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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To explore the mechanism and effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats.
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Extreme Synergistic Mutational Effects in the Directed Evolution of a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase as Catalyst for Asymmetric Sulfoxidation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Structure-based directed evolution utilizing iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) has been applied to phenyl acetone monooxygenase (PAMO), a thermally robust Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, in the quest to access a mutant which displays reversed enantioselectivity in the asymmetric sulfoxidation of prochiral thioethers. Whereas WT PAMO leads to 90% ee in the sulfoxidation of p-methylbenzyl methyl thioether with preference for the (S)-sulfoxide, the evolved mutant I67Q/P440F/A442N/L443I is 95% (R)-selective in the reaction of this and in other thioethers. Partial deconvolution of the (R)-selective mutant with generation of the respective four single mutants shows that all of them are (S)-selective, which points to pronounced synergism (cooperative non-additivity) when they interact in concert. Complete deconvolution with formation of all combinatorial forms of the respective double and triple mutants allows the designed construction of a fitness landscape featuring all 24 upward pathways leading from WT to the (R)-selective quadruple mutant. In all 24 trajectories strong cooperative mutational effects were found as well, which indicates that such mutational changes in enzymes constitute non-linear systems. A theoretical analysis based on induced fit docking explains many of the observed effects on a molecular level.
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CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Aims and background. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitroaromatics and arylamines. Methods. The study examined the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study including 526 non-small cell lung cancer cases and 526 cancer-free controls. The odds ratios and 95? confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression models. Results. Compared with 462Ile/Ile genotype carriers, subjects with CYP1A1 462Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype had a decreased risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer with odds ratios of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.44-0.75) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.36-0.81), respectively. When stratified by smoking status, the decreased risk of non-small cell lung cancer associated with CYP1A1 462Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype was observed among non-smokers (OR = 0.62, 95% CI, 0.45-0.87) and among smokers (OR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.37-0.78). When stratified by smoking-dose, the correlation between CYP1A1 genotypes and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer was detected among light smokers (OR = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.19-0.48) but not among heavy smokers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.61-1.43). Conclusions. The CYP1A1 Ile462Val variant was associated with a low risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population.
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[Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.
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Arabidopsis AT-hook protein TEK positively regulates the expression of arabinogalactan proteins in controlling nexine layer formation in the pollen wall.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Nexine is a conserved layer of the pollen wall. We previously reported that the nexine layer is absent in the knockout mutant of TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT SILENCING VIA AT-HOOK (TEK). In this work, we characterized the molecular function of TEK in pollen development and identified direct targets of TEK, Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), which are responsible for nexine formation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that TEK can directly bind to the nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR). Phenotypic similarity between tek and the TEK-SRDX transgenic lines indicated that TEK plays a role in transcriptional activation in anther development. Microarray analysis identified a total of 661 genes downstream of TEK, including four genes encoding AGPs, AGP6, AGP11, AGP23 and AGP40. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by PCR analysis using the FLAG-tagged TEK complement lines suggested that TEK is enriched in the promoters of these four genes. EMSA further confirmed that TEK binds to the AGP6 promoter. The expression of AGP6 driven by the TEK promoter in tek can partially rescue both nexine formation and plant fertility. These results show that TEK directly regulates AGPs expression in the anther. It is proposed that glycoproteins are an essential component of the nexine layer in the pollen wall.
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Decreased levels of circulating sex hormones as a biomarker of lung cancer in male patients with solitary pulmonary nodules.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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An early differentiation of malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) is essential for management and prognosis of lung cancer.
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Extracellular UDP and P2Y6 Function as a Danger Signal To Protect Mice from Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection through an Increase in IFN-? Production.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Extracellular nucleotides that constitute a "danger signal" play an important role in the regulation of immune responses. However, the function and mechanism of extracellular UDP and P2Y6 in antiviral immunity remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo protection of UDP/P2Y6 signaling in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. First, we demonstrated that VSV-infected cells secrete UDP from the cytoplasm as a danger signal to arouse surrounding cells. Meanwhile, expression of the UDP-specific receptor P2Y6 also was enhanced by VSV. Consequently, UDP protects RAW 264.7 cells, murine embryonic fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and L929 cells from VSV and GFP lentivirus infection. This protection can be blocked by the P2Y6 selective antagonist MRS2578 or IFN-?/? receptor-blocking Ab. VSV-induced cell death and virus replication were both enhanced significantly by knocking down and knocking out P2Y6 in different cells. Mechanistically, UDP facilitates IFN-? secretion through the p38/JNK- and ATF-2/c-Jun-signaling pathways, which are crucial in promoting antiviral immunity. Interestingly, UDP was released through a caspase-cleaved pannexin-1 channel in VSV-induced apoptotic cells and protected cells from infection through P2Y6 receptor in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Furthermore, UDP also protected mice from VSV infection through P2Y6 receptors in an acute neurotropic infection mouse model. Taken together, these results demonstrate the important role of extracellular UDP and P2Y6 as a danger signal in antiviral immune responses and suggest a potential therapeutic role for UDP/P2Y6 in preventing and controlling viral diseases.
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AGE modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Biomechanical strain imposed by age related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesised that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major components collagen IV and laminin. We used this model to demonstrate that antibody targeted blockade of CTLD2, the second of eight C-type lectin-like domains in Endo180 (CD280, CLEC13E, KIAA0709, MRC2, TEM9, uPARAP) that can recognise glycosylated collagens, reversed actinomyosin-based contractility (myosin-light chain-2 [MLC2] phosphorylation), loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180(?Ex2) (-6/) (?Ex2) (-6) mice with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour in non-transformed PECs via a molecular mechanism linked to cancer progression. This study provides a rationale for targeting CTLD2 in Endo180 in prostate cancer, and other pathologies, where increased basal lamina thickness and tissue stiffness are driving factors.
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[Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from Panax notoginseng on three maize varieties (Zea mays)].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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It has been showed that there were obvious obstacle effects of Panax notoginseng replanting. Crop rotation was the main effective technique to overcome the obstacle. To find a reasonable crop rotation system for P. notoginseng, aqueous extracts from root, stem and leaf of P. notoginseng were analyzed for allelopathic effect on three maize varieties (which are often grown in regions where P. notoginseng grown). The main results were as follows: (1) Allelopathic effect of P. notoginseng stem and leaf extracts on the three other tested plants was stronger than that of root extracts; (2) Corn was more vulnerable to the effects of allelochemicals at seedling stage than at germination stage, and the corn root was more sensitive than aerial part to allelochemicals; (3) Lusan No. 3 and Yunrui No. 1 showed resistance to P. notoginseng allelopathy, with respective comprehensive sensitivity indexes (M3) of - 0.089 3 and -0.159 2, while Bainuo No. 1 is sensitive at M3 = -0.261 0. It then can be concluded that Lusan No. 3 and Yunrui No. 1 may be an alternative rotation plants for overcoming P. notoginseng continuous cropping obstacle.
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[Analysis of respiratory complications in 922 severely burned patients].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To discuss the distribution of the respiratory complications in severely burned patients and the prevention and treatment experience against them.
