptor (extrinsic) pathway-related caspase 8 protein. Understanding the mechanisms by which CA16 infection induces apoptosis in both neural and non-neural cells will facilitate a better understanding of CA16 pathogenesis.
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The impact of prophylactic dexamethasone on nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of prophylactic dexamethasone on post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), post-operative pain, and complications in patients undergoing thyroidectomy.
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Circulating HFMD-associated coxsackievirus A16 is genetically and phenotypically distinct from the prototype CV-A16.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human enteroviruses (HEV) have been linked to hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Pacific and Southeast Asia for decades. Many cases of HFMD have been attributed to coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, CA16), based on only partial viral genome determination. Viral phenotypes are also poorly defined. Herein, we have genetically and phenotypically characterized multiple circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients and determined multiple full-length sequences of these circulating viruses. We discovered that the circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients are genetically distinct from the proto-type CV-A16 G10. We have also isolated circulating CV-A16 viruses from hospitalized HFMD patients and compared their virological differences. Interestingly, circulating CV-A16 viruses are more pathogenic in a neonatal mouse model than is CV-A16 G10. Thus, we have found circulating recombinant forms of CV-A16 (CRF CV-A16) that are related to, but different from, the prototype CV-A16 G10 that have distinct biological phenotypes.
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Identification of novel immunogenic proteins from Mycoplasma bovis and establishment of an indirect ELISA based on recombinant E1 beta subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The pathogen Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a major cause of respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle. Screening the key immunogenic proteins and updating rapid diagnostic techniques are necessary to the prevention and control of M. bovis infection. In this study, 19 highly immunogenic proteins from M. bovis strain PD were identified using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these 19 proteins, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component beta subunit (PDHB) showed excellent immune reactivity and repeatability. PDHB was found to be conserved in different M. bovis isolates, as indicated by Western blot analysis. On the basis of these results, a rPDHB-based indirect ELISA (iELISA) was established for the detection of serum antibodies using prokaryotically expressed recombinant PDHB protein as the coating antigen. The specificity analysis result showed that rPDHB-based iELISA did not react with other pathogens assessed in our study except M. agalactiae (which infects sheep and goats). Moreover, 358 serum samples from several disease-affected cattle feedlots were tested using this iELISA system and a commercial kit, which gave positive rates of 50.8% and 39.9%, respectively. The estimated Kappa agreement coefficient between the two methods was 0.783. Notably, 39 positive serum samples that had been missed by the commercial kit were all found to be positive by Western blot analysis. The detection rate of rPDHB-based iELISA was significantly higher than that of the commercial kit at a serum dilution ratio of 1?5120 to 1?10,240 (P<0.05). Taken together, these results provide important information regarding the novel immunogenic proteins of M. bovis. The established rPDHB-based iELISA may be suitable for use as a new method of antibody detection in M. bovis.
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Continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste and design of digester with lipid removal.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Separation of municipal solid waste has been implemented in many cities in China. As a major component of municipal solid waste, food waste can be treated by anaerobic digestion (AD) for energy production. To provide reference data for disposing of food waste through engineering applications, continuous AD was carried out under various organic loading rates (OLRs) at 27 +/- 2 degrees C in the laboratory. The anaerobic reactor was stable with pH 7.0-7.1, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations of 206-746 mg/L, and NH4+ -N concentrations of 525-1293 mg/L when the OLR was 1.118-5.588 kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3) x d. The maximum volumetric biogas production rate was 4.41 L/L x d when the OLR was increased to 5.588 kg VS/m(3) x d with a hydraulic retention time of 30 d. When the OLR was increased to 6.706 and 8.382 kg VS/m(3) x d, biogas production was seriously inhibited by VFAs, with maximum total VFA and propionate concentrations of 8738 mg/L and 2864 mg/L, respectively. Due to the incomplete degradation of lipids, the specific methane production rate of 353-488 L/kg VS accounted for 55.2-76.3% of the theoretical methane potential calculated based on the component composition. A retrofitted anaerobic digester with lipid removal was designed to improve the efficiency.
