Cracks are an important indicator reflecting the safety status of infrastructures. This paper presents an automatic crack detection and classification methodology for subway tunnel safety monitoring. With the application of high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) industrial cameras, the tunnel surface can be captured and stored in digital images. In a next step, the local dark regions with potential crack defects are segmented from the original gray-scale images by utilizing morphological image processing techniques and thresholding operations. In the feature extraction process, we present a distance histogram based shape descriptor that effectively describes the spatial shape difference between cracks and other irrelevant objects. Along with other features, the classification results successfully remove over 90% misidentified objects. Also, compared with the original gray-scale images, over 90% of the crack length is preserved in the last output binary images. The proposed approach was tested on the safety monitoring for Beijing Subway Line 1. The experimental results revealed the rules of parameter settings and also proved that the proposed approach is effective and efficient for automatic crack detection and classification.
External stimuli, such as ultrasound, magnetic field, and light, can be applied to activate in vivo tumor targeting. Herein, we fabricated polymer encapsulated gold nanorods to couple the photothermal properties of gold nanorods and the thermo- and pH-responsive properties of polymers in a single nanocomposite. The activation mechamism was thus transformed from heat to near-infrared (NIR) laser, which can be more easily controlled. Doxorubicin, a clinical anticancer drug, can be loaded into the nanocomposite through electrostatic interactions with high loading content up to 24%. The nanocomposite's accumulation in tumor post systematic administration can be significantly enhanced by NIR laser irradiation, providing a prerequisite for their therapeutic application which almost completely inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis. Since laser can be manipulated very precisely and flexibly, the nanocomposite provides an ideally versatile platform to simultaneously deliver heat and anticancer drugs in a laser-activation mechanism with facile control of the area, time, and dosage. The NIR laser-induced targeted cancer thermo-chemotherapy without using targeting ligands represents a novel targeted anticancer strategy with facile control and practical efficacy.
XR5944, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bis-intercalator with potent anticancer activity, can bind the estrogen response element (ERE) sequence to inhibit estrogen receptor-? activities. This novel mechanism of action may be useful for overcoming drug resistance to currently available antiestrogen treatments, all of which target the hormone-receptor complex. Here we report the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the 2:1 complex of XR5944 with the naturally occurring TFF1-ERE, which exhibits important and unexpected features. In both drug-DNA complexes, XR5944 binds strongly at one intercalation site but weakly at the second site. The sites of intercalation within a native promoter sequence appear to be context and sequence dependent. The binding of one drug molecule influences the binding site of the second. Our structures underscore the fact that the DNA binding of a bis-intercalator is directional and different from the simple addition of two single intercalation sites. Our study suggests that improved XR5944 bis-intercalators targeting ERE may be designed through optimization of aminoalkyl linker and intercalation moieties at the weak binding sites.
There is continuously increasing interest in research on multi-sensor data fusion technology. Because Dempster's rule of combination can be problematic when dealing with conflicting data, there are numerous issues that make data fusion a challenging task, including the exponential explosion, Zadeh Paradox, and one-vote veto. These issues lead to a great difference between the fusion results and real results. This paper applies the idea of analyzing distance-based evidence conflicts, introduces the concept of vector space, and proposes a new cosine theorem-based method of identifying and expressing conflicting data. In addition, this paper proposes a new data fusion algorithm based on the degree of mutual support between beliefs, which is based on the Jousselme distance-based combination rule proposed by Deng et al. Simulation results demonstrate that the presented algorithm achieves great improvements in both the accuracy of identifying conflicting data and that of fusing conflicting data.
This study aimed to explore how core self-evaluations influenced job burnout and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A total of 583 female nurses accomplished the Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The results revealed that core self-evaluations, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job burnout were significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling indicated that core self-evaluations can significantly influence job burnout and are completely mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in cosmetics and sunscreens, advanced textiles, self-charging and electronic devices; the potential for human exposure and the health impact at each stage of their manufacture and use are attracting great concerns. In addition to pulmonary damage, nanoparticle exposure is also strongly correlated with the increase in incidences of cardiovascular diseases; however, their toxic potential remains largely unclear. Herein, we investigated the cellular responses and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induced by ZnO NPs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in comparison with the Zn2+ ions and CeO2 NPs. We found that the dissolved zinc ion was the most significant factor for cytotoxicity in HUVECs. More importantly, ZnO NPs at noncytotoxic concentration, but not CeO2 NPs, can induce significant cellular ER stress response with higher expression of spliced xbp-1, chop, and caspase-12 at the mRNA level, and associated ER marker proteins including BiP, Chop, GADD34, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, and cleaved Caspase-12 at the protein levels. Moreover, ER stress was widely activated after treatment with ZnO NPs, while six of 84 marker genes significantly increased. ER stress response is a sensitive marker for checking the interruption of ER homeostasis by ZnO NPs. Furthermore, higher dosage of ZnO NPs (240 ?M) quickly rendered ER stress response before inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ZnO NPs activate ER stress-responsive pathway and the ER stress response might be used as an earlier and sensitive end point for nanotoxicological study.
Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (DSET) is a flexible and popular paradigm for multisource data fusion in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper presents a novel and easy implementing method computing masses from the hundreds of pieces of data collected by a WSN. The transfer model is based on the Mahalanobis distance (MD), which is an effective method to measure the similarity between an object and a sample. Compared to the existing methods, the proposed method concerns the statistical features of the observed data and it is good at transferring multi-dimensional data to belief assignment correctly and effectively. The main processes of the proposed method, which include the calculation of the intersection classes of the power set and the algorithm mapping MDs to masses, are described in detail. Experimental results in transformer fault diagnosis show that the proposed method has a high accuracy in constructing masses from multidimensional data for DSET. Additionally, the results also prove that higher dimensional data brings higher accuracy in transferring data to mass.
While thermo-chemotherapy has proved to be effective in optimizing the efficacies of cancer treatments, traditional chemotherapy is subject to adverse side effects and heat delivery is often challenging in operation. Some photothermal inorganic nanoparticles responsive to near infrared light provide new opportunities for simultaneous and targeted delivery of heat and chemotherapeutics to the tumor sites in pursuit of synergistic effects for efficacy enhancement. The state of the art of nanoparticle-induced thermo-chemotherapy is summarized and the advantages and challenges of the major nanoplatforms based on gold nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, palladium nanosheets, and copper-based nanocrystals are highlighted. In addition, the optical-imaging potentials of the nanoplatforms that may endow them with imaging-guided therapy and therapeutic-result-monitoring capabilities are also briefly discussed.
Due to their tunable surface plasmon and photothermal effects, gold nanorods (AuNRs) have proved to be promising in a wide range of biomedical applications such as imaging, hyperthermia therapy and drug delivery. All these applications can be remotely controlled by near infrared (NIR) light which can penetrate deep into human tissues with minimal lateral invasion. AuNRs thus hold the potential to combine both imaging diagnosis and therapeutic treatment into one single system and function as a NIR light-mediated theranostic platform. Herein we review recent progress in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of AuNRs with a highlight on combined applications for theranostic purposes.
China has been implementing regional collaborative medical service (also known as e-health) for >5 years, but is still facing the challenges of bridging different community health information systems (CHISs). The fact that different communities have different systems makes it difficult to share information and data between different CHISs. To explore a solution for addressing this problem, we constructed a demonstration CHIS in Beijings Dongcheng District. This system is based on the Software-as-a-Service model, in which a central data center is used to store users health records and to provide different services. This system provides a comprehensive platform combining disease prevention, health protection, medical care, rehabilitation, health education, and family planning. In this article, we first show the challenge of implementing e-health-oriented CHIS in China, then we briefly introduce our solution, and finally we share our experience learned from the modern CHIS implementation practice.
It has been established that the equilibrium between duplex and G-quadruplex of the nuclease hypersensitivity element III1 (NHE III1) in human c-myc promoter is linked with this genes transcription. Using NMR and ESI-MS, we have found a pyrene derivative, DMAPP, is able to modulate this equilibrium and, thus, might have the potential to regulate this oncogenes transcription. DMAPP has shown as a G-quadruplex binding agent and could induce c-myc G-quadruplex formation out of duplex. These results provide new clue for rational drug design to target transcription control of c-myc.
This paper proposed a simple hexagonal model to explore the specific structural characteristics of thiol-modified single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrate. The calibrated gyration diameter d(g)(d(g)=rd(g)) was used to quantify the size of ss-DNA molecules on gold by introducing a calibrating factor r, where d(g) was ss-DNA gyration diameter in solution. Based on the model, the interfacial parameters of ss-DNA-SAMs on gold assembled under different ionic strength were obtained theoretically. The ss-DNA-SAMs were assembled on gold under different concentrations of C(NaCl) and six important electrochemical parameters were used to validate the model experimentally, which include surface coverage (?(m)), interfacial capacitance (C), phase angle (?(1 Hz)), ions transfer resistance (R(it)(*)), current density difference (?j) and charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) from chronocoulometry (CC), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three main aspects were included in this paper: (1) construction of a simple hexagonal model to describe the specific structural characteristics of ss-DNA-SAMs on gold; (2) calculation of the calibrating factor r by CC experiments and several important conclusions from the simple model; and (3) confirmation of the simple model by our experimental results and literature reports. The simple model may provide an important reference for optimizing the design of DNA sensor.