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DNA methylation-mediated silencing of matricellular protein dermatopontin promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by ?3?1 integrin-Rho GTPase signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Dermatopontin (DPT), a tyrosine-rich, acidic matricellular protein, has been implicated in several human cancers. However, its biological functions and molecular mechanisms in cancer progression, particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), remain unknown. We demonstrated that DPT was significantly down-regulated in 202 HCC clinical samples and that its expression level was closely correlated with cancer metastasis and patient prognosis. The overexpression of DPT dramatically suppressed HCC cell migration in vitro and intrahepatic metastasis in vivo. We further revealed that the down-regulation of DPT in HCC was due to epigenetic silencing by promoter DNA methylation. And the inhibitory effects of DPT on HCC cell motility were associated with dysregulated focal adhesion assembly, decreased RhoA activity and reduced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src tyrosine kinase (Src) phosphorylation, and all of these alterations required the involvement of integrin signaling. Furthermore, we determined that the inhibitory effects of DPT on HCC cell motility were primarily mediated through ?3?1 integrin. Our study provides new evidence for epigenetic control of tumor microenvironment, and suggests matricellular protein DPT may serve as a novel prognostic marker and act as a HCC metastasis suppressor.
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Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A suppresses the expression of HER2 via a pathway involving TWIST and YB-1 in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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To explore HER2 expression in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and the possible mechanisms causing down-regulation of HER2 expression in EBVaGC, we first evaluated HER2 and LMP2A expression on a clinicopathological-features matched cohort including 78 EBVaGC and 216 EBV-negative gastric carcinoma (EBVnGC) cases by immunohistochemistry. Cases with high HER2 expression in EBVaGC were significantly less than in EBVnGC (5.1% versus 23.7%; p<0.001), and none of the 34 LMP2A+ EBVaGC showed high HER2 expression. Further, overexpressing LMP2A in EBV-negative SGC7901 cells significantly decreased HER2, TWIST and YB-1 mRNA by 36.1%±8.1%, 87.6%±14.0% and 83.8%±5.7%, and protein by 44%, 57% and 49%, respectively. Additionally, the nucleus/cytoplasm ratios of TWIST and YB-1 were also decreased by 85% and 80%, respectively. Silencing LMP2A by siRNA in EBV-positive SNU719 cells for 48 h significantly increased HER2, TWIST and YB-1 mRNA to 276.7%±14.6%, 1284.8%±38.2% and 332.0%±15.5% and protein to 212%, 457% and 232%, respectively. The nucleus/cytoplasm ratios of TWIST and YB-1 were up-regulated by 4.00- and 3.57-fold, respectively, following LMP2A down-regulation. Moreover, LMP2A+/HER2low EBVaGC cases presented the best overall survival compared with LMP2A-/HER2low and LMP2A-/HER2high cases (p=0.003, log-rank test). These results suggest that LMP2A may suppress the HER2 expression through the TWIST/YB-1 axis in EBVaGC.
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Anomalous and Highly Efficient InAs Nanowire Phototransistors Based on Majority Carrier Transport at Room Temperature.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Core/shell-like n-type InAs nanowire phototransistors based on majority-carrier-dominated photodetection are investigated. Under optical illumination, electrons generated from the core are excited into the self-assembled near-surface photogating layer, forming a built-in electric field to significantly regulate the core conductance. Anomalous high photoconductive gain and fast response time are obtained at room temperature.
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The S28H mutation on mNeptune generates a brighter near-infrared monomeric fluorescent protein with improved quantum yield and pH-stability.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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For living deep-tissue imaging, the optical window favorable for light penetration is in near-infrared wavelengths, which requires fluorescent proteins with emission spectra in the near-infrared region. Here, we report that a single mutant Ser28His of mNeptune with a near-infrared (?650 nm) emission maxima of 652 nm is found to improve the brightness, photostability, and pH stability when compared with its parental protein mNeptune, while it remains as a monomer, demonstrating that there is still plenty of room to improve the performance of the existing near infrared fluorescence proteins by directed evolution.
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Effect of substrates and free ammonia on kinetic characteristics of nitritation and nitratation by entrapped nitrifiers.
J Environ Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In the present study, nitrifying bacteria entrapped in waterborne polyurethane gel was used to investigate the kinetic characteristics of nitritation and nitratation in relation to achieve shortcut nitrification. The nitrite accumulation rate was over 80% during the acclimation period. The following kinetic parameters were experimentally obtained: maximum nitrification rate (v(max)), half-saturation coefficient (K(s) and K(o)), and inhibition coefficient (K(IH)). The bacterial populations were also determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 73.5% proportion of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) resulted in a significantly higher ammonia oxidizing rate than nitrite oxidizing rate, which is in agreement with higher V(max) of nitritation (608.5 mgNl(-1)-pellet h(-1)) over nitratation (66.3 mgN l(-1)-pellet h(-1)).
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Tag SNPs of CFI contributed to the susceptibility for non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Complement factor I (CFI) plays an important role in the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aims to examine the association of CFI genetic variants with the risk of developing NSCLC in Chinese population. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in 470 patients with NSCLC and 470 controls in Chinese population. Totally, 13 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) of CFI were selected by Haploview software using the HapMap database. Genotyping was performed using iPLEX Gold Genotyping Assay and Sequenom MassARRAY. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated by logistic regression model. Our results showed that individuals with rs6822976 GG genotype had a significant decreased risk of NSCLC (OR?=?0.64; 95 % CI?=?0.42-0.98) when compared with rs6822976 AA genotype carriers. We also found that rs7671905 TT genotype exhibited a significant decreased risk of NSCLC compared with CC genotype with OR (95 % CI) of 0.55 (0.33-0.91). There was no significant association between other selected SNPs and the risk of NSCLC. When stratified by smoking status, the decreased risk of NSCLC was observed to be associated with the genotype with at least one rs6822976 G allele among non-smokers (OR?=?0.66; 95 % CI?=?0.47-0.93), but not among smokers (OR?=?1.01; 95 % CI?=?0.67-1.53). For CFI rs7671905 polymorphism, the individuals with at least one T allele have a decreased risk of NSCLC with OR (95 % CI) of 0.71 (0.51-0.99), but not among smokers (OR?=?0.93; 95 % CI?=?0.61-1.41). When stratified by age, we found that rs7671905 TT genotype has contributed to the decreased risk of NSCLC among older subjects with OR (95 % CI) of 0.46 (0.23-0.95), but not among younger subjects with OR (95 % CI) of 0.64 (0.31-1.34) (P interaction?=?0.03). After stratifying by sex, our study showed that rs7671905 TT genotype was related to the risk of NSCLC among males (OR?=?0.53; 95 % CI?=?0.29-0.98), but not among females (OR?=?0.62; 95 % CI?=?0.25-1.57) (P interaction?=?0.03). CFI genetic variants played an important role in the development of NSCLC in Chinese population.
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MeCP2 repression of G9a in regulation of pain and morphine reward.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Opioids are commonly used for pain relief, but their strong rewarding effects drive opioid misuse and abuse. How pain affects the liability of opioid abuse is unknown at present. In this study, we identified an epigenetic regulating cascade activated by both pain and the opioid morphine. Both persistent pain and repeated morphine upregulated the transcriptional regulator MeCP2 in mouse central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that MeCP2 bound to and repressed the transcriptional repressor histone dimethyltransferase G9a, reducing G9a-catalyzed repressive mark H3K9me2 in CeA. Repression of G9a activity increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Behaviorally, persistent inflammatory pain increased the sensitivity to acquiring morphine-induced, reward-related behavior of conditioned place preference in mice. Local viral vector-mediated MeCP2 overexpression, Cre-induced G9a knockdown, and CeA application of BDNF mimicked, whereas MeCP2 knockdown inhibited, the pain effect. These results suggest that MeCP2 directly represses G9a as a shared mechanism in central amygdala for regulation of emotional responses to pain and opioid reward, and for their behavioral interaction.