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Dose Response Modeling of Etoposide-Induced DNA Damage Response.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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The 2007 NRC Report (")Toxicity Testing in the 21(st) Century: A Vision and A Strategy("), recommended an integrated, toxicity pathway-oriented approach for chemical testing. As an integral component of the recommendation, computational dose response modeling of toxicity pathways promises to provide mechanistic interpretation and prediction of adverse cellular outcomes. Among the many toxicity pathways, the DNA damage response is better characterized and thus more suited for computational modeling. In the present study, we formulated a minimal mathematical model of this pathway to examine the dose response for etoposide (ETP), an anti-cancer drug that causes DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In the model, DSB results from inhibition of topoisomerase by ETP and p53 is activated by a bistable switch composed of a positive feedback loop between ATM and ?H2AX. Our stochastic model recapitulated the dose response for several molecular biomarkers measured with flow cytometry in HT1080 cells, including phosphorylated p53, ATM, ?H2AX, and micronuclei. Model simulations were consistent with a bimodal pattern of p53 activation and a graded population-averaged response at high ETP concentrations. The graded response was a result of heterogeneous activation of individual cells due to molecular stochasticity. This work shows the value of combining data collection on single cell responses and mechanistic, stochastic modeling to develop and test hypothesis for the circuitry of important toxicity pathways. Future studies will determine how well this initial modeling effort agrees with a broader set of experimental studies on pathway responses by examining a more diverse group of DNA-damaging compounds.
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Long-term prognostic impact of cystatin c on acute coronary syndrome octogenarians with diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Cystatin C (Cys C) is a marker of renal dysfunction. Prior studies have shown that blood Cys C is related to the prognosis of coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic impact of Cys C on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) octogenarians with diabetes mellitus (DM).
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A multi-omic analysis of an Enterococcus faecium mutant reveals specific genetic mutations and dramatic changes in mRNA and protein expression.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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For a long time, Enterococcus faecium was considered a harmless commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and was used as a probiotic in fermented foods. In recent decades, E. faecium has been recognised as an opportunistic pathogen that causes diseases such as neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis and diverticulitis. E. faecium could be taken into space with astronauts and exposed to the space environment. Thus, it is necessary to observe the phenotypic and molecular changes of E. faecium after spaceflight.
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Asthma in the geriatric population.
Allergy Asthma Proc
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Asthma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Despite the rising incidence of asthma in people >65 years of age, the diagnosis is frequently missed in this population. Factors that contribute to this include respiratory changes caused by aging, immunosenescence, lack of symptoms, polypharmacy, clinician unawareness, and lack of evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management that target this population. This literature review addresses the current state of research in this area. Age-related changes influence the pathophysiology and role of allergy in elderly asthmatic patients. Specific obstacles encountered in caring for these patients are discussed. Asthma in the elderly and younger population are compared. We conclude with a broad set of goals to guide future management driven by a multidiscipline approach.
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The role of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 subunit ? in AFB1 induced liver lesion.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatocarcinogen that causes carcinogenesis in many animal species. In previous study, we found that isocitrate dehydrogenase 3? subunit (IDH3?) was upregulated in AFB1-induced carcinogenesis process. In this study, the sequences of IDH3? from various species were compared and the protein expression levels in different organs were examined, and the results showed that IDH3? was a widely distributed protein and shared highly conserved sequence in various species. In the same time, IDH3? was demonstrated to accumulate in a dose-dependent manner induced by AFB1 in cells, and was also up-regulated in the process of AFB1-induced liver lesion. Similar results were observed when H2O2 was used to replace AFB1. Over-expression of IDH3? increased the phosphorylation level of Akt (Protein kinase B) and neutralized the cellular toxicity induced by AFB1 or H2O2 and apoptosis induced by AFB1, while the reduced expression of IDH3? by siRNA decreased the phosphorylation, indicating that IDH3? played important roles in oxidative stress-induced PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, the results suggested that AFB1 treatment could increase the expression of IDH3?, and the activated PI3K/Akt pathway by IDH3? eventually neutralized the apoptosis induced by AFB1.
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Fas signal promotes the immunosuppressive function of regulatory dendritic cells via the ERK/?-catenin pathway.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in the initiation of immune response and also in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Now, many kinds of regulatory DCs with different phenotypes have been identified to suppress immune response and contribute to the control of autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which regulatory DCs can be regulated to exert the immunosuppressive function in the immune microenvironment remain to be fully investigated. In addition, how T cells, once activated, can feedback affect the function of regulatory DCs during immune response needs to be further identified. We previously identified a unique subset of CD11b(hi)Ia(low) regulatory DCs, differentiated from mature DCs or hematopoietic stem cells under a stromal microenvironment in spleen and liver, which can negatively regulate immune response in a feedback way. Here, we show that CD11b(hi)Ia(low) regulatory DCs expressed high level of Fas, and endothelial stromal cell-derived TGF-? could induce high expression of Fas on regulatory DCs via ERK activation. Fas ligation could promote regulatory DCs to inhibit CD4(+) T cell proliferation more significantly. Furthermore, Fas ligation preferentially induced regulatory DCs to produce IL-10 and IP-10 via ERK-mediated inactivation of GSK-3 and subsequent up-regulation of ?-catenin. Interestingly, activated T cells could promote regulatory DCs to secrete more IL-10 and IP-10 partially through FasL. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Fas signal, at least from the activated T cells, can promote the immunosuppressive function of Fas-expressing regulatory DCs, providing a new manner for the regulatory DCs to regulate adaptive immunity.