In this article we studied the permeable characteristics of thiol-modified double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold substrate assembled under different NaCl concentrations by electrochemical methods. It was based on the inspection of five important parameters including interfacial capacitance (C), phase angle (?(1?Hz)), ions transfer resistance (R(it)*), current density difference (?j) and electron transfer rate (k(et)) through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three sections were included: (1) Investigation of the relationships of C, ?(1?Hz), R(it)*, ?j and k(et) with NaCl concentrations and comparison with the reports from literature. Experimental results showed that ds-DNA-SAMs were permeable films. (2) Construction of a simple model for exploring the permeable characteristics of ds-DNA-SAMs on gold. (3) Confirmation of the simple model by chronocoulometry (CC) and application of the model to explain the permeable mechanism. This study was significant for exploring the mechanism of electron transfer through the interior of ds-DNA duplex helix.
DNA-intercalating molecules can impair DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. We previously demonstrated that XR5944, a DNA bis-intercalator, specifically blocks binding of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) to the consensus estrogen response element (ERE). The consensus ERE sequence is AGGTCAnnnTGACCT, where nnn is known as the tri-nucleotide spacer. Recent work has shown that the tri-nucleotide spacer can modulate ER?-ERE binding affinity and ligand-mediated transcriptional responses. To further understand the mechanism by which XR5944 inhibits ER?-ERE binding, we tested its ability to interact with consensus EREs with variable tri-nucleotide spacer sequences and with natural but non-consensus ERE sequences using one dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D (1)H NMR) titration studies. We found that the tri-nucleotide spacer sequence significantly modulates the binding of XR5944 to EREs. Of the sequences that were tested, EREs with CGG and AGG spacers showed the best binding specificity with XR5944, while those spaced with TTT demonstrated the least specific binding. The binding stoichiometry of XR5944 with EREs was 2:1, which can explain why the spacer influences the drug-DNA interaction; each XR5944 spans four nucleotides (including portions of the spacer) when intercalating with DNA. To validate our NMR results, we conducted functional studies using reporter constructs containing consensus EREs with tri-nucleotide spacers CGG, CTG, and TTT. Results of reporter assays in MCF-7 cells indicated that XR5944 was significantly more potent in inhibiting the activity of CGG- than TTT-spaced EREs, consistent with our NMR results. Taken together, these findings predict that the anti-estrogenic effects of XR5944 will depend not only on ERE half-site composition but also on the tri-nucleotide spacer sequence of EREs located in the promoters of estrogen-responsive genes.
In this paper, the theory of complex adaptive system (CAS) and its modeling method are introduced. The complex characters of the hospital system is analyzed. The agile manufacturing and cell reconstruction technologies are used to reconstruct the hospital system. Then we set forth a research for simulation of hospital system based on the methodology of Multi-Agent technology and high level architecture (HLA). Finally, a simulation framework based on HLA for hospital system is presented.
The objective of this study was to share the experience of building an information security system for a regional collaborative medical platform (RCMP) and discuss the lessons learned from practical projects. Safety measures are analyzed from the perspective of system engineering. We present the essential requirements, critical architectures, and policies for system security of regional collaborative medical platforms.
Although China started to study and implement telemedicine much later than other advanced countries, telemedicine is developing very fast in this country. Research on telemedicine is also getting popular, and more and more teleconsultant systems are being carried out. For the purpose of assessing the development of telemedicine in China over these past 50 years, we conducted a study of three elements, namely (1) teleconsultations, (2) academic activities, and (3) education. We carried out our study from three perspectives: the teleconsultant, telemedicine academic activities, and telemedicine education. In this article, we also show our recent achievement in telemedicine based on the Regional Collaborative Medical Service.
Data sharing and information exchange among medical institutions is a requirement for convenient and effective data availability for both healthcare professionals and patients. In this paper, the characteristics of medical data are studied; two mainstream technologies of data storage for medical information are compared, and three strategies of medical documents storage are described with detailed advantages and disadvantages. Semi-structured storage technology is easier to deploy and much more promising to promote in a wider range than all-structured methods. The combination of central and distributed data storage is more practical for regional data sharing. This analysis suggests that semi-structural data storage technology and the combination of central and distributed data storage are efficient and fit well the current situation in China.
China started to pay more attention to the construction of a regional and national health information network after the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003. The construction of a public health system is considered the most important part of national medical reform, with information and computer technology serving as the key to deploying regional collaborative medical service, also known as e-health. In this paper, we analyze the difficulties in carrying out e-health projects in China, a discussion of ongoing projects, and a case presentation representing current progress.