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Nicotine-induced upregulation of VCAM-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 through the ?7-nAChR-JNK pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The ability of nicotine to induce aortic aneurysms has been shown in animal models; however, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present experiment, both the RAW264.7 and MOVAS cell lines were employed to examine the nicotine-induced modulation of VCAM-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells. Our results showed that nicotine concentrations of both 0.5 and 5 ng/ml induced VCAM-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 upregulation, while a concentration of 50 ng/ml had a slight inhibitory effect and a concentration of 500 ng/ml showed a significant inhibitory effect. When cells were pretreated with either SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) or PNU-282987 (?7-nAChR agonist) prior to nicotine exposure, the nicotine-induced upregulation of VCAM-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and p-JNK was suppressed, with a joint treatment producing a more significant inhibitory effect. Moreover, PNU-282987 had a comparable inhibitory effect on VCAM-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions and JNK activation via phosphorylation as did SP600125. In conclusion, nicotine-induced VCAM-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions occur in a dose-dependent fashion in both of the cell lines tested. Furthermore, the nicotine exposure equivalent to plasma levels found in regular smokers can augment VCAM-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions through the ?7-nAChR-JNK pathway.
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Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by super-paramagnetic lateral-flow immunoassays based on "Road Closure"
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the field, whether as a natural infection or as a biothreat remains challenging. Here we have developed a new lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) for B. anthracis spore detection based on the fact that conjugates of B. anthracis spores and super-paramagnetic particles labeled with antibodies will block the pores of chromatographic strips and form retention lines on the strips, instead of the conventionally reported test lines and control lines in classic LFIA. As a result, this new LFIA can simultaneously realize optical, magnetic and naked-eye detection by analyzing signals from the retention lines. As few as 500-700 pure B. anthracis spores can be recognized with CV values less than 8.31% within 5min of chromatography and a total time of 20min. For powdery sample tests, this LFIA can endure interference from 25% (w/v) milk, 10% (w/v) baking soda and 10% (w/v) starch without any sample pre-treatment, and has a corresponding detection limit of 6×10(4) spores/g milk powder, 2×10(5) spores/g starch and 5×10(5) spores/g baking soda. Compared with existing methods, this new approach is very competitive in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost and ease of operation. This proof-of-concept study can also be extended for detection of many other large-sized analytes.
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Inhibition of leptin-induced vascular extracellular matrix remodelling by adiponectin.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, which is the result of disruption in the balance of ECM synthesis and degradation, induces vessel fibrosis and thereby leads to hypertension. Leptin is known to promote tissue fibrosis, while adiponectin has recently been demonstrated to be anti-fibrogenic in tissue fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin and to further elucidate the mechanisms through which adiponectin dampens leptin signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells, thus preventing excess ECM production, in our already established 3D co-culture vessel models. Our 3D co-culture vessel model, which mimics true blood vessels, is composed of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen type I. We validated the profibrogenic effects of leptin and analysed matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and collagen types II/IV secretion in 3D vessel models. The protective/inhibitory effects of adiponectin were re-analysed by inhibiting adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR) and AdipoR2 expression in endothelial cells using RNAi technology. In the 3D vessel models, adiponectin blocked the leptin-stimulated secretion of collagen types II/IV and TIMP1 while significantly increasing MMP2/9 activity. In endothelial cells, adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMPK, thereby suppressing leptin-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation through induction of SOCS3 in smooth muscle cells. Our findings indicate that adiponectin disrupted the leptin-induced vascular ECM remodelling via AdipoR1 and enhanced AMPK signalling in endothelial cells, which, in turn, promoted SOCS3 up-regulation in smooth muscle cells to repress leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3.
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[Association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphisms with susceptibility to small cell lung cancer].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To investigate the association of Ile462Val polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene with small cell lung cancer susceptibility.
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Persistent inflammation-induced up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes synaptic delivery of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor GluA1 subunits in descending pain modulatory circuits.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The enhanced AMPA receptor phosphorylation at GluA1 serine 831 sites in the central pain-modulating system plays a pivotal role in descending pain facilitation after inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We show here that, in the rat brain stem, in the nucleus raphe magnus, which is a critical relay in the descending pain-modulating system of the brain, persistent inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) can enhance AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and the GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor-mediated rectification index. Western blot analysis showed an increase in GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 but not at Ser-845. This was accompanied by an increase in distribution of the synaptic GluA1 subunit. In parallel, the level of histone H3 acetylation at bdnf gene promoter regions was reduced significantly 3 days after CFA injection, as indicated by ChIP assays. This was correlated with an increase in BDNF mRNA levels and BDNF protein levels. Sequestering endogenous extracellular BDNF with TrkB-IgG in the nucleus raphe magnus decreased AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 3 days after CFA injection. Under the same conditions, blockade of TrkB receptor functions, phospholipase C, or PKC impaired GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 and decreased excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that epigenetic up-regulation of BDNF by peripheral inflammation induces GluR1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 sites through activation of the phospholipase C-PKC signaling cascade, leading to the trafficking of GluA1 to pain-modulating neuronal synapses.
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Coexisting glomerular IgA deposition and IgG-kappa multiple myeloma.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common malignancy that often results in many kinds of kidney injuries for the abnormal monoclonal immunoglobulin. Here, we present an IgG-kappa type MM case accompanied by renal IgA deposition combined with IgG-kappa. The patient was treated with prednisone plus mycophenolate mofetil, and got a satisfactory remission. Although it cannot be determined whether the IgA deposition was secondary to MM, this was the first report of coexisting mesangial proliferative nephritis with IgA deposition and IgG-kappa type MM.
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Draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26, a Gram-positive bacterium was isolated from soil in China. SDS-PAGE analysis showed this strain secreted six major protein bands of 65, 60, 55, 34, 25 and 20 kDa. A bioassay of this strain reveals that it shows specific activity against P. brassicae and nematode. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 3,989,358 bp long genome (39 contigs) contains 4,001 protein-coding genes and 80 RNA genes.
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PNMA1 promotes cell growth in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Paraneoplastic Ma1 (PNMA1) is a member of an expanding family of 'brain/testis' proteins involved in an autoimmune disorder defined as paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS). Although it is widely studied in PNS, little is known about the underlying clinical significance and biological function of PNMA1 in tumors. Here, we find that elevated PNMA1 expression is more commonly observed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines, compared with normal pancreatic cell and tissues from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patient. Besides, higher PNMA1 expression is closely correlated with large tumor size. Suppression of endogenous PNMA1 expression decreases cell viability and promotes cell apoptosis. Subsequent studies reveal that the PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK pathway and members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family may be involved in the pro-survival and anti-apoptotic effect of PNMA1 on PDAC. Taken together, this study provides evidence that PNMA1 is involved in tumor growth of pancreatic carcinoma and PNMA1-related pathways might represent a new treatment strategy.