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Metabolic changes of starch and lipid triggered by nitrogen starvation in the microalga Chlorella zofingiensis.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The aim of this research was to study the metabolic changes of starch and lipid biosynthesis in the microalga Chlorella zofingiensis under nitrogen starvation in comparison to nitrogen abundant condition. C. zonfingiensis showed a rapid growth and kept stable chlorophyll content when grown in nitrogen-replete medium, while a severe inhibition of cell growth and a sharp degradation of chlorophyll occurred under nitrogen depletion. Nitrogen-replete C. zonfingiensis cells possessed basal levels of starch and lipid. Upon nitrogen starvation, both starch and lipid increased greatly within cells, but starch synthesis preceded lipid accumulation. After 2days of stress condition, starch was partially degraded, possibly to support lipid synthesis. It was speculated that starch accumulation acted as a quick response to environmental stress, whereas lipid served as long-term energy storage. Additionally, C. zonfingiensis tends to lower the degree of unsaturation in response to nitrogen starvation which is desirable for biodiesel production.
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[Simulation analysis and experimental study of positioning signals in thorax electric field catheter].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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In order to enhance the position accuracy of ablation catheter in heart electrophysiology operation, signals of respiration and heartbeat must be removed for subsequent data processing. Based on locating principle of electrical field with low frequency, synchronous detector with MC1496 has been developed in this study. In the present research, several methods are utilized to optimize the circuit performance, such as coupling and stopping direct current, low-pass filtering, as well as limiting ripple voltage etc. Through simulation results, it showed that the demodulation performance of the circuit was fine. Through simulation platform of thorax electric field and animal experiment, the circuit feasibility were further proved good for extracting signals of respiration and heartbeat.
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[Evaluation of the cellulase cost during the cassava cellulose ethanol fermentation process].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Cellulose takes nearly 10% (W/W) dry weight of cassava tubers. In this study, the cellulase cost of different ethanol fermentation from cassava cellulose was evaluated. The processes include the direct saccharification and fermentation of original cassava cellulose residues, the direct saccharification and fermentation of pretreated cassava cellulose residues, and the simultaneous co-saccharification and fermentation of cassava starch and cassava cellulose. The results show that the cassava cellulose utilization in the first two processes were low with the enzyme cost of 13 602 and 11 659 RMB Yuan per tone of ethanol, respectively. In the third process, the final ethanol concentration increased from 101.5 g/L to 107.0 g/L when cassava cellulose and cassava starch were saccharified simultaneously. Comparing to the first two processes, the third one demonstrated the lowest enzyme cost at 3 589 RMB Yuan per ton of ethanol, which was less than the ethanol price and no additional equipment and operation cost input were added. The conclusion provided a practical way of cassava cellulose utilization in cassava ethanol industry.
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Meta-analysis identifies robust association between SNP rs17465637 in MIA3 on chromosome 1q41 and coronary artery disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Several large-scale meta-GWAS identified significant association between SNP rs17465637 in the MIA3 gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the European ancestry populations. However, three follow-up replication studies in the Chinese populations yielded inconsistent results. In order to unequivocally determine whether SNP rs17465637 is associated with CAD, we performed an independent case control association study in the Chinese Han population and a follow-up large scale meta-analysis for SNP rs17465637. Our study included 2503 CAD patients and 2920 non-CAD controls of the Chinese Han origin. A significant association was found between SNP rs17465637 and CAD (P = 0.01, OR = 1.11). Meta-analysis included 7263 CAD patients and 8347 controls combined from five Asian populations. The association between SNP rs17465637 and CAD became highly significant (P = 4.97 × 10(-5), OR = 1.11). Similar analysis also identified significant association between SNP rs17465637 and MI (2424 cases vs. 6,536controls; P = 5.00 × 10(-3), OR = 1.10). We conclude that SNP rs17465637 in MIA3 is indeed a genetic risk factor for CAD across different ethnic populations.
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Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in Dairy Wastewater Pretreated by UV Irradiation and Sodium Hypochlorite.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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There is potential in the utilization of microalgae for the purification of wastewater as well as recycling the resource in the wastewater to produce biodiesel. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae requires pretreatment of the wastewater to eliminate bacteria and protozoa. This procedure is costly and complex. In this study, two methods of pretreatment, UV irradiation, and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), in various doses and concentrations, were tested in the dairy wastewater. Combining the efficiency of biodiesel production, we proposed to treat the dairy wastewater with NaClO in the concentration of 30 ppm. In this condition, The highest biomass productivity and lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris reached 0.450 g L(-1) day(-1) and 51 mg L(-1) day(-1) after a 4-day cultivation in the dairy wastewater, respectively.
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Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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