China started to pay more attention to regional and national health information network construction after the SARS epidemic outbreak in 2003. The Chinese government marks the public health system construction as the most urgent part of national medical reform, with information and computer technology (ICT) being considered as the key of deploying regional collaborative medical service (RCMS), which is also known as e-Health. In this paper, we firstly analyze the difficulties of carrying out e-health projects in China and then present the active attempts, finally a case representing current progress is presented and studied.
Human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex has been considered as an attractive target for cancer therapeutic intervention. The telomeric sequence shows intrinsic structure polymorphism. Here we report a novel intramolecular G-quadruplex structure formed by a variant human telomeric sequence in K(+) solution. This sequence forms a basket-type intramolecular G-quadruplex with only two G-tetrads but multiple-layer capping structures formed by loop residues. While it is shown that this structure can only be detected in the specifically truncated telomeric sequences without any 5-flanking residues, our results suggest that this two-G-tetrad conformation is likely to be an intermediate form of the interconversion of different telomeric G-quadruplex conformations.
Reaction pathways, solvent effects and energy barriers have been investigated for the dehydration processes of aquated Al(OH)(2)(+) species in aqueous solution by density functional calculations using a supermolecule model. The dehydration processes from Al(H(2)O)(4)(OH)(2)(+) to Al(H(2)O)(2)(OH)(2)(+) involve the water exchange on cis-Al(H(2)O)(4)(OH)(2)(+) and dehydration of the following intermediate pentacoordinate Al(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)(+). The calculated results indicate that cis-Al(H(2)O)(4)(OH)(2)(+) exchanges water in a dissociative way with an activation energy of 27.7 kJ mol(-1). Loss of coordinated water from hexacoordinate and pentacoordinate Al(OH)(2)(+) is unfavourable by 22.1 and 6.6 kJ mol(-1), respectively, which supports the presence of the stable hexacoordinate Al(H(2)O)(4)(OH)(2)(+) in aqueous solution. Our results also indicate that both the explicit water molecules and bulk water molecules have great influences on the energy barriers, and they can not be neglected.
Reaction pathways, solvent effects and energy barriers have been investigated for the dimerization of the deprotonated aquo ion of Al(III) in aqueous solution by performing supramolecule density functional theory calculations. Two competing reaction pathways were investigated, sharing a common first step and third step, i.e. the formation of the aggregate II of two aluminium monomers and the doubly bridged dimer. One pathway involves a nucleophilic attack to undercoordinated metal center in the first step and then the loss of a coordinated water molecule. Another pathway involves a water exchange reaction in the first step and then the formation of the hydroxo bridge. The calculated results indicate that both pathways I and II are possible in aqueous solution. The direct participation of the solvent water molecule facilitates the dimerization, but the extremely large solvent shifts of the energy barriers for each reaction are attributed mainly to the bulk effect. The computed activation energies for the water exchange reactions are in good agreement with the available experimental values, namely, the calculated value 37.5 kJ mol(-1) compared to the experimental value 36.4 (+/-5) kJ mol(-1). In agreement with experimental observations in aqueous solution, the calculated results favor the transformation of singly-bridged to doubly-bridged aluminium ion, which is helpful to understand the complicated hydrolytic polymerizaiton of Al(III).
In this article we investigate the effect of monovalent cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+)) on self-assembly of thiol-modified double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) and single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) on gold electrodes. Electrochemical characteristics (surface coverage, ion penetration and charge transfer) of ds-DNA and ss-DNA self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed with different monovalent cations are inspected based on six important interfacial parameters including surface coverage (?(m)), interfacial capacitance (C), phase angle (?(1 Hz)), ion transfer resistance (R(it)*), current density difference (?j) and charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) from chronocoulometry (CC), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three sections are included: (1) Investigation of the relationships of parameters (?(m), C, ?(1 Hz), R(it)*, ?j and R(ct)) for ds-DNA-SAMs and ss-DNA-SAMs with cation types and concentrations; (2) confirmation and explanation of our experimental results combined with our recently proposed simple DNA model and literature reports; (3) exploration of the mechanism for the orders of monovalent cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+)) on availing the adsorption of ds-DNA and ss-DNA molecules on gold based on their physicochemical parameters (ion size, solvation free energy and enthalpy, ion-water bond length and water exchange rate) and possible binding modes with DNA molecules. This work might provide a useful reference for understanding interactional mechanism of cations with DNA molecules.
Mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods (Au@SiO(2)) are developed as a promising and versatile theranostic platform for cancer treatment. Intracellular localization of Au@SiO(2) is visualized through two-photon imaging. With doxorubicin hydrochloride loaded, Au@SiO(2)-DOX show two light-mediated therapeutic modes: low power density laser-triggered drug release for chemotherapy, and high power density laser-induced hyperthermia, which suggest the potential for in-vivo applications.
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