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Elevated autocrine EDIL3 protects hepatocellular carcinoma from anoikis through RGD-mediated integrin activation.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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A remolded microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by abnormally expressed matricellular proteins could promote HCC progression. The cell-matrix interactions mediated by integrins play an important role in tumor microenvironment. Epidermal Growth Factor-like repeats and Discoidin I-Like Domains 3 (EDIL3), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, is abnormally highly expressed in HCC. Here we aim to analyze its expression in liver and HCC tissues, investigate the underlined mechanisms accounted for HCC progression.
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Hepatic transcriptome profiles differ among maturing beef heifers supplemented with inorganic, organic, or mixed (50% inorganic:50% organic) forms of dietary selenium.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Selenium (Se) is an important trace mineral that, due to deficiencies in the soil in many parts of the USA, must be supplemented directly to the diet of foraging cattle. Both organic and inorganic forms of dietary Se supplements are available and commonly used, and it is known that Se form affects tissue assimilation, bioavailability, and physiological responses. However, little is known about the effects of form of dietary Se supplements on gene expression profiles, which ostensibly account for Se form-dependent physiological processes. To determine if hepatic transcriptomes of growing beef (Angus-cross) heifers (0.5 kg gain/day) was altered by form of dietary supplemental Se, none (Control), or 3 mg Se/day as inorganic Se (ISe, sodium selenite), organic (OSe, Sel-Plex®), or a blend of ISe and OSe (1.5 mg:1.5 mg, Mix) Se was fed for 168 days, and the RNA expression profiles from biopsied liver tissues was compared by microarray analysis. The relative abundance of 139 RNA transcripts was affected by Se treatment, with 86 of these with complete gene annotations. Statistical and bioinformatic analysis of the annotated RNA transcripts revealed clear differences among the four Se treatment groups in their hepatic expression profiles, including (1) solely and commonly affected transcripts; (2) Control and OSe profiles being more similar than Mix and ISe treatments; (3) distinct OSe-, Mix-, and ISe-Se treatment-induced "phenotypes" that possessed both common and unique predicted physiological capacities; and (4) expression of three microRNAs were uniquely sensitive to OSe, ISe, or Mix treatments, including increased capacity for redox potential induced by OSe and Mix Se treatments resulting from decreased expression of MiR2300b messenger RNA. These findings indicate that the form of supplemental dietary Se consumed by cattle will affect the composition of liver transcriptomes resulting, presumably, in different physiological capacities.
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Lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) promotes proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer via FAK/Src pathway.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) has been found up-regulated in a variety of human malignancies, but its clinical significance and functional roles in gastric cancer (GC) remain unknown.
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Study on salt tolerance with YHem1 transgenic canola (Brassica napus).
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been suggested for improving plant salt tolerance via exogenous application. In this study, we used a transgenic canola (Brassica napus), which contained a constituted gene YHem1 and biosynthesized more 5-ALA, to study salt stress responses. In a long-term pot experiment, the transgenic plants produced higher yield under 200?mmol?L(-1) NaCl treatment than the wild type (WT). In a short-term experiment, the YHem1 transformation accelerated endogenous 5-ALA metabolism, leading to more chlorophyll accumulation, higher diurnal photosynthetic rates and upregulated expression of the gene encoding Rubisco small subunit. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, were significantly higher in the transgenic plants than the WT, while the levels of O2 ·(-) and malondialdehyde were lower than the latter. Additionally, the Na(+) content was higher in the transgenic leaves than that in the WT under salinity, but K(+) and Cl(-) were significantly lower. The levels of N, P, Cu, and S in the transgenic plants were also significantly lower than those in the WT, but the Fe content was significantly improved. As the leaf Fe content was decreased by salinity, it was suggested that the stronger salt tolerance of the transgenic plants was related to the higher Fe acquisition. Lastly, YHem1 transformation improved the leaf proline content, but salinity decreased rather than increased it. The content of free amino acids and soluble sugars was similarly decreased as salinity increased, but it was higher in the transgenic plants than that in the WT.
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[Electricity generation of surplus sludge microbial fuel cell enhanced by biosurfactant].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The effect of biosurfactant (rhamnolipid/TSS, 0.3 g x g(-1)) on the characteristics of electricity generation by surplus sludge microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) and the reduction of surplus sludge were discussed. In the control group, the electrogenesis cycle was 20 d, the maximal power density was 236.84 mW x m(-2), the coulomb efficiency was 5.7%, and the TCOD, TSS and VSS removal efficiency was 58.5%, 56.7% and 66.3%, respectively. In the experimental group, the electrogenesis cycle was 35 d, the coulomb efficiency was 11.8%, the maximal power density was 516. 67 mW x m(-2) which was increased by 118. 15% as compared to the control group, and the TCOD, TSS and VSS removal efficiency was 58.5% , 56.7% and 66.3%, which raised by 104.5%, 96.2% and 98.5% as compared to the control group, respectively. With the operation of the system, the output voltage of control group and experimental group kept stable for a period of time before gradually reduced, the SCOD, protein and soluble sugar concentrations of surplus sludge first increased and then decreased. This study demonstrated that the addition of rhamnolipid enhanced the electricity generation of SSMFC with simultaneous promotion of sludge reduction.
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Comparison of long-term impact of immunosuppressants at therapeutic doses on hepatic function and histological changes in unilateral nephrectomized rats.
Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Cyclosporine, tacrolimus and sirolimus are commonly used in renal transplant recipients to prevent rejection. Various adverse effects of these agents on the multiple organ system have been reported clinically. However, animal studies are necessary to determine and compare these effects on individual organ given the presence of multiple confounding factors and multi-pharmacy in clinical settings. In a physiologically and clinically relevant rat model of unilateral nephrectomy, the long-term impacts of commonly used immunosuppressants at doses equivalent to the therapeutic levels used for post-renal transplant patients on hepatic function and histological changes of the liver were examined. Cyclosporine induced significant hepatocellular injury, impairment of synthetic function of the liver, hyperbilirubinemia and cholestasis, and dyslipidemia accompanied by profound histological changes of hepatic structures on both light and electron microscopic examinations. On the other hand, neither tacrolimus nor sirolimus developed any hepatotoxic effects except for more remarkable dyslipidemia was observed in animals treated with sirolimus. Our study indicates that long-term administration of commonly used immunosuppressants has various impacts on biochemical parameters as well as histological alterations of the liver even at therapeutic levels. These data may therefore provide useful information for judicious selection of immunosuppressive agents based on different clinical settings.
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Overexpression of RUNX3 inhibits malignant behaviour of Eca109 cells in vitro and vivo.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a tumor suppressor gene whose reduced expression may play an important role in the development and progression of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of RUNX3 in ESCC patients and effects of overexpression on biological behaviour of Eca109 cells in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the clinical relevance of RUNX3 and lymph node metastasis in 80 ESCC tissues and 40 non-cancerous tissues using the SP method. RT-PCR and Western blotting were applied to assess the RUNX3 level and verify the Eca109 cell line with stable overexpression. Localization of RUNX3 proteins was performed by cell immunofluorescence. CCK-8 and Scrape motility assays were used to determine proliferation and migration and the TUNEL assay to analyze cell apoptosis. Invasive potential was assessed in cell transwell invasion experiments. In nude mice, tumorigenesis in vivo was determined. Results showed decreased expression of RUNX3 in esophageal tissue to be significantly related to lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P<0.01). In addition, construction of a recombinant lentiviral vector and transfection into the human ESCC cell line Eca109 demonstrated that overexpression could inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induce apoptosis. The in vivo experiments in mice showed tumorigenicity and invasiveness to be significantly reduced. Taken together, our studies indicate that underexpression of RUNX3 in human ESCC tissue is significantly correlated with progression. Restoration of RUNX3 expression significantly inhibits ESCC cells proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis.
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Heavy metal behavior and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization of vermicomposted pig manure amended with rice straw.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly method for disposing of livestock and poultry manure. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) can serve as a carrier that enhances the migration and transformation of heavy metals. Here, pig manure amended with rice straw was vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida. The DOM content, molecular weight distribution, and spectroscopic properties of the amended pig manure were measured before and after vermicomposting. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the earthworms increased from 8.24 and 17.63 to 40.75 and 362.78 mg/kg separately after vermicomposting, and the earthworms also increased the heavy metal availability in the vermicompost. Relative to the DOM properties of conventional compost, the DOM molecular weight decreased and varied widely following vermicomposting, and the C/N ratio of the DOM in the vermicompost treatments decreased from 10.37 to 8.60. The Fourier transform far-infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectra of the DOM indicated that the amounts of oxygen-containing structures increased while the ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid decreased following vermicomposting. Accordingly, the earthworms augmented the heavy metal mitigation risk in the pig manure. This augment potentially resulted from the decreased humic acid-to-fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio from DOM structural changes.
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Synthesis and characterization of surface-modified Fe3O4 super-paramagnetic nanoparticles.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Aqueous dispersion and stability of Fe3O4 nanoparticles remain an issue unresolved since aggregation of naked iron nanoparticles in water. In this study, we successfully synthesized different Fe3O4 super-paramagnetic nanoparticles which were modified by three kinds of materials [DSPE-MPEG2000, TiO2 and poly acrylic acid (PAA)] and further detected their characteristics. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly showed sizes and morphology of the four kinds of nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) proved successfully coating of the three kinds of nanoparticles and their structures were maintained. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) verified that their magnetic properties fitted for the super-paramagnetic function. More importantly, the particle size analysis indicated that Fe3O4@PAA had a better size distribution, biocompatibility, stability and dispersion than the other two kinds of nanoparticles. In addition, using CNE2 cells as a model, we found that all nanoparticles were nontoxic. Taken together, our data suggest that Fe3O4@PAA nanoaparticles are superior in the application of biomedical field among the four kinds of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the future.
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Function of Hsf1 in SV40 T?antigen?transformed HEK293T cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a main regulator of the heat shock response in eukaryotes, increases cell survival in numerous pathophysiological conditions. The aim of the present study was to o bserve the function of defective HSF1 expression in HEK293T cells. shRNA of human HSF1 was constructed into the retroviral vector pLTHR generating pLTHR?shRNA?HSF1. The shRNA was transiently transfected into HEK293T cells to silence the expression of the HSF1 gene. Cell colony formation, MTT and cell cycle assays were used to analyze the SV40 T?antigen (Ag)?transformed cell proliferation rate. Immunoblotting was used to study the protein expression of HSF1, SV40 T?Ag, p53, p21, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70 and Hsp25. The results revealed that a deficiency in HSF1 expression inhibited cellular growth. Defective HSF1 upregulated the protein expression of p53, retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and SV40 T?Ag, and reduced the association between SV40 T?Ag and p53/Rb, which resulted in growth inhibition of SV40 T?Ag?transformed cells. In conclusion, HSF1 is involved in the regulation of SV40 T?Ag?induced cell growth and modulates the expression of p53 and Rb proteins.
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Evaluation of high-risk clinicopathological indicators in gastrointestinal stromal tumors for prognosis and imatinib treatment outcome.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Although the clinical benefit of imatinib adjuvant therapy for high-risk patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has been proven, the recurrence rate still remains high. This study aimed to sub-divide high-risk GIST patients with some "very high-risk" factors for more precise prognostic indicator, and possible association with efficiency of imatinib adjuvant therapy.
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Retinoic acid receptor-related receptor alpha (RORalpha) is a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Retinoic acid receptor-related receptor alpha (RORalpha) has been proven to play a tumor suppressive role in certain types of solid tumors. However, the clinical characteristic of RORalpha has not been reported by far. This study investigated the expression of RORalpha in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluated its relationship with clinical parameters and prognosis in HCC patients. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses were performed to detect RORalpha expression levels in 20 paired HCC and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 100 archived paraffin-embedded HCC samples. Statistical analyses evaluated the correlations between RORalpha expression and clinicopathological features. qRT-PCR showed that RORalpha mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated in tumors compared to the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and Western blots found that RORalpha protein expression was also reduced in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemical assays revealed that decreased RORalpha expression was present in 65 % of HCC patients. Correlation analyses showed that RORalpha expression was significantly correlated with serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP, p?=?0.005), pathology grade (p?
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Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.
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Monoamine oxidase A suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by inhibiting the adrenergic system and its transactivation of EGFR signaling.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a catecholamine neurotransmitter degrading enzyme, is closely associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, its role in cancer progression remains unknown.
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LRG1 is an independent prognostic factor for endometrial carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common female malignancies. The patients with high-risk factors may have poor prognosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a new molecule to more accurately predict survival of patients. Leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein1 (LRG1), one of leucine-rich repeat family, was closely associated with cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. The biological functions and the expression level of LRG1 remain obscure in EC. In this study, by immunohistochemical analysis of 242 EC patient tissues, we found that LRG1 expression was associated with stage and lymphatic metastasis in both test cohort (133 patients) and validation cohort (109 patients). Furthermore, to investigate the prognostic value of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma, we analyzed the correlation between variables and overall survival with Cox proportional hazard regression. The result showed that LRG1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of endometrial carcinoma patients. To further evaluate the prognostic efficiency of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma prognosis by logistic regression. The result showed that LRG1 combining with other clinicopathological risk factors was a stronger prognostic model than clinicopathological risk factors alone or their combination. Thus, LRG1 potentially offered clinical value in directing personal treatment for endometrial carcinoma patients.
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Effects of amylose content on property and microstructure of starch-graft-sodium acrylate copolymers.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Starch-graft-sodium acrylate (St-g-SA) copolymers were synthesized with ammonium persulfate as an initiator. This work focused on the effects of amylose content of corn starch on the water absorbent capacity and microstructure of the St-g-SA copolymers. The water absorbent capacity of waxy, maize and high amylose St-g-SA copolymers was 1800 g/g, 1300 g/g and 1100 g/g respectively. The grafted copolymers were characterized by FTIR and solid state (13)C NMR confirming that the graft reaction had taken place between sodium acrylate and corn starch. The surfaces and cross sections of St-g-SA copolymers were observed by SEM. Incomplete gelatinized starch aggregates increased with increasing amylose content on surfaces and cross sections of copolymers, which accorded with the water absorbent capacity and grafting ratio. DMTA results showed that the waxy St-g-SA copolymer had the highest transition temperature which indicated waxy starch had high grafting ratio.
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CTHRC1 acts as a prognostic factor and promotes invasiveness of gastrointestinal stromal tumors by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis.
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Microfilament regulatory protein MENA increases activity of RhoA and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Mammalian enabled (MENA), usually known as a direct regulator of microfilament polymerization and bundling, promotes metastasis in various cancers. Here we focus on the role of MENA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and the relevant mechanism from the view of RhoA activity regulation. By HCC tissue microarray analysis, we found that MENA expression was positively associated with satellite lesions (P<0.01) and vascular invasion (P<0.01). Cases with membrane reinforcement of MENA staining in HCC tissues had significantly higher rates of early recurrence in the intermediate MENA expression group. Knockdown of MENA significantly suppressed HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as their intrahepatic and distant metastasis in vivo. Knockdown of MENA also decreased filopodia and stress fibers in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, a decrease of RhoA activity was detected by a pull-down assay in SMMC-7721-shMENA cells. The ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, suppressed migration of both MENA knockdown SMMC-7721 cells and control cells, but diminished their difference. Thus, our findings suggest that MENA promotes HCC cell motility by activating RhoA.
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Increased severity of inflammation correlates with elevated expression of TRPV1 nerve fibers and nerve growth factor on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Although evidence supports a role for inflammation in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), the mechanism remains unknown. We determined whether inflammation causes an elevated expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) and correlated them with the symptoms.
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A chiral benzoylthiourea-pyrrolidine catalyst for the highly enantioselective Michael addition of ketones to chalcones.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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A benzoylthiourea-pyrrolidine catalyst was developed for the asymmetric Michael addition of ketones to chalcones. The corresponding products were obtained in high yields with high level of diastereoselectivities (up to 99:1 dr) and high level of enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee) under mild conditions.
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Assessing of distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in agricultural soils using isotopic labeling method coupled with BCR approach.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The contamination of Pb in agricultural soils is one of the most important ecological problems, which potentially results in serious health risk on human health through food chain. Hence, the fate of exogenous Pb contaminated in agricultural soils is needed to be deeply explored. By spiking soils with the stable enriched isotopes of (206)Pb, the contamination of exogenous Pb(2+) ions in three agricultural soils sampled from the estuary areas of Jiulong River, China was simulated in the present study, and the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb in the soils were investigated using the isotopic labeling method coupled with a four-stage BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. Results showed that about 60-85% of exogenous Pb was found to distribute in reducible fractions, while the exogenous Pb in acid-extractable fractions was less than 1.0%. After planting, the amounts of exogenous Pb presenting in acid-extractable, reducible and oxidizable fractions in rhizospheric soils decreased by 60-66%, in which partial exogenous Pb was assimilated by plants while most of the metal might transfer downward due to daily watering and applying fertilizer. The results show that the isotopic labeling technique coupled with sequential extraction procedures enables us to explore the distribution, mobility and bioavailability of exogenous Pb contaminated in soils, which may be useful for the further soil remediation.
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Silencing of WISP3 suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CCN6/Wnt1-inducible signaling protein-3 (CCN6/WISP3) is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matricellular proteins, which are often dysregulated in cancers. However, the functional role and clinical significance of WISP3 in gastric cancer remain unclear. In this study, we found that silencing of WISP3 suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Cell adhesion to collagens (collagen I and IV), but not to fibronectin, were significantly inhibited by silencing of WISP3. Furthermore, silencing of WISP3 prevented ?-catenin transferring from cell cytoplasm to nuclear, and suppressed canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling and its downstream target genes, cyclin D1 and TCF-4. By immunohistochemical analysis of 379 patients, we found that the expression of WISP3 is closely associated with gastric cancer size and tumor invasion, and indicates a poor prognosis in both test cohort (253 patients) and validation cohort (126 patients). Moreover, the expression of WISP3 was positively correlated with the expression of cyclin D1 and TCF-4 in gastric cancer tissues. Taken together, our data suggests that WISP3 might be a promising prognostic factor and WISP3-Wnt/?-catenin axis may be a new therapeutic target for the intervention of gastric cancer growth and metastasis.
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Functional genetic variants of TNFSF15 and their association with gastric adenocarcinoma: a case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to identify functional genetic variants in the promoter of tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) and evaluate their effects on the risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma. Forty DNA samples from healthy volunteers were sequenced to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFSF15 promoter. Two TNFSF15 SNPs (-358 T > C and -638 A > G) were identified by direct sequencing. Next, genotypes and haplotypes of 470 gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 470 cancer-free controls were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Serologic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection were measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Subjects carrying the TNFSF15 -358 CC genotype were at an elevated risk for developing gastric adenocarcinoma, compared with those with the -358 TT genotype (OR 1.42, 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.03). H. pylori infection was a risk factor for developing gastric adenocarcinoma (OR 2.31, 95% CI, 1.76 to 3.04). In the H. pylori infected group, subjects with TNFSF15 -358 CC genotype were at higher risks for gastric adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying -358 TT genotype (OR: 2.01, 95%CI: 1.65 to 4.25), indicating that H. pylori infection further influenced gastric adenocarcinoma susceptibility. The -358 T>C polymorphism eliminates a nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) binding site and the -358 C containing haplotypes showed significantly decreased luciferase expression compared with -358 T containing haplotypes. Collectively these findings indicate that functional genetic variants in TNFSF15 may play a role in increasing susceptibility to gastric adenocarcinoma.
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Cytohesin-3 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and contributes to tumor growth and vascular invasion.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality, and is characterized by high potential for metastasis and recurrence. The outcome of it is still poor due to lacking of targeted therapeutic strategies. There is an urgent need to find new therapeutic targets for interventions against HCC metastasis and recurrence. In the present study, we found cytohesin-3, a member of the cytohesin family, was upregulated in HCC tissues, and its expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival and relapse-free survival of HCC patients. Further clinicopathological correlation analysis revealed that cytohesin-3 expression was related with tumor size and vascular invasion. And in vitro studies revealed that knock-down of cytohesin-3 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration. These results suggest that cytohesin-3 may act as a novel prognostic factor of HCC, and it might also be useful to exploit targeted therapeutic drugs against HCC growth and metastasis.
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Rictor is an independent prognostic factor for endometrial carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Early-stage endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients have a high cure rate; however, those with high-risk factors may have poor prognosis. Thus, there is an urgent need for searching for new prognostic molecules to more accurately predict survival of patients. We detected the Rictor mRNA expression level in 30 fresh EC tissue and 17 normal endometrial tissue samples with real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Rictor protein expression level in 134 (test cohort) and 115 (validation cohort) paraffin tissue samples by immunohistochemistry, analyzed the correlation between variables and overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression, compared the prognostic accuracy of Rictor with other clinicopathological risk factors by logistic regression. The results showed that Rictor mRNA expression of EC is higher than that of normal endometrium; Rictor protein expression level was closely correlated with FIGO stage, grade and vascular invasion in both cohorts; a univariate analysis showed that the pathological type, stage, grade, vascular invasion, lymphatic metastasis and Rictor were predictors of OS in both cohorts; furthermore, multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that vascular invasion and Rictor were independent prognostic factors for EC in both cohorts; an ROX curve comparison showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for Rictor combined with other clinicopathological prognostic factors was higher than any individual factor or other clinicopathological prognostic factors' combination. Based on the above data, we concluded that Rictor is an independent prognostic factor for EC. It combined with other clinicopathological risk factors was a stronger prognostic model than individual risk factor or their combination.
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Correlation between serum IGF-1 and blood lead level in short stature children and adolescent with growth hormone deficiency.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate correlation between serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and blood lead level in short stature children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and IGF-1 signal molecules were investigated in lead exposed rats. Our findings may provide evidence for clarifying pathogenesis of lead induced short stature in children.
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Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement by hybrid approach using a novel polymeric prosthetic heart valve: proof of concept in sheep.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Since 2000, transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement has steadily advanced. However, the available prosthetic valves are restricted to bioprosthesis which have defects like poor durability. Polymeric heart valve is thought as a promising alternative to bioprosthesis. In this study, we introduced a novel polymeric transcatheter pulmonary valve and evaluated its feasibility and safety in sheep by a hybrid approach.
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SERPINA3 promotes endometrial cancer cells growth by regulating G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer worldwide and is one of the leading causes of death in women. Therefore, it is urgent to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of EC. SERPINA3 is a member of the serpin super-family of protease inhibitors. Its aberrant expression has been observed in various tumor cells. However, its clinical significance and biological function in endometrial cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that SERPINA3 expression was significantly up-regulated in EC samples and was closely correlated with lower differentiation, higher stage, positive lymph node or vascular thrombosis and negative estrogen receptor (ER), indicating a poor prognosis. We then demonstrated that SERPINA3 promoted EC cells proliferation by regulating G2/M checkpoint in cell cycle and inhibited cells apoptosis, and we further uncovered that the pro-proliferative effect of SERPINA3 on EC was likely ascribed to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling. The results of our study may provide insight into the application of SERPINA3 as a novel predictor of clinical outcomes and a potential therapeutic target of EC.
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Dysregulated cell mechanical properties of endometrial stromal cells from endometriosis patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endometriosis, diagnosed with ectopically implanted endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and epithelial cells to a location outside the uterine cavity, seriously threaten the quality of life and reproductive ability of women, yet the mechanisms and the pathophysiology of the disease remain unclear. Specially, the functional changes of ESC during endometriosis progression need in-depth investigation. In this study, we characterized mechanical properties of normal ESC (NESC) from healthy women and eutopic ESC (EuESC) and ectopic ESC (EcESC) from endometriosis patients. We found the collagen lattice contractile ability of EuESC was significantly stronger than that of NESC, and the cell mobility of EuESC and EcESC was significantly greater than that of NESC. Furthermore, the expression of F-actin and vinculin in NESC, EuESC and EcESC cells progressively increased, and the Rho GTPase activity, of which RhoA exhibited the highest activity, in the three cells gradually increased. Collectively, these results suggest that the mechanical characteristics of NESC, EuESC and EcESC cells exhibited progressive abnormalities. Therefore, the biomechanics of endometrial stromal cells may be a potent target for intervention in patients with endometriosis.
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OPN and ?v?3 expression are predictors of disease severity and worse prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Expressions of OPN and ?v?3 are associated with a poor prognosis in many malignancies. However, their relationship in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. We systematically collected hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples from 305 patients over 3 years, and analyzed the status of OPN and ?v?3 in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlate expression with patient disease status and survival outcome. Our study results indicated that OPN and ?v?3 are expressed at significantly higher rates in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissue (69.5% vs 18.4%, p<0.01 and 77.4% vs 21.6%, p<0.01, respectively). Both OPN and ?v?3 expression levels are associated with poor prognostic factors, including tumor size, capsular invasion, tumor thrombus of the portal vein, metastasis of the lymph node and clinical staging. Patients expressing OPN and ?v?3 had significantly shorter survival compared with patients negative for protein expression (p<0.01). Multivariate analysis also showed that both OPN and ?v?3 expression are independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. By this study, we conclude that OPN and ?v?3 are negative prognostic predictors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The expressions of both OPN and ?v?3 are associated with worse survival outcome.
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Binding pocket alterations in dihydrofolate synthase confer resistance to para-aminosalicylic acid in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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The mechanistic basis for resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), an important agent in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, has yet to be fully defined. As a substrate analog of the folate precursor para-aminobenzoic acid, PAS is ultimately bioactivated to hydroxydihydrofolate which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase and disrupts operation of folate-dependent metabolic pathways. As a result, mutation of dihydrofolate synthase, an enzyme needed for bioactivation of PAS, causes PAS resistance in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Here, we demonstrate that various missense mutations within the coding sequence of the dihydropteroate (H2Pte) binding pocket of dihydrofolate synthase (FolC) confer PAS resistance in laboratory isolates of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. From a panel of 85 multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 5 were found to harbor mutations in folC within the H2Pte binding pocket resulting in PAS resistance. While these alterations in the H2Pte binding pocket resulted in reduced dihydrofolate synthase activity, they also abolished bioactivation of hydroxydihydropteroate to hydroxydihydrofolate. Consistent with this model for abolished bioactivation, introduction of a wild type copy of folC fully restored PAS susceptibility in folC mutant strains. Confirmation of this novel PAS resistance mechanism will be beneficial for development of molecular based diagnostics for M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and for further defining the mode of action of this important tuberculosis drug.
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[The salivary factors related to caries and periodontal disease in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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To detect the salivary factors related to caries and periodontal disease and to analyze the risk of caries and periodontal disease in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus.
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[Cyclooxygenase 2 genetic variant interacting with tobacco smoking and the risk of lung cancer].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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To explore the association of -1195G > A genetic variant in the promoter region of cyclooxygenase 2 genetic (COX2) with the genetic susceptibility of lung cancer and its interaction with smoking.
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Primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma successfully treated with R-CHOP.
West Indian Med J
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Primary isolated bone marrow disease as a presenting feature of lymphoma is very rare. We describe the case of a Chinese with isolated bone marrow small B-cell lymphoma as a first manifestation. A 55-year old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever. Her peripheral blood smear and laboratory findings were suggestive of bicytopenia. Bone marrow specimen showed diffusely distributed small-sized lymphocytes. Combined with immunophenotypic and chromosomal analysis, a diagnosis of primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma was made. The patient was treated with R-CHOP (rituximab and cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vindesine, and prednisone) regimen for six cycles. She had complete remission and is still alive without relapse. We concluded that primary bone marrow mature small B-cell lymphoma is a rare but distinctive subtype of lymphoma. The prognosis for this entity is poor but rituximab-based treatment is promising for improving its outcomes.
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) as a prognostic indicator in patients with gastric tumors: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Though researched for years, the prognostic role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) in gastric cancer is still controversial. We thus undertook a systematic review to assess the relationship.
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Golden plaster for pain therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Osteoarthritis is a relatively common musculoskeletal disorder that increases in prevalence with age. Worldwide, knee osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of disability, particularly in the elderly. In numerous trials of agents for long-term pain therapy, no well-established and replicable results have been achieved. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed for thousands of years to relieve knee osteoarthritis pain. Among herbal medicines, the golden plaster is the preferred and most commonlyused method in China to reduce pain inpatients with knee osteoarthritis, as it causes few adverse effects. The purpose of this study will be to evaluate the efficacy and safety of golden plaster on pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.Methods/design: This study will be a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 320 participants aged 45 to 79 years with knee osteoarthritis, whose scores on a visual analog scale (VAS) are more than 20 mm,will be randomly allocated into a treatment group and a control group. A golden plaster will be administered externally to participants in the treatment group for 2 weeks, while the control group will receive a placebo plaster externally for 2 weeks. Follow-up will be at regular intervals during a 4-week period with a VAS score for pain, quality of life, and complications.
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Identification of two novel anti-fibrotic benzopyran compounds produced by engineered strains derived from Streptomyces xiamenensis M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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The benzopyran compound obtained by cultivating a mangrove-derived strain, Streptomyces xiamenensis strain 318, shows multiple biological effects, including anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic scar properties. To increase the diversity in the structures of the available benzopyrans, by means of biosynthesis, the strain was screened for spontaneous rifampicin resistance (Rif), and a mutated rpsL gene to confer streptomycin resistance (Str), was introduced into the S. xiamenensis strain M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments. Two new benzopyran derivatives, named xiamenmycin C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the crude extracts of a selected Str-Rif double mutant (M6) of M1-94P. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by analyzing extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibit the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26), and 1 exhibits better anti-fibrotic activity than xiamenmycin. Our study presents the novel bioactive compounds isolated from S. xiamenensis mutant strain M6 constructed by ribosome engineering, which could be a useful approach in the discovery of new anti-fibrotic compounds.
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The pathophysiology of venous hypertensive myelopathy--study of an animal model: laboratory investigation.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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The authors undertook this study to establish an animal model to investigate the pathophysiological changes of venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM).
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Celecoxib potentially inhibits metastasis of lung cancer promoted by surgery in mice, via suppression of the PGE2-modulated ?-catenin pathway.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Surgery is the major treatment method for non-small cell lung cancer. It has been reported that plasma PGE2 level is increased following surgery and stress which promotes lung cancer metastasis. In the present study, two animal models were used to confirm the effects of exogenous and endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on metastasis of lung cancer cells. We found that both PGE2 level and A549 metastasis were enhanced in mice with unilateral pulmonary resection following tail vein injection of lung cancer A549 cells. Both endogenous PGE2 level and pulmonary metastatic nodules were significantly reduced by celecoxib. A549 metastases were increased in mice after exogenous PGE2 injection. In the animal models, celecoxib inhibited lung cancer cell metastasis induced by exogenous PGE2. Therefore, we focused on the effects of celecoxib on the downstream pathway of PGE2 in vitro and found that celecoxib inhibited PGE2-induced A549 migration and invasion, which were evaluated by wound-healing and Transwell experiments. The expression of protein and mRNA of MMP9 and E-cadherin following treatment with PGE2 were suppressed and increased by celecoxib, respectively, however, MMP2 showed no change. A549 cell invasion and up-regulation of the expression of MMP9 and down-regulation of E-cadherin induced by PGE2 were inhibited by FH535, an inhibitor of ?-catenin. Deletion of ?-catenin by siRNA abrogated celecoxib-induced inhibition of MMP9 up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation by treatment of PGE2. Furthermore, we found that the level of ?-catenin together with GSK-3? phosphorylation was inhibited by celecoxib. In conclusion, celecoxib inhibits metastasis of A549 cells in the circulation enhanced by PGE2 after surgery by not only inhibiting endogenous PGE2 expression, but also by suppression downstream of PGE2 via the GSK-3?-?-catenin pathway.
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Optimization of parameters for preparation of docetaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation method.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The purpose of this study was to develop docetaxel-poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) loaded nanoparticles by using nanoprecipitation method and optimize the relative parameters to obtain nanoparticles with higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller size. The physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied. The optimized parameters were as follows: the oil phase was mixture of acetone and ethanol, concentration of tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) was 0.2%, the ratio of oil phase to water phase was 1:5, and the theoretical drug concentration was 5%. The optimized nanoparticles were spherical with size between 130 and 150 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was (40.83±2.1)%. The in vitro release exhibited biphasic pattern. The results indicate that docetaxel-PLGA nanoparticles were successfully fabricated and may be used as the novel vehicles for docetaxel, which would replace Taxotere® and play great roles in future.
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[Clinical significance and anatomical relationship between the inferior margin of oval window and the endosteum of basal cochlear turn].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To investigate the safety range of drilling and fenestration on promontory inferior to the oval window in difficult stapedectomy via anatomical study of the relationship between the inferior margin of oval window and the endosteum of basal cochlear turn.
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Amentoflavone inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells and stimulates apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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Amentoflavone (8-[5-(5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-chromen-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-phenyl]-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) chromen-4-one; AF) is a biflavonoid derived from the extracts of Selaginella tamariscina. It has been shown that AF has diverse biological effects such as antitumour, etc. It is well known that high cell proliferation, viability, angiogenesis and low apoptosis are key factors in hypertrophic scar formation. In this study, we report that AF inhibited viability and stimulated apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs). Incubation of HSFBs with AF showed its inhibitory effect on cell viability and the exhibition of a series of cellular changes that were consistent with apoptosis. By Western-blot analysis, our data indicated significant increases in the amounts of cleaved caspases 3, 8, 9 and Bax, several apoptotic promoters and a significant decrease in translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP), an apoptotic inhibitor, in HSFBs treated with AF. Furthermore, AF showed significant inhibitions on the viability, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are associated with angiogenesis. In conclusion, this study suggests that AF stimulates apoptosis in HSFBs and inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Therefore, AF is a promising molecule that can be used in hypertrophic scar treatment.
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[High-frequency ultrasonography for epididymal stasis after vasectomy].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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To explore the clinical application of high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of epididymal stasis after vasectomy.
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Egg yolk IgY against RHDV capsid protein VP60 promotes rabbit defense against RHDV infection.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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VP60 capsid protein is the major structural and immunogenicity protein of RHDV (Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, RHDV), and has been implicated as a main protein antigen in RHDV diagnosis and vaccine design. In this report, egg yolk antibody (IgY) against N-terminal of VP60 was evaluated and developed as a new strategy for RHDV therapy. Briefly, N-terminal of VP60 (?250aa) fragment was cloned and inserted into pET28a expression vector, and then the resultant plasmid, pET28a/VP60-N, was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for recombinant VP60-N protein (rVP60-N) expression. Next, the rVP60-N was purified by Ni(+)-affinity purification chromatography and identified by Western blotting with RHDV antiserum. After immunizing the chickens with rVP60-N, the anti-rVP60-N IgY was isolated, and the activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. In our results, the rVP60-N could be expressed in E. coli as soluble fraction, and the isolated anti-rVP60-N IgY demonstrated a high specificity and titer (1:22,000) against rVP60-N antigen. For further evaluation of the IgY efficacy in vivo, rabbits were grouped randomly and challenged with RHDV, and the results showed that anti-rVP60-N IgY could significantly protect rabbits from virus infection and promote the host survival after a sustained treatment with anti-rVP60-N IgY for 5 days. Taken together, our study demonstrates evidence that production of IgY against VP60 could be as a novel strategy for the RHDV therